Search Results for Cambridge
Biographies
- Stokes biography
- Died: 1 February 1903 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- As the priest of the church in Cambridge which Stokes later attended wrote (see [Math.
- In [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4] the atmosphere in which George grew up is described in words which are more colourful than those which might be used today:-
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- In fact the family finances would not have allowed him a more expensive education, but at this school [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4]:-
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- The two years which Stokes spent in Bristol at this College were important ones in preparing him for his studies at Cambridge.
- The Principal of the College, Dr Jerrard, was an Irishman who had attended Cambridge University with William Stokes, one of George's elder brothers.
- Clearly Stokes talent for mathematics was shown during his studies at Bristol College, for he won mathematics prizes and Dr Jerrard wrote to him (see [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4]):-
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- It was not Trinity, rather Pembroke College, Cambridge, which Stokes entered in 1837.
- There are slight inconsistencies in what his mathematical background was on entering Cambridge.
- However, Stokes himself wrote in 1901 (see for example [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4]):-
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- I entered Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1837.
- In Stokes' second year at Cambridge he began to be coached by William Hopkins, a famous Cambridge coach who played a more important role than the lecturers.
- Stokes wrote [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4]:-
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- He wrote [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4]:-
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- In fact this duplication of results was not entirely an accident, but was rather brought about by the lack of knowledge of the work of continental mathematicians at Cambridge at that time.
- In 1849 Stokes was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.
- In [Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).',4)">4] a number of letters from Stokes to Mary Susanna Robinson are given.
- At that time Fellows at Cambridge had to be unmarried, and so on his marriage in 1857 Stokes had to give up his fellowship at Pembroke College.
- I have another iron in the fire now: I have just been appointed an additional secretary of the Cambridge University Commission.
- P G Tait mentioned this in his criticism of the way that science was organised in Britain [The Cambridge Chronical (13 Feb, 1903).',19)">19]:-
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- What a comment on things as they are is furnished by the spectacle of genius like that of Stokes' wasted on the drudgery of Secretary to the Commissioners for the University of Cambridge; or of a Lecturer in the School of Mines; or the exhausting labour and totally inadequate remuneration of a Secretary to the Royal Society.
- Stokes was a very important formative influence on subsequent generations of Cambridge men, including Maxwell.
- Stokes' failure to publish a treatise on optics is discussed in detail in [The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 451-476.',8)">8].
- From 1887 to 1892 he was one of the members of Parliament for Cambridge University.
- Hardy biography
- Died: 1 December 1947 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- Hardy (he was always known as Hardy except to one or two close friends who called him Harold) attended Cranleigh school up to the age of twelve with great success [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5]:-
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- Hardy himself writes in [A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge, 1940).
- While at Winchester Hardy won an open scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1896.
- At Cambridge Hardy was assigned to the most famous coach R R Webb.
- Hardy expresses his gratitude to Love in [A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge, 1940).
- This was a period of which Hardy wrote himself [A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge, 1940).
- By the time World War I started in 1914, Ramanujan was in Cambridge and this eased for Hardy what was to be a very difficult period.
- Littlewood left Cambridge for war service in the Royal Artillery.
- However Hardy's views on the war left him at odds with most of his colleagues at Cambridge.
- He had great respect for Germany [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5]:-
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- Deeply unhappy at Cambridge, Hardy took the opportunity to leave in 1919 when he was appointed as Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford.
- This collaboration was achieved during a period when Littlewood was in Cambridge and Hardy was in Oxford, making joint research a quite difficult logistical exercise.
- As Hardy wrote in [A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge, 1940).
- Despite his background and the positions he held, Hardy preferred the poor and disadvantaged to those he called the 'large bottomed' who included [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5]:-
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- He had chosen not to live in the best rooms while at Cambridge, and Hilbert was so concerned that Hardy was not being properly treated that he wrote to the Master of the College pointing out that the best mathematician in England should have the best rooms.
- Despite having been unhappy at Cambridge, Hardy returned to the Sadleirian chair there in 1931 when Hobson retired.
- Snow in [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5] says that Hardy returned to Cambridge for two reasons, firstly that he still considered Cambridge the centre of English mathematics and the Sadleirian chair the foremost mathematics chair in England, and secondly, that he could keep his rooms in College at Cambridge while this was not possible at Oxford.
- Hardy brought Ramanujan to Cambridge and they wrote five remarkable papers together.
- But the book is more, as Snow writes in [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5]:-
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- The following quotation from A mathematicians apology ([A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge, 1940).
- Snow writes [G H Hardy, A Mathematician\'s Apology (Cambridge, 1967).',5)">5]:-
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- Mordell biography
- Died: 12 March 1972 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- These books presented many examples taken from the Cambridge Tripos examinations and Louis soon came to look on Cambridge University in England as the place of highest mathematical learning.
- It became his ambition to study mathematics at Cambridge.
- Certainly Mordell would have not learnt enough mathematics at the Central High School to allow him to compete with the best students at Cambridge, but he was ambitious enough to want to do exactly this.
- In December 1906 Mordell travelled to England in order to take the Cambridge University Scholarship examinations.
- I conceived what I can only describe as a thoroughly mad and crazy idea of going to Cambridge and trying for a scholarship ..
- Had he failed to win a scholarship to Cambridge he would have had to find work in England to earn enough to pay for his passage back to the United States.
- Mordell's gamble paid off handsomely, however, for he was placed first in the Cambridge Scholarship Examination and entered St John's College.
- Among the fellow students in his year at Cambridge were a number of outstanding mathematicians including William Berwick, P J Daniell, and E H Neville.
- There was no doctoral degree at Cambridge at this time, unlike the German universities, but Mordell remained at Cambridge to undertake research in number theory.
- In the same year he married Mabel Elizabeth Cambridge, the daughter of a farmer.
- Cambridge Philos.
- He was appointed to the Fielden Chair of Pure Mathematics in the following year and remained at Manchester University until he succeeded Hardy at Cambridge in 1945.
- After he returned to Cambridge in 1945, Mordell held the Sadleirian Chair and a fellowship at his old College of St John's where he had failed to be elected to a fellowship over thirty years before.
- He emphasised the fact that he was returning to Cambridge where he began his career by taking the equation y2 = x3 + k as the topic for his inaugural lecture to the Sadleirian Chair.
- At Cambridge he quickly built a large active group of research students around him.
- Nor did retirement mean that he lived a quiet life at his home in Cambridge.
- Only a few months later he was taken ill while in his home in Cambridge and died a few days later.
- Glaisher biography
- Died: 7 December 1928 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- Lee showed himself a highly gifted mathematician, winning a Campden Exhibition in 1867 to study at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He entered Cambridge in October 1867 and he was awarded a scholarship one year later for his outstanding performance.
- As he went up to receive his degree the undergraduates who had gathered in the gallery at the Cambridge Senate House began to sing a music hall ditty entitled 'Up in a balloon, boys'.
- Elected to a fellowship at Trinity College in 1871, he became a tutor and lecturer and taught at Cambridge all his life.
- During his time as a lecturer at Cambridge Glaisher had many interests.
- We say more below about his pottery collection but let us record here his lifelong passion for reading led to him amass of vast library which he bequeathed to Cambridge University.
- The importance of Glaisher is less in the original research he did, much more in that he brought these mathematical topics into the Cambridge syllabus so setting it up to produce the outstanding English mathematicians who were educated there shortly afterwards.
- The earliest years of his teaching at Cambridge were a time of transition in the mathematical ideals of the University.
- Cayley was almost a voice in the wilderness; Glaisher himself described Cambridge pure mathematics as generals without armies.
- When he had ceased teaching, Cambridge pure mathematics had marched beyond his active vision mainly under men whom, as students, he had guided at the beginning.
- His voice was that of a teacher, yet not in the least similar to the great Cambridge coaches, for he contributed to his science and ranged far beyond conventional examination learning.
- He also served as president of some Societies with interests far removed from mathematics being president of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society and the Cambridge University Bicycle Club from 1882 to 1885.
- He was president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 1882-84, and elected an honorary fellow of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
- Acceptance would have meant that he would have been obliged to leave his beloved Cambridge for Greenwich and lose the security he obviously felt as a resident of Trinity.
- Soon after his appointment to the post of Lecturer at Trinity he began to campaign for the reform of the Cambridge Tripos Examination.
- Thomas Fiske was an American who spent time at the University of Cambridge while undertaking graduate studies.
- 4 (1929), 101-112.',3)">3] describes the affect on his rooms at Cambridge:-
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- Maxwell biography
- Died: 5 November 1879 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- In a letter written on 25 April 1834 when 'The Boy' was not yet three years old he is described as follows, see [Mr Hopkins\' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007)',6)">6]:-
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- Tait, who would become a close school friend and friend for life, described Maxwell's school days [James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.',41)">41]:-
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- Maxwell went to Peterhouse Cambridge in October 1850 but moved to Trinity where he believed that it was easier to obtain a fellowship.
- he brought to Cambridge in the autumn of 1850, a mass of knowledge which was really immense for so young a man, but in a state of disorder appalling to his methodical private tutor.
- Thomson [James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.',41)">41] describes Maxwell's undergraduate days:-
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- The First Wrangler in that year was Edward Routh, who as well as being an excellent mathematician was a genius at mastering the cramming methods required to succeed in the Cambridge Tripos of that time.
- Maxwell remained at Cambridge where he took pupils, then was awarded a Fellowship by Trinity to continue work.
- His paper On Faraday's lines of force was read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society in two parts, 1855 and 1856.
- On 3 April his father died and, shortly after, Maxwell returned to Cambridge as he had planned.
- When the subject announced by St John's College Cambridge for the Adams Prize of 1857 was The Motion of Saturn's Rings Maxwell was immediately interested.
- once been present when [Maxwell] was giving an account of his geometrical researches to the Cambridge Philosophical Society, on which occasion I was struck with the singularly lucid manner of his exposition.
- Again Fleming, who had attended Maxwell's lectures, expressed similar thoughts [James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 116-124.',21)">21]:-
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- He made periodic trips to Cambridge and, rather reluctantly, accepted an offer from Cambridge to be the first Cavendish Professor of Physics in 1871.
- Fleming attended Maxwell's last lecture course at Cambridge.
- On 8 October 1879 he returned with his wife to Cambridge but, by this time he could scarcely walk.
- Dirac biography
- By this time he was developing a real passion for mathematics but his attempts to study at Cambridge failed for rather strange reasons.
- Taking the Cambridge scholarship examinations in June 1921 he was awarded a scholarship to study mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge, but it did not provide enough to support him.
- Following this he was awarded a grant to undertake research at Cambridge and he began his studies there in 1923.
- Fowler was then the leading theoretician in Cambridge, well versed in the quantum theory of atoms; his own research was mostly on statistical mechanics.
- Within six months of arriving in Cambridge he wrote two papers on these problems.
- Accepting an invitation from Ehrenfest, he spent a few weeks in Leiden on his way back to Cambridge.
- He was elected a Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge in 1927.
- De Facio, reviewing [The collected works of P A M Dirac : 1924-1948 (Cambridge, 1995).',4)">4], says of this book:-
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- His lectures at Cambridge were closely modelled on [The principles of Quantum Mechanics], and they conveyed to generations of students a powerful impression of the coherence and elegance of quantum theory.
- Dirac was appointed Lucasian professor of mathematics at the University of Cambridge in 1932, a post he held for 37 years.
- In 1969 Dirac retired from the Lucasian chair of mathematics at Cambridge and went with his family to Florida in the United States.
- A memorial meeting was held at the University of Cambridge on 19 April 1985 and the papers presented at this meeting were published in Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987).
- The papers [J G Taylor (ed.), Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 3-28.',12)">12], [J G Taylor (ed.), Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 58-60.',15)">15], [Tributes to Paul Dirac (Bristol, 1987), 43-47.',25)">25], [Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 63-75.
- ',30)">30], [Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 35-37.',37)">37], [Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 33-34.',39)">39] and [Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 48-57.',40)">40] come from this volume.
- The volume [Paul Dirac : The man and his work (Cambridge, 1998).',9)">9] consists of lectures presented to the Royal Society on this occasion.
- The memorial address was presented by Stephen Hawking who was Dirac's successor in the Lucasian chair of mathematics at Cambridge which was also Newton's chair.
- Fawcett biography
- Born: 4 April 1868 in Cambridge, England
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- Henry had studied at Cambridge where he had taken Part I of the Mathematical Tripos but after this had moved towards economics and politics.
- Blinded by his father in a shooting accident in 1858, Henry Fawcett became Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge in 1863 and was elected a Member of Parliament for Brighton two years later.
- Millicent also played a role in founding Newnham College, Cambridge (one of the earliest English university colleges for women), which was established in 1871 after two years of planning.
- While in the Fawcett's Cambridge home she would teach young Philippa, giving her a solid educational foundation.
- The Fawcetts then had homes both in Cambridge and in London, living in the capital at 51 The Lawn, Lambeth.
- Of course with parents who spent part of their time in London and part in Cambridge, some living arrangements had to be made for Philippa since Clapham High School was an Independent Day School.
- In fact she lived with her parents when they were in London, but lived with a family in Worcester Park when her parents were living in Cambridge.
- Philippa Fawcett's outstanding results in algebra and geometry led to her being awarded a Gilchrist scholarship to study mathematics at Newnham College, Cambridge, the women's College that her mother had helped to found.
- At Newnham Fawcett worked hard on her mathematical studies [Philippa Fawcetta and the Mathematical Tripos (Newnham College, Cambridge, 1990).',3)">3]:-
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- Fawcett's performance in the Trinity Intercollege Examination which she sat after two years at Cambridge was outstanding and it was clear that she would excel in the Tripos Examinations of 1890.
- Expectations were high that Fawcett would perform well and her mother wrote in a letter to a friend (see for example [Philippa Fawcetta and the Mathematical Tripos (Newnham College, Cambridge, 1990).',3)">3]):-
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- I am going to Cambridge tomorrow week and shall have my last sight of [Philippa] till after the exam.
- Fawcett had become the first woman at Cambridge to come top in the Mathematical Tripos Examinations.
- After taking Part II of the Mathematical Tripos, when she was placed in the first division of the first class, Fawcett was awarded the Marion Kennedy Scholarship which allowed her to undertake research at Cambridge for one year.
- One of her students remembered her lectures for the [Philippa Fawcetta and the Mathematical Tripos (Newnham College, Cambridge, 1990).',3)">3]:-
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- Here she felt was something that she could contribute to, and after returning to Cambridge she applied to South Africa for permission to return to the country to help set up an education system in the Transvaal.
- Green biography
- She comes up with only one possible candidate, John Toplis who was a mathematics graduate of Queens' College Cambridge.
- Toplis had become unhappy with the mathematics being taught at Cambridge and had tried to influence others to learn more of the mathematics being developed in France.
- At this time he was the headmaster of the Free Grammar School in Nottingham, and he remained there until 1819 when he returned to Cambridge as Dean of Queens' College.
- Sir Edward Bromhead was one of the subscribers to the Essay and he had written immediately to Green offering to send any further papers to the Royal Society of London, the Royal Society of Edinburgh or the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Bromhead had studied mathematics at Cambridge and had been a member of the Analytic Society.
- Two on electricity were sent by Bromhead to the Cambridge Philosophical Society where they were published, one in 1833 and the other in 1834.
- Bromhead was a good person for Green to become friendly with since he had good contacts with mathematicians at Cambridge.
- Bromhead's close friends there included Charles Babbage, John Herschel and George Peacock and he suggested to Green in April 1833 that he should consider studying mathematics at Cambridge.
- In June 1833 Bromhead went to Cambridge for a reunion and asked Green to go with him.
- You were kind enough to mention a journey to Cambridge on June 24th to see your friends Herschel, Babbage and others who constitute the Chivalry of British Science.
- However Green took Bromhead's advice, left his mill and became an undergraduate at Cambridge in October 1833 at the age of 40.
- I am very happy here and am I fear too much pleased with Cambridge.
- After graduating he remained at Cambridge and worked on his own mathematics.
- In 1838 and 1839 he had two papers on hydrodynamics (in particular wave motion in canals), two papers on reflection and refraction of light and two papers on reflection and refraction of sound published by Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Bishop Harvey Goodwin was an undergraduate at Cambridge during these years following Green's graduation.
- His time at Cambridge after being elected to the fellowship was very short indeed.
- However it would appear that he still hoped to return to Cambridge since he describes himself as:-
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- late of Sneinton in the County of Nottingham and now of Caius College Cambridge, Fellow of such College.
- In Sir Edward Ffrench Bromhead, Bart., he found a warm friend, and to his influence he owed much, while studying at Cambridge.
- Only a few weeks before Green's death, William Thomson had been admitted to St Peter's College, Cambridge.
- In a paper by Robert Murphy published in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Thomson noticed a reference to Green's Essay, although Murphy did not mention any of his other works published in that journal.
- After returning to Cambridge, Thomson was responsible for republishing the work, with an introduction (1850-54).
- Hartree biography
- Born: 27 March 1897 in Cambridge, England
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- Died: 12 February 1958 in Cambridge, England
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- Douglas Hartree's parents were Eva Rayner, who played a major role in public life being president of the National Council of Women and mayor of Cambridge, and William Hartree who taught in the engineering laboratory a the University of Cambridge.
- Douglas's school education was in Cambridge and Petersfield.
- He entered St John's College Cambridge in 1915 but World War I interrupted his studies and he joined a team studying anti-aircraft gunnery.
- He returned to Cambridge after the war and graduated in 1921 but, perhaps because of his interrupted studies, he only obtained a Second Class degree in Natural Sciences.
- During his studies at Cambridge he married Elaine Charlton of Keswick in 1923.
- After undertaking work with the Ministry of Supply during World War II, he was appointed Plummer Professor of Mathematical Physics at Cambridge in 1946.
- However Niels Bohr gave a lecture course in Cambridge in 1921 and Hartree was much influenced, working on applications of numerical methods for integrating differential equations to calculate atomic wave functions.
- In his inaugural address on his appointment to the chair in Cambridge in 1946 he said:-
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- Colson biography
- Died: 20 January 1760 in Cambridge, England
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- Colson was awarded a Master's Degree by the University of Cambridge in 1728 and, on 23 April of that year, he was elected a member of Emmanuel College.
- In March 1739 Colson left Rochester when he was appointed as Taylor lecturer at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
- Rouse Ball writes in [A history of the study of mathematics at Cambridge (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1889).',3)">3] that Colson:-
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- having acquired some reputation as a successful teacher was recommended by Robert Smith (1689-1768), the master of Trinity, to come to Cambridge and lecture there.
- In April 1739, the fourth Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, Nicholas Saunderson, died.
- He was opposed by old Mr De Moivre, who was brought down to Cambridge and created M.A.
- A similar description of his appointment is given by Rouse Ball [A history of the study of mathematics at Cambridge (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1889).',3)">3]:-
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- He was a very worthy, honest man; an old bachelor when he was first brought to Cambridge through the interest of Dr Smith, master of Trinity College, when he had chambers in Sidney College, and read lectures there in the mathematics.
- Robert Bruen writes [The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University.',5)">5]:-
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- He had also prepared a manuscript, with the same idea in mind, called 'The Plan of the Lady's System of Analytics', which still remains in the Cambridge Library.
- This is indicated by the papers of the virtually unknown William Moore writing about rocket flight nearly five years before the start of the Cambridge Analytical Society.
- Jeffreys Bertha biography
- Died: 18 December 1999 in Cambridge, England
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- However, taught mathematics by three Cambridge mathematics graduates, it was soon clear that this was the subject for her to study at university.
- She entered Girton College, Cambridge, in 1921 having won a Clothworkers' Scholarship.
- Until coming to Cambridge Bertha had been taught by women in the company of other girls and so the Cambridge lectures, in which women were very much in the minority, must have been a great change for her.
- However, she was not daunted and obtained first class honours in both Parts I and II of the Mathematical Tripos, but, in common with all women students prior to 1948, she was not awarded her degree by the University of Cambridge.
- She then remained at Cambridge in 1925 to undertake research in mathematical astronomy under the supervision of Ralph Fowler, supported by a Yarrow Fellowship.
- She was awarded her doctorate from Cambridge in the following year.
- Milne had collaborated with Fowler while at Cambridge and he was in a good position to provide Swirles with guidance in her research.
- By the time this paper was in print, Swirles was back at Girton College, Cambridge, where she took up a Fellowship and a Lectureship in Mathematics.
- In 1940 she married Harold Jeffreys who at that time was teaching geophysics at Cambridge.
- He had taught mathematics at Cambridge from 1922 to 1932 then, after fourteen years teaching geophysics, he was appointed as Plumian Professor of Astronomy in 1946.
- She took a personal and warm interest in all her students and there was often "open house" for them on Sunday evenings at the Jeffreys residence halfway between Girton and the centre of Cambridge.
- Her interest did not cease when students left Cambridge; she and Harold had no children, but there was an enormous extended family based on her former pupils.
- When their children and grandchildren arrived in Cambridge as students themselves, they would be invited to tea.
- Wittgenstein biography
- Died: 29 April 1951 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- Wittgenstein left his aeronautical research in Manchester in 1911 to study mathematical logic with Russell in Trinity College, Cambridge.
- The first paper that Wittgenstein presented was to the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1912.
- During this period at Cambridge, Wittgenstein continued to work on the foundations of mathematics and also on mathematical logic.
- He found Cambridge a less than ideal place to work since he felt that the academics there were merely trying to be clever in their discussions while their ideas lacked depth.
- When he told Russell that he wanted to leave Cambridge and go to Norway, Russell tried to dissuade him [Wittgenstein (London, 1971).',14)">14]:-
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- He met with Ramsey, who was making a special study of the Tractatus and had travelled from Cambridge to Austria on several occasions to have discussions with him, and he also met with philosophers from the Vienna Circle.
- In 1929 Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge where he submitted the Tractatus as his doctoral thesis.
- In the Preface to Philosophical Investigations written sixteen years after he returned to Cambridge, Wittgenstein wrote:-
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- After the award of his doctorate, Wittgenstein was appointed a lecturer at Cambridge and he was made a fellow of Trinity College.
- He was appointed to the chair in philosophy at Cambridge in 1939.
- G H von Wright was a pupil of Wittgenstein at Cambridge.
- Wittgenstein remained at Cambridge until he resigned in 1947 except for the period of World War II during which he worked as a hospital porter in Guy's Hospital in London.
- He also spent time working as a laboratory assistant in the Royal Victoria Infirmary before returning to his duties at Cambridge in 1944.
- After three years back at Cambridge he retired and moved to an isolated cottage on the west coast of Ireland.
- Baker biography
- Born: 3 July 1866 in Cambridge, England
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- Died: 17 March 1956 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- He attended a number of small schools in Cambridge before being educated at Perse School in Cambridge.
- He won a sizarship to St John's College in the summer of 1883 but remained at Perse School to prepare for the Cambridge Scholarship examinations, which he sat in December 1883.
- In the examinations he won a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, matriculating in October 1884.
- Baker would remain at Cambridge for the whole of his career, strongly influencing the teaching of pure mathematics in that university and in the rest of Great Britain.
- The first of these was reprinted by Cambridge University Press in 1995.
- He was secretary of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1897 and he won the De Morgan Medal of the London Mathematical Society in 1905, being president of the Society in 1910-11.
- Saunderson biography
- Died: 19 April 1739 in Cambridge, England
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- In 1707 his knowledge of mathematics was so great that a number of his friends encouraged him to go to Cambridge.
- The Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge at that time was William Whiston who had been appointed to succeed Newton in 1703.
- It was said at Cambridge that he was a teacher who had not the use of his eyes but taught others to use theirs.
- Roger Cotes, who was already working at Cambridge when Saunderson began teaching there, became the Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy in 1708 and, in the following year, he began editing a second edition of Newton's Principia.
- Heads of the Cambridge Colleges petitioned Queen Anne to award him the degree of Master of Arts, which she duly did on 19 November 1711.
- On 21 January 1712, as was the custom, he gave his inaugural lecture [N Saunderson, Elements of Algebra (Cambridge, 1740).',4)">4]:-
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- He lived, as he had done from first arriving in Cambridge, in Christ's College.
- In 1723 he left the College and lived in a house in Cambridge.
- Soon after this he married a daughter of William Dickons who was rector of Boxworth, a small village 12 km north of Cambridge.
- An example of his sense of touch is given in the description of his life in [N Saunderson, Elements of Algebra (Cambridge, 1740).',4)">4] where it is recorded that he:-
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- In 1728 King George II made a visit to Cambridge where he met Saunderson and conferred the degree of LLD on him.
- He died before the two volume treatise could be published but in the year following his death the Elements of Algebra was published in Cambridge by his widow, his son, and his daughter.
- This was edited by his son John and published as The Method of fluxions at Cambridge in 1756.
- Adams biography
- Died: 21 January 1892 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
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- Adams was educated at St John's College, Cambridge but this was only made possible by a number of fortuitous circumstances.
- In September 1845 Adams gave accurate information on the position of the new planet to James Challis, director of the Cambridge Observatory.
- Action was not taken by the Cambridge Observatory.
- Glaisher, in [The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams I (Cambridge, 1896), xv-xlviii.',9)">9], reports that Adams said that he expected Airy would have:-
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- Glaisher concludes [The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams I (Cambridge, 1896), xv-xlviii.',9)">9]:-
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- However in February 1853 he was elected to a fellowship at Pembroke College, Cambridge, and resumed teaching.
- It was a short tenure of the chair for, in March 1859, he succeeded Peacock as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge and held the post for over 32 years.
- He became director of the Cambridge Observatory in 1861 but negotiated rather unusual conditions for his appointment.
- Glaisher writes [The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams I (Cambridge, 1896), xv-xlviii.',9)">9]:-
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- A fellow undergraduate at Cambridge could hardly remember Adams and described him as:-
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- According to [The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams I (Cambridge, 1896), xv-xlviii.',9)">9]:-
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- He died in the Cambridge Observatory.
- St John's College Cambridge (The discovery of Neptune)
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- Whewell biography
- Died: 6 March 1866 in Cambridge, England
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- Several years later he persuaded John to let William attend Heversham Grammar School in Westmorland, about 20 kilometres north of his native town, where he would receive instruction to allow him to compete for a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Whewell entered Cambridge in October 1812, but by this time the family had suffered a series of tragedies with his mother dying in 1807 and three of his younger brothers dying before William began his university studies.
- His own health had been poor but a month after starting his studies at Cambridge he wrote to his father:-
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- We should note at this stage that Whewell had made a number of friends among top academics during his undergraduate years at Cambridge including John Herschel, Charles Babbage, George Peacock and other members of the Analytical Society.
- Whewell was appointed as a mathematics lecturer and assistant tutor at Cambridge in 1818.
- He was one of the founder members of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1819.
- At a time when Cambridge was still finding acceptance of the superior Continental approach to mathematics, Whewell played a major role in modernising their approach with his textbooks An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics (1819) and A Treatise on Dynamics (1823).
- He was by now making friends with younger Cambridge men such as Augustus De Morgan and William Rowan Hamilton.
- As one might expect this led to his role changing at Cambridge and he was appointed professor of Mineralogy in 1828, then professor of Moral Philosophy in 1838.
- He was Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University in 1842 and again in 1855, the year in which his wife Cordelia died.
- He served the British Association as vice-president at the Oxford meeting in 1832 and again at Dublin in 1835, he was the local secretary in 1833 when the Association met in Cambridge, then he was president at Plymouth in 1841.
- On 24 February 1866 Whewell fell from his horse while riding outside Cambridge after the animal bolted.
- Ten years later he published Sermons preached in the Chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge containing twenty-two of his sermons.
- Hudson biography
- Born: 11 June 1881 in Cambridge, England
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- Her father was William Henry Hoar Hudson (11 December 1838 - 21 September 1915) who had been educated at King's College London and St John's College, Cambridge.
- In 1862 he was appointed a Mathematical Lecturer at St Catherine's College, Cambridge and later at St John's College, Cambridge where he taught from 1869 to 1881.
- Hilda's mother was also a mathematician who had read mathematics at Newnham College, Cambridge, so perhaps it was not entirely surprising that William and his wife should have had children with outstanding mathematical talents who went on to study mathematics at Cambridge.
- Hilda had an older brother, R W H T Hudson, who was Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge in 1898 while her sister was bracketed with the 8th Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1900.
- Hilda entered Newnham College, Cambridge in 1900, the year in which her sister sat the mathematical Tripos.
- This cut short what had promised to be a stunning mathematical career with his brilliant book Kummer's quartic surface being published by Cambridge University Press in the year of his death.
- After leaving Cambridge, Hilda Hudson went to Germany for a year spending the time studying at the University of Berlin with Schwarz, Schottky, Edmund Landau and others.
- She returned to Cambridge in 1905 when she was appointed as a lecturer at Newnham College.
- In 1912 the International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, England.
- She will long be remembered by the mathematical world for her contributions to geometry and by Newnham and Cambridge as one of their distinguished alumni.
- Newton biography
- The second period from 1669 to 1687 was the highly productive period in which he was Lucasian professor at Cambridge.
- Newton entered his uncle's old College, Trinity College Cambridge, on 5 June 1661.
- A sizar at Cambridge was a student who received an allowance toward college expenses in exchange for acting as a servant to other students.
- Westfall (see [Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (1990).',23)">23] or [The Life of Isaac Newton (Cambridge, 1993).',24)">24]) has suggested that Newton may have had Humphrey Babington, a distant relative who was a Fellow of Trinity, as his patron.
- Newton's aim at Cambridge was a law degree.
- Instruction at Cambridge was dominated by the philosophy of Aristotle but some freedom of study was allowed in the third year of the course.
- According to de Moivre, Newton's interest in mathematics began in the autumn of 1663 when he bought an astrology book at a fair in Cambridge and found that he could not understand the mathematics in it.
- It would be easy to think that Newton's talent began to emerge on the arrival of Barrow to the Lucasian chair at Cambridge in 1663 when he became a Fellow at Trinity College.
- When the University of Cambridge reopened after the plague in 1667, Newton put himself forward as a candidate for a fellowship.
- Whenever a position at Oxford or Cambridge became vacant, the king appointed a Roman Catholic to fill it.
- Newton was a staunch Protestant and strongly opposed to what he saw as an attack on the University of Cambridge.
- The University of Cambridge elected Newton, now famous for his strong defence of the university, as one of their two members to the Convention Parliament on 15 January 1689.
- However, his election to Parliament may have been the event which let him see that there was a life in London which might appeal to him more than the academic world in Cambridge.
- Newton decided to leave Cambridge to take up a government position in London becoming Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696 and Master in 1699.
- However, he did not resign his positions at Cambridge until 1701.
- Cambridge University Library
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- Isaac Newton Institute Cambridge
.
- Hoyle biography
- Unable to study at university without a scholarship, he returned to Bingley Grammar School but instead of working steadily through the year with the aim of gaining a scholarship to Leeds at the second attempt, Hoyle decided to aim at a Cambridge University Scholarship.
- Bingley Grammar School did not really have the teaching resources to bring Hoyle rapidly up to Cambridge Scholarship standard, but the mathematics teacher did his very best and gave him lessons in his own home.
- Hoyle sat the scholarship examinations in Emmanuel College Cambridge in December 1932:-
.
- If a miracle happened and I won something in Cambridge, well and good.
- He missed the scholarship standard but decided to take the scholarship examinations at Pembroke College, Cambridge in March 1933.
- However, he could now get into Cambridge by winning a scholarship in the Yorkshire scholarship competition and he was successful in this in the summer of 1933, with now mathematics as his best subject.
- In the autumn of 1933 Hoyle entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, intending to read for a degree in science.
- There was another argument which told him to carry on with mathematics which was that the great Cambridge scientists like Newton, Maxwell, Kelvin, Eddington and Dirac had all been mathematicians.
- Hoyle was taught by some outstanding people while he was an undergraduate at Cambridge.
- Continuing to study at Cambridge, his research was supervised by Rudolf Peierls and his career went from strength to strength with the award of the top Smith's Prize in 1938 and then, with Peierls and R H Fowler as referees, he was awarded a prestigious Goldsmith's Exhibition.
- In 1939 Hoyle published a major paper on Quantum electrodynamics in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- was new to Cambridge and Pryce did not approve of it).
- He returned to Cambridge at the end of the war as a Junior Lecturer in Mathematics.
- After three years as a Junior Lecturer in Mathematics, Hoyle was promoted to Lecturer in Mathematics at Cambridge and given tenure.
- In 1966 Hoyle founded the renowned Institute of Theoretical Astronomy at Cambridge and was its Director until 1972.
- The events leading up to Hoyle's resignation from Cambridge in 1972 are recounted in [Home is where the wind blows : Chapters from a cosmologists life (Mill Valley, California, 1994).',2)">2].
- The Cambridge system is effectively designed to prevent one ever establishing a directed policy - key decisions can be upset by ill-informed and politically motivated committees.
- Eddington biography
- Died: 22 November 1944 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- He was awarded a Natural Science scholarship of £75 a year to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, near the end of 1901.
- George Darwin, a son of Charles Darwin and Plumian professor of astronomy at Cambridge, died in December 1912.
- There were in fact two chairs of astronomy at Cambridge, the other being the Lowndean chair.
- However, the holder of the Lowndean chair died towards the end of 1913 and, in 1914, Eddington became director of the Cambridge Observatory.
- In doing so he effectively took over responsibility for both theoretical and experimental astronomy at Cambridge.
- Shortly after his appointment as director of the Cambridge Observatory he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
- Shortly after taking up his role of leading astronomy research at Cambridge, World War I broke out.
- As we noted above Eddington came from a Quaker tradition and, as a conscientious objector, he avoided active war service and was able to continue his research at Cambridge during the war years of 1914-18.
- This was, however, not an easy time for him giving him a highly stressful period right at the beginning of his tenure of the Cambridge chair.
- Eddington lectured on relativity at Cambridge, giving a beautiful mathematical treatment of the topic.
- In [Eddington\'s search for a fundamental theory : a key to the universe (Cambridge, 1994).',9)">9] Kilmister delves deeply into the ideas which led Eddington to the theories he put forward in Fundamental Theory in attempting to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity.
- Whitehead biography
- Died: 30 December 1947 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- In 1879 Whitehead took the entrance examinations for Trinity College, Cambridge, and he won a scholarship.
- Among his close friends at Cambridge was D'Arcy Thompson.
- In the twelve years following taking up the teaching position at Cambridge he published only two papers, both in 1889 on the motion of viscous fluids.
- Despite his poor publication record, Whitehead was promoted to a Lectureship at Cambridge in 1888.
- This does not mean that his contribution should be considered any less important because of this but certainly Cambridge seems to have undervalued his contribution.
- In 1903 he was promoted to Senior Lecturer, a position which had only just been established at Cambridge.
- He remained at Cambridge until 1910 but, in some sense, having not made the grade in mathematics and, having little prospects of a mathematics chair at Cambridge, he moved to the University of London.
- This explanation of his move is almost certainly basically correct and this indeed was the motivation behind Whitehead's thinking; on the face of it, however, rather different and dramatic events ended his association with Cambridge.
- In 1910 Andrew Forsyth, who had been a close friend of Whitehead's since his student days, had a love affair with Marion Amelia Boys, the wife of C V Boys, and the scandal forced him to resign his chair at Cambridge.
- Bertrand Russell entered Cambridge in 1890 and immediately Whitehead, as examiner for the entrance examinations, spotted Russell's brilliance in his examination papers.
- Fowler biography
- Died: 28 July 1944 in Cambridge, England
.
- In December of 1906, Ralph won a Major Scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, and he left for Trinity during Michaelmas term 1908.
- Needless to say, Cambridge was quite good to Ralph - or, rather, Ralph was quite good to Cambridge.
- In 1921, Ralph married Eileen, the only daughter of Lord Rutherford, Ralph's good friend and colleague at Cambridge.
- In 1922, Ralph became a Proctor at Cambridge which, being a Marine, he was well-suited for, finding himself chasing after undergraduates frequently and, on one occasion, injuring himself doing so.
- This work continued in a series of papers through the 1920s leading to the Adams Prize of the University of Cambridge in 1923-24 and was published in 1929 as the seminal volume, Statistical Mechanics, which had a second edition, minus the astrophysical applications, published in 1936.
- He eventually took up a post in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge and, in 1932, he was elected to the newly created Plummer Chair of Theoretical Physics.
- In 1938, upon taking ill and not being able to take up the National Laboratory Directorship, he chose to remain at Cambridge in the Plummer Chair.
- In particular, E A Milne [The Granta 32 (721), 469.',1)">1] was especially taken by the man whom he fondly referred to as "the kind of man you can still remain friendly with, even when he has sold you a motor-bike; it is not possible to say more" and whom he called a "prince amongst men" [The Cambridge Review (March 1990), 8-12.',2)">2].
- Even in his personal life he was intimately connected with brilliant people having married Eileen, the only daughter of Lord Rutherford whom he met through Rutherford's Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge.
- Fowler's influence was far-reaching, extending beyond the hallowed halls of Cambridge and into government, both British and foreign.
- Keynes biography
- Born: 5 June 1883 in Cambridge, England
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- His father, John Nevile Keynes, was a lecturer at the University of Cambridge where he taught logic and political economy.
- In 1902 he won a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge, in mathematics and classics.
- He had purchased 329 old books before he entered the University of Cambridge in October 1902.
- At Cambridge Keynes was tutored mathematics by E W Hobson whom he called "Hobbema".
- He had many interests at Cambridge beyond his academic work, spending much time with literary friends, reading, and involving himself in political activity [3]:-
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- He was President of the Cambridge Union [and] won the Members' English essay Prize for an essay on the political opinions of Burke ..
- After a holiday in Switzerland, he returned to Cambridge in October 1905 and attended lectures there by Alfred Marshall on economics.
- Keynes now taught economics at Cambridge.
- During the first term of the academic year 1914-15 he carried out his duties as normal at Cambridge but already Cambridge was a different place.
- Keynes made strenuous attempts to acquire the manuscripts after the sale and these attempts are described in [The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 115-134.
- Bondi biography
- Died: 10 September 2005 in Cambridge, England
.
- Encouraged by Eddington to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, this seemed such a superb opportunity for Bondi, who was unhappy with the ever increasing anti-Semitism to which he was subjected.
- He applied to Cambridge and, in 1937, began his studies at Trinity College.
- Bondi thrived at Cambridge, completing his undergraduate studies in 1940.
- The difficulties of his situation had been quickly recognised by Cambridge and he was given a special award less than a year after beginning his studies.
- Bondi became a research fellow at Trinity College in 1943 and was appointed as Assistant Lecturer in Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1945, then, in the following year, he became a British subject.
- On 1 November 1947 he married Christine Stockman (born 15 June 1923, in London), who had been a research student of Hoyle's, in Cambridge.
- Hermann and Christine Bondi had five children: Alison Joy (Alice) (born 19 June 1949, Cambridge), Jonathan Richard (John) (born 1 November 1951, Cambridge), Elizabeth Anne (Liz) (born 24 June 1955, Reigate), David Keith (born 29 June 1957, Reigate), and Deborah Jane (Debbie) (born 20 October 1959, Reigate).
- In 1948 Bondi was promoted to lecturer in mathematics at Cambridge, and in 1954 he became Professor of Mathematics at King's College, London.
- He was also Master of Churchill College, Cambridge from 1983 to 1990.
- Davenport biography
- 9 June 1969 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- After Manchester he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, to take another 'first degree' which was a common thing to do at that time, and he was advised to do so by Milne.
- Among the friends he made at Cambridge were Coxeter, Paley, Sadler, and Ursell.
- thesis at Cambridge under Littlewood's supervision.
- After returning to Cambridge his research struck an incredibly rich vein and he published a great number of papers.
- At this time life in Cambridge was enriched by a large number of visiting mathematicians who were escaping from the Nazi threat on the Continent.
- He left Cambridge in 1937, accepting an offer from Mordell of an assistant lectureship at the University of Manchester.
- During his four years on the staff he received a number of honours including a fellowship of the Royal Society and the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge, both in 1940.
- In 1958 Davenport returned to Cambridge as Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics on the retirement of Besicovitch.
- His style of doing mathematics at Cambridge is described by Lewis in [Bull.
- Davenport used to sit from 10 to 12 most mornings drinking coffee and talking to his students and colleagues, including the many post-doctoral visitors who appeared at Cambridge each year.
- Barrow biography
- In 1643 Barrow was admitted as a foundation scholar at Peterhouse, Cambridge.
- Barrow accompanied a former school friend, who promised to support him, to Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Duport, the Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge, tutored Barrow without taking any fees, both due to Barrow's talent and that both were royalists.
- Also at Cambridge at this time it was usual for students to learn some mathematics, either in their second or third year.
- His enthusiasm and willingness to teach enabled him to attract enough people to the subject to help begin to lay the foundations for studying mathematics at Cambridge.
- The Master again came to his rescue by telling the Fellows who demanded his expulsion [Before Newton : the life and times of Isaac Barrow (Cambridge- New York, 1990).',4)">4]:-
.
- The conditions of the award were that he would receive £16 per year for three years, and would have to report by letter to Cambridge on his learning and progress.
- Despite failing to keep in contact with Cambridge, as set out in the conditions of his award, Barrow was granted an extension.
- He then headed back through Germany and Holland, arriving in Cambridge in September 1659.
- When he arrived back at Cambridge there had been many political changes due to the restoration of Charles II.
- He could also hold this chair while continuing as Professor of Greek at Cambridge.
- The Society tried to appoint him to the Astronomical and Optical Committee and to the committee responsible for [Before Newton : the life and times of Isaac Barrow (Cambridge- New York, 1990).',4)">4]:-
.
- In the summer of 1663 the position as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics was created at Cambridge thanks to an endowment left by Henry Lucas.
- Lectiones Mathematicae were lectures designed to revive interest in mathematics at Cambridge while trying to point it in a new direction by introducing modern techniques.
- Barrow stated the main two aims were [Before Newton (Cambridge, 1990), 179-249.',15)">15]:-
.
- The content is mainly geometrical optics and he states the main problem which the lectures are aimed at answering [Before Newton : the life and times of Isaac Barrow (Cambridge- New York, 1990).',4)">4]:-
.
- Polkinghorne biography
- After the family moved to Ely, John attended Perse School in Cambridge, travelling there every day by train.
- He won a Major Scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, and left Perse School in 1948.
- Polkinghorne had to undertake a year of National Service before entering Cambridge which began with basic training with the Royal Hampshire Regiment.
- Polkinghorne entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1949.
- At Cambridge he met Ruth Martin, a mathematics student who, like Polkinghorne, was a member of the Christian Union.
- Polkinghorne had spent these three years as a research student at Cambridge, supervised first by Kemmer, then after Kemmer left Cambridge, by Abdus Salam.
- After two years at Edinburgh he was invited to return to Cambridge as a lecturer.
- Ruth and John had two further children in Cambridge; Isobel was born on 1959 and Michael in 1963.
- Polkinghorne's group at Cambridge continued developing the so-called "Cambridge program" of formulating and exploiting the concept of maximal analyticity.
- In 1979 he resigned his professorship and began training for the ministry at Westcott House in Cambridge.
- He was ordained a deacon in Ely Cathedral in June 1981, and was a part-time curate at St Andrew's, Chesterton, in Cambridge.
- After about two years as Vicar of Blean, he was invited to apply for the position of Dean of Chapel at Trinity Hall, a small Cambridge College.
- Then in 1989 he became President of Queens' College, Cambridge.
- Dr Polkinghorne resigned a prestigious position as Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Cambridge in 1979 to pursue theological studies, becoming a priest in 1982.
- Darwin C G biography
- Born: 19 December 1887 in Newnham Grange, Cambridge, England
.
- Died: 31 December 1962 in Newnham Grange, Cambridge, England
.
- He attended Marlborough College, Wiltshire, England from 1901 to 1906 when he entered Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Then in 1919 he became a Lecturer in Mathematics at Christ's College, Cambridge.
- After five years at Cambridge, Darwin was appointed Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh in 1924.
- In 1936 Darwin left Edinburgh to take up the position of Master of Christ's College, Cambridge.
- Ramsey biography
- Born: 22 February 1903 in Cambridge, England
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- Arthur Ramsey was President of Magdalene College, Cambridge, and a tutor in mathematics there.
- Ramsey entered Winchester College in 1915 and from there he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He completed his secondary school education at Winchester in 1920 and he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, to study mathematics.
- At Cambridge, Ramsey became a senior scholar in 1921 and graduated as a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1923.
- After graduating, Ramsey went to Vienna for a short while, returning to Cambridge where he was elected a fellow of King's College Cambridge in 1924.
- However, in the short time during which he lectured at Cambridge he had already established himself as an outstanding lecturer.
- As a person, no less than as a thinker, Ramsey was an ornament to Cambridge.
- There was no one in Cambridge among the younger men who would be considered his equal for power and quality of mind, and also for the boldness and originality of conception in one of the most difficult subjects of study.
- Darwin College Cambridge
.
- Hodge biography
- Died: 7 July 1975 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- He was taught there by Whittaker who advised him to continue his studies at Cambridge.
- After graduating with First Class Honours in mathematics from Edinburgh in 1923, he entered St John's College, Cambridge.
- His studies at Cambridge were financed by a van Dunlop bursary which he had won from Edinburgh and a scholarship from St John's College.
- After gaining distinction in the Mathematical Tripos of 1925 he went on to win a Smith's Prize and spent a further year researching at Cambridge financed by a Ferguson scholarship.
- That same year he gained election to a fellowship at St John's College, Cambridge.
- After his visit to the United States, Hodge returned to Cambridge in 1932.
- He was appointed as a university lecturer in the following year and, in 1935, was elected to a fellowship at Pembroke College, Cambridge.
- This work marked an important change in direction for the Cambridge school of geometry which, under Baker's leadership, had become somewhat isolated from other areas of mathematics.
- In 1936 Hodge had been appointed as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry, succeeding Baker, and he held this chair at Cambridge until 1970.
- He continued to work at Cambridge during World War II, but took on extra duties to compensate for the shortage of staff who were away in the forces; in particular he acted as bursar of Pembroke.
- Ferrers biography
- Died: 31 January 1903 in Cambridge, England
.
- The family was well off and Norman had a privileged education attending Eton College from 1844 to 1846, then finishing his pre-university education by spending a year living in the home of the mathematician Harvey Goodwin, vicar of St Edward's, Cambridge, who gave him private coaching.
- Ferrers entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, on 6 March 1847 and, over the next four years, studied the Mathematical Tripos.
- Unlike Cayley he did not practice law but returned to Cambridge were he studied for the priesthood.
- Now although Ferrers was studying for the priesthood, soon after he returned to Cambridge he was offered the post of lecturer in mathematics which had resulted from changes in the tutorial staff at Caius College.
- Ferrers married Emily Lamb, the daughter of the dean of Bristol and master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, on 3 April 1866.
- For more than twenty years he was a member of the council of the senate at Cambridge: first elected in 1865, he was dropped the following year because his liberal ideas on admission of nonconformists to fellowships displeased the majority of electors.
- He served as vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge in 1884 - 5.
- His first book was "Solutions of the Cambridge Senate House Problems, 1848 - 51".
- I learn from Mr Ferrers that this theorem was brought under his cognizance through a Cambridge examination paper set by Mr Adams of Neptune notability.
- The above proof of the theorem of reciprocity is due to Dr Ferrers, the present head of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
- Hall biography
- Died: 30 December 1982 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- Hall went up to King's College Cambridge in October 1922 having won an Open Foundation Scholarship in December 1921.
- However, he fails to mention in this letter one other extremely promising mathematician in his year at Cambridge, namely William Hodge.
- Among his teachers at Cambridge were Hobson, the Sadleirian professor, and Baker, the Lowndean professor of Astronomy and Geometry.
- Richmond was also on the staff when Hall arrived in Cambridge, but he retired in 1923.
- Despite its deficiencies, it shows that already Hall was way ahead of his time in his approach to group theory and certainly nobody at Cambridge could have been in a position to properly evaluate the work.
- Returning to Cambridge in September 1927 to take up the Fellowship at King's he made an important discovery in group theory, generalising the Sylow theorems for finite soluble groups to prove what are now called Hall's theorems.
- Not only did he get his Fellowship renewed but in 1933 he was appointed as a Lecturer at Cambridge.
- Hall returned to King's College Cambridge in July 1945.
- Hall was promoted to Reader at Cambridge in 1949, then in 1953, after Mordell retired from the Sadleirian Chair, Hall was appointed to succeed him.
- When Olga Taussky-Todd accused him of being the worst recluse in Cambridge, Hall replied "No, Turing is worse"! He had an incredibly broad knowledge, not only of mathematics but, it seemed, on almost any subject [The Times [See THIS LINK]',1)">1]:-
.
- Venn biography
- Died: 4 April 1923 in Cambridge, England
.
- When he entered Gonville and Caius College Cambridge in October 1853 he had:-
.
- In 1862 he returned to Cambridge University as a lecturer in Moral Science, studying and teaching logic and probability theory.
- Back at Cambridge he now found interests in common with many academics such as Todhunter.
- They had one child, a son John Archibald Venn, who became president of Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1932, and undertook major collaborative research projects with his father that we give more details on below.
- by Cambridge.
- Venn's interest turned towards history and he signalled this change in direction by donating his large collection of books on logic to the Cambridge University Library in 1888.
- Three years later he published Early Collegiate Life which collected many of his writings describing what life was like in the early days of Cambridge University.
- He then undertook the immense task of compiling a history of Cambridge University Alumni Cantabrigienses, the first volume of which was published in 1922.
- nothing less than a "biographical list of all known students, graduates, and holders of office at the University of Cambridge from the earliest times to 1900".
- He used his skill to build a machine for bowling cricket balls which was so good that when the Australian Cricket team visited Cambridge in 1909, Venn's machine clean bowled one of its top stars four times.
- Johnson biography
- Born: 23 June 1858 in Cambridge, England
.
- William Johnson's mother was Harriet Brimley from Cambridge, while his father, William Henry Farthing Johnson, owned and ran Llandaff House School in Cambridge.
- William, the subject of this biography, was a pupil at the school in Cambridge where his father was the headmaster.
- He went on to study at Perse School in Cambridge, and at the Liverpool Royal Institution School.
- In 1879 he entered King's College Cambridge becoming 11th wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1882.
- Johnson held various temporary positions around Cambridge for the next 19 years [Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004).',2)">2]:-
.
- For some years he gained his living as a mathematical coach in Cambridge, until openings were found for him in teaching for the moral sciences tripos and as a lecturer in psychology and in the theory of education to the Cambridge Women's Training College and for the university teachers' training syndicate.
- How do Bayesians justify using conjugate priors on grounds other than mathematical convenience? In the 1920s the Cambridge philosopher William Ernest Johnson in effect characterized symmetric Dirichlet priors for multinomial sampling in terms of a natural and easily assessed subjective condition.
- Littlewood biography
- Died: 6 September 1977 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- His father Edward Thornton Littlewood was also a mathematician and was Ninth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge in 1882, three years before his eldest son John Edensor was born.
- When John Edensor was seven years old his father had to make a choice between two offers he received, one of a Fellowship at Magdalene College, Cambridge, or the second the position of Headmaster at a new school in Wynberg in South Africa.
- Our lives would have been very different in Cambridge.
- While at St Paul's School in December 1902, Littlewood won a scholarship to Cambridge.
- Littlewood entered Trinity College Cambridge in October 1903.
- He wrote in [Littlewood\'s miscellany (Cambridge, 1986).',3)">3]:-
.
- Littlewood become Rouse Ball professor of mathematics in Cambridge in 1928.
- During the years of this collaboration Littlewood was seldom seen outside Cambridge, in fact there were jokes around that he was the invention of Hardy.
- Finally we note that he received honorary degrees from the University of Liverpool in 1928, the University of St Andrews in 1936 and the University of Cambridge in 1965.
- Smithies biography
- Died: 16 November 2002 in Cambridge, England
.
- He graduated in 1931 as the top mathematics student in his year, winning the Napier Medal, the Gadgil Prize, and a John Edward Baxter bursary which paid for two further years study at Cambridge.
- Smithies graduated in 1933 and began research on integral equations with Hardy at Cambridge.
- He won the Rayleigh Prize in 1935 for an essay on differential equations of fractional order, and was awarded his doctorate for his thesis The Theory Of Linear Integral Equation which he submitted to the University of Cambridge in 1936.
- After returning to Cambridge in 1938, Smithies taught at St John's College and continued his research.
- Smithies early work was on integral equations and in 1958 his text Integral equations was published by Cambridge University Press in their Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics Series.
- the present work is intended as a successor to Maxime Bocher's tract, "An introduction to the study of integral equations" (University Press, Cambridge, 1909).
- This was through his teaching at Cambridge, the large number of research students he guided into the subject, and the lectures he gave around the country.
- His teaching at Cambridge is discussed in [Bull.
- Allan Graham biography
- Died: 9 August 2007 in Cambridge, England
.
- Graham attended Minchenden Grammar School in Southgate and his outstanding mathematical achievements led to him being awarded an exhibition in mathematics to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, at the age of eighteen.
- These were not years in which he neglected his mathematical interests, however, rather they gave him time in which he was able to prepare himself very well for his Cambridge studies.
- After completing his doctorate, Allan was elected a Fellow and Director of Studies of Churchill College, Cambridge.
- He spent only two years there before returning to Cambridge as a Lecturer in Pure Mathematics.
- After a year back at Cambridge he was offered a professorship in Pure Mathematics at Leeds University in 1970 [The Independent (18 October 2007).',1)">1]:-
.
- However, Allan did not welcome the increasing burden of administrative duties, coupled with the damaging financial stringency then imposed on the university, and he missed the stimulation of the very strong undergraduates and graduate students that he had had at Cambridge.
- He returned to Cambridge as a Lecturer in Mathematics and Fellow of Churchill in 1978 ..
- In order to gain further understanding of why Allan wished to return to Cambridge, we should look at this point at his leading mathematical contributions.
- Cotes biography
- Died: 5 June 1716 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- Roger matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, on 6 April 1699 as a pensioner, meaning that he did not have a scholarship and paid for his own keep in College.
- in 1702 and remained at Cambridge where he was elected to a fellowship in 1705.
- His exceptional abilities had been fully appreciated, however, by many at Cambridge such as William Whiston with whom he had quickly formed a friendship.
- Cotes was the first occupant of the Cambridge chair established by Thomas Plume (1630 - 1704), archdeacon of Rochester, who bequeathed nearly £2000 to maintain a professor and erect an astronomical observatory.
- In the first place there are somewhat contradictory accounts of the quality of the instruments in the Cambridge observatory.
- Jones urged Cotes to publish his work in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, but Cotes resisted this, wishing to support Cambridge and publish with Cambridge University Press.
- Some of the work which Cotes hoped to publish with Cambridge University Press was published eventually by Thomas Simpson in The Doctrine and Application of Fluxions (2 Vols, London, 1750).
- Batchelor biography
- Died: 30 March 2000 in Cambridge, England
.
- The leading British expert on turbulence was Geoffrey Taylor, and Batchelor wrote to him at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge offering to work for him.
- in January 1945, together with his wife, Wilma, also of Melbourne, Batchelor embarked on a marathon ten-week voyage via New Zealand, the Panama Canal and New York, and thence in a convoy of 80 ships across the Atlantic to reach Cambridge.
- Arriving in Cambridge Batchelor and Townsend discovered that Geoffrey Taylor was no longer interested in undertaking his own turbulence research, but he was happy to supervise them.
- Batchelor was elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1947 and in the following year he was awarded his doctorate and became a Cambridge University lecturer.
- Batchelor was awarded the Adams Prize by the University of Cambridge in 1951.
- Certainly Batchelor stamped his personality on the Cambridge Department.
- In 1957 Batchelor was elected to a fellowship of the Royal Society of London and then in 1959 he became a Reader in Fluid Dynamics at Cambridge.
- More Henry biography
- Died: 1 September 1687 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- There he writes that he was brought up (see [The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr Henry More (Cambridge, 1710).',7)">7] or [Henry More : Magic, religion and Experiment (Oxford, 1990).',2)">2]):-
.
- In 1631 More entered Christ's College Cambridge.
- He wrote of his experiences as an undergraduate (see [The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr Henry More (Cambridge, 1710).',7)">7] or [Henry More : Magic, religion and Experiment (Oxford, 1990).',2)">2]):-
.
- in 1636 and remained at Cambridge to continue his studies being elected a Fellow of Christ's College in 1639.
- He turned his philosophical studies towards Plato, the Platonists and the Neoplatonists becoming a member of the Cambridge Platonists.
- Therefore when More was a major figure at Cambridge he must have got to know the young pupil Newton.
- More never sought advancement within Cambridge, refusing to stand for positions such as Master.
- He wrote (see [The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr Henry More (Cambridge, 1710).',7)">7] or [Henry More : Magic, religion and Experiment (Oxford, 1990).',2)">2]):-
.
- Woodhouse biography
- Died: 28 December 1827 in Cambridge, England
.
- On 20 May 1790 he was admitted to Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated as Senior Wrangler (ranked first among the First Class students) and first Smith's prizeman in 1795.
- He also became the first director of the Cambridge University observatory which had just been newly built.
- Fellows of a Cambridge College were not allowed to be married so Woodhouse had to resign his fellowship in order that he might marry Harriet Wilken on 20 February 1823.
- His support of Continental methods was aimed at his fellow professors at Cambridge who were still using Newton's method of fluxions, but it had little effect; people would not readily move away from their traditional approaches.
- Woodhouse, therefore, failed to have much immediate influence as a reformer in mathematical studies at Cambridge.
- However he did begin the Cambridge move towards Continental style mathematics which was taken further by Herschel, Peacock and Babbage.
- Another attempt by Woodhouse to bring mathematics at Cambridge up-to-date was in 1804 when he published a paper on elliptic integrals in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
- He fully realised the significance of the topic which had received little attention at Cambridge.
- Bollobas biography
- While an undergraduate he had asked Erdős to help him visit Israel (where Erdős was spending most of his time) but Erdős suggested that it would be more sensible for him to visit Cambridge in England.
- Bollobas spent a year in Cambridge and, soon after returning to Hungary, received the offer of a scholarship from Cambridge to complete his Ph.D.
- By then, I said to myself, "If I ever manage to leave Hungary, I won't return." So when I arrived in Oxford, I decided to take up my old scholarship to Cambridge rather than return to Hungary.
- I started to write "Extremal graph theory" very soon after I arrived in Cambridge but it took me ages to finish.
- This topic, initiated by Erdős and Renyi around 1960, began to attract world-wide attention by the early 1970s and Bollobas's interest was fired during a term that Erdős spent working with him in Cambridge on the topic.
- Experience at Cambridge shows that none of the currently available texts meet this need.
- We must, however, give details of his career following his appointment at the University of Cambridge in 1971.
- He remained at Cambridge until 1996 but he made many extended visits to the Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge.
- we went to Memphis because my wife got absolutely fed up with Cambridge, finding it claustrophobic, and Erdős suggested that I go to Memphis, which he had visited many times, often several times a year.
- However, Bollobas kept his connections with Cambridge.
- He retained his fellowship at Trinity College when he went to Memphis in 1996 and, since 2005, has been a Senior Research Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- The publisher, Cambridge University Press, describes this last mentioned work as follows:-
.
- Whittaker John biography
- Born: 7 March 1905 in Cambridge, England
.
- Her father, the Rev Thomas Boyd, was a presbyterian minister who lived in Cambridge and was the Scottish Secretary of the Religious Tract Society.
- Jack's parents moved from Cambridge to Dublin when he was one year old.
- Jack entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1923 and there he was taught by Littlewood, Milne, Fowler and S Pollard.
- by Edinburgh University and a Smith's Prize by Cambridge.
- Elected a fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, he spent the next four years there as a lecturer.
- He therefore looked for an opportunity to move away from Cambridge and the vacant chair of pure mathematics at Liverpool looked attractive.
- In many ways this work can be seen as Whittaker's greatest achievement and he was awarded the prestigious Adams Prize by Cambridge University for this work in 1949.
- Rayleigh biography
- He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1861 where he took the mathematical Tripos.
- His coach at Cambridge was Edward Routh who, in addition to being the most famous of the Cambridge coaches at that time (perhaps of all time), was himself a very fine applied mathematician making important contributions to dynamics.
- There was another important influence on Rayleigh during his undergraduate years at Cambridge, namely that of Stokes who was the Lucasian professor of mathematics at the time.
- In 1866 Rayleigh was elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and he was poised to make his mark in science.
- Rayleigh had been a student at Cambridge with Arthur James Balfour and through him had met Evelyn.
- From 1879 to 1884 Rayleigh was the second Cavendish professor of experimental physics at Cambridge.
- On the contrary he took his duties very seriously making very substantial improvements to the teaching of physics at Cambridge.
- Maxwell and Chrystal had carried out experiments in Cambridge earlier and the apparatus was still available for Rayleigh.
- Then in 1884 he resigned his Chair at Cambridge to return to his research on his own estate at Terling.
- He became chancellor of Cambridge University in 1908.
- He donated the proceeds of his Nobel Prize to the University of Cambridge to build an extension to the Cavendish laboratories.
- he recalled some experiments in hyptonic suggestion in which he took part at Cambridge in the sixties of last century, and which convinced him of the possibility of influencing unwilling minds by suggestion.
- Jeffreys biography
- Died: 18 March 1989 in Cambridge, England
.
- He went to St John's College, Cambridge after leaving Newcastle, having obtained one of four mathematics scholarships.
- Among his teachers at Cambridge to exert a strong influence on him were H F Baker, T J d'A Bromwich, R Webb, A Berry and E Cunningham.
- He became a fellow of St John's College, Cambridge in 1914 and remained a fellow all his life.
- He returned to Cambridge and he lectured there in mathematics until 1932.
- Jeffreys was to remain on the staff at Cambridge, but not as a mathematician.
- Lawley and I were two young graduate mathematicians in Cambridge ..
- For many years he smoked intensely and in Cambridge he bicycled everywhere until over 90, even after he had broken his wrist in an accident.
- Wiles biography
- Born: 11 April 1953 in Cambridge, England
.
- When Andrew was born Maurice Wiles was Chaplain at Ridley Hall, Cambridge.
- He then entered Clare College, Cambridge to study for his doctorate.
- supervisor at Cambridge was John Coates who said:-
.
- the problem with working on Fermat is that you could spend years getting nothing so when I went to Cambridge my advisor John Coates was working on Iwasawa theory of elliptic curves and I started working with him..
- From 1977 until 1980 Wiles was a Junior Research fellow at Clare College, Cambridge and also a Benjamin Peirce Assistant Professor at Harvard University.
- He filled what he thought were the remaining few gaps and gave a series of lectures at the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge ending on 23 June 1993.
- He received the award from the Clay Mathematics Institute on 10 May 1999 in Cambridge, Massachusetts:-
.
- Conway biography
- When he went to be interviewed at age eleven before entering secondary school he was asked what he wanted to be when he grew up and he replied that he wanted to be a mathematician at Cambridge.
- After leaving seconday school, Conway entered Gonville and Caius College Cambridge to study mathematics.
- It appears that his interest in games began during his years studying at Cambridge, where he became an avid backgammon player spending hours playing the game in the common room.
- He was awarded his doctorate in 1964 and was appointed as Lecturer in Pure Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.
- Also in 1964 Conway was elected to a fellowship at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
- Conway tried to simplify von Neumann's ideas and eventually succeeded [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 43-50.',3)">3]:-
.
- Also in 1970 Conway was elected to a fellowship at Gonville and Caius College Cambridge and, three years later, he was promoted from lecturer to reader in Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at Cambridge.
- Conway studied the games of two players of Go at Cambridge who were of international standard.
- Then, in 1983, he was appointed professor of mathematics at Cambridge.
- It was around this time that the following picture of Conway was painted by Guy [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 43-50.',3)">3]:-
.
- The tables in his room at the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics in Cambridge are heaped high with papers, books, unanswered letters, notes, models, charts, tables, diagrams, dead cups of coffee and an amazing assortment of bric-a-brac, which has overflowed most of the floor and all of the chairs, so that it is hard to take more than a pace or two into the room and impossible to sit down.
- In 1986 Conway left Cambridge after accepting appointment to the John von Neumann Chair of Mathematics at Princeton in the United States where much of his work has focused on geometry, in particular studying the symmetries of crystal lattices.
- Macaulay biography
- Died: 9 February 1937 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- Graduating from Kingswood School in 1879, Macaulay entered St John's College, Cambridge, from which he graduated with distinction, being eighth Wrangler (ranked eighth in the list of First Class students) in the Mathematical Tripos of June 1882.
- A brother, familiarly known to his contemporaries at Cambridge in 1886 as "Macaulay of Caius", was remarkable for his devotion to the theory of quaternions, and had a successful career as Professor of Mathematics in the antipodes.
- After graduating from Cambridge, Macaulay returned to Kingswood School in Bath in 1883, where he himself had studied, and taught mathematics there for two years.
- In this school he taught the top mathematical class, which often contained outstanding pupils, and he encouraged them into a research career in mathematics, particularly at Cambridge.
- In the 25 years from [Macaulay's] appointment to St Paul's in 1885 to his resignation in 1911 there were 41 scholarships (34 at Cambridge) and 11 exhibitions; and in the 20 years available there were 4 senior wranglers, one second, and one fourth among his former pupils.
- Norah, widow of Mr G A Matthew, of Cambridge.
- Macaulay retired from St Paul's School in 1911 and after World War I he moved from London to live in Cambridge.
- Du Val biography
- Died: 22 January 1987 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- Perhaps the most significant step in his life came when he and his mother moved to a village near Cambridge.
- They got to know Henry Baker and he persuaded Patrick to undertake research into algebraic geometry at Cambridge; Du Val matriculated as a research student at Cambridge in 1927.
- ." In the same year Du Val submitted an essay on the resolution of singularities of an algebraic surface for the Adams Prize at Cambridge.
- In 1945 he made a short return visit to Cambridge, during which time he married Isobel Shimwell.
- Then he returned to England and lived in Cambridge in his retirement.
- As we noted above, Du Val's early work before he became a research student at Cambridge was on relativity.
- Whiteside biography
- Unsure what to do after completing National Service in 1956, one of his school friends, Peter Hall, wrote to him suggesting that he undertake postgraduate studies at Cambridge.
- Peter Geoffrey Hall was the same age at Whiteside but after leaving Blackpool Grammar School in 1951 he had gone to St Catharine's College, Cambridge, where he studied Geography and Geology.
- Whiteside followed his school friend's advice and filled in an application form to enter St Catharine's College, Cambridge, and sent it off.
- He (Hoskin) was very nice to me, not so much as a technical supervisor but as a great friend, encouraging me when I was down in the dumps, which most of the time every other lonely Cambridge research student at that time, was.
- During his thesis work he encountered the Portsmouth Collection, the archive of Newton's mathematical papers that had passed via Newton's niece to the family of the Earls of Portsmouth; the fifth Earl donated them to the University of Cambridge in the 19th century.
- During this time he married Ruth Isabel Robinson, who like Whiteside was from Blackpool, in 1962; they had two children, Philippa and Simon, who both went on to become graduates of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Whiteside was appointed as a Research Assistant in the Whipple Museum of the History of Science of Cambridge University in 1963, holding this position for nine years.
- In 1972 he was promoted to Assistant Director of Research at Cambridge, then in 1976 he was appointed University Reader in the History of Mathematics at Cambridge.
- In 1987 he became University Professor of the History of Mathematics and Exact Sciences in the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at Cambridge, a position he retained until he retired in 1999.
- It was as early as 1960, before Whiteside had published his thesis and attained international distinction, that he approached Cambridge University Press with a proposal to edit Newton's unpublished mathematical work.
- If this edition (to be completed in eight volumes including a general subject index) should progress with the present pace and on the same high level of scholarship it will in a few years be a lasting monument to Newton, the editor and Cambridge University Press alike.
- Volume 4: To say any more about the editor's exemplary introductions, notes and editing techniques, and about the excellent handling of the difficult type-setting by the Cambridge University Press would be carrying coals to Newcastle.
- Edmonds biography
- Died: 2 September 2002 in Cambridge, England
.
- At Wimbledon High School she excelled in mathematics and in 1935 she entered Newnham College, Cambridge, to study that subject.
- Although women could attend classes and take the examinations at the University of Cambridge in Edmonds' time, they could still not graduate with a degree which only became possible in 1947.
- Two papers appeared in 1942: On the multiplication of series which are infinite in both directions was published in the Journal of the London Mathematical Society while On the Parseval formulae for Fourier transforms appeared in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- The demands made on lecturers at Cambridge were great for they had to tutor students in all branches of pure and applied mathematics.
- She became Vice-Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, in 1960 and she held this post until she retired in 1981.
- She held positions of influence in Cambridge such as on the University Faculty Board of Mathematics which she chaired in 1975 and 1976.
- Babbage biography
- Babbage entered Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1810.
- However the grounding he had acquired from the books he had studied made him dissatisfied with the teaching at Cambridge.
- Thus it happened that when I went to Cambridge I could work out such questions as the very moderate amount of mathematics which I then possessed admitted, with equal facility, in the dots of Newton, the d's of Leibniz, or the dashes of Lagrange.
- It is a little difficult to understand how Woodhouse's Principles of Analytic Calculation was such an excellent book from which to learn the methods of Leibniz, yet Woodhouse was teaching Newton's calculus at Cambridge without any reference to Leibniz's methods.
- Woodhouse was one of Babbage's teachers at Cambridge yet he seems to have taken no part in the Society that Babbage was to set up to try to bring the modern continental mathematics to Cambridge.
- The Analytical Society was set up in 1812 and its members were all Cambridge undergraduates.
- Babbage married in 1814, then left Cambridge in 1815 to live in London.
- In 1827 Babbage became Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a position he held for 12 years although he never taught.
- I was sitting in the rooms of the Analytical Society, at Cambridge, my head leaning forward on the table in a kind of dreamy mood, with a table of logarithms lying open before me.
- This was published in 1843 and included [The mathematical work of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, 1978).',7)">7]:-
.
- He wrote in 1851 (see [The mathematical work of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, 1978).',7)">7]):-
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- Ball Robert biography
- Died: 25 November 1913 in Cambridge, England
.
- In 1892 John Couch Adams, the Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge and the director of the Cambridge Observatory, died.
- Ball applied for the vacant position and was appointed as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry but disputes with the university meant that he had to wait a year before he was appointed director of the Cambridge Observatory.
- A letter back to his sister as he was about to settle into his Cambridge home paints an interesting picture of life at that time:-
.
- In Cambridge Ball continued to give popular lectures on astronomy, and continued to work on his mathematics.
- Whittaker, who attended lectures by Ball at Cambridge, wrote that he was [Reminiscences and letters of Sir Robert Ball (1915).',2)">2]:-
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- Cayley biography
- Died: 26 January 1895 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- In 1838 Arthur began his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge from where he graduated in 1842.
- While still an undergraduate he had three papers published in the newly founded Cambridge Mathematical Journal edited by Duncan Gregory.
- For four years he taught at Cambridge having won a Fellowship and, during this period, he published 28 papers in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal.
- A Cambridge fellowship had a limited tenure so Cayley had to find a profession.
- In 1863 Cayley was appointed Sadleirian professor of Pure Mathematics at Cambridge.
- Ball biography
- Died: 4 April 1925 in Elmside, Cambridge, England
.
- After graduating from University College, he matriculated at Trinity College Cambridge in 1871.
- In 1874, the year he sat the Tripos, he was also first Smith's prizeman, and in the following year he was elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- In 1878 Trinity College, Cambridge, invited Rouse Ball to return as a lecturer in mathematics and, two years later, he was appointed as assistant tutor.
- Outside the University of Cambridge he also undertook a number of important duties, including being representative of the University on the Borough Council and various other bodies.
- Trinity College, Cambridge, has during the 40 years for which I have been a governor sent us some excellent representatives, but none better than the late Mr Rouse Ball.
- Ball also wrote The genesis and history of Newton's Principia and The history of mathematical studies at Cambridge.
- Hobson biography
- Died: 19 April 1933 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- He attended Derby School where he was well taught, but failed to shine until he was 13 years old when he suddenly amazed everyone by gaining distinction in the Cambridge Junior Local Examinations in mathematics, natural sciences, French and music.
- Hobson then won a mathematics scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge, entering in 1874.
- He was appointed to a fellowship at Christ's College in 1879 and taught at Cambridge for the rest of his life.
- Cambridge had set up two new prestigious lectureships in the previous year, the Cayley lectureship and the Stokes lectureship.
- which possessed a standard of rigour new to Cambridge.
- Probably mainly due to this particularly influential work, Hobson was elected Sadleirian professor at Cambridge in 1910.
- Niven biography
- William was one of three distinguished mathematical brothers, Charles and James also being Cambridge Wranglers.
- James Niven studied mathematics at Queens' College, Cambridge and was bracketed eighth wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1874.
- From there, as was the tradition of the Scottish Universities at that time, Niven went to study at the University of Cambridge matriculating in 1862.
- At Cambridge Niven studied mathematics at Trinity College, where he graduated as third Wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1866 (the means that he was ranked third among the First Class students).
- The following year he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity College but after holding the fellowship for some time he left Cambridge to take up an appointment as Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's Hill, Surrey.
- However the attraction of Cambridge was great and he returned to Trinity College as a College Lecturer in 1874.
- Maxwell's new developments in the theory of electricity excited keen interest; Niven's public lectures on the subject were attended by a great many Cambridge mathematicians of the day.
- As we mentioned above, he edited The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell (2 volumes) (1890) published by Cambridge University Press.
- He was able to encourage some of the best Cambridge mathematicians such as William Burnside to accept posts at Greenwich greatly enhancing its reputation [Proc.
- He induced some of his Cambridge friends of high mathematical eminence to undertake posts on the staff: by his hospitality he made the position of external examiner so attractive that he could command the services of the best qualified men of the time.
- Shortly before his death, his professional friends and colleagues from Cambridge, London and Aberdeen put up money to have his portrait painted.
- Bennett biography
- Died: 11 October 1943 in Cambridge, England
.
- By December 1886 he had been awarded a scholarship to study mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge.
- Many of these are authors giving their thanks to Bennett with words such as: "G T Bennett, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, sent the author the following simple construction in August, 1902..
- .", "I desire to acknowledge the assistance I have received from Mr G T Bennett, MA, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, with whom I have discussed ..
- .", "When later I came to determine the vibration-frequencies of the tones of the variable fork, Mr G T Bennett, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, kindly gave me ..
- .", and the comment by D'Arcy Thompson in On Growth and Form "Let me add another to these kindly names, that of Dr G T Bennett, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge; he has never wearied of collaboration with me ..
- Gould biography
- Born: 5 January 1868 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- During the years 1890-93, Gould studied mathematics in England at Newnham College, Cambridge and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Her activities, and those of her family, were noted in the Cambridge Tribune (Massachusetts) in September 1892 [Cambridge Tribune 15 (26) (3 September 1892).',9)">9]:-
.
- Newnham College was the second Cambridge college to admit women.
- After a while she returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts, with her thesis not yet completed but she did succeed in setting up the Benjamin Apthorp Gould Fund in 1897.
- Taylor Geoffrey biography
- Died: 27 June 1975 in Cambridge, England
.
- In 1899 Taylor went to University College School and in 1905 he won a scholarship to study at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- The following year he was appointed to a meteorology post, becoming Reader in Dynamical Meteorology, and his work on turbulence in the atmosphere led to his publication Turbulent motion in fluids which won the Adams Prize at Cambridge in 1915.
- After World War I Taylor returned to a lectureship at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He retired in 1952 but, still supported by the Royal Society, he continued his work at Cambridge with little evidence that his status had in any way changed until 1972.
- He was a keen and perceptive botanist, and took a great pleasure in the familiar plants of his well-stocked garden in Cambridge and in what he saw elsewhere and abroad.
- Crighton biography
- Died: 12 April 2000 in Cambridge, England
.
- After completing his studies at Watford Grammar School, Crighton entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1961.
- He was awarded his doctorate in 1969 and remained at Imperial until he was appointed as a Research Fellow in the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge five years later.
- Despite being appointed to the Department of Engineering at Cambridge in 1974 he never took up the post for, at the instigation of Sir James Lighthill, he was appointed to the chair of Applied Mathematics at the University of Leeds.
- In 1986 Batchelor retired as professor of applied mathematics at Cambridge and Crighton was appointed to succeed him.
- Crighton became Head of the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge in 1991.
- Coates biography
- He wrote to Cassels at Cambridge in England asking if he could move to Cambridge.
- He was accepted so, after spending a year in Paris, he went to Cambridge to complete his doctorate:-
.
- We arrived in Cambridge in mid-summer and I was a student at Trinity College ..
- Coates' thesis advisor at Cambridge was Alan Baker and, as soon as he arrived, he made the decision to start a new research project rather than continue the one he had begun in Paris.
- From Harvard he moved to Stanford University in 1972, where he was an associate professor, and, after a further three years he returned to England to take up a lectureship at the University of Cambridge in 1975.
- He became a fellow of Emmanuel College during this period at Cambridge and it was during this time that Andrew Wiles was his research student.
- In 1986 Coates returned to Cambridge when he was appointed to the Sadleirian Chair of Mathematics and he was also elected a fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge for the second time.
- In 1991 he became Head of the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at Cambridge.
- Wiles had studied for his doctorate under Coates at Cambridge from 1974 and this proved an important link in the various strands which led to Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
- Rees David biography
- Rees completed his schooling in 1936 and when he was in his final year at King Henry VIII grammar school he won a scholarship to study mathematics at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
- Rees continued to study at Cambridge but, on 1 September 1939, German troops invaded Poland and Britain declared war on Germany two days later.
- This took place before the outbreak of war while Rees was beginning his research career at Cambridge.
- He recruited mathematicians from the undergraduates and colleagues at Cambridge that he had known.
- John W Herivel (1918-2011), like Rees, had been an undergraduate at Cambridge.
- He was not a mathematician but a Cambridge graduate in classics and moral sciences.
- Rees was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Cambridge in 1948, becoming a fellow of Downing College.
- Douglas Northcott, who had become interested in algebra while attending Emil Artin and Claude Chevalley's seminar in Princeton in 1946-47, organised a seminar at Cambridge to study Andre Weil's book The Foundations of Algebraic Geometry (1946).
- Secondly, through Northcott's seminar, he met another of the participants, the young mathematician Joan Sybil Cushen (25 August 1924 to August 2013) who had written her thesis on algebraic geometry ("before Grothendieck got his hands on it" as she described it) in 1951 in London and returned to Cambridge to teach at Girton College.
- Rees married Joan Cushen in Cambridge on 19th June 1952.
- However, he left Cambridge in 1958 when he was appointed to the chair of Pure Mathematics at the University of Exeter.
- Besicovitch biography
- Died: 2 November 1970 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- He taught there during the session 1926-27 then he moved to Cambridge.
- At Cambridge Besicovitch lectured on analysis in most years but he also gave an advanced course on a topic which was directly connected with his research interests such as almost periodic functions, Hausdorff measure, or the geometry of plane sets.
- In 1950 he succeeded Littlewood to the Rouse Ball Chair of mathematics at Cambridge.
- He then returned to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he spent in total over 40 years of his life.
- He received the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge in 1930 for his work on almost periodic functions.
- Larmor biography
- In 1877, having graduated from the Queen's University, he went to St John's College, Cambridge, where he studied the Mathematical Tripos.
- He spent five years, 1880 to 1885, teaching in Galway before he returned to St John's College, Cambridge, as a lecturer in 1885.
- He went on to become Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge in 1903, the chair becoming vacant on the death of Stokes in February of that year.
- as he made contact with other Maxwellians beyond Cambridge - especially with George FitzGerald - he came increasingly to make electromagnetic theory fundamental to his work.
- Larmor wrote Aether and Matter in 1900 (renamed by Lamb Aether and no matter ) which was a winning entry for the Adams Prize at Cambridge in 1898.
- His book of 1900, Aether and matter, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1900, helped to establish a research school that guided the development of mathematical electromagnetic theory in Cambridge until the end of World War I.
- Larmor retired from the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge in 1932.
- He was honoured by various universities who awarded him honorary degrees: Dublin, Oxford, Belfast, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Birmingham, St Andrews, Durham and Cambridge.
- Knighted in 1909, Larmor served as MP for the University of Cambridge from 1911 to 1922.
- Pars biography
- Born: 2 January 1896 in Whittlesford (8km south of Cambridge), England
.
- In December 1914 he won a Foundation Scholarship in Mathematics and Physics to study at Jesus College, Cambridge.
- and, in 1921, he was the First Smith's Prizeman at Cambridge.
- His only extended time away from Cambridge during his career was when he took study leave for one year.
- [He] was a familiar sight in Cambridge, taking his regular afternoon constitutional in his characteristic attitude with eyes downcast and walking stick raised behind.
- Though by no means an eccentric, he was a great Cambridge character, a survivor of an era which is passing from living memory.
- Scott Robert biography
- Died: 18 November 1933 in Cambridge, England
.
- From London, Scott entered St John's College, Cambridge where he studied the Mathematical Tripos.
- John's College, Cambridge.
- He was also Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge for the years 1910-12.
- The book was revised for this second edition by G B Mathews and on the title page Scott is described as Robert Forsyth Scott, M.A., of Lincoln's Inn, Fellow of St John's College Cambridge.
- It also list his club as the Athenaeum, and gives his address as The Master's Lodge, St John's College, Cambridge.
- Routh biography
- Died: 7 June 1907 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- from Cambridge.
- He did go to the Observatory but decided that he would prefer not to accept the post there, but rather remain at Cambridge.
- Routh became the most famous of the Cambridge coaches for the Mathematical Tripos.
- By 1862 he was established as the best Cambridge coach for, in that year, he coached 19 of the 32 Wranglers including seven of those placed in the top ten.
- He was elected a fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1854, and in 1856 he became a founder member of the London Mathematical Society.
- Penrose biography
- degree with First Class Honours in Mathematics and then decided to go to Cambridge to undertake research in pure mathematics.
- He was following in the footsteps of his older brother Oliver who had also taken his undergraduate degree at University College London and had gone to Cambridge to undertake research but Oliver had chosen physics.
- However, after one year of study at Cambridge, finding that his interests were not particularly central to those of Hodge, he changed his supervisor to John Todd.
- for his work in algebra and geometry from the University of Cambridge in 1957 but by this time he had already become interested in physics.
- He described how three courses which he attended during his first year at Cambridge influenced him ([Mathematics Today (December 2001), 170-175.',2)">2] or [European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (2001),',3)">3]):-
.
- While at Cambridge working towards his doctorate he began to publish articles on semigroups, and on rings of matrices.
- In 1955 he published A generalized inverse for matrices in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Penrose spent the academic year 1956-57 as an Assistant Lecturer in Pure Mathematics at Bedford College, London and was then appointed as a Research Fellow at St John's College, Cambridge.
- This book is a record of a debate between the two at the Isaac Newton Institute of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cambridge in 1994.
- This is his work on non-periodic tilings, an interest which he took up while a graduate student at Cambridge.
- Others include the Adams Prize from Cambridge University; the Wolf Foundation Prize for Physics (jointly with Stephen Hawking for their understanding of the universe): the Dannie Heinemann Prize from the American Physical Society and the American Institute of Physics; the Royal Society Royal Medal; the Dirac Medal and Medal of the British Institute of Physics; the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society; the Naylor Prize of the London Mathematical Society; and the Albert Einstein Prize and Medal of the Albert Einstein Society.
- Pople biography
- He was encouraged to spend his final two years at the school preparing for the Cambridge University scholarship examinations.
- He took the scholarship examinations at Trinity College Cambridge both in 1942 and 1943, and entered the university in October 1943.
- Pople did study mathematics at Cambridge for two years but by the time he took the examinations for Part II of the Mathematics Tripos in May 1945 the war was coming to an end.
- One might have thought that this would mean that he could continue his studies at Cambridge but this was not the case.
- As a consequence Pople had to leave Cambridge in 1945 and take up employment.
- He tried hard to obtain permission to return to his studies at Cambridge but, rather than pure mathematics which had been his first love, he now wanted to concentrate on applications of mathematics.
- Cambridge in 1947 was a very different place from the one he had left about two and a half years earlier.
- There is some evidence that my musical efforts distracted him so much that he left Cambridge shortly thereafter.
- Joy was to become his wife, and they were married in Great St Mary's Church, Cambridge in 1952; they had three sons Adrian, Mark, and Andrew and a daughter Hilary.
- Pople was appointed as a Lecturer in Mathematics at Cambridge in 1954, a position he held until 1958.
- During the years 1954 to 1958, Pople was teaching mathematics at Cambridge but undertaking research in mathematical applications to chemistry.
- Hall Marshall biography
- This Fellowship was to fund one year of study at Oxford or Cambridge in England.
- He won the Fellowship and spent the year 1932-33 working with G H Hardy at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- At Cambridge he was taught by several mathematicians who were to have an important influence on him such as Philip Hall, Harold Davenport and G H Hardy.
- While he was at Cambridge, G H Hardy helped him edit the paper which was published in 1933.
- Hall would have liked to continue to undertake graduate work at Cambridge but since the fellowship was only for one year and his family could not support him financially, he applied for actuarial positions back in the United States.
- While on the faculty at Ohio he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship which enabled him to spend the year 1956 at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He was writing this book during his year in Cambridge and Philip Hall read his manuscript and made many helpful suggestions.
- Hall spent time at the University of Warwick Group Theory year in August 1967 and, while in England, visited Philip Hall in Cambridge.
- The construction of the simple group of order 604,800 was carried out in August 1967 at the University of Warwick and at Cambridge University.
- Mr Peter Swinnerton-Dyer was extremely helpful in writing on short notice a program for the Titan computer at Cambridge which finally confirmed the correctness of the construction.
- Pearson biography
- A private tutor was engaged to teach him at home and he took the Cambridge Scholarship Examinations in 1875 and, coming second in the examinations, he won a scholarship to King's College.
- At Cambridge he was taught by Stokes, Maxwell, Cayley and Burnside.
- His coach was perhaps the most famous of all the Cambridge coaches, namely Routh.
- At Cambridge I studied mathematics under Routh, Stokes, Cayley, and Clerk Maxwell, but read papers on Spinoza.
- As he indicates in these quotations, his studies at Cambridge were unusually broad.
- Pearson was never one to accept authority and this comes out clearly during his undergraduate years at Cambridge.
- He graduated from Cambridge University in 1879 as Third Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos (meaning that he was ranked third among those who gained a First Class degree).
- He was strongly influenced by the courses he attended at this time and he became sufficiently expert on German literature that he was offered a post in the German Department of Cambridge University.
- On his return to England in 1880, Pearson first went to Cambridge [3]:-
.
- Back in Cambridge, I worked in the engineering shops, but drew up the schedule in Mittel- and Althochdeutsch for the Medieval Languages Tripos.
- Darwin biography
- Died: 7 December 1912 in Cambridge, England
.
- Darwin excelled at Pritchard's school and he won a scholarship to study at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He also excelled at Cambridge, becoming Second Wrangler (meaning that he was ranked second among those awarded a First Class degree in the Mathematical Tripos) in 1868, becoming a Smith's Prizeman in the same year, and being elected to a fellowship at Trinity.
- Many top graduates from Cambridge from this period entered the legal profession and that indeed is what Darwin did, being called to the Bar in 1874.
- His fellowship expired in 1878 but he continued to work at Cambridge, becoming Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy there in 1883.
- Hawking biography
- From Oxford, Hawking moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, a difficult area for someone with only a little mathematical background.
- Hawking had noticed that he was becoming rather clumsy during his last year at Oxford and, when he returned home for Christmas 1962 at the end of his first term at Cambridge, his mother persuaded him to see a doctor.
- After completing his doctorate in 1966 Hawking was awarded a fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
- In 1973 he left the Institute of Astronomy and joined to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge.
- He became Professor of Gravitational Physics at Cambridge in 1977.
- In 1979 Hawking was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.
- The man born 300 years to the day after Galileo died now held Newton's chair at Cambridge.
- I was flown back to Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, where a surgeon called Roger Grey carried out a tracheotomy.
- Also from 7 to 10 January 2002 a workshop and symposium was held in Cambridge to celebrate Hawking's 60th birthday.
- Thus the group that gathered at the CMS in Cambridge in honour of his 60th birthday includes some of the leading theorists in the field.
- Young biography
- In 1881 Young entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, to begin his undergraduate studies of mathematics.
- At Cambridge Young was an outstanding student showing far more mathematical ability than any of the other students in his year.
- It would be fair to say that the First Wrangler was the most skilled at answering Tripos questions rather than the best mathematician and many of the great mathematicians who attended Cambridge failed to gain this distinction.
- While at Cambridge he put aside the Baptist religion of his family and was baptised into the Church of England.
- Although many famous mathematicians who attended Cambridge failed to become First Wrangler, many of those who failed did become Smith's Prizemen.
- He won the theology prize and he decided to remain at Cambridge earning money by privately coaching students for the mathematical tripos.
- It is extremely unlikely that Young would have ever become interested in research had it not been that he married Grace Chisholm (who, of course, then became Grace Chisholm Young) in 1896, and that Klein visited Cambridge to receive an honorary degree in 1897.
- Together the Youngs, who formed a mathematical married partnership of real significance, left Cambridge and went to Gottingen.
- However Young returned to Cambridge during term time where he both taught and examined.
- In fact he was at different times an examiner to the Central Welsh Board (1902 to 1905), the University of London, and the University of Wales, in addition to his role as examiner at Cambridge.
- Routledge biography
- Braithwaite arranged for Routledge to sit the Cambridge scholarship examinations in mathematics.
- In 1946 Routledge matriculated at King's College, Cambridge, having won a scholarship.
- At school, after winning the scholarship and before entering Cambridge, he read Newton's Principia.
- At Cambridge he attended J E Littlewood's lectures which were a series of comments on one of his books.
- Among Routledge's friends was Alan Turing, who had returned to Cambridge after the war to attend physiology courses.
- As well as studying mathematics, Routledge kept up his interest in music while at Cambridge.
- As well as undertaking research at Cambridge, between 1952 and 1954 he worked as a scientific officer at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough and at the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington to fulfil the requirements for national service which was then compulsory.
- After eighteen months as a research student he applied for a research fellowship at King's College, Cambridge and was successful.
- Philip Hall, who was Routledge's friend and advisor, had told him that if he wanted to stay at Cambridge he had to become the acknowledged expert on a particular topic.
- He had greatly enjoyed his years at Cambridge but was not sad to leave since he felt it was time to move on to "fresh fields and pastures new".
- Newman biography
- Died: 22 February 1984 in Comberton (near Cambridge), England
.
- From there he gained a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1915.
- He returned to Cambridge after his war related duties ended in 1919, graduated in 1921, and then became a Fellow of St John's College in 1923.
- From 1927 he was a lecturer at Cambridge in addition to his holding his Fellowship.
- While at Cambridge Newman taught a course on the foundations of mathematics.
- Bocher biography
- Died: 12 September 1918 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Certainly Bocher was born into a family with a strong academic background and he had a good quality education from his parents as well as from a number of public and private schools in Boston and Cambridge.
- His final preparation for university was at the Cambridge Latin School from which he graduated in 1883.
- He died at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, after suffering a prolonged illness.
- In 1912 Bocher was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Cambridge, England.
- Richmond biography
- Died: 22 April 1948 in Cambridge, England
.
- In the same year he entered King's College, Cambridge, to read mathematics.
- He went to Cambridge as a Barnes Scholar having won both an open Eton Scholarship and a scholarship from his own school.
- According to Richmond the intense work needed to succeed at Cambridge made him turn away from mathematics after his graduation and he took up music for a while.
- However his love for mathematics soon returned and, after writing a dissertation on algebraic geometry, he was awarded a Fellowship to King's College, Cambridge, in 1888.
- Kuiper biography
- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xiii-xv.',2)">2]:-
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- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xiii-xv.',2)">2]:-
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- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xiii-xv.',2)">2]:-
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- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xi-xii.
- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xi-xii.
- Lamb biography
- Died: 4 December 1934 in Cambridge, England
.
- In 1866, when Horace was only 17, he won a scholarship to read classics at Queen's College, Cambridge but declined the scholarship to spend a year studying at Owens College, Manchester.
- It was at Owens College that Lamb's interests turned firmly towards mathematics so that, when he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, the following year it was to study mathematics.
- Lamb was taught by Stokes and Maxwell at Cambridge and graduated as Second Wrangler in 1872 (meaning that he was second in the ranked list of those students awarded a First Class degree).
- Lamb held the chair at Manchester until 1920 when, at the age of 70, he retired and moved to Cambridge.
- Hopkins biography
- 13 October 1866 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- In 1822, at the age of twenty-nine, Hopkins entered Peterhouse, the oldest of the Colleges of the University of Cambridge.
- Hopkins married for a second time, to Caroline Boys, while he was an undergraduate at Cambridge.
- After graduating Hopkins became a private tutor at Cambridge, having Tait, Thomson, Stokes, Maxwell and Todhunter among his pupils.
- Sedgwick had also trained as a mathematician and had been appointed professor of geology at Cambridge in 1818.
- Mathisson biography
- Died: 13 September 1940 in Cambridge, England
.
- He remained there for two years before he went to Cambridge in England in 1939.
- There he developed his more important studies but sadly he died in Cambridge at the early age of forty-three only a year later.
- Cambridge Philos.
- Cambridge Philos.
- Kingman biography
- John was educated at Christ's College, Finchley in London where he won a scholarship to Cambridge.
- He then entered Pembroke College Cambridge in 1956 from where he was awarded an M.A.
- There were also quite a number of dreadful lecturers in Cambridge at that time, who had better remain nameless.
- Kingman intended to undertake research with Lindley but he left Cambridge for Manchester.
- This he did but after Kingman had spent one year at Oxford, David Kendall moved to Cambridge where he was appointed Professor of Mathematical Statistics.
- At this stage Kingman returned to Cambridge but never finished his Ph.D.
- He did, however, continue collaborating with David Kendall during the next years that he spent in Cambridge.
- He was a visiting professor at the University of Western Australia in 1963, then he returned to Cambridge where he was promoted to lecturer in mathematics in 1964.
- In 1965 Kingman moved from Cambridge when he was appointed as reader in mathematics and statistics at the University of Sussex.
- Haselgrove biography
- He won a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge and went up in 1944.
- Brian also caught tuberculosis and was away from Cambridge for two years.
- While at Cambridge, he published two articles in the Cambridge University Mathematics Society magazine Eureka.
- He was working in the Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge on the EDSAC 1 computer.
- the Cambridge EDSAC I; thus, considerable ingenuity was required in defining subsidiary variables.
- R S Lehman and W G Spohn had verified the conjecture for all numbers x up to 800,000 but Haselgrove found a counterexample using methods based on those developed by Ingham with the help of computations carried out on the EDSAC 1 computer at Cambridge.
- Another piece of work, undertaken at Cambridge, but published after he was working in Manchester was his Tables of the Riemann zeta function, work which he undertook jointly with J C P Miller.
- Together with his wife, he published A Computer Program for Pentominoes in the Cambridge University Mathematics Society magazine Eureka in October 1960.
- Fisher biography
- Fisher was awarded a £80 scholarship from Caius and Gonville College, Cambridge, which was necessary to finance his studies since his father had lost his fortune.
- In October 1909 he matriculated at Cambridge.
- Although he studied mathematics and astronomy at Cambridge, he was also interested in biology.
- In his second year as an undergraduate he began consulting senior members of the university about the possibility of forming a Cambridge University Eugenics Society.
- Awarded a Wollaston studentship, he continued his studies at Cambridge under Stratton on the theory of errors reading Airy's manual the Theory of Errors.
- After leaving Cambridge, Fisher had no means of financial support and worked for a few months on a farm in Canada.
- When war broke out in 1914 he enthusiastically tried to enlist in the army, having already trained in the Officers' Training Corps while at Cambridge.
- Fisher held this post for ten years, being appointed as Arthur Balfour professor of genetics at the University of Cambridge in 1943.
- He retired from his Cambridge chair in 1957 but continued to carry out his duties there for another two years until his successor could be appointed.
- Yule biography
- Died: 26 June 1951 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- In 1912 he accepted a Lectureship in Statistics at Cambridge, taking a drop in salary but never regretting the move.
- In 1930 he retired from his post, by now a readership, in Cambridge.
- He died in the Evelyn Nursing Home in Cambridge at age 83.
- Cunningham biography
- Ebenezer Cunningham was educated at Owen's School Islington and from there he won an open mathematical scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1899.
- His lecturers at Cambridge included Baker, Larmor, J G Leathem and R Pendlebury.
- At Cambridge his main interests outside mathematics were choral music and rowing.
- He became a pacifist while at Cambridge through the Boer War years 1899 to 1902 [The Times [See THIS LINK]',1)">1]:-
.
- Until 1907 he worked both in Liverpool and in Cambridge.
- While at Cambridge, he had read Larmor's famous book Aether and Matter and then, in 1905, after reading Einstein's paper on special relativity, he began to work on that topic.
- In fact Cunningham had returned to St John's College Cambridge in 1911, at the invitation of Baker.
- His work in Cambridge was interrupted by World War I when he worked on the land rather than join the army.
- After this he never returned to major research projects and spent the rest of his career as an enthusiastic teacher of mathematics at Cambridge.
- Whiston biography
- In 1684 he went to the grammar school in Tamworth then, in 1686, after two years of school, he entered Clare College, Cambridge.
- William attended Newton's lectures while at Cambridge and he showed great promise in mathematics.
- He returned to Cambridge, intending to take mathematics pupils, but ill health made him give up his position as a tutor at Clare College.
- He was appointed assistant to Newton at Cambridge from February 1701.
- In May 1702 Whiston succeeded Newton as Lucasian professor and, in the following year, he published an edition of Euclid for the use of students at Cambridge.
- He lectured at Cambridge on mathematics and natural philosophy and, after Roger Cotes was appointed to the Plumian professorship in 1706, receiving strong recommendations from Whiston, they undertook joint research.
- Together they introduced the first courses on experimental physics at Cambridge.
- These views were not popular and, after he refused to acknowledge that he was in error, he was brought before the heads of the Cambridge colleges charged with heresy.
- He was deprived of his chair on 30 October 1710 and dismissed from Cambridge University.
- Wolstenholme biography
- Joseph studied at Wesley College in Sheffield, then entered St John's College, Cambridge on 1 July 1846 and, four years later, he graduated as Third Wrangler (he was ranked third in the list of first class degrees given in mathematics that year).
- He accepted a fellowship from Christ's College, Cambridge in November of the same year.
- However, Wolstenholme continued to take pupils at Cambridge for two years after resigning his fellowship.
- 34 (1995), 40-46.',2)">2] that Forsyth campaigned strongly against the syllabus and the style of examinations at Cambridge so is likely to rate Wolstenholme's contribution to the traditional Cambridge system somewhat less than others:-
.
- Leslie Stephen, the father of the author Virginia Woolf, studied mathematics at Cambridge and held a fellowship at Cambridge from 1854 till 1864.
- I think especially of poor old Wolstenholme, called 'the woolly' by you irreverent children, a man whom I had first known as a brilliant mathematician at Cambridge, whose Bohemian tastes and heterodox opinions had made a Cambridge career inadvisable, who tried to become a hermit at Wastdale.
- Wishart biography
- When Yule left his Cambridge lectureship in Statistics in 1931 there was a reorganisation of statistics teaching at Cambridge.
- A laboratory was set up by Wishart at Cambridge for his postgraduate students.
- There were two aspects to Wishart's teaching at Cambridge since he taught both mathematics students and agriculture students.
- The arrangement did not suit other academics at Cambridge, however, and Wishart had to fight many academic battles.
- The problem that Wishart's position caused at Cambridge was that he was too high powered a statistician for those in Agriculture but the mathematicians were also unhappy to send their students to the Faculty of Agriculture for statistics courses, and they would have much preferred to have statistics completely within Mathematics.
- The problems he had been having at Cambridge before the War made him think long and hard about whether to return, but his love of teaching, more than anything else, took him back.
- At Cambridge more statisticians were taken on within Mathematics and a Statistical Laboratory was set up within the Mathematics Faculty in 1949.
- Some of Wishart's most important publications were in the 1928-32 period before he became so involved with teaching at Cambridge.
- Eells biography
- Died: 14 February 2007 in Cambridge, England
.
- He spent 1963 at Churchill College, Cambridge then was appointed as a full professor at Cornell University in the following year.
- He returned to Cambridge to spend the year 1966-67 there and while in England he visited the University of Warwick in the summer of 1967 to run a symposium.
- He went to Cambridge which became his base, although he maintained his world-wide travels.
- Wylie biography
- Died: 2 October 2009 in Cambridge, England
.
- He spent 1938-39 as a fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, taking up an appointment as a mathematics master at Wellington College situated about 35 miles south west of London.
- He was appointed a fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.
- He took part in activities organised by the University of the Third Age in Cambridge, including play-reading in the original Greek, impressing his fellow readers of plays until the end of his life.
- Donaldson biography
- Born: 20 August 1957 in Cambridge, England
.
- He then entered Pembroke College, Cambridge where he studied until 1980, receiving his B.A.
- One of his tutors at Cambridge described him as a very good student but certainly not the top student in his year.
- In 1991 Donaldson received the William Hopkins Prize from the Cambridge Philosophical Society and, the following year, the Royal Medal from the Royal Society.
- Kendall biography
- Died: 23 October 2007 in Cambridge, England
.
- Then in 1962 Kendall was appointed as Professor of Mathematical Statistics at the University of Cambridge.
- At the same time he was elected a fellow of Churchill College Cambridge.
- An exceptional lecturer, Kendall has been the Larmor Lecturer at the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1980, the Milne Lecturer at Wadham College, Oxford in 1983, the Hoteling Lecturer at the University of North Carolina in 1985, the Rietz Lecturer at the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1989 and the Kolmogorov Lecturer at the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability in 1990.
- Scott biography
- Died: 10 November 1931 in Cambridge, England
.
- She won a scholarship in 1876 to Hitchin College, soon to be renamed Girton College, of the University of Cambridge.
- After her return to Cambridge in 1925, Scott became increasingly deaf and this prevented her taking much part in life at the University.
- She out-lived most of her family of the same generation, but with admirable courage, after 30 years in America, settled down in Cambridge for the few years left to her.
- Cartwright biography
- Died: 3 April 1998 in Cambridge, England
.
- In 1930 Cartwright was awarded a Yarrow Research Fellowship and she went to Girton College, Cambridge, to continue working on the topic of her doctoral thesis.
- Cartwright was appointed, on the recommendation of both Hardy and Littlewood, to an assistant lectureship in mathematics in Cambridge in 1934, and she was appointed a part-time lecturer in mathematics the following year.
- Cartwright was appointed Mistress of Girton in 1948 then, in addition, a Reader in the Theory of Functions in Cambridge in 1959, holding this appointment until 1968.
- Airy biography
- Airy entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1819 as a sizar, meaning that he paid a reduced fee but essentially worked as a servant to make good the fee reduction.
- From the time he went up to Cambridge to the end of his life his system of order was strictly maintained.
- Only three years after graduating from Cambridge, he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.
- Airy was appointed Plumian Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge and Director of the Cambridge Observatory.
- He became Astronomer Royal in 1835 moving at that time from Cambridge to Greenwich.
- the book was used at Cambridge and influenced Pearson.
- He was continually at war with some of the Cambridge mathematicians on this subject.
- Pearson Egon biography
- He had been accepted to study at Trinity College Cambridge in June of that year.
- World War I began in 1914 before he was due to matriculate at Cambridge, and had Pearson's health been good he would have found himself in military service.
- He therefore went to Trinity College, Cambridge, to begin his university studies.
- At the end of one year of study, Pearson left Cambridge in 1915 determined to make a contribution to the war effort, and he worked for the Admiralty and the Ministry of Shipping.
- Pearson never took up his undergraduate studies at Cambridge again after the war but was awarded his B.A.
- He then began research at Cambridge, but not on statistics as one might have expected, rather on solar physics.
- At Cambridge he had felt cut off from classmates of his own generation, all veterans of the conflict.
- After Fisher moved away from London in 1939, especially after he began to work at Cambridge from 1943, Pearson must have found the atmosphere in London a much happier one.
- In 1967 he married Margaret Theodosia and moved to Cambridge until the death of his second wife in 1975 when he moved to West Lavington near Midhurst in Sussex.
- Heilbronn biography
- Heilbronn was dismissed from his position as an Assistant at Gottingen and fled to England, arriving in Cambridge with enough money to support him for around six months.
- His stay in Manchester was short, however, since he was offered the Bevan Fellowship in Trinity College, Cambridge, in May 1935.
- He accepted this offer, mainly made through Hardy's efforts, with pleasure and moved to Cambridge.
- I met him when he first came to Cambridge ..
- My mother lived in Cambridge then, and he went to tea with her once while I was abroad ..
- After Heilbronn moved to Cambridge he began a collaboration with Davenport which started in 1936 and lasted until Davenport's death in 1969, with Heilbronn publishing further joint papers with Davenport up to 1971.
- While at Cambridge he published four papers with Davenport, and one paper on his own, on Waring's problem.
- While at Bristol he worked on the Euclidean algorithm (norm function) in a general setting having already proved while at Cambridge that there are only finitely many real quadratic fields with a Euclidean algorithm.
- Not long before resigning, Heilbronn married Dorothy Greaves who was a widow whom he had known through a shared interest in bridge since his days in Cambridge.
- Northcott biography
- The mathematics master C J A Trimble was a fine teacher and this combined with Northcott's outstanding abilities saw him win, in 1935, a Bayliss Scholarship to enter St John's College, Cambridge to study mathematics.
- He was awarded a distinction in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos in 1938 and asked Hardy if he would supervise his research if he remained at Cambridge.
- Northcott had already decided not to proceed with his trip to the United States and instead reported to the Cambridge University Joint Recruiting Board to offer his services in the war effort.
- Hardy was very unhappy that his student should be choosing active service and tried to persuade him to remain at Cambridge undertaking research.
- After the war ended Northcott returned to Cambridge to try to slot back into his position as a research student that he had left in 1939.
- After nearly two years at Princeton, Northcott returned to Cambridge where he had been awarded a research fellowship for St John's College.
- During this period at Cambridge he married Rose Hilda Austin in 1949; they had two daughters Anne Particia (born 1950) and Pamela Rose (born 1952).
- Although Northcott was happy in Cambridge, his family had now outgrown the college flat that he lived in so he decided to look for other openings.
- Linfoot biography
- Died: 14 October 1982 in Cambridge, England
.
- On 1 June 1948 Linfoot was appointed Assistant Director of the Observatories at Cambridge, and John Couch Adams Astronomer [Bull.
- This was an especially propitious moment for him to arrive in Cambridge since the Mathematics Laboratory had just begun its activities and was engaged in the early stages of the construction of Edsac I, one of the first generation of fast computers.
- Bosanquet biography
- Died: 10 January 1984 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- Isabel died in Cambridge in November 1992.
- He retired in 1971 and some time later moved from London to Cambridge.
- Peacock biography
- George Peacock was educated at home by his father until he was 17 years old, then he attended a school in Richmond, Yorkshire (one of the nearest towns to Denton) to prepare for entering Cambridge.
- In 1809 he became a student at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- As an undergraduate at Cambridge he made friends with John Herschel and Charles Babbage.
- While undergraduates Peacock, Herschel and Babbage planned to bring reforms to Cambridge and, in 1815, they formed the Analytical Society whose aims were to bring the advanced continental methods of calculus to Cambridge.
- He read his report at the 1833 meeting of the Association in Cambridge and the report was subsequently printed.
- In 1836 he was appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge and three years later was appointed dean of Ely cathedral, spending the last 20 years of his life there.
- He worked hard to reform the statutes of Cambridge University and, when the Government set up a Commission to propose reforms, he was appointed to it.
- Todhunter biography
- Died: 1 March 1884 in Cambridge, England
.
- He went to St John's College Cambridge, entering the College in 1844 and becoming senior wrangler and Smith's prizeman in 1848.
- One of his pupils was Leslie Stephen, the father of the author Virginia Woolf, who studied mathematics at Cambridge with Todhunter as his tutor.
- Birkhoff Garrett biography
- That was when [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 3-15.',2)">2]:-
.
- He learned mathematics in addition to the courses he took, for [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 3-15.',2)">2]:-
.
- Birkhoff graduated from Harvard in 1932 and was awarded a Henry Fellowship to study at Cambridge University in England.
- At first he was supervised on mathematical physics at Cambridge but, with a growing interest in abstract algebra, he changed supervisors to work with Philip Hall.
- From Cambridge Birkhoff went to Munich for a month in July 1933 and worked on his own on group theory, but while he was there he visited Caratheodory who pointed him towards van der Waerden's algebra text and Speiser's group theory book.
- He said [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 3-15.',2)">2]:-
.
- The first of these grew out of lectures he had given at the University of Cincinnati aimed at showing that [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 3-15.',2)">2]:-
.
- Of the book, which covers applications such as coding theory, Birkhoff said [Mathematical People : Profiles and Interviews (Cambridge, MA, 1985), 3-15.',2)">2]:-
.
- Gleason biography
- Died: 17 October 2008 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- He gave an address One-parameter subgroups and Hilbert's fifth problem at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950.
- Gleason died from complications following surgery at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Atiyah biography
- After leaving school he did his military service, which was compulsory at the time, then entered Trinity College, Cambridge.
- After graduating with his BA, Atiyah continued to undertake research at Cambridge obtaining his doctorate.
- He was then made a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1954.
- Returning to Cambridge, he was a college lecturer from 1957 and a Fellow of Pembroke College from 1958.
- He remained at Cambridge until 1961 when he moved to a readership at the University of Oxford where he became a Fellow of St Catherine's College.
- Oxford was to remain Atiyah's base until 1990 when he became Master of Trinity College, Cambridge and Director of the newly opened Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge.
- Many universities have awarded him an honorary degree including Bonn, Warwick, Durham, St Andrews, Dublin, Chicago, Edinburgh, Cambridge, Essex, London, Sussex, Ghent, Reading, Helsinki, Leicester, Rutgers, Salamanca, Montreal, Waterloo, Wales, Queen's-Kingston, Keele, Birmingham, Lebanon and the Open University.
- Goldstein biography
- He strongly advised the young student to move to Cambridge, where he himself had studied, and take the Mathematical Tripos.
- After one year at Leeds, Goldstein moved to St John's College, Cambridge, graduating in 1925.
- His years at Cambridge were highly significant not only from the mathematical point of view but also because it was at this time that he met his future wife.
- In 1929 he was made a fellow of St John's College, Cambridge and, in the same year, he was appointed to a Lectureship in Mathematics at the University of Manchester.
- He moved to Cambridge in 1931 and a clear indication of the high quality of his research over the next few years was his election as a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1937.
- Leslie Howarth was a student at Manchester, where he was taught by Goldstein during 1929-31, then he followed Goldstein to Cambridge.
- In this same year he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians, Cambridge, Massachusetts, giving the address Selected problems in gas dynamics.
- He was awarded an honorary fellowship of St John's College, Cambridge in 1965, by the Weizmann Institute of Science at Rehovot, Israel in 1971, by the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1971, and by the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications in 1972.
- Goldie Alfred biography
- Alfred attended Wolverhampton Grammar School where he won a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge.
- He entered Cambridge in 1939 just days after World War II began.
- During these two years at Cambridge he was in the Officers Training Corps, and he also took an interest in politics taking a left wing Communist position.
- He was sent to work under C A Clemmow in Cambridge, but soon the Ballistic Research team moved to Shrewsbury.
- [He] met G E H Reuter, who was at the time a research student working in Cambridge under Hardy and Littlewood.
- They discussed the possibility of Goldie's going back to Cambridge to finish his education by doing Part III of the Mathematical Tripos.
- There he learnt that Philip Hall who, after undertaking work on codes at Bletchley Park, had returned to Cambridge.
- He was a vivid personality with an individual mind, full of opinions and strongly argued positions on mathematics but also on the wider world, including politics, where his views moved rightwards over the years - starting with Communism whilst a student at Cambridge, and ending well within traditional Conservatism.
- Chapman biography
- In mathematics he was taught by Lamb, the professor of mathematics, and J E Littlewood who arrived from Cambridge in Chapman's final year at Manchester.
- At Lamb's suggestion Chapman tried for a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge and, being successful, entered Trinity in 1908.
- Cambridge stimulated his interest more than anything had done before and perhaps this is not surprising since there he met Hardy, Whitehead and Russell [Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 17 (1971), 53-90.',5)">5]:-
.
- He later said that he felt that he first began to live at Cambridge.
- After Chapman graduated from Cambridge in 1910 the astronomer royal, Frank Dyson, offered him the position of senior assistant at Greenwich Observatory.
- He left the Greenwich observatory and returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in 1914, with a reduced salary, around the time that World War I broke out.
- His religious principles made him a pacifist so he was exempted from military service and remained at Cambridge.
- Once back at Cambridge after the war ended, however, he was made to feel very unhappy and unwelcome because of his pacifist views and, as a consequence, he suffered depression for a number of years.
- Gowers biography
- He has a doctorate from the University of Cambridge: Eric Satie: his studies, notebooks and critics (1965).
- Tim Gowers was sent to King's College School, Cambridge where he was a boarder as his parents were living in London at the time.
- After completing his school education at Eton, Gowers matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- However, in some sense he never left Cambridge [Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society 33 (1999), 8-9.',10)">10]:-
.
- I used to commute from Cambridge, and found the train a congenial place to work, making at least one genuine breakthrough on it.
- In 1995 Gowers was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Cambridge.
- In 1998 Gowers was named Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge.
- On 16 June 2012 it was announced that the Knighthood was to Professor William Timothy Gowers, FRS, Royal Society Research Professor, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, University of Cambridge: For services to Mathematics.
- Offord biography
- After the award of his first degree, he went to St John's College, Cambridge to undertake research.
- At Cambridge he came under the influence of J E Littlewood, who had been appointed as Rouse Ball Professor at Cambridge in 1928, and G H Hardy who had held the Sadleirian chair at Cambridge from 1931.
- During his early years at Cambridge he collaborated with several mathematicians: Stephen Bosanquet, Einar Hille and Jacob David Tamarkin.
- He was elected a fellow of St John's College, Cambridge in 1937 and remained in Cambridge for three further years, leaving in 1940 to take up a temporary assistant lectureship at University College, Bangor.
- It was during these last three years at Cambridge that he worked with J E Littlewood on the topic for which he is best known today, and they published a series of important joint papers beginning with On the number of real roots of a random algebraic equation in 1938.
- Roth biography
- Nevertheless his achievements in mathematics made him decide to try for a mathematics scholarship to study at Clare College, Cambridge.
- Latymer School realised that Leonard needed tuition at a level they could not give in order to gain a Mathematics Scholarship to Cambridge and it was with the headmaster's agreement that he went for a term in autumn 1922, before the Cambridge scholarship examinations, to attend Dulwich College.
- He was successful in the examinations, winning a £60 a year Foundation University Scholarship, and matriculated at Clare College, Cambridge in 1923.
- He graduated from Cambridge with a First Class degree in 1926.
- However Roth had a very low opinion of the examinations set by Cambridge [Bull.
- Although he probably never intended this to be published, it is nevertheless a delightful and fascinating source of information about mathematical life in Cambridge ..
- has worked largely by himself, without much personal contact with other geometers since leaving Cambridge.
- Clifford Alfred biography
- Rhodes writes [Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 43-51.',7)">7]:-
.
- Rhodes writes [Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 43-51.',7)">7]:-
.
- Preston writes [Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 5-14.',5)">5]:-
.
- Rhodes describes Clifford's research following the publication of the second volume of 'Clifford and Preston' in [Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 43-51.',7)">7]:-
.
- Heuraet biography
- Christiaan Huygens and the mathematization of nature (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988).',2)">2]:-
.
- Christiaan Huygens and the mathematization of nature (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988).',2)">2]:-
.
- Christiaan Huygens and the mathematization of nature (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988).',2)">2]:-
.
- Christiaan Huygens and the mathematization of nature (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988).',2)">2]:-
.
- Burkill biography
- After winning a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1917 he spend a short time in the Royal Engineers as World War I had not ended.
- He continued with his education entering Trinity College, Cambridge in January 1919.
- After taking his first degree in 1921 he remained at Cambridge as a research student being elected to a fellowship in the following year after submitting a dissertation on surface areas.
- In 1929 Burkill returned to Cambridge taking up a a university lectureship and a lectureship at Peterhouse where he was also elected to a fellowship.
- He remained at Cambridge while many others took up war service, but he now had to take on administrative duties to cover for his absent colleagues.
- In 1961 Cambridge promoted Burkill to be Reader in Mathematical Analysis.
- After retiring as Master, he served as editor of the Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Greta Burkill died in 1984 and Burkill did a large amount of work in putting her papers on her refugee work into order so that they could be deposited in the Cambridge University Library.
- Ramanujan biography
- Middlemast, a graduate of St John's College, Cambridge, wrote [Ramanujan : Letters and commentary (Providence, Rhode Island, 1995).',3)">3]:-
.
- Ramanujan was delighted with Hardy's reply and when he wrote again he said [Collected Papers (Cambridge, 1927).',8)">8]:-
.
- Indeed the University of Madras did give Ramanujan a scholarship in May 1913 for two years and, in 1914, Hardy brought Ramanujan to Trinity College, Cambridge, to begin an extraordinary collaboration.
- After four days in London they went to Cambridge and Ramanujan spent a couple of weeks in Neville's home before moving into rooms in Trinity College on 30th April.
- The war soon took Littlewood away on war duty but Hardy remained in Cambridge to work with Ramanujan.
- On 16 March 1916 Ramanujan graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research (the degree was called a Ph.D.
- On 18 February 1918 Ramanujan was elected a fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and then three days later, the greatest honour that he would receive, his name appeared on the list for election as a fellow of the Royal Society of London.
- His election as a fellow of the Royal Society was confirmed on 2 May 1918, then on 10 October 1918 he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, the fellowship to run for six years.
- Lorenz Edward biography
- Died: 16 April 2008 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- He died from cancer at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Swain biography
- Died: 8 May 1936 in Cambridge, England
.
- From there she won a scholarship to study at Newnham College, Cambridge and she began her studies in 1910.
- Bartlett biography
- After graduating from Latymer Upper School, he took up the state scholarship he had been awarded to study at Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1929.
- In fact this was a quite significant time for statistics at Cambridge for, when Udny Yule retired from his Cambridge lectureship in Statistics in 1931, there was a reorganisation of statistics teaching at the university.
- At that time, as my undergraduate days at Cambridge drew to an end, I was anxious to be finished with study, and what I felt to be a surfeit of mathematics, and to get a job; I elected to try for the Home Civil Service (administrative grade), with the Inland Revenue as a second string.
- Although offered a position in the Inland Revenue, Bartlett took the opportunity to stay at Cambridge for another year presented to him when his scholarship was extended.
- His request was turned down, so he decided to apply for a vacant lectureship at Cambridge.
- After the war ended in 1945 it still took some time before life returned to normal and it was 1946 before he was able to return to take up his duties again at Cambridge.
- Levinson biography
- before starting the course! Instead Wiener together with Phillips, the Head of Mathematics, arranged for Levinson to receive an MIT Redfield Proctor Traveling Fellowship so that he could spend the year at Cambridge in England.
- He was assured that he would receive his doctorate on his return to MIT irrespective of any work he did in Cambridge.
- The attraction of Cambridge for Levinson was the fact the G H Hardy, one of the world's most respected mathematicians, taught there.
- Arriving in Cambridge at the end of August he wrote back to MIT in January:-
.
- Rota, in [Selected papers of Norman Levinson (Boston, MA, 1998), xxxvii-xxxviii.',9)">9], makes a rather surprising statement about Levinson's year at Cambridge which we reproduce without comment:-
.
- His year in Cambridge was uneventful: he never even met Hardy, as a matter of fact he never had a high opinion of Hardy, he thought Littlewood to be a stronger mathematician.
- If Levinson really had not met Hardy during his year at Cambridge, it was certainly Hardy who fought for Levinson to get a permanent job when he visited the United States.
- Durell biography
- Born: 6 June 1882 in Fulbourn, near Cambridge, England
.
- Durell joined the Mathematical Association in 1900, the year in which he entered Clare College, Cambridge, to study mathematics.
- Mackay biography
- In 1947 he was awarded a scholarship to undertake further study in mathematics at the University of Cambridge and in the following year he graduated from Edinburgh with an MA with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy.
- At this stage, rather than take up the scholarship in Cambridge, Mackay took a lectureship in the Mathematics Department of the University of St Andrews.
- After these two years teaching mathematics at St Andrews, Mackay went to Trinity College, Cambridge to take up the scholarship he had been awarded to study mathematics there.
- He received another scholarship in his second year, 1951-52, and graduated with a BA from Cambridge in 1952.
- He has received honorary degrees from the universities of Edinburgh (1983), Dundee (1983), Strathclyde (1985), Aberdeen (1987), St Andrews (1989), Cambridge (1989), William and Mary (1989), Birmingham (1990), Newcastle (1990), Bath (1994), Glasgow (1994), Oxford (1998), and De Montford (1999).
- He was also elected an honorary Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge in 1989 and of Girton College Cambridge in 1990.
- Atwood biography
- He then entered Trinity College Cambridge on 5 June 1765 as a pensioner, meaning that he did not have a scholarship and paid for his own keep in College.
- Atwood was a very popular lecturer at Cambridge, giving many demonstrations in his lectures.
- However this was still some way into the future when Atwood gave up his position as tutor at Cambridge in 1779 and tried unsuccessfully to obtain a position with the board of longitude.
- As part of his bid to obtain a position as secretary with the board he sent the details of his Cambridge courses to Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society.
- It was an unfortunate affair which led to considerable controversy in the Society which is discussed in detail [The mathematical practitioners of Hanoverian England 1714-1840 (Cambridge, 1966).',4)">4].
- Atwood is best known for a work A Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (published by Cambridge University Press in 1784) which is a textbook on Newtonian mechanics describing impact and simple harmonic motion.
- He also published a second work in the same year Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy which was an expanded version of his Cambridge course which he had first given detail of in 1776.
- Peirce Charles biography
- Born: 10 September 1839 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- On 16 October of that year he married Harriet Melusina Fay who came from a leading Cambridge family and was an active feminist campaigner.
- Adams Frank biography
- Adams entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1949 to study mathematics.
- After taking his first degree he started graduate work at Cambridge with Besicovitch on geometric measure theory.
- He won a Fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge, with his doctoral thesis on spectral sequences On Special Sequences of Self-Obstruction Invariants which he submitted in 1955.
- He returned to Cambridge in 1956 to take up the Fellowship and during this period he developed the spectral sequence which today is called the "Adams' spectral sequence".
- On his return from the United States he became a College Lecturer at Trinity Hall Cambridge.
- In 1970 Adams succeeded Hodge as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge, and at this time he returned to Trinity College.
- The book is based on lectures which Adams gave at Cambridge which he considered to be sequel to his book Lectures on Lie groups (1969).
- Todd John biography
- I started to work for a Cambridge scholarship, and I had to come to him with eight problems from the Cambridge entrance scholarship exam that were really difficult.
- Todd failed in his attempt to gain a scholarship to Cambridge so he completed his undergraduate degree at Belfast, graduating in 1931.
- He then went to St John's College, Cambridge, where his studies were partly funded by a grant from St John's College and partly from Queen's University Belfast.
- He wished to take the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge but, because he had chosen a course relevant to engineering when at school, he had no Latin qualification so could not enter Cambridge as an undergraduate.
- However, since he had a first class degree from Queen's University Belfast, the rules did allow Todd to enter Cambridge as a postgraduate student and this is precisely what he did.
- Turing biography
- Despite the difficult school years, Turing entered King's College, Cambridge, in 1931 to study mathematics.
- In many ways Cambridge was a much easier place for unconventional people like Turing than school had been.
- He read a paper to the Moral Science Club at Cambridge in December of that year of which the following minute was recorded (see for example [Alan Turing : A natural philosopher (1997).',6)">6]):-
.
- Turing was elected a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, in 1935 for a dissertation On the Gaussian error function which proved fundamental results on probability theory, namely the central limit theorem.
- Turing's achievements at Cambridge had been on account of his work in probability theory.
- Once back at Cambridge in 1938 he starting to build an analogue mechanical device to investigate the Riemann hypothesis, which many consider today the biggest unsolved problem in mathematics.
- Turing returned to Cambridge for the academic year 1947-48 where his interests ranged over many topics far removed from computers or mathematics; in particular he studied neurology and physiology.
- Forsyth biography
- Forsyth entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge in 1877 and there he studied under Cayley, graduating in 1881.
- His remarkable talent saw him leave Cambridge in the following year when he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Liverpool at the remarkably young age of 24.
- Although Forsyth was back in Liverpool, the city which had become his home, he did not remain there for very long, accepting a lectureship at Cambridge in 1884.
- In 1893 he published Theory of functions of a complex variable which had such an impact at Cambridge that function theory dominated there for many years.
- In fact this is not surprising since the whole thrust of the book was to bring the great advances of Continental mathematics to Cambridge which Forsyth rightly saw as living in the past.
- He therefore excelled at precisely the style of mathematics which he himself campaigned successfully to replace at Cambridge.
- He had a love affair with Marion Amelia Boys, the wife of C V Boys, and the scandal of 1910 forced him to resign his chair at Cambridge.
- Bromwich biography
- He returned to England to study at St John's College Cambridge arriving in 1892, in the same year as Whittaker.
- He obtained a Fellowship at St John's College in 1897 but left Cambridge to become professor of mathematics at Galway in 1902.
- He left Galway in 1907 and returned to a permanent post as College lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge.
- It was first included as a question in Part II of the Mathematical Tripos in 1910 and featured by Bromwich in his lectures at Cambridge during the same year.
- This is clearly illustrated by the summing up of his years at Cambridge in [The Times [See THIS LINK]',2)">2]:-
.
- For many years he was one of the best-known mathematical teachers at Cambridge, and his lectures and tuition were diligently attended by those aiming at high mathematical honours.
- best pure mathematician among the applied mathematicians at Cambridge, and the best applied mathematician among the pure mathematicians.
- Taylor Mary biography
- While at the school she won a Clothworker's Scholarship which allowed her to study at Girton College, Cambridge.
- Taylor was awarded a BA by Cambridge in 1919, having obtained the equivalent of a First Class degree.
- She continued to study at Cambridge and was awarded a research fellowship.
- As well as teaching mathematics, Taylor became interested in the theory of radio waves and began research on the topic under the direction of Edward Appleton who was at this time working at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.
- In 1924 Appleton left Cambridge to become the Wheatstone professor of physics at King's College, University of London.
- Taylor left Cambridge and went to Gottingen in Germany where she continued to study aspects of electromagnetic waves.
- She was a member of the London Mathematical Society and the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Mahalanobis biography
- While in London, waiting for courses to start, he made a trip to Cambridge where he was stunned by the chapel of King's College.
- During his time in Cambridge, he became friendly with Srinivasa Ramanujan.
- Asked if he would take on a temporary teaching role in physics at the College to help out, Mahalanobis agreed but he was still intent on returning to Cambridge to undertake his research project once the temporary position ended.
- However, he soon became so involved with his work in Presidency College that he gave up the idea of returning to Cambridge.
- Like the way he ended up in Cambridge by missing a train, this time it was having to wait in Cambridge for the boat journey to India.
- In 1959 he was elected an Honorary Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
- Maddison biography
- She was awarded a Clothworker's Guild Scholarship to study at Girton College, Cambridge, where she matriculated in 1889.
- Maddison attended lectures at Cambridge by Cayley, Whitehead and Young, and she earned a First Class degree in the Mathematical Tripos examinations of 1892 although at this time women could not formally receive a degree at Cambridge.
- The first woman to earn a First Class degree at Cambridge was Charlotte Scott who did so in 1880.
- After Maddison completed her studies at Cambridge in 1892 she was awarded a scholarship which enabled her to spend the year 1892-93 at Bryn Mawr College undertaking research with Scott.
- Maddison had, like Scott, become interested in linear algebra through the influence of Cayley at Cambridge.
- Although she had earned the equivalent of a First Class degree at Cambridge, Maddison still had no degree so she took the external examinations of the University of London in 1893 which allowed her to graduate with a B.Sc.
- Herschel biography
- He entered St John's College Cambridge in 1809.
- We should also say that the Analytical Society was not the first move towards Continental mathematics in England, for Woodhouse who was one of Herschel's lecturers at Cambridge, had written a fine book which took the Leibniz approach to the calculus rather than Newton's approach.
- Yet the mathematical syllabus at Cambridge reflected none of the theories of d'Alembert, Leibniz (in particular Euler's development of this approach), or of the more algebraic approach of Lagrange.
- However, after 18 months, he gave up his legal training and returned to Cambridge as a tutor and examiner in mathematics.
- I shall go to Cambridge on Monday where I mean to stay just enough time to pay my bills, pack up my books and bid a long - perhaps a last farewell to the University.
- He had turned down entering parliament as a Cambridge University member and he had also turned down a proposal that he become president of the Royal Society.
- He did become rector of Marischal College in Aberdeen in 1842 and served as president of the British Association at Cambridge in 1845.
- Horrocks biography
- We know nothing of Horrocks' early education, but we do know that he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, on 11 May 1632.
- However, we should not be suspicious of the date of his birth on account of his entering Cambridge at the age of thirteen or fourteen since this was a common age to begin a university education at this time.
- He entered Cambridge as a Sizar which means that he did not have the means to support himself and was given specific menial duties to compensate for a reduction in the fees.
- Since Horrocks left Cambridge with a deep knowledge of the latest ideas in astronomy due to Copernicus and Kepler, as well as the expertise in mathematics to further develop their ideas, this tells us that he studied mathematics and astronomy in his own time.
- He left Cambridge in 1635 and returned to Toxteth Park.
- He did not graduate at Cambridge, but this is consistent with his financial status and many poor students left university without a degree since they could not afford the cost of graduation.
- Chapman suggests that John Worthington of Manchester, who had been an undergraduate at Cambridge at the same time as Horrocks, probably introduced Horrocks and Crabtree.
- Sampson biography
- He showed remarkable abilities and was awarded a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge to study mathematics.
- Entering Cambridge in June 1884, he studied the Mathematical Tripos, was tutored by John Couch Adams, and was third Wrangler in the Tripos of 1888.
- In 1889 he was awarded the first Smith's prize by Cambridge and elected a fellow of St John's College in November 1890.
- After two years as a lecturer in mathematics in London, Sampson returned to Cambridge in 1891 when he became the first holder of the Isaac Newton Studentship in Astronomy and Physical Optics.
- He worked for the two years 1891-93 in Cambridge on astronomical spectroscopy and published a major paper On the rotation and mechanical state of the Sun [Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 3 (8) (1940), 220-226.',2)">2]:-
.
- To study the manuscripts, he lived at Cambridge for a time while he undertook the difficult task.
- In 1915 he was awarded the Hopkins Prize of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and was elected President of the Royal Astronomical Society.
- Milne biography
- Milne attended Hymers College (an endowed school) in Hull for his secondary schooling and from there he won an open scholarship in mathematics and natural science to study at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- At Cambridge, in the eighteen months during which he studied there, he was inspired by Chapman and Hardy.
- Thus his three years with the team probably ranked equally in importance in his education with his one and half year's at Cambridge.
- In 1919 Milne returned to Cambridge but not with the intention of either completing his undergraduate degree or of studying for a doctorate.
- Elected a Fellow of Trinity College shortly after he came back to Cambridge, Milne was appointed assistant director of the Solar Physics Observatory in Cambridge in 1920.
- In 1922 Milne won a Smith's Prize at Cambridge for an essay on the darkening of the limb of a stellar disk.
- Macintyre Archibald biography
- He graduated in 1926 and, in October of that year, he matriculated as a scholar at Magdalene College, Cambridge.
- Fellow students at Cambridge included Donald Coxeter, Harold Davenport, Raymond Paley, S Verblunsky and James Cossar.
- Macintyre spent the academic year 1929-30 undertaking research at Cambridge advised by Edward Collingwood.
- In fact Collingwood, although seven years older than Macintyre, had a rather unusual route to teaching at Cambridge.
- After one year of research at Cambridge, Macintyre was appointed as a temporary Assistant Lecturer attached to the Mathematics Department of Swansea University College.
- After studying at Cambridge, Sheila Scott had taught mathematics at St Leonard's School, St Andrews, for four years, followed by short spells teaching at Allen's School for Girls in Dulwich, South London, and Stowe School in Buckingham.
- Finally, let us record that Macintyre was a member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, the London Mathematical Society and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
- Borcherds biography
- Borcherds entered Trinity College, Cambridge where he was an undergraduate.
- Borcherds had been appointed as a Research Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1983 and held this post until 1987.
- He then spent the academic year 1987-88 as Morrey Assistant Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, before returning to Cambridge where he was appointed as a Royal Society University Research Fellow in 1988.
- Borcherds remained as a Royal Society University Research Fellow at Cambridge until 1992, and then spent the following year as a lecturer at Cambridge.
- He returned to Cambridge in 1996 and spent three years there as a Royal Society Professor in the Department of Mathematics before returning to his professorship at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1999.
- A Junior Whitehead Prize 1992 is awarded to Dr Richard Borcherds of Cambridge University for his work on mathematical aspects of conformal field theory.
- Peirce Benjamin biography
- Died: 6 October 1880 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- McCrea biography
- After winning an entrance scholarship to study mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, he studied the Mathematical Tripos there and was awarded his degree in 1926 [Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 53 (2007), 223-236.',4)">4]:-
.
- He specialised in those branches of mathematical physics that were stimulating exciting research at Cambridge, and after graduating he began research as one of the many pupils of R H Fowler FRS (later Sir Ralph Fowler) to whom he paid warm tribute on his centenary in 1980.
- His talents were quickly appreciated at Cambridge and in 1927 he was awarded the Cambridge University Rayleigh Prize in Mathematics, a Trinity College Rouse Ball Senior Studentship, a Sheepshanks Exhibition in Astronomy, and an Isaac Newton Studentship.
- From the 1950s, he pressed for the establishment of a national institute for theoretical astronomy and this led to the formation of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy in Cambridge, the first Director being Fred Hoyle.
- Its subsequent move to Cambridge and its final closure in 1998 were matters of great sorrow to him.
- Rao biography
- He had been offered a position undertaking statistical work at the Anthropological Museum in Cambridge and he also registered as a research student at Cambridge University.
- studies at King's College, Cambridge, were supervised by R A Fisher.
- While at Cambridge CR wrote his influential paper Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation which was published in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1948.
- The first was Advanced statistical methods in biometric research (1952) which he began writing while working for his doctorate at Cambridge.
- Tait biography
- Tait remained at Edinburgh University for only one year before entering Peterhouse, Cambridge in 1848.
- This means that he was placed first among the First Class degrees in mathematics awarded by Cambridge in that year.
- Tait had read Hamilton's Lectures on quaternions in 1853 while he was still at Cambridge but although the topic fascinated him he was more taken up with physical applications of mathematics at the time and did not pursue the topic at that stage.
- Tait began to correspond with Hamilton in August 1858 and, in reply to Hamilton's question as to how he had started to work with quaternions, Tait wrote to Hamilton on 7 December 1858 (see for example [Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911).',7)">7]):-
.
- Routh, who had been First Wrangler at Cambridge in Maxwell's year, was also a candidate but the real competition was always going to be between Tait and Maxwell.
- Knott [Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911).',7)">7] lists 365 papers and 22 books written by Tait.
- Cherry biography
- However, his real love was mathematics and his godfather, Sir John MacFarland the Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, offered to lend him sufficient funds to study mathematics at the University of Cambridge in England.
- He jumped at the chance and entered Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Of these four papers, the third appeared in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society while the other three were published by the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Although based at Cambridge, he had two periods away.
- As a scoutmaster in Cambridge he met Olive Ellen Wright who was a Girl Guide leader.
- Although Cherry returned to Australia in 1929, he came back to England to marry Olive on 24 January 1931 in Holy Trinity parish church, Cambridge; they had one daughter Jill.
- Wilkins biography
- Although Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, being married to his sister did his career no harm at all! In 1659 Richard Cromwell, Oliver Cromwell's son and the Lord Protector of England, appointed Wilkins as Master of Trinity College Cambridge.
- Many at Cambridge regretted Wilkins' departure, particularly Isaac Barrow.
- However, in many ways leaving Cambridge allowed Wilkins to influence the foundation of the Royal Society it a way that would not have happened had he remained there, and this proved to be one of the finest achievements of his career.
- This Oxford group met in Wadham College while Wilkins was Warden there but, after Wilkins moved to Cambridge, they met at Boyle's lodgings.
- After Wilkins left Cambridge and returned to London he joined with the group which were meeting weekly at Gresham College.
- Although he had been dismissed from Cambridge on the restoration of the monarchy, Wilkins was soon in favour with Charles II.
- Young Alfred biography
- Encouraged by his teachers, he sat the Cambridge Scholarship examinations, winning a scholarship to Clare College.
- Young was appointed as a lecturer in Selwyn College, Cambridge in 1901.
- from Cambridge for his outstanding contributions to mathematics.
- He was to become Parish Priest at Birdbrook, Essex in 1910 and lived for the rest of his life in this village 25 miles east of Cambridge.
- in a typical country rectory, set in an old world garden full of colour and of great charm, where a warm welcome awaited a visitor from Cambridge or elsewhere, young or old, who sought out in this secluded corner of Essex a master of abstract algebra, and found more than a mathematician, a friend.
- In 1926 Young began to lecture again at Cambridge.
- Allen biography
- Died: 30 September 1632 in Cambridge, England
.
- Gregory Duncan biography
- In October 1833, at the age of 20, Gregory entered Trinity College, Cambridge, receiving his B.A.
- However his interests were not only in mathematics for at Cambridge he continued to pursue his interest in chemistry which he had shown while an undergraduate at Edinburgh University.
- He was one of the founder members of the Cambridge Chemical Society but had broader interests than even mathematics and chemistry for he also studied physics, astronomy and botany.
- At this time the Cambridge Mathematical Journal was beginning publication and Gregory became its first editor.
- The first became an important text at Cambridge which, by this time, had accepted Peacock, Herschel and Babbage's Analytical Society reforms, and continental methods of calculus were being taught in Cambridge.
- Collingwood biography
- Attempting to go to Woolwich he failed the medical examination so, in 1918, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge to study mathematics.
- Collingwood was influenced by his advisor of studies, Hardy at Cambridge and decided early on that he would undertake research in mathematics.
- Although there were many others in Collingwood's year at Cambridge like Burkill, Ingham and Newman, he seems to have had little contact with them.
- He was awarded the Rayleigh prize from Cambridge in 1923 but failed to obtain a fellowship.
- Despite his examination results he returned to Cambridge to study for a Ph.D.
- In 1937 Collingwood left Cambridge and became High Sheriff of Northumberland.
- Coolidge biography
- Died: 5 March 1954 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Hayman biography
- After graduating from Gordonstoun School, Hayman studied at St John's College, Cambridge.
- In 1947 he was appointed as a lecturer in King's College, Newcastle and in the same year he became a fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.
- His first mathematics paper Some remarks on Schottky's theorem was published in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1947.
- At Cambridge, Hayman was awarded the 1st Smith's Prize in 1948 and in the following year he shared the Adams Prize with John Charles Burkill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and John MacNaughton Whittaker.
- Hayman's fellowship at St John's College, Cambridge continued until 1950 and he was a Visiting Lecturer at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island during 1949-50.
- Margaret had studied mathematics at Cambridge and been awarded an M.A.
- McDuff biography
- This led to her choosing the University of Edinburgh for her undergraduate studies, turning down a scholarship which she had won to go to Cambridge University.
- from Edinburgh in 1967, Dusa went to Girton College, Cambridge for her doctoral studies.
- At Cambridge McDuff was supervised by G A Reid and she worked on problems in functional analysis.
- This time her husband followed her to Cambridge.
- After completing her doctorate in 1971 McDuff was appointed to a two-year Science Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship at Cambridge.
- After the Moscow visit, where she studied Gelfand-Fuchs cohomology, McDuff returned to Cambridge.
- Huntington biography
- Died: 25 November 1952 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Peirce B O biography
- Died: 14 January 1914 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Mandelbrot biography
- Died: 14 October 2010 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Daniell biography
- He was very successful in winning a scholarship to enter Trinity College Cambridge in 1907 to study mathematics.
- Matriculating at Cambridge in 1907, he was Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Sciences Tripos in 1909.
- In fact Daniell has the distinction of being the last ever Senior Wrangler since Cambridge did away with publishing the ranked list of Wranglers from 1910 onwards, see [Literary Digest 39 (1909), 98-99.',3)">3].
- After graduating from Cambridge he was appointed as an assistant lecturer in mathematics at the University of Liverpool where he worked during the academic year 1911-12.
- Lovett, himself a mathematician, wrote to J J Thomson at Cambridge asking for advice on who to appoint and Thomson recommended Daniell as an assistant professor of applied mathematics.
- His contributions, although not fully appreciated at the time, were recognised by the University of Cambridge for they awarded him a D.Sc.
- Berwick biography
- He was also awarded an entrance scholarship by Clare College, Cambridge, and he studied there for the Mathematical Tripos.
- It was during his undergraduate years at Cambridge that Berwick became interested in number theory, and in this he was particularly influenced by G B Mathews who lectured at Cambridge.
- By the time that Berwick's first paper was published he had left Cambridge to take up an assistant lectureship at the University of Bristol.
- In the same year he was elected to a fellowship at Clare College, Cambridge.
- by the University of Cambridge in 1925.
- Frohlich biography
- Died: 8 November 2001 in Cambridge, England
.
- Bateman biography
- Harry attended Manchester Grammar School where he first grew to love mathematics, and in his final year he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He went up to Cambridge in 1900 and was Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos examinations of 1903 when he was awarded his B.A.
- Some insight into the influence on his early mathematical development by his teachers at Cambridge is gained through a letter he wrote in July 1945 (quoted by Erdelyi in [Obituary notices of the Royal Society 5 (1948), 591-618.',3)">3]):-
.
- My own interest in the integrals of the Euler-Laplace type dates, I think, from the time when Sir Edmund Whittaker gave some properties of the Laplace transformation in his lectures at Cambridge in 1903 or 1904.
- His first paper Determination of curves satisfying given conditions was written while he was still an undergraduate and it was published in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1903.
- He was a top class chess player, however, good enough to represent Britain in a match against the USA when he was an undergraduate at Cambridge.
- Todd biography
- John Todd was educated at Liverpool Collegiate School and, having sat the scholarship examination for Cambridge, he was awarded an entrance scholarship to Trinity College.
- Among his fellow students at Cambridge at this time were a number of others studying geometry including P du Val, H S M Coxeter and W L Edge.
- Disappointed at his failure to win the Fellowship, Todd left Cambridge and accepted Mordell's offer of an assistant lectureship at the University of Manchester in 1931.
- In until 1937 Todd was appointed a lecturer at Cambridge.
- Todd and Hodge began to change the geometry at Cambridge to areas that were then of great interest internationally.
- He became a reader in 1960 and taught in Cambridge until he retired in 1973.
- Young Laurence biography
- had left him in Germany with a nanny while they made a professional visit to Cambridge University.
- He went first to Munich in 1924 where he studied with Caratheodory, then matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He rowed for Trinity College while there, was involved in founding the Cambridge University Chess Club, and worked on writing his first book The theory of integration.
- The book is an introduction to Lebesgue-Stieltjes integration using techniques based on monotone sequences of functions and was published by Cambridge University Press in 1927.
- Young was Isaac Newton Student at Cambridge in 1930, was awarded an MA in 1931 after studying with Fowler and Littlewood, and he was elected to a fellowship in 1931.
- [Perhaps it is worth noting that Elizabeth Mary acquired the extra name of Joan since she was christened on St Joan's day, but she was known as Elizabeth.] Young married Elizabeth on 9 June 1934 and the first two of their six children were born while Young worked at Cambridge.
- Birkhoff biography
- Died: 12 November 1944 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Watson Henry biography
- Henry was educated at King's College, London, winning the first mathematical scholarship which had been set up there, then in 1846 he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, again with a scholarship.
- In 1851 Watson became a fellow of Trinity College and from 1851 until 1853 he was a tutor in mathematics at Cambridge.
- While holding this position, Watson married Emily Rowe from Cambridge in 1856.
- In 1860-61 Cambridge appointed him moderator and examiner for the Mathematical Tripos.
- by Cambridge in 1883.
- He was nominated by the Senate of Cambridge University to represent it as a governor on the King Edward's Foundation in Birmingham.
- Zeeman biography
- Zeeman's university studies were at Christ's College Cambridge and at first he had to contend with the fact that he had forgotten much of his school mathematics while serving in the Royal Air Force.
- from Cambridge and remained there to study for his doctorate under Shaun Wylie.
- Zeeman was then awarded a fellowship by Gonville and Cais College Cambridge in 1953.
- Back at Cambridge, he was appointed a College Lecturer in 1955.
- I had always thought that Cambridge was the centre of things, but I grew as a mathematician at Warwick.
- He served on the SERC Mathematics Committee from 1982 to 1985 and, in 1990, he chaired the committee which set up the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge.
- Neumann Bernhard biography
- Neumann realised immediately the dangers of remaining in Germany and quickly left the country, going first to Amsterdam before being advised that Cambridge was the best place for a mathematician to go.
- At the University of Cambridge he registered for a Ph.D.
- In taking this course he followed the route adopted by most of those arriving in Cambridge fleeing from the Nazis, but in doing so he went against the advice of Hardy who said all that was necessary was to produce top quality mathematics.
- He remained at Cambridge for a year teaching a preparatory course to give students the right background to take Olga Taussky-Todd's algebraic number theory course.
- However his doctoral thesis at Cambridge introduced a new major area into group theory research.
- He received the Wiskundig Genootschap te Amsterdam Prize in 1949, and the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge.
- Frank biography
- Died: 21 July 1966 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Bethe biography
- In 1929 Hans was awarded a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship that allowed him to spend time in Cambridge working with Ralph Fowler and time in Rome working with Enrico Fermi.
- While in Cambridge he coauthored a paper on the quantum theory of absolute zero with fellow visitors Guido Beck and Wolfgang Riezler that turned out to be a hoax concocted to embarrass another Cambridge physicist (and good friend of Fowler's), Arthur Eddington.
- While in Rome that year, Hans found the atmosphere even more informal than Cambridge.
- He enjoyed Cambridge, and particularly Fowler, quite a bit but his relationship with Fermi might be described as having been more organic and less mechanistic.
- Hans had learned QED from Fermi in 1931 while he was visiting Rome, having come by way of Cambridge.
- Rado Richard biography
- Rado was interviewed in Berlin by Lord Cherwell for a scholarship given by the chemist Sir Robert Mond which provided financial support to study at Cambridge.
- Rado entered Fitzwilliam House, University of Cambridge, and completed a second Ph.D.
- While at Cambridge Rado was influenced by many mathematicians working there at the time including Hardy, Littlewood, Hall, Besicovitch and Bernhard Neumann.
- This collaboration was described by Erdős in [Surveys in Combinatorics (Cambridge, 1987), 53-80.',4)">4].
- he spent a further year at Cambridge as a temporary lecturer.
- Rado's approach to mathematics is described by Erdős in [Surveys in Combinatorics (Cambridge, 1987), 53-80.',4)">4] where he comments:-
.
- Rankin biography
- He obtained a scholarship to Clare College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1934.
- At Cambridge Rankin began to undertake research in number theory under Ingham's supervision.
- Rankin returned to Cambridge with his wife in 1945 where he became a Faculty Assistant Lecturer.
- In 1949 he became a Praelector at Cambridge.
- A colleague who worked with him at Cambridge at this time recalled (see [Professor Robert Rankin (The Independent, 12 February, 2001)',2)">2]):-
.
- In 1951 Rankin left Cambridge when he was appointed Mason Professor of Pure Mathematics at Birmingham University.
- Rota biography
- Died: 18 April 1999 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
.
- Wall biography
- He then entered Trinity College, Cambridge from where he was awarded a B.A.
- His thesis advisors at Cambridge were Chris Zeeman and Frank Adams.
- He did not remain in Cambridge for all of this period, for instance he was awarded a Harkness Fellowship which allowed him to spend the academic year 1960-61 at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
- In addition to his fellowship, Wall was appointed a College Lecturer at Cambridge when he returned from the United States in 1961.
- In 1964 Wall moved from Cambridge to Oxford where he was appointed Reader in Mathematics and a fellow of St Catherine's College.
- Nash-Williams biography
- In the summer between leaving school and entering Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he lived with a family in Grenoble for three months while he studied French.
- During his first year at Cambridge Nash-Williams spent a considerable amount of time with the boat club and was cox of a Trinity Hall boat.
- After graduating, Nash-Williams remained at Cambridge where he undertook research under Shaun Wylie and Davis Rees.
- He submitted Abelian groups, graphs and generalized knights and Random walk and electric currents in networks to the Proceeding of the Cambridge Philosophical Society on the same day.
- Nash-Williams' doctoral thesis Decomposition of graphs into infinite chains was submitted to Cambridge University in 1958 and the degree was awarded in the following year.
- Thomson biography
- In 1841 Thomson entered Cambridge and in the same year his first paper was published.
- A more important paper On the uniform motion of heat and its connection with the mathematical theory of electricity was published in 1842 while Thomson was studying for the mathematical tripos examinations at Cambridge.
- At Cambridge Thomson was coached by William Hopkins, a famous Cambridge coach who played a more important role than the lecturers.
- Despite the efforts of Babbage, Peacock and Herschel to introduce the new French mathematics into Cambridge, the style of the Mathematical Tripos taken by Thomson still left much to be desired.
- Brauer biography
- In [W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.',4)">4] Richard writes about his school teachers who he describes as not being very competent.
- In [W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.',4)">4] Brauer describes some of the lectures he attended; talking of Schmidt's lectures he writes:-
.
- Schur, unlike Schmidt, [W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.',4)">4]:-
.
- He wrote (see [W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.',4)">4]):-
.
- He wrote in [W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.',4)">4] about this appointment with Weyl:-
.
- Tutte biography
- When he was eleven years old Bill was awarded a scholarship to the Cambridge and County Day School.
- In 1935 Tutte went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, to study the Natural Sciences Tripos taking chemistry as his major subject.
- Soon after arriving at Cambridge his interest in mathematics was sufficient to have him join the Trinity Mathematical Society and he soon made friends with several of the mathematicians.
- At this stage World War II had started and Tutte was engaged in research in chemistry at Cambridge.
- At the end of World War II Tutte returned to Cambridge, but not now to complete a doctorate in chemistry but rather to study for his doctorate in mathematics.
- Waring biography
- Waring entered Magdalene College, Cambridge on 24 March 1753.
- When Waring was nominated for the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge in 1759, the work was distributed as Miscellanea Analytica to prove he was qualified for the post despite his youth.
- William Powell of St John's College Cambridge had his own ideas about who should fill the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics and attempted to prevent Waring being appointed.
- never could hear of any reader in England, out of Cambridge, who took pains to read and understand it ..
- For a short time he practised medicine in various London hospitals, then Addenbroke hospital in Cambridge and finally at a hospital in St Ives, Huntingtonshire.
- Cassels biography
- In order to study for his doctorate Cassels entered Trinity College Cambridge, being awarded a Ph.D.
- After one year as a lecturer in mathematics at the University of Manchester Cassels returned to Cambridge in 1950 as a lecturer.
- In 1963 he was appointed Reader in Arithmetic at Cambridge and in the same year he was honoured with election as a fellow of the Royal Society of London.
- Then, in 1967, he was appointed Sadleirian Professor of Pure Mathematics at Cambridge.
- Two years later, in 1969, he became Head of the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at Cambridge and he continued as Sadleirian Professor and Head of Department until he retired in 1984.
- Hamill biography
- She was awarded a Caroline Turle scholarship to study at Newnham College, Cambridge in 1942.
- At Cambridge Hamill was very successful, becoming a Wrangler in 1945 and achieving a distinction in Part III the following year.
- She continued to study at Cambridge working for her doctorate.
- J A Todd supervised her research work at Cambridge and in [J.
- She had already earned a high reputation as a teacher both at Cambridge and at Sheffield and was said to have great talent at getting the best from weaker students.
- Littlewood Dudley biography
- In his final year at school he won a state scholarship and an open entrance scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He graduated in 1925, the same year as Hall and Hodge also graduated from Cambridge, being a wrangler (first class student) in the Mathematical Tripos.
- He remained at Cambridge, where he began research in analysis, but it appears that he was neither sufficiently good or interested in analysis and, lacking financial support, decided to give up research and look for a job.
- Although his research flourished in Swansea, Littlewood was keen to return to Cambridge and, when the chance came in 1947, he accepted a post as university lecturer.
- Littlewood's family were not happy with the move to Cambridge but he did not remain there long for in 1948 he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University College of North Wales, Bangor.
- Weldon biography
- He moved to St John's College in Cambridge, matriculating on 6 April 1878, and, influenced by Francis Maitland Balfour, his interests turned towards zoology.
- He was appointed a demonstrator in zoology at Cambridge in 1882, becoming a fellow of St John's College and a university lecturer in invertebrate morphology in 1884.
- By 1888 they were spending as much time there as Weldon's duties at Cambridge would allow, and he only went to the university to give his lectures.
- He undertook research June to January, teaching at Cambridge for two terms each year.
- In 1898 he had given the presidential address to Section D, the zoology section, of the British Association, and during the 1904 meeting in Cambridge he became involved in an argument over Mendel's work on plant hybridisation [The Times [See THIS LINK]',1)">1]:-
.
- Hurewicz biography
- At that time my future was discussed, and it was agreed that I should visit Western Europe first (Paris, Zurich, Oxford, and Cambridge) before moving to America.
- During 1944-45 he worked at the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- He lived at 993 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts with his mother who was now calling herself Catherine.
- In September 1950 he attended the International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge, Massachusetts and delivered the invited plenary lecture Homology and Homotopy in the Topology Section of the Congress.
- At his brother Stefan's request, Hurewicz was cremated and his ashes were shipped back to Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Macdonald biography
- As many Scottish mathematicians of this era, Macdonald proceeded to Cambridge to take the Mathematical Tripos after completing his first degree in Scotland.
- Entering Clare College, Cambridge, as a foundation scholar, he graduated as fourth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1889 (meaning that he was ranked fourth among those obtaining a First Class degree), was awarded a fellowship at Clare in the following year and, in 1891, was awarded the second Smith's Prize.
- Macdonald began his research career at Cambridge working on topics in pure mathematics.
- His research changed direction, however, when in 1899 Cambridge University announced that the topic for the 1901 Adams Prize would be:-
.
- He was elected to the Royal Society in 1901, then left Cambridge in 1904 after he was appointed professor of mathematics at Aberdeen University.
- Jeans biography
- Jeans went to Trinity College Cambridge in October 1896 having won a mathematical scholarship.
- He was taught as an undergraduate at Cambridge by J W L Glaisher, W W Rouse Ball, A N Whitehead, R A Herman and E T Whittaker.
- Jeans was appointed a Lecturer in Mathematics at Cambridge in 1904, then he lectured at Princeton from 1905 until 1909 where he was Professor of Applied Mathematics.
- In 1909 Jeans returned to England and the following year he was appointed Stokes Lecturer in Applied Mathematics at Cambridge.
- In 1917 Jeans won the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge for his essay entitled Problems of cosmogony and stellar dynamics.
- Ringrose biography
- After leaving the school, Ringrose entered St John's College, Cambridge and he received an M.A., then later a Ph.D.
- from Cambridge in 1957.
- He remained in Newcastle until 1961 when he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in mathematics.
- He was also elected a fellow of his old College, St John's College, Cambridge.
- He remained at Cambridge for two years then, in 1963, Ringrose returned to Newcastle where he was appointed a senior lecturer in mathematics.
- Bryant biography
- In the following year she sat the Cambridge Local Examination for Girls.
- The Cambridge local examinations had only just been opened to girls, and her performance in mathematics placed her alone in the first class.
- Sophie Bryant first met her in 1867 when she sat the Cambridge Local Examination.
- She was also instrumental in setting up the Cambridge Training College for Women which eventually became Hughes Hall, the first postgraduate college in Cambridge.
- Benjamin biography
- Back in England he entered King's College Cambridge in October 1952 to undertake research in electronics in the Engineering Department.
- After being awarded a doctorate for a thesis Cavitation in liquids he was elected in 1955 to a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge.
- Benjamin helped set up the fluid mechanics laboratory at Cambridge in 1964 and three years later he was promoted to Reader in Hydrodynamics.
- He left Cambridge in 1970 when he was appointed as Professor of Mathematics and Director of the Fluid Mechanics Research Institute at the University of Essex.
- He received the L H Moody Award from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1966, the William Hopkins Prize from the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1970, a Fellowship of the Royal Society of Arts in 1992, and was elected to the Academie des Sciences of Paris in 1992.
- Bohr Niels biography
- Kennedy writes in [Niels Bohr : A centenary volume (Cambridge, Mass., London, 1985).',5)">5]:-
.
- Bohr applied to the Carlsberg Foundation for a travel grant in May 1911 and, after the award was made, went to England in September 1911 to study with Sir J J Thomson at Cambridge.
- He had intended to spend his entire study period in Cambridge but he did not get on well with Thomson so, after a meeting with Ernest Rutherford in Cambridge in December 1911, Bohr moved to the Victoria University, Manchester (now the University of Manchester) in March 1912.
- In these papers Bohr [Niels Bohr : A centenary volume (Cambridge, Mass., London, 1985).',5)">5]:-
.
- Kalton biography
- After graduating from Dulwich College, Kalton entered Trinity College Cambridge in 1964, having won a prestigious scholarship, where he studied mathematics.
- He twice came second in the University of Cambridge championship but he had strong competition since Ray Keene also studied at Trinity College.
- Kalton played in the annual Oxford v Cambridge chess match which gained him a half-Blue He won the major open section of the British Chess Championships in 1970, this being a qualifying competition for the 1971 British Chess Championship.
- At Cambridge, I was used to a competitive atmosphere.
- At Cambridge, Kalton had met Jennifer.
- Clarke biography
- Samuel was educated in Norwich, attending the Norwich Free Grammar School from 1685 to 1690, then entering Caius College, Cambridge in 1691.
- At Cambridge he [Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004).',2)">2]:-
.
- He became a Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, as a result of his performance in defending a proposition from Newton's Principia in a disputation.
- Whiston introduced Clarke to the Bishop of Norwich and, when Whiston moved on in 1698 (eventually becoming Newton's assistant at Cambridge three years later), Clarke replaced him as chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich.
- In 1709 Clarke went to Cambridge to undertake the public dispute necessary to receive the degree of doctor of divinity.
- Wiener Norbert biography
- From Harvard Wiener went to Cambridge, England, to study under Russell who told him that in order to study the philosophy of mathematics he needed to know more mathematics so he attended courses by G H Hardy.
- Wiener returned to the United States a couple of days before the outbreak of World War I, but returned to Cambridge to study further with Russell.
- After visiting Hardy in Cambridge he returned to Gottingen where his wife joined him after completing her teaching duties in modern languages at Juniata College in Pennsylvania.
- Another important year in Wiener's mathematical development was 1931-32 which he spent mainly in England visiting Hardy at Cambridge.
- There he gave a lecture course on his own contributions to the Fourier integral but Cambridge also provided a base from where he was able to visit many mathematical colleagues on the Continent.
- Cochran biography
- He won the Logan Medal for the best student in the Faculty of Arts and won a scholarship to study mathematics at Cambridge.
- At Cambridge he took John Wishart's course in mathematical statistics, then proceed to take a practical course in the School of Agriculture.
- Cochran was offered the vacant post but he was still not finished his doctoral course at Cambridge.
- it was a measure of good sense that he accepted my argument that a PhD, even from Cambridge, was little evidence of research ability, and that Cambridge had at that time little to teach him in statistics that could not be much better learnt from practical work in a research institute.
- Hammersley biography
- Then, in December 1937, he sat the scholarship examination for Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
- He enlisted and continued to study mathematics at Cambridge while waiting to be called up for military service.
- to cover this [lack of knowledge of statistics] I obtained leave of absence to return to Cambridge for a few weeks.
- Returning to Cambridge in 1946 after the end of World War II, Hammersley was now considerably more motivated than he had been in his pre-war university year.
- He gave the 1980 Rouse Ball lecture under the title Room to wriggle at Cambridge University.
- Dyson biography
- Dyson gained a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1941.
- Of course these years that Dyson spent at Cambridge were in the middle of World War II and as a result many of the academics had left to undertake war work.
- As a diversion from his work, he and his friends would occupy evenings "night climbing" various architectural features of Cambridge.
- Back at Cambridge, however, he began working on theoretical physics which was to become his main topic of research although, as we note below, he continued to publish papers on pure mathematics.
- Well, Birmingham has much the best theoretical physicist to work with, Peierls; Bristol has much the best experimental physicist, Powell; Cambridge has some excellent architecture ..
- Rennie biography
- While a pupil there, he took the scholarship examinations to the University of Cambridge in 1937 and was awarded a Mathematical Scholarship for Peterhouse.
- Among the courses he attended at Cambridge during session 1940-41 was Quantum mechanics by Dirac.
- Rennie graduated with an MA from Cambridge in 1941.
- After the war ended and Rennie's war service had ended, he returned to Cambridge to undertake research for his doctorate [Bull.
- He turned out to be an excellent teacher; his dry humour and total absence of formality or pompousness endeared him to his students (particularly the bright ones), who suddenly saw their classroom transformed into a little corner of Cambridge.
- Bronowski biography
- Bronowski won a mathematics scholarship to Jesus College, Cambridge, and there he began his mathematical studies.
- However at Cambridge Bronowski's interests were much wider than mathematics and he continued with his love of literature editing a literary magazine Experiment with another mathematics student.
- He stressed his wide interests when he later described his years at Cambridge:-
.
- He continued with mathematical research at Cambridge after the award of his first degree working on problems in geometry.
- Bronowski then returned to Cambridge where he received his doctorate in mathematics for a thesis which looked at problems in geometry and topology.
- Barkla biography
- Then, in 1899, he went to Trinity College, Cambridge but after one year moved to King's College, Cambridge.
- At Cambridge Barkla worked in the Cavendish Laboratory under J J Thomson.
- Professor Barkla is a graduate of both Liverpool (when part of the Victoria University) and Cambridge.
- In Liverpool he held the Bibby Scholarship and the Oliver Lodge Fellowship among his many honours, as well as an 1851 Exhibition Fellowship for three years (an extra year more than is usual.) After completing his course at King's College, Cambridge, and graduating he became a demonstrator in Physics, and later lecturer in advanced electricity in his old College, now Liverpool University, of which he is a D.Sc., as well as a B.Sc.
- Young Thomas biography
- As a Quaker he could not study at Oxford or Cambridge, so within Britain he could only obtain a degree from a Scottish university.
- He therefore went to Emmanuel College Cambridge, but before doing so he had to leave the Quakers and declare himself a member of the Church of England.
- Although enrolled in the medical course, Young did not study medicine at Cambridge, feeling that he already knew sufficient of that subject.
- He had little respect for the Cambridge mathematicians writing:-
.
- The Cambridge men thought little of Young in return.
- Slater biography
- As many students who attended Scottish universities had done over a long period, after completing his first degree in Scotland in 1933 he went to Cambridge to study the mathematical tripos.
- He continued to study at Cambridge, undertaking research for his doctorate supervised by Ralph Fowler.
- In fact although he did not obtain his doctorate until 1941, Slater had been appointed as an Observer at the Solar Physics Observatory in Cambridge in 1939.
- This is his book The development and meaning of Eddington's 'Fundamental Theory' which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1957.
- Slater realised the importance of urgent action, and took steps to ensure that a veritable mountain of manuscript in Eddington's study should not be disturbed or so much as dusted until he had had time to go to Cambridge and sort it.
- Pitt biography
- In his final year at King Edward's School, Pitt won a scholarship to read mathematics at Peterhouse, Cambridge.
- He matriculated at Cambridge in 1932 and there studied the Mathematical Tripos.
- Following the award of his degree he remained at Cambridge as a research student supervised by G H Hardy.
- It was therefore particularly beneficial for him to spend a year in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during which time he was able to collaborate with David Widder at Harvard and with Norbert Wiener at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Pitt was awarded a doctorate by the University of Cambridge in 1938 for his thesis General Tauberian Theorems.
- Ollerenshaw biography
- At the age of nine, a new headmistress who had studied mathematics at Cambridge increased her passion for numbers, insisting on [1]:-
.
- In July 1930, at the age of 17, after taking her Higher School Certificate, Kathleen left St Leonard's and applied to Oxford and Cambridge to study mathematics.
- Her first choice would have been Cambridge because of its mathematical reputation, but Robert had just started studying medicine at Oxford.
- However, she realised that to pass the Oxford and Cambridge entrance examinations would require further practice, so she sought advice from the mathematics department at Manchester University.
- When it came to the Cambridge interview, however, Kathleen scraped through without anyone knowing she was deaf, but struggled to lip-read the questions.
- Whittaker biography
- From there he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1892 where he held a scholarship.
- Whittaker made revolutionary changes to the topics taught at Cambridge.
- Other courses Whittaker taught at Cambridge included astronomy, geometrical optics, and electricity and magnetism.
- Hardy and Jeans were not the only famous mathematicians which Whitttaker taught at Cambridge.
- The Rev Thomas Boyd lived in Cambridge and was the Scottish Secretary of the Religious Tract Society.
- Mercer biography
- James Mercer was educated in Liverpool, attending University College there before entering Trinity College Cambridge to study the mathematical Tripos.
- He returned to his home town of Liverpool for a while, being appointed as an Assistant Lecturer there, but soon after, when the opportunity came to return to Cambridge, he accepted a Fellowship and Lectureship in Christ's College.
- Mercer survived the battle and at the end of the war returned to his duties at Cambridge.
- Back in Cambridge he resumed his mathematical research, continuing his work on function theory.
- Chree biography
- Chree then went to Cambridge where he took both the Mathematical Tripos and the Natural Sciences Tripos.
- In 1885 he was elected to a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge and from then until 1893 undertaking research in mathematical physics.
- During the eight years that he held the fellowship at Cambridge Chree published around 30 papers on the mathematical theory of elasticity.
- Again at the meeting on 11 February 1887, A Y Fraser submitted his paper on vortices by Chree who was at Cambridge.
- Brodetsky biography
- Further success came when he was awarded a scholarship to study mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, matriculating in 1905.
- Brodetsky achieved a very fine record at Cambridge.
- The 5th International Congress for Applied Mechanics was held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1938 and Brodetsky delivered a paper on the equations of motion of an airplane.
- Already at Cambridge Brodetsky had established the pattern of dividing his time between academic work and public service, especially but by no means exclusively for the Jewish community and the Zionist movement.
- Ward Seth biography
- He was educated at the grammar school in Buntingford, then at Sidney Sussex College of the University of Cambridge, which he entered on 1 October 1632 as a sizar since his family was poor.
- In 1640 he was elected a fellow of Sidney Sussex College, then three years later he was appointed as a mathematics lecturer at the University of Cambridge.
- When he returned to Cambridge, Ward introduced ideas from Oughtred's Clavis Mathematicae (1631) into the syllabus there.
- He left Cambridge, living with friends near London, also spending a period with Oughtred at Albury.
- Dee biography
- John's College, Cambridge in November of 1542.
- In December 1546 he became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Henry VIII founded Trinity College, the largest of the Cambridge colleges, in 1546 and Dee became one of its founding Fellows.
- Several of the references give details of these conversations which Dee recorded in a diary; see for example [John Dee\'s conversations with angels (Cambridge, 1999).',6)">6], [John Dee\'s actions with spirits (New York, 1988).',9)">9], and [The Queen\'s conjuror : The life and magic of Dr Dee (London, 2001).',10)">10].
- Bath biography
- Fraser had the same strong influence on Bath, and he encouraged him to undertake research at Cambridge after he had graduated with First Class Honours in Mathematics from Bristol.
- Bath entered King's College, Cambridge, where he undertook research with H W Richmond.
- Bath was awarded his doctorate from Cambridge for his thesis Researches In The Geometry Of Algebraic Curves And Surfaces.
- Cambridge Philos.
- Gassendi biography
- When Gassendi arrived in Aix he lived at the house of Joseph Gaultier whom he described as having [Pierre Gassendi and the Birth of Early Modern Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007).',9)">9]:-
.
- He wrote (see for example [Pierre Gassendi and the Birth of Early Modern Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007).',9)">9]):-
.
- Gregory Olinthus biography
- Nevertheless, he went to Cambridge around 1798 where he taught mathematics, ran a bookshop for about a year, and worked as an editor of the Cambridge Intelligencer for about six months.
- Gregory still appears as "Teacher of Mathematics, Cambridge" on the title page of his book A Treatise on Astronomy published in 1802.
- In the 1826 edition of his Mechanics text he lists himself as: Corresponding Associate of the Academy of Dijon; Honorary Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York; Honorary Member of the New York Historical Society; Honorary Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Honorary Member of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Honorary Member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; Honorary Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers; etc.
- Spencer Tony biography
- Another factor for him to consider in making this choice was that if he went straight to university then he would study at Birmingham University, but if he chose to undertake military service first he would receive a scholarship to study at Cambridge.
- Released after twenty months, instead of the usual two years, he entered Queens' College Cambridge in 1949.
- Among his lecturers at Cambridge we mention George Batchelor, Hermann Bondi, John Burkill, Fred Hoyle, Raymond Lyttleton and Robert Rankin.
- After graduating from Cambridge, Spencer began studying at Birmingham University for his Ph.D.
- Zygmund biography
- The first half of this year he spent at Oxford with Hardy, then in the second half he studied at Cambridge with Littlewood.
- After meeting Paley at Cambridge in 1930-31, Zygmund wrote five joint papers with him, and both of them together with Norbert Wiener wrote Notes on random functions (1933).
- A second edition appeared in 1959 published by Cambridge University Press.
- In his course at the University of Cambridge, Professor Littlewood used to call the first edition of Zygmund's book "the Bible".
- Hayes Charles biography
- Already an outstanding linguist, having expertise in classical and modern languages, he learnt Hebrew so that he could attack what was the main scholarly work of his life, namely an attempt to produce a chronology of world history using the religious writings [The legend of the Septuagint: from classical antiquity to today (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006).',3)">3]:-
.
- At his home in Downe he began work on a major chronology Chronographia Asiatica et Aegyptiaca [The legend of the Septuagint: from classical antiquity to today (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006).',3)">3]:-
.
- Chandrasekhar biography
- Chandra obtained a scholarship from the Indian government to finance his studies in England, and in 1930 he left India to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, England.
- From 1933 to 1937 he undertook research at Cambridge, but he returned to India in 1936 to marry Lalitha on 11 September.
- They returned to Cambridge in 1936 but in the following year Chandra joined the staff at the University of Chicago where he was to remain for the rest of his life.
- When Chandra was offered a chair at Cambridge in 1964 he replied by return that he was not interested, so turning down a position which as a young man he would have found the most desirable.
- Mathews biography
- He then studied at St John's College, Cambridge from where he graduated as First Wrangler in 1883.
- He taught at the University College of North Wales in Bangor and in Cambridge for periods through his life.
- He resigned his chair at Bangor in 1896 to return to Cambridge, but in 1911 he resigned from Cambridge and was appointed to a special lectureship at Bangor.
- Stewartson biography
- His outstanding performance was rewarded with the award of a State Scholarship and a Kitchener Memorial Scholarship to Catharine's College, Cambridge, where his brother Roy had taken an engineering degree.
- It was in 1943 that Stewartson had attended a lecture given at Cambridge by Brodetsky on Aeronautical mathematics.
- It was at Westcott that Stewartson became involved in studying compressible fluid flow problems, and he worked there until 1946 when he returned to Cambridge.
- This was the same year that his research supervisor at Cambridge, Leslie Howarth, was appointed to the Chair of Applied Mathematics at Bristol.
- Colenso biography
- His efforts to achieve these aims led him to hard study and, on 22 May 1832, he matriculated at St John's College, Cambridge.
- Academically he was very successful at Cambridge, although hard studies and working to make money left him with no time for a social life.
- He stood no chance of paying off his debt as a mathematics tutor at Harrow so he decided to return to St John's College, Cambridge, and try to make some money through his mathematical talents.
- On 8 January 1846 Colenso married Frances Bunyon and, as a consequence, had to resign his Cambridge fellowship.
- Hua biography
- In this way Hua received an invitation to come to Cambridge, England, and he arrived in 1936 to spend two fruitful years there.
- During the Cambridge period Hua became friendly with Harold Davenport and Hans Heilbronn, then two young research fellows of Trinity College - one a former student of Littlewood and the other Landau's last assistant in Gottingen - with whom he shared a deep interest in the Hardy-Littlewood approach to additive problems akin to Waring's.
- He left Cambridge in 1938 to return to his old university, now as a full professor.
- Despite these hardships Hua maintained the level of intensity of his Cambridge period and even exceeded it; by the end of 1945 he had more than 70 publications to his name.
- Baker Alan biography
- From there he entered University College London where he studied for his B.Sc., moving on to Trinity College Cambridge where he was awarded an M.A.
- Continuing his research at Cambridge, Baker received his doctorate and was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1964.
- From 1964 to 1968 Baker was a research fellow at Cambridge, then becoming Director of Studies in Mathematics, a post which he held from 1968 until 1974 when he was appointed Professor of Pure Mathematics.
- In addition to the honour of the Fields Medal, Baker has received many other honours including the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge in 1972 and election to become a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1973.
- Rogosinski biography
- His life was saved in 1937 by G H Hardy and J E Littlewood when, realising the danger he was in and also the remarkable mathematics he had produced, they invited him to England to join them at the University of Cambridge.
- Rogosinski went immediately to Cambridge and, six months later, his wife and young son Peter joined him.
- In 1939 his important paper On subordinate functions appeared in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, communicated by G H Hardy.
- the appearance of a Cambridge tract by Hardy and Rogosinski is to be welcomed.
- Born biography
- After this he visited Caius College, Cambridge, for six months but made less of Larmor's lectures than he might because he had difficulty with Larmor's Irish accent.
- Leaving Cambridge, Born returned to Breslau.
- However, as a Jew, Born was forced to flee Germany in 1933 and, after a short while in the north of Italy, he accepted an offer to became Stokes lecturer at Cambridge [3]:-
.
- He received the Stokes Medal from the University of Cambridge, two German schools were named after him and he was made an honorary member of academies in Russia, India, Romania, Peru, Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden and the USA.
- Gillespie biography
- Having won a William Bryce Fellowship to undertake research, he spent three years 1924-27 at Cambridge with his studies directed by E W Hobson.
- from the University of Cambridge.
- He began to publish a series of important papers in the Cambridge Philosophical Society and in the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
- Robert Gillespie was a member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, joining in December 1925 when he was a research student at Cambridge, although the address he gave was that of his parents: Ashcot, Kilbarchan Road, Johnstone.
- Cantor biography
- Secondly [Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, Mass, 1979; reprinted 1990).',3)">3]:-
.
- He wrote to Mittag-Leffler at the end of June [Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, Mass, 1979; reprinted 1990).',3)">3]:-
.
- Recently, however, a better understanding of mental illness has meant that we can now be certain that Cantor's mathematical worries and his difficult relationships were greatly magnified by his depression but were not its cause (see for example [Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, Mass, 1979; reprinted 1990).',3)">3] and [Ann.
- After this mental illness of 1884 [Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, Mass, 1979; reprinted 1990).',3)">3]:-
.
- Paley biography
- From there he entered Trinity College, Cambridge where he showed himself the most brilliant student among a remarkable collection of fellow undergraduates.
- He was taught at Cambridge by Hardy and Littlewood and it was under Littlewood's supervision that he undertook research [The Times [See THIS LINK]',1)">1]:-
.
- He won a Smith's Prize in 1930 and was elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- While he was undertaking research, Zygmund spent the academic year 1930-31 at Cambridge.
- Harish-Chandra biography
- Bhabha and Harish-Chandra's teacher, K S Krishnan at Allahabad University, recommended him to Dirac for research work at Cambridge which would lead to Ph.D.
- In 1945 Harish-Chandra went to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he studied for his doctorate under Dirac's supervision.
- During his time in Cambridge he began to move away from physics and became more interested in mathematics attending the lecture courses of Littlewood and Hall.
- After Dirac returned to Cambridge, Harish-Chandra remained at Princeton for a second year.
- Brown biography
- He showed great promise at this College and, in 1884, he entered Christ's College, Cambridge.
- from the University of Cambridge in 1891.
- However his summers were almost all spent back in England at the University of Cambridge.
- While he had worked in Cambridge, before going to the United States, Brown had read Hill's Researches in the lunar theory (1878) and published his own ideas on that theory.
- Chrystal biography
- He also won an open scholarship to Peterhouse, Cambridge which he entered in 1872.
- When I went to the University of Cambridge, I found that the course there for the ordinary degree in Arts was greatly inferior in educational quality to the Scottish one.
- I have frequently been tempted to think that the three years I spent as an undergraduate at Cambridge were wasted years of my life, if they were to be valued merely by the amount of new knowledge acquired, no doubt they were largely wasted, but, on the other hand, they were of great advantage to me in other respects.
- Chrystal graduated from Cambridge on 30 April 1875 and he was second wrangler placed equal with Burnside (John William Lord of Trinity was first wrangler).
- Wrinch biography
- She attended Surbiton High School and while there she won a scholarship to attend Girton College, Cambridge University.
- She was much influenced by Russell who had been appointed as a lecturer at Cambridge three years before Wrinch began to study there.
- Also at Cambridge she attended lectures by W E Johnson on logic.
- Wrinch remained at Cambridge undertaking research in mathematics until 1918 when she moved to University College in London.
- Andrews biography
- He then spent a year at the University of Cambridge in England on a Fulbright Scholarship.
- After the conference ended Andrews visited the University of Cambridge in England before returning to Wisconsin.
- In Cambridge Andrews asked to be allowed to work on the papers left by G N Watson on his death, which had been donated to the University Library and continued to be housed there.
- I have a long-term interest in the work of Ramanujan, the Indian genius, whose last notebook I unearthed in the Trinity College Library at Cambridge in 1976.
- Alexander Hugh biography
- He also won a mathematics scholarship for Cambridge and in 1928 he entered King's College, Cambridge.
- At Cambridge Alexander continued to divide his time between his chess and his study of mathematics.
- He was playing on the top board for Cambridge University with outstanding success by the time he was sitting the Mathematical Tripos in 1931.
- Lighthill biography
- James was educated at Winchester College and, at the age of 15, he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.
- While at Cambridge, Lighthill met Nancy Dumaresq who was studying mathematics at Newnham College.
- In 1969 Paul Dirac retired as Lucasian professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and Lighthill was appointed to succeed him.
- He became Provost of University College London in 1979, Stephen Hawking succeeding him as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, and Lighthill held this administrative post for 10 years until he retired in 1989.
- Recorde biography
- The next that we know for certain is that he went to Cambridge and studied there for his M.D.
- There is a record at Cambridge which states that Recorde received a license in medicine in Oxford twelve years earlier and this almost certainly means that Recorde received the degree of B.M.
- He graduated from Cambridge in 1545, receiving the degree of M.D.
- He may have taught at Cambridge following the award of his degree but all we know for certain is that some time during two years following 1545 he moved to London where he practiced medicine.
- Wilkinson biography
- At the age of sixteen he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge and matriculated there shortly after his seventeenth birthday.
- At Cambridge he was taught by Hardy, Littlewood and Besicovitch.
- In [Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA, 2002.',9)">9] Wilkinson makes the interesting comment that if the war had only lasted for three years he would almost certainly have returned to Cambridge and resumed his research on classical analysis.
- As a child he had been fascinated by calculating, but his course at Cambridge had taken his interests towards analytic techniques.
- Semple biography
- After this he went to Cambridge where he sat the Mathematical Tripos of 1927, gaining a distinction, and went on to study for a doctorate at St John's College, Cambridge, under Baker.
- After holding this post for one year (1929-30) he was awarded his doctorate by Cambridge for a thesis on Cremona transformations, was elected a Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and, still in the same year 1930, was appointed to the Chair of Pure Mathematics at Queen's University, Belfast.
- Turnbull biography
- He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge where he had a career of great distinction being placed Second Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos (meaning that he was ranked second among those being awarded a First Class degree) and, in 1909, he was the winner of the Smith's Prize.
- After graduating, Turnbull taught at St Catharine's College, Cambridge (1909), and then at the University of Liverpool (1910).
- My first post outside Cambridge (where I gave one course a term) was at Liverpool and involved at least three sets of new lectures to be prepared, and in one term four sets.
- As an undergraduate at Cambridge Turnbull had become fascinated by the topic of invariant theory.
- Riccioli biography
- Tech., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003), 195-224.',14)">14] where he writes:-
.
- Tech., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003), 195-224.',14)">14]:-
.
- Tech., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003), 195-224.',14)">14]:-
.
- Tech., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003), 195-224.',14)">14]:-
.
- Hopkinson biography
- After showing great abilities in mathematics, Hopkinson was awarded a scholarship to allow him to continue his study of that subject at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He entered Cambridge in 1867, where he was coached by Routh, and graduated with a mathematics degree in 1871, being Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of that year (meaning he was ranked as the top First Class student).
- Although he had been awarded a Whitworth scholarship which would have allowed him to continue his mathematical studies at Cambridge, Hopkinson decided to put his mathematics to practical use in engineering.
- There had been no chair of engineering at Owens College when Hopkinson studied there, but it is interesting to note that Osborne Reynolds was appointed to such a chair while Hopkinson was studying at Cambridge.
- Green Sandy biography
- They lived in Toronto, where Sandy began his schooling, until 1935 when Frederick was appointed Drapers Professor of French at the University of Cambridge in England.
- It was in Cambridge that Sandy's secondary schooling took place.
- Green then went to the University of Cambridge to undertake research.
- My first teaching appointment was at Manchester, and there I learnt from G E Wall (whom I already knew as fellow-student at Cambridge) about the work of Richard Brauer on modular representations.
- Boole biography
- However he did receive encouragement from Duncan Gregory who at this time was in Cambridge and the editor of the recently founded Cambridge Mathematical Journal.
- Boole was unable to take Duncan Gregory's advice and study courses at Cambridge as he required the income from his school to look after his parents.
- He began publishing regularly in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal and his interests were influenced by Duncan Gregory as he began to study algebra.
- Preston biography
- I have no records, and my memory may be playing me false, but I believe the first paper I read on semigroups was his paper 'On semi-groups' from the Proceeding of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1940, together with the small technical note that followed it, "Note on semi-groups", ibid., 1941.
- He writes in [Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 5-14.',4)">4]:-
.
- Pitman biography
- On Saturday morning the boys would work through examination papers in Arithmetic and Algebra, including in the later years Cambridge Tripos papers; in the afternoons they would study Shakespeare.
- The student, R A Scott, asked him to check that his analysis was correct before it sent it to John Wishart in Cambridge, which Pitman did.
- Wishart accepted the paper for publication in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and it was published in 1936.
- Watson biography
- Having won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, Watson matriculated there in 1904.
- Perhaps the one from this trio who had the greatest influence on him was Whittaker, despite the fact that he left Cambridge in 1906, two years after Watson began his studies there.
- After election to his Trinity fellowship, Watson spent four further years in Cambridge before leaving to take up an assistant lectureship in University College, London.
- Pless biography
- When her husband finished his doctorate he was offered a post at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Pless moved with him to Cambridge, Massachusetts [Notices Amer.
- However she heard that the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory was looking for mathematicians to work in a new area called "error-correcting codes" and although she had never heard of an error-correcting codes at this time, her algebraic experience was rightly considered to be exactly what was needed to make progress.
- Pless worked at Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory from 1963 to 1972 with a short break for maternity leave when her third child was born.
- Abbott biography
- Following a fine school education, Abbott entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1857.
- After leaving Cambridge, Abbott taught at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and then at Clifton College.
- More recently, in 2002, an annotated version [The annotated Flatland : a romance of many dimensions (Cambridge, MA, 2002).',2)">2] of Flatland has been produced with an introduction and notes by Ian Stewart who gives extensive discussion of mathematical topics related to passages in Abbott's text.
- Thompson D'Arcy biography
- After starting a medicine course at Edinburgh University in 1877 he studied this for three years before he changed to study zoology at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- There was a group of young Cambridge men who were lying the foundations of the science of biology at this time and Thompson quickly became part of the group.
- After graduating he spent one further year at Cambridge acting as a demonstrator on physiology.
- Love biography
- This is not to say that he was a poor pupil, merely a mediocre one, but by his final year at school he was beginning to excel and in 1881 he won a scholarship to study at St John's College Cambridge.
- His work on the structure of the Earth in Some Problems in Geodynamics won for him the Adams Prize at Cambridge in 1911.
- Love never married and, after the death of his father during the time that he held his fellowship at Cambridge, the younger of his two sisters kept house for him for the rest of his life.
- Segre Beniamino biography
- [In England they lived for a time in London and Cambridge; but in 1940 he was interned as an enemy alien in the Isle of Man.
- Segre rejoined his family in London and later they returned to Cambridge, but it is perhaps hardly surprising that his list of publications shows a marked gap during the early war years.
- Finally, we note that he was one of two invited speakers in the Geometry and Topology section of the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA in 1950 and a plenary speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Amsterdam in September 1954 when he gave the address Geometry upon an algebraic variety.
- Stuart biography
- He proceeded to Cambridge, supported by a Ferguson scholarship and a scholarship from Trinity College.
- From 1875 to 1889, Stuart was Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics at Cambridge (a precursor of the Engineering department), but he resigned following Senate opposition to his emphasis on practical training and to his radical politics.
- He was among the first in Cambridge to lecture on Clerk Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism.
- Srinivasan biography
- My father and uncle had studied at Oxford, and a cousin did brilliantly at Cambridge, where she later became a don at Newnham College.
- Her brother became a radio astronomer and worked at Cambridge, Stanford, and Sydney.
- An exposition of our work appears in a recent research monograph, "Representations of finite reductive groups" by M Cabanes and M Enguehard (Cambridge, 2004).
- Kelly Max biography
- Kelly then went to the University of Cambridge in England where first he studied for a B.A.
- which was awarded in 1953, then remained at Cambridge to undertake research in mathematics.
- Shaun Wylie, well known for his book with Peter Hilton on homology theory, was Max's supervisor at Cambridge.
- Sneddon biography
- After graduating from Glasgow, Sneddon was awarded a Bryce Fellowship which allowed him continue his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- However, as was the custom at that time, he took the undergraduate courses at Cambridge leading to the Mathematical Tripos.
- Of course World War II meant that much of Europe was on a war footing even before Sneddon entered Cambridge and it was inevitable that he would soon end up undertaking war work.
- Bisacre biography
- Bisacre was educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- At Cambridge on Wednesday 29 March 1944, David Walter Bisacre, Captain, R.E., younger son of Mr and Mrs F F P Bisacre, Ascania, Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire to Phyllis Southwell Mansfield, A.T.S., eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs Wilfred Mansfield, 10 Grange Road, Cambridge.
- Coulson biography
- Five years later he won an entrance scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied the mathematical tripos before going on to also study the natural sciences tripos.
- He also became the leader of the Cambridge University Methodists.
- She was the daughter of a house furnisher from Leeds and was training at Cambridge to become a school teacher.
- Van der Pol biography
- After a year working with Fleming, van der Pol remained in England, but went to Cambridge to work with John Joseph Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory.
- Van der Pol's radio work was begun at Cambridge and was under two heads, experimental and theoretical.
- Although most of the work for van der Pol's doctoral thesis was undertaken at Cambridge, his thesis supervisor was Willem Henri Julius, director of the Physics Laboratory of the University of Utrecht, described by Einstein as 'one of the most original exponents of solar physics'.
- Johnson Barry biography
- In order to undertake research in pure mathematics Johnson returned to England but he first taught at a grammar school in Tamworth before he began research in functional analysis at Gonville and Caius College of the University of Cambridge in October 1958.
- He held a Rhondda Memorial Scolarship at Cambridge where his postgraduate studies were supervised by John Williamson.
- The couple had met in Cambridge and they had one daughter and two sons.
- Kirkman biography
- He did well at school but although his schoolmaster and the vicar saw that he was a potential Cambridge fellow, Thomas's father could not be persuaded and Thomas was forced to leave school at the age of 14.
- This work of Kirkman appeared in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal.
- how did the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal Vol II p.
- Briggs biography
- His birth is recorded in the Halifax parish register as February 1561 yet this information contradicts a notice by J Mede written at Christ's College Cambridge on 6 February 1630, a few days after Briggs died, which states (see for example [Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
- After completing his school studies, he entered St John's College of Cambridge University in 1577.
- The Linacre lectureship that Briggs was appointed to was therefore a medical lectureship but, in the same year of 1592, Briggs was also appointed as an examiner and lecturer in mathematics at Cambridge.
- Salem biography
- Salem left England in the autumn of 1940 and emigrated to the United States where he settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- He went to Cambridge, Massachusetts via Canada where he spent a short time and met up with his family.
- For some years he split his time between Paris and Cambridge, Massachusetts, spending one semester in each.
- Tucker Albert biography
- DeLury suggested Paris, Gottingen or Bologna as the best places, with Cambridge as the best option if he felt he had to have teaching in English.
- Tucker immediately rejected the non-English speaking universities, and wrote to the University of Cambridge enquiring about their graduate programme.
- Tucker was a National Research Fellow during 1932-33, spending the autumn term at the University of Cambridge working with Max Newman.
- Barnes biography
- Barnes was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and in 1893 went up to Cambridge as a Scholar of Trinity College.
- of the University of Cambridge in 1907 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1909.
- In 1915, Barnes left Cambridge, and his career as a professional mathematician, upon his appointment as Master of the Temple in London.
- Munn biography
- As was not uncommon in Glasgow at that time, he transferred to Cambridge for postgraduate study.
- The syllabus in Glasgow had contained no abstract algebra, but in Cambridge he attended lectures by Philip Hall and David Rees.
- Rees had by then ceased to work in semigroup theory (and Sandy Green, another of the notable early contributors to the subject, had by then left Cambridge), but Douglas's attention was drawn to Rees's classical 1940 paper, and his interest was aroused.
- Sargent biography
- In 1923, while studying at The Herbert Strutt School, Sargent gained a Derby County Scholarship, a State Scholarship, and a Mary Ewart Scholarship to study mathematics at Newnham College, Cambridge.
- She did produce good results, despite any feelings that she may have had about them, for she published On Young's criteria for the convergence of Fourier series and their conjugates in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society based on this work which appeared in print in 1929.
- by the University of Cambridge, and promoted to Reader at Bedford College.
- Raphson biography
- No obituary of Raphson seems to have been written and we can now only piece together details about his life from records which exist such at University of Cambridge records and records of the Royal Society.
- It is through the University of Cambridge records that we know that Raphson attended Jesus College Cambridge and graduated with an M.A.
- Herschel Caroline biography
- Caroline recalled that her father took her [The Herschel Chronicle: The Life-Story of William Herschel and His Sister Caroline Herschel (Cambridge, 1933).',4)">4]:-
.
- Caroline wrote (see for example [The Herschel Chronicle: The Life-Story of William Herschel and His Sister Caroline Herschel (Cambridge, 1933).',4)">4]):-
.
- She saw him educated at Cambridge, make a name for himself as a mathematician, become elected to the Royal Society, join his father in research in astronomy and be awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his achievements.
- Picken biography
- He then went to Cambridge to study the Mathematical Tripos and matriculated at Jesus College, Cambridge in October 1899.
- It happened that I'd won a non-resident scholarship to Ormond College in the University, and I was interviewed by the Master of that College, D K Picken, a doughty, Scots Cambridge mathematician.
- Kerr Roy biography
- One of his lecturers at Canterbury College was Walter Warwick Sawyer who had specialised in relativity and quantum theory when studying at St John's College, Cambridge.
- Kerr graduated from Canterbury College with an MS Mathematics degree in 1954, then went to the University of Cambridge in England, matriculating at Trinity College in September 1955.
- In 1970 a colleague and fellow research student of mine at Cambridge, Brandon Carter, took the first step toward proving this conjecture.
- Kreisel biography
- Kreisel studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge graduating with a B.A.
- In 1946 Kreisel returned to Cambridge to undertake research, studying mathematical logic.
- Freeman Dyson was an undergraduate at Cambridge in the same year as Kreisel and by the 1950s was at the Institute for Advanced Study.
- Maskelyne biography
- He said he was (see for example [Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman\'s astronomer (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).',1)">1]):-
.
- Maskelyne writing about his school education said (see for example [Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman\'s astronomer (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).',1)">1]):-
.
- The considerable progress he had made in these sciences led him naturally to the University of Cambridge..
- Maskelyne entered St Catharine's College, Cambridge in November 1749.
- Then he became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1756.
- In 1768 he was awarded the degree of bachelor of divinity by the University of Cambridge and, in 1775, he was given the living of Shrawardine in Shropshire.
- In 1777 he was awarded the degree of doctor of divinity by the University of Cambridge and, in 1782, he was given the living of North Runcton, Norfolk by Trinity College.
- Derek Howse writes [Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman\'s astronomer (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).',1)">1]:-
.
- Werner Wendelin biography
- In 1998 he was awarded the Rollo Davidson Prize at the University of Cambridge which is awarded annually to early-career researchers in probability by the Rollo Davidson trustees.
- The first major prize we mentioned was the Rollo Davidson prize which is associated with the University of Cambridge.
- In 2001 Werner was invited to deliver the Second Rollo Davidson Lecture in Churchill College, Cambridge.
- Reynolds biography
- However, he had an academic background having graduated from Cambridge in 1837, being elected to a fellowship at Queens' College, and being headmaster of first Belfast Collegiate School and then Dedham School in Essex.
- Reynolds, after gaining experience in the engineering firm, studied mathematics at Cambridge, graduating in 1867 as Seventh Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos (ranked seventh in the list of First Class students).
- Anderson writes in [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',4)">4]:-
.
- Fiske biography
- In 1887, in Fiske's second year of graduate studies, Van Amringe suggested that he should spend at least six months in England at the University of Cambridge.
- He arrived with letters of introduction written by G L Rives, a trustee of Columbia College who had been a wrangler at Cambridge in 1872.
- With letters addressed to Cayley, Glaisher, Forsyth and Darwin, Fiske was well placed to take advantage of his time at Cambridge.
- Seress biography
- I am thankful to both of them and to the editors of Cambridge University Press for their patience.
- The publisher, Cambridge University Press, gives the following description of the book:-
.
- In particular, because it should be of lasting value, it is a very appropriate addition to the Cambridge Tracts.
- Friedmann biography
- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).',3)">3]:-
.
- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).',3)">3]:-
.
- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).',3)">3] Friedmann's contributions are summed up as follows:-
.
- Clarke Joan biography
- Joan was educated at Dulwich High School and in 1936 matriculated at Newnham College, Cambridge, to study Mathematics.
- In 1939 Clarke graduated, achieving a double first in Mathematics; however this was merely the title of her degree, as Cambridge did not admit women to "full membership of the body academic" until after the end of the Second World War.
- During the time that Joan Clarke was an undergraduate at Cambridge, Gordon Welchman had supervised her in Geometry during Part II and, aware of her mathematical ability, he was responsible for recruiting Clarke to join the 'Government Code and Cypher School' (GCCS) at Bletchley Park.
- Hutton biography
- He now saw his opportunity to educate schoolmasters and provide them with further mathematical training so he advertised in 1766 and 1767 (see [A History of Mathematics Education in England (Cambridge, 1982), 59-74.',5)">5]):-
.
- He had a stroke of good fortune which was to make him a rich man and we quote the episode as given in [A History of Mathematics Education in England (Cambridge, 1982), 59-74.',5)">5]:-
.
- However Howson writes [A History of Mathematics Education in England (Cambridge, 1982), 59-74.',5)">5]:-
.
- Hilton biography
- He spent the three years 1952-55 at Cambridge, receiving a second doctorate from Cambridge in 1952.
- When he went to Cambridge University in 1952 he became a colleague of his friend Shaun Wylie.
- Edge biography
- He was educated at his local school, Stockport Grammar School, and from there he went to Cambridge where he studied mathematics at Trinity College.
- Cambridge was at that time a centre for geometry research with Baker's school flourishing there.
- Edge's fellow students included P du Val and J G Semple but other famous geometers joined the group while Edge was at Cambridge including the slightly younger men H S M Coxeter and J A Todd.
- Morley biography
- Frank attended Seckford Grammar School in Woodbridge before he entered King's College, Cambridge, in 1879, having won an open scholarship.
- Morley graduated from Cambridge with a B.A.
- At Haverford, Morley worked, not with others at the College, but with the mathematicians Scott and James Harkness, both also graduates of Cambridge, England, who were at Bryn Mawr which was close to Haverford.
- Peierls biography
- Peierls was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship and he spent the first half of the year 1932-33 in Rome with Enrico Fermi, and the second half in England where he worked at Cambridge with Paul Dirac and Ralph Fowler.
- His next position was a two year fellowship held at Cambridge, following which, in 1937, he accepted a professorship in mathematical physics at Birmingham University.
- He continued to work there despite offers from Oxford, Manchester, London and Cambridge.
- Mackenzie biography
- After working in Edinburgh for two years, Mackenzie was appointed to a Lectureship in Physics at Newnham College, Cambridge in 1926.
- In August 1926: Miss Gladys I Mackenzie, daughter of Mr I P Mackenzie of Polwarth Terrace, Edinburgh, and at present an Assistant in the Department of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, has been appointed to the Lectureship in Physics at Newnham College, Cambridge.
- She continued her membership when she went to Newnham College, Cambridge but she left the Society in 1930.
- Wallis biography
- From school in Felsted he went to Emmanual College Cambridge, entering around Christmas 1632.
- He took the standard bachelor of arts degree and, since nobody at Cambridge at this time could direct his mathematical studies, he took a range of topics such as ethics, metaphysics, geography, astronomy, medicine and anatomy.
- In 1644 Wallis became secretary to the clergy at Westminster and through this he was given a fellowship at Queen's College, Cambridge.
- Steggall biography
- He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1874 and there he studied the Mathematical Tripos.
- For someone with this high level of attainment at Cambridge the natural next step would have been to have applied for a fellowship.
- In 1890 The College, a Cambridge student magazine, contained the comment:-
.
- Mackey biography
- As he wrote many years later (see for example [Harvard News (Cambridge, March 2006.',1)">1] and [Boston Globe (Boston, 28 April 2006).',2)">2]):-
.
- He later wrote (see for example [Harvard News (Cambridge, March 2006.',1)">1] or [Boston Globe (Boston, 28 April 2006).',2)">2]):-
.
- Comments by Alice and Ann in [Harvard News (Cambridge, March 2006.',1)">1] say much about George Mackey.
- Ross biography
- After graduating Ross went to Cambridge, beginning his studies in October 1904.
- The examinations for these scholarships were conducted in the Trustees' Chambers, Glasgow, on 20, 21, 22 September 1904 by Andrew Munro, M.A., Queen's College, Cambridge in mathematics.
- Educated at Edinburgh University, where he graduated M.A., and subsequently at Cambridge, he was appointed to Madras College in 1906.
- Coxeter biography
- Donald was educated at the University of Cambridge, receiving his B.A.
- He continued to study for a doctorate at Cambridge under H F Baker, and this was awarded in 1931.
- He then became a Fellow continuing his researches at Cambridge.
- Enskog biography
- In 1917 Chapman independently predicted it, but their theory was questioned until Chapman persuaded a chemist Frederick William Dootson (1863-1929) from the Chemical Laboratory at Cambridge, England, to conduct experiments; the theory was verified.
- In it the authors write [The mathematical theory of non-uniform gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1960).',3)">3]:-
.
- Infeld biography
- Unable to work through grief, and realising that progress in Lwow would be well nigh impossible, Infeld decided to accept a Rockefeller Foundation Grant to study in Cambridge, England.
- He spent two years 1933-35 in Cambridge where he thrived in the academic environment.
- In Cambridge he met Rutherford and Dirac and entered into the collaboration with Max Born, who has just arrived in England.
- Maior biography
- We do know that he attended grammar school in Haddington and the next definite event we know about is when he went to God's House in Cambridge (which today is known as Christ's College) in 1491.
- Maior was 22 years old in 1491, so it seems likely that he attended university in Scotland before studying at Cambridge.
- After studying for the academic year 1491-92 at Cambridge, Maior went to Paris where he enrolled at the College de Sainte-Barbe.
- Heath biography
- After attending Caistor Grammar School and Clifton College, he went up to Trinity College Cambridge in 1879 holding a foundation scholarship.
- In his first year at the Treasury he wrote an essay on Diophantus and this won him a Cambridge Fellowship.
- Cayley recommended its publication by Cambridge University Press and Diophantus of Alexandria: a study in the history of Greek algebra appeared in 1885.
- Milne-Thomson biography
- Milne-Thomson entered Clifton College in Bristol in 1906 as a classical scholar and in his final year at the College he won a scholarship to study mathematics at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
- Entering Cambridge in 1909 he took part I of the Mathematical Tripos in 1911, achieving a First Class, and graduated with distinction as a Wrangler in 1913.
- He was also elected to the Royal Astronomical Society and the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
- Macintyre biography
- It was usual for the top students in those days to study at Oxford or Cambridge University after taking their first degree at a Scottish University.
- Scott spent three years at Girton College at Cambridge.
- Her final year at Cambridge was one in which she undertook research under Mary Cartwright's supervision.
- Wenninger biography
- I sent the pictures and the text to Cambridge University Press.
- Father Magnus published Polyhedron models with Cambridge University Press in 1971.
- However, in 1975, John Skilling of Cambridge University proved, using a computer search, that the list was complete.
- McMullen biography
- He was awarded a Herchel Smith fellowship to study at the University of Cambridge in England and he spent the academic year 1980-81 at Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
- Oughtred biography
- From there he went to King's College Cambridge, entering in 1592.
- It is surprising that although very little mathematics was taught at either Eton or Cambridge at this time Oughtred became passionately interested.
- Halley biography
- Halley's work on these problems was disrupted during the following weeks by the difficulties surrounding his father's disappearance and death, but by August 1682 Halley was pursuing the problem further by visiting Newton in Cambridge.
- Glaisher, in an address delivered in Cambridge in 1888, spoke of the role which Halley played in getting Newton's Principia published:-
.
- Ince biography
- In 1915 he went to Cambridge to continue research.
- Again this work was reprinted, this time for the Royal Society by Cambridge University Press in 1966.
- Navier biography
- Anderson writes in [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',3)">3]:-
.
- Although his reasoning is unacceptable today, as Anderson writes in [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',3)">3]:-
.
- Lakatos biography
- Eventually Lakatos found his way to England and he began to study at the University of Cambridge for a doctorate in philosophy.
- His work was influenced by Popper and by Polya and he went on to write his doctoral thesis Essays in the Logic of Mathematical Discovery submitted to Cambridge in 1961.
- Fricke biography
- The authors of [Indra\'s pearls: the vision of Felix Klein (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002).',2)">2] write:-
.
- Guthrie biography
- He then followed the route of many Scottish students of this period and, after completing a degree in Scotland, went to Cambridge and effectively took a second 'first degree'.
- After graduating from Cambridge, Guthrie was appointed as an Assistant in Mathematics at the University of St Andrews.
- John biography
- After receiving the doctoral degree in 1934 from Gottingen, John was assisted by Richard Courant to go with his wife to Cambridge, England.
- However, the Council did not have the necessary funds to support the academics who were arriving in Britain and it only became possible to give John support because St John's College, Cambridge offered help.
- Leech biography
- He entered King's College Cambridge, graduating as a wrangler with a B.A.
- In 1954 Leech left Ferranti to return to Cambridge, becoming a research student in the mathematical laboratory.
- Carse biography
- He then went to Cambridge spending the years 1904-7 in Emmanuel College and the Cavendish Laboratory.
- He then proceeded to Emmanuel College Cambridge, and returned to Edinburgh in 1907 when he joined the University Staff as a lecturer under Professor Macgregor.
- Wright biography
- If this seemed like a great achievement for the young man with no formal training in mathematics, he was made to think otherwise by one of his fellow teachers at Chard School who suggested that reaching the standard of the London BA was about equivalent to the entrance standard for Oxford or Cambridge.
- By this time Wright was twenty years old and scholarships for Oxford and Cambridge were almost all restricted to people younger.
- Forder biography
- He won a scholarship from Norfolk County Council to study at the University of Cambridge and this was augmented with further support from the Governors of Paston School and by Sidney Sussex College.
- He would have liked to remain at Cambridge to continue to a research career, but lack of finance forced him to give up this idea.
- Kendall Maurice biography
- It is rather remarkable that Maurice's improvement was such that he was awarded a scholarship to study at St John's College, Cambridge.
- His father, however, did not want his son to go to Cambridge, but rather he wanted him to train as an engineer.
- Orszag biography
- Still only nineteen years of age, he set sail for England where he spent the academic year 1962-63 studying at St John's College, Cambridge University.
- The publisher, Cambridge University Press, describes this last work as follows:-
.
- Dijkstra biography
- In 1951 Dijkstra's father saw an advertisement for a three-week course in computer programming to be given at the University of Cambridge in England in September of that year.
- Aad van Wijngaarden, who was the director of the Computation Department of the Mathematical Centre in Amsterdam, had taken the same course in Cambridge in the previous year and when he learnt that Dijkstra had completed it, he offered him a position as a programmer of the Mathematical Centre.
- Blackburn biography
- He continued his high quality education by entering Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1841 which was the same year as William Thomson.
- However, this is not easy to do as he published little (in fact just one paper on astronomy while at Cambridge).
- Spencer biography
- After his marriage he went to England to undertake studies for his doctorate at the University of Cambridge.
- However he retained his interest in analytic number theory which he had worked on at Cambridge, and he published two important papers in 1942, both joint with R Salem who had been appointed to MIT in 1941.
- Dowker biography
- 16 (5) (1984), 535-541.',4)">4] (or see [Aspects of topology (Cambridge-New York, 1985), xi-xvii.',3)">3]):-
.
- 16 (5) (1984), 535-541.',4)">4] (or see [Aspects of topology (Cambridge-New York, 1985), xi-xvii.',3)">3]) Strauss describes Dowker's character:-
.
- Greenhill biography
- George Greenhill attended Christ's Hospital School, where he was awarded a Thompson Mathematical Gold Medal, and from there he went up to St John's College, Cambridge in 1866.
- After a short time as Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Royal Indian Engineering College, Coopers Hill, Greenhill returned to Cambridge in 1873, becoming a fellow and lecturer at Emmanuel College.
- Ferrel biography
- Ferrel visited the staff of The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, Massachusetts in the spring of 1857, was given certain work to undertake, then returned to his school in Nashville where he worked for another year.
- From 1858 until 1867 Ferrel was a resident of Cambridge, Massachusetts while he worked for The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac.
- Kempe biography
- He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, as a Camden Exhibitioner, having won this award in his final year at St Paul's School.
- At Cambridge he became known as a superb singer, having a piano in his rooms in College to accompany himself when he practiced his singing.
- Morgan William biography
- He was the great grandfather of Augustus de Morgan who married the daughter of William Frend (1758-1827), Actuary of the Rock Insurance Company and who had been 2nd Wrangler in the Cambridge Mathematics Tripos of 1780.
- Thus the year 1786 marks the first declaration of revisionary bonus [Surplus in British life assurance: actuarial control over its emergence and distribution during 200 years, (Cambridge, 1962).
- Cohn biography
- Paul Cohn studied at Trinity College Cambridge, and he was awarded a B.A.
- He continued to study at Cambridge for his doctorate and this was awarded in 1951.
- Mochizuki biography
- Bachmuth writes [Groups - St Andrews 1989 1 (Cambridge, 1991), 38-45.',1)">1]:-
.
- The paper [Groups - St Andrews 1989 1 (Cambridge, 1991), 38-45.',1)">1] is a record of the memorial lecture given by Bachmuth at that conference reviewing the outstanding contribution made by Mochizuki.
- Titchmarsh biography
- Charles Burkill held the chair of pure mathematics at Liverpool from 1924 until 1929 when he took up a lectureship at Peterhouse, Cambridge.
- Titchmarsh was appointed to Burkill's chair at Liverpool, a post he held for two years before he succeeded to Hardy's Savilian chair at Oxford when Hardy moved to Cambridge.
- Hirsch biography
- He studied at King's College, Cambridge, obtaining financial support from the university.
- In September 1934, Elsa, Daniel and Sabine left Berlin and joined Hirsch in Cambridge where he had rented a house close to where Bernhard Neumann was living.
- Carleman biography
- Norbert Wiener in [I am a mathematician (Cambridge 1956).',7)">7], pp.
- [Inequalities (Cambridge, 1934).',6)">6] and [J.
- Chowla biography
- Gopal Chowla visited England with his wife Shankuntala so that he could study at Cambridge University.
- He then decided to go to England to study for his doctorate and he undertook research at the University of Cambridge under J E Littlewood's supervision, being awarded his doctorate in 1931.
- Spottiswoode biography
- While at Oxford he rowed for the university in the annual Oxford-Cambridge boat race in both 1845 and 1846.
- We should also mention his election to the Academy of Sciences in Paris and the award of honorary degrees by the universities of Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Oxford.
- Maseres biography
- Francis attended the Rev Richard Wooddeson's School in Kingston-upon-Thames before matriculating at Clare College, Cambridge, on 4 July 1748.
- Francis' brother Peter matriculated on the same day and both brothers graduated from Clare College Cambridge in 1752 with a degree in classics and mathematics.
- De Morgan biography
- De Morgan entered Trinity College Cambridge in 1823 at the age of 16 where he was taught by Peacock and Whewell - the three became lifelong friends.
- He received his BA but, because a theological test was required for the MA, something to which De Morgan strongly objected despite being a member of the Church of England, he could go no further at Cambridge being not eligible for a Fellowship without his MA.
- Zhukovsky biography
- Zhukovskii [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',2)">2]:-
.
- This gave Zhukovskii [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',2)">2]:-
.
- Simplicius biography
- Cambridge Philological Soc.
- Cambridge Philological Soc.
- Fox biography
- Fox, again having won a scholarship, entered Sidney Sussex College Cambridge in 1915.
- After returning to Cambridge and completing his studies there, he was appointed as a Demonstrator and Lecturer in Mathematics in Imperial College, London, in 1919.
- Turner biography
- Perhaps the fairest summing up is by Adamson [The foundation and early history of Gresham College, London, 1596-1704, University of Cambridge PhD thesis (University of Cambridge, 1976).',3)">3] who describes Turner as:-
.
- Paman biography
- Although there is no record of Paman being a student at the University of Cambridge, we know that Mr Frank of St John's College, Cambridge gave him a copy of George Berkeley's The Analyst (1734).
- Hill biography
- In 1861 Hill joined the Nautical Almanac Office working in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- After two years in Cambridge, Massachusetts he returned to West Nyack where he worked from his home.
- Moore Robert biography
- Mary Ellen Rudin, who was also a student of Moore's presents a similar picture [Women becoming mathematicians (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000).',3)">3]:-
.
- As Chandler Davis suggests, Mary Ellen Rudin was certainly happy with Moore [Women becoming mathematicians (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000).',3)">3]:-
.
- MacRobert biography
- After completing his undergraduate studies at Glasgow, MacRobert took the route many other leading Scots took at that time and followed his degree from a Scottish University with a degree at Cambridge.
- MacRobert enjoyed his time at Cambridge.
- Jackson biography
- There was little chance to progress further in astronomy in Glasgow, so he decided to continue his studies at Cambridge.
- He went to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1909 and there he was able to take courses on a wide range of subjects within astronomy, pure mathematics and applied mathematics.
- Higman biography
- After his doctoral studies Higman spent a year at the University of Cambridge where he was strongly influenced by Philip Hall.
- He also met Max Newman in Cambridge and Newman's interest in the interaction between group theory and logic had a lasting influence on him.
- Wren biography
- In 1663 he designed the chapel at Pembroke College, Cambridge, commissioned by his uncle the Bishop of Ely.
- In 1668 building work began on Wren's designs for the Emmanuel College Chapel, Cambridge and the Garden Quadrangle, Trinity College, Oxford.
- Wilson John biography
- From there he entered Peterhouse, Cambridge matriculating on 29 June 1757, and he was the Senior Wrangler in 1761.
- On 7 July 1764 Wilson was elected a Fellow of Peterhouse and he taught mathematics at Cambridge with great skill, quickly gaining an outstanding reputation for himself.
- Ingham biography
- Albert Ingham was educated at Stafford Grammar School, and from there he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, in December 1917.
- In 1926 Ingham was appointed a Reader at Leeds University but four years later returned to Cambridge as a university lecturer and a fellow of King's College, on the death of Ramsey, and remained there for the rest of his life.
- Volterra biography
- The summer of 1901 was spent in England (London, Oxford and Cambridge), in 1902 he visited Germany (Berlin) as well as Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
- In 1904 he was back in England when awarded an honorary degree by the University of Cambridge.
- Wilton biography
- He then went to Cambridge University in England and he was fifth wrangler in the mathematical sciences tripos of 1907, then took part of the natural sciences tripos in 1908.
- He was an assistant lecturer in the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, for the year 1908-09, then Lecturer in mathematics at the University of Sheffield from 1909 to 1919.
- Bell John biography
- Through his career he gained much from discussions with Mary, and when, in 1987, his papers on quantum theory were collected [Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge, 1987).
- Bell wrote [Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge, 1987).
- Black biography
- He entered Queen's College Cambridge and found that there were many there interested in the philosophy of mathematics.
- Russell, Wittgenstein, G E Moore, and Ramsey were all teaching at Cambridge during Black's time as an undergraduate and the influence that these people had on Black was very major indeed for they turned his interests towards philosophy.
- Cockle biography
- On 18 October 1837 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge where he took the mathematical tripos.
- Cockle joined the Royal Astronomical Society in 1854, the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1856, and the London Mathematical Society in 1870.
- Pieri biography
- In early 1912 Bertrand Russell invited Pieri to address the philosophy section of the International Congress of Mathematicians to be held in Cambridge, England in August of that year.
- As secretary of the philosophy section of the congress of mathematicians that will be held during the month of August in Cambridge, and as an admirer of your works, I have the honour of earnestly asking you to give a talk and take part in our discussions.
- Gruenberg biography
- He won a scholarship to study mathematics at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and after the award of a BA in 1950 he continued to undertake research at Cambridge under Philip Hall's supervision.
- Smoluchowski biography
- After spending the winter semester of 1905-06 at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England, Smoluchowski was elected dean of the Faculty of Philosophy at Lvov, a post he held during the academic year 1906-07.
- He returned to Cambridge in 1912 when he was invited to lecture at the International Congress of Mathematicians held from 22 August to 28 August.
- Dixon biography
- He attended London University, graduating with an M.A., then in 1883 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He had been taught by a number of famous mathematicians at Cambridge, including Glaisher, Rouse Ball, Forsyth, and he attended lectures by Cayley.
- Niven Charles biography
- Charles was one of three distinguished mathematical brothers, William and James also being Cambridge Wranglers.
- James Niven studied at Queens' College, Cambridge and was bracketed eighth wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1874.
- Glenie biography
- Three years later he became involved in a serious dispute within the Royal Society which is described in detail in [A mathematicians\' mutiny, with morals, in World changes, Cambridge, MA, 1990 (Cambridge, MA, 1993), 81-129.',3)">3] but which we now sketch.
- Mittag-Leffler biography
- He was an honorary member of almost every mathematical society in the world including the Cambridge Philosophical Society, the London Mathematical Society, the Royal Institution, the Royal Irish Academy, and the Institute of France.
- He was awarded honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Aberdeen, St Andrews, Bologna and Christiania (now Oslo).
- Jerrard biography
- George had a younger brother Frederick William Hill who also studied mathematics, being a Wrangler at Cambridge, but joined the Church.
- It was not at Cambridge, but rather at Trinity College, Dublin, that George studied.
- Lasker biography
- Lasker moved to the United States in 1902 and lived there until 1907 but only played in one chess tournament during these years, namely at Cambridge Springs in 1904.
- However, Lasker set high financial stakes for such a match and Marshall, young and comparatively unknown before the Cambridge Springs tournament, had little chance of finding backers to put up Lasker's asking price.
- Rogers James biography
- Then in 1934 in the well known Inequalities book of Hardy-Littlewood-Polya [Inequalities (Cambridge, 1934).',1)">1] on page 25 it was stated in an footnote that "Holder states the theorem in a less symmetrical form given a little earlier by Rogers".
- As we can see Holder was luckier that Pringsheim (1902), Jensen (1906), Landau (1907), Riesz (1910, 1913), Hardy (1920) and then Hardy-Littlewood-Polya [Inequalities (Cambridge, 1934).',1)">1] put Holder name instead of Rogers's name to that inequality and now almost everybody refers to it as Holder's inequality.
- Fowler David biography
- After completing his schooling, he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, in 1955 to study mathematics.
- I first met him [at Cambridge] as his tutor.
- Tucker Robert biography
- Robert was encouraged to sit the examinations to win a sizarship at St John's College, Cambridge, and although he was unsuccessful at his first attempt, he tried successfully in the following year.
- Following this, Tucker remained at Cambridge studying Hebrew and Moral Philosophy before taking up an appointment as a mathematics teacher.
- Kaczmarz biography
- Shortly after the birth of their second child, Kaczmarz was awarded a scholarship by the National Culture Fund to finance a visit to Cambridge, England, and to Gottingen, Germany.
- He spent the first half of 1932 with G H Hardy and R E A C Paley in Cambridge, where he attended lectures by Norbert Wiener on Fourier transforms and applications.
- Galton biography
- On his return to England Galton entered Trinity College, Cambridge, to study medicine in the autumn of 1840.
- He quickly changed his studies to mathematics, studying with Hopkins, the best Cambridge mathematics tutor, but he became ill during his third year and was unable to complete his degree.
- Jack William biography
- in 1853, then continued his education at the University of Cambridge.
- from Cambridge in 1859.
- Deans biography
- She then followed the route followed by many in earlier years and, after taking a Scottish degree, went to Cambridge.
- Deans studied at Newnham College, Cambridge, and took Part I of the Mathematical Tripos in 1925, being awarded a BA ranked in the First Class.
- Burnside biography
- He entered St John's College, Cambridge in October 1871 having won a scholarship.
- Among his teachers at Cambridge were Stokes, Adams and Maxwell in applied mathematics and Cayley in pure mathematics.
- Goodstein biography
- He entered Magdalene College Cambridge in 1931 and his special subject in his undergraduate course was analysis.
- Goodstein then did research at Cambridge on transfinite numbers under Littlewood's supervision.
- Hartley biography
- At 15, he became one of the youngest people to be awarded a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge.
- He played in St Catherine's Military Band, Accrington, and Cambridge University first Orchestra; he once performed at a mathematics conference but as he had become a little rusty, part way into the piece he and his accompanist declared they had merely been tuning up.
- Pask biography
- He then studied geology at Bangor Technical College, and Mining Engineering at Liverpool Polytechnic, before entering Downing College, Cambridge, to study medicine.
- For example he was awarded a DSc from the Open University for his contribution to Educational Technology in 1974, and a ScD by Downing College, Cambridge in 1995.
- Davies biography
- Lewis had been a fifth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge, and it was through him that Davies became attracted to mathematics and physics.
- He accepted and, rather remarkably, this gave him the distinction of becoming the only professor of mathematics in Britain who had not studied at either Oxford or Cambridge.
- Kuttner biography
- Brian Kuttner attended University College School in London and from there he won a scholarship to study at Christ's College Cambridge.
- He graduated in 1929 and then continued to undertake research at Cambridge.
- Hopf Eberhard biography
- He arrived Cambridge, Massachusetts in October of 1930 but his official affiliation was not the Harvard Mathematics Department but, instead, the Harvard College Observatory.
- In 1940 Hopf was on the list of the invited lecturers to the International Congress of Mathematicians to be held in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Clifford biography
- When he was 18 years old William entered Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He was second wrangler in his final examinations (in common with many other famous mathematicians who were second at Cambridge like Thomson and Maxwell).
- Campbell biography
- He received an unusual tribute from the University of Cambridge when, shortly before his death, he was invited to examine the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge, being the first Oxford mathematician to be asked to undertake this duty.
- Greaves biography
- Having won a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, he became an undergraduate there studying mathematics and astronomy.
- He continued to undertake research at Cambridge being Isaac Newton Student in 1921-3, and was elected a Fellow of St John's College in 1922.
- Yates biography
- Four years later he was awarded a scholarship to study at St John's College, Cambridge.
- In a paper in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1939, Yates discussed the Behrens-Fisher test of the significance of the difference of means of pairs of samples independently drawn from normal populations in which the variances are not assumed to be equal.
- Tunstall biography
- We also know that he entered King's Hall, Cambridge in 1496.
- Although the length of Cuthbert's time in Oxford is in some doubt, there is no doubt in the fact that he left both Oxford and Cambridge without taking a degree.
- Kelland biography
- He studied at Queens' College, Cambridge and was coached privately by William Hopkins, graduating in 1834 as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman.
- His early research work, undertaken at Cambridge, was influenced by Fourier and Cauchy.
- Erdos biography
- He met Hardy in Cambridge in 1934 and Ulam, also in Cambridge, in 1935.
- Chisholm Young biography
- There she was educated by a governess at home, then at the age of 17 she passed the Cambridge Senior Examination.
- She was stopped by her family from studying medicine, the topic of her choice, then decided to enter Girton College, Cambridge in 1889 to study mathematics.
- Thompson John biography
- In 1968 Thompson accepted a fellowship at University College, Cambridge in England.
- He was appointed Rouse Ball Professor of Pure Mathematics at Cambridge in 1970.
- Taylor biography
- As Taylor's family were well off they could afford to have private tutors for their son and in fact this home education was all that Brook enjoyed before entering St John's College Cambridge on 3 April 1703.
- At Cambridge Taylor became highly involved with mathematics.
- Kober biography
- Kober's wife provided him with the sort of back-up which allowed him to make lengthy visits to Cambridge in England, for she simply took over teaching his classes in Breslau while he spent time at Cambridge doing research.
- Pell biography
- After attending Steyning School in Sussex, which was a free school, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1624.
- After leaving Cambridge, Pell became a schoolmaster.
- Hobbes biography
- Grant, in [The Cambridge companion to Hobbes (Cambridge, 1996), 108-128.',21)">21], evaluates Hobbes' mathematical contributions and concludes that he was:-
.
- Black Fischer biography
- In their paper was a reference to the book by Cootner [The Random Character of Stock Market Prices, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (contains the translation from French of Bachelier\'s doctoral thesis and contains Sprenkle\'s, 1961 paper).',88)">88] containing the translation from French of Bachelier's 1900 doctoral thesis for the Ecole Polytechnique.
- Inter alia, Bachelier, had shown in his thesis [The Random Character of Stock Market Prices, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (contains the translation from French of Bachelier\'s doctoral thesis and contains Sprenkle\'s, 1961 paper).',88)">88] the close connection between random walks and the Fourier heat equation, something that was expanded on by Kac, in 1951, [Ito\'s stochastic calculus and probability theory, Tokyo, ix-xiv.
- Simson biography
- The work ran through more than 70 different editions, revisions or translations published first in Glasgow in 1756, with others appearing in Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dublin, London, Cambridge, Paris and a number of other European and American cities.
- Keller Joseph biography
- He was also an Honorary Professor of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cambridge during 1989-93.
- Griffiths Brian biography
- For example his work on topology included the text Surfaces published by Cambridge University Press.
- Bochner biography
- He was also able to travel to England on the Fellowship where he worked with Hardy in Oxford and Littlewood in Cambridge.
- Quine biography
- The University of Lille, Oxford University, Cambridge University, Uppsala University, the University of Bern, and Harvard University were among the eighteen universities awarding him an honorary degree.
- Savage biography
- He was awarded the Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship and, in addition, was a Fulbright grantee allowing him to spend the academic year 1951-52 in Paris and in Cambridge, England.
- Hau biography
- He worked both at Harvard and at the Rowland Institute for Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which had been founded by the inventor of Polaroid photography, Edwin H Land:-
.
- Bayes biography
- He had to choose a Scottish university if he was to obtain his education without going overseas since, at this time, Nonconformists were not allowed to matriculate at Oxford or Cambridge.
- Ulam biography
- I went back to Poland, but the next fall I returned to Cambridge as a member of the so-called Society of Fellows, a new Harvard institution.
- Wilson Bertram biography
- He was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, before entering Trinity College Cambridge in 1916.
- Borel biography
- His contributions to this area are described in detail in [The probabilist revolution Vol 1 (Cambridge Mass., 1987), 215-233.',9)">9] and we quote here part of the abstract of that paper:-
.
- Talbot biography
- He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1817 and there he won prizes for Greek verse, and graduated with the classical medal in 1821 being twelfth wrangler in mathematics (that is he was placed twelfth in the ranked list of First Class students).
- Feynman biography
- It is interesting to think that had Feynman taken the mathematics course at Cambridge which Hoyle took around the same time, he would have found it exactly what he wanted.
- Wintner biography
- Wintner was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1941 which enabled him to visit Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- James Ralph biography
- James was awarded a National Research Council Fellowship to enable him to undertake postdoctoral study working with E T Bell at the California Institute of Technology during 1932-33 and also for a second year at the University of Cambridge in England working with G H Hardy.
- Smirnov biography
- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).',1)">1] the authors write:-
.
- Weatherburn biography
- He then came to England, after the award of a scholarship, and studied at Trinity College Cambridge where he attended lectures by Whitehead, Whittaker and Hardy.
- Riesz Marcel biography
- In a joint work with Hardy The general theory of Dirichlet's series, published by Cambridge University Press in 1915, he introduced Riesz means.
- Neile biography
- Paul Neile was born at Westminster in 1613 and was admitted as a Fellow Commoner to Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1627, at the age of 14.
- Descartes biography
- Pleasing as Descartes's theory was even the supporters of his natural philosophy, such as the Cambridge metaphysical theologian Henry More, found objections.
- Hille biography
- 11 (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1975).',1)">1] reproduces 47 selected papers of Hille, published in the years 1922-1969.
- Threlfall biography
- He was a botanist at the University of Cambridge and had married Helene Koch from Dresden.
- Gaschutz biography
- Wielandt writes in [Proceedings of International Congress of Mathematicians, 14-21 August 1958 (Cambridge, 1960), 268-278.',4)">4]:-
.
- Fraser biography
- The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in February 1883 and it was Fraser together with Andrew Jeffrey Gunion Barclay, also a mathematics master at George Watson's College at the time, together with Cargill Gilston Knott, an Assistant to the Professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh University, who issued a circular 'to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally whom they deemed likely to take an interest in such a Society' calling for a Mathematical Society to be set up.
- Courant biography
- Invited to Cambridge in England for a one year visit, he applied for leave (slightly strange that he had to do so since he was already on forced leave).
- Ohm Martin biography
- Todhunter writes [A History of the Calculus of Variations (Macmillan and Co, Cambridge, 1861).',2)">2]:-
.
- Roth Klaus biography
- He then went to Peterhouse, Cambridge where he was awarded his BA in 1945.
- Francoeur biography
- Fowle's text, which was used by students attending Cambridge High School as early as 1841, teaches drawing according to the mastery of basic geometric shapes.
- Frege biography
- Russell had invited him to address a mathematical congress in Cambridge in 1912 but Frege's reply, declining the invitation, shows his depressed state of mind.
- Sluze biography
- Sluse was to remain a faithful correspondent for many years and to become in 1669 the first to learn of the then little known mathematical skill and achievement of the young Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, Isaac Newton.
- Feller biography
- Feller was invited to address the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950.
- Sheppard biography
- He first matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1881 and was Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1884.
- Jones biography
- Newton had tried to get it printed over a period of five years but finally gave up in 1676 when Cambridge University Press rejected it.
- Flamsteed biography
- Moore became his patron and persuaded Charles II to grant a warrant so that Jesus College Cambridge could award an M.A.
- Henrici biography
- introduced projective geometry, vector analysis, and graphical statics into the University College mathematics syllabus - a radical departure from the analytically biased Cambridge-style course previously taught.
- Geiringer biography
- During the week she taught at the College, travelling to Cambridge every weekend to be with von Mises who worked at Harvard at this time.
- Upton biography
- Whatever he did and worked on was executed in a purely mathematical manner and any Wrangler at Cambridge would have been delighted to see him juggle with integral and differential equations with a dexterity that was surprising.
- MacMahon biography
- In particular he was awarded honorary degrees by Trinity College, Dublin (1897), Cambridge (1904), Aberdeen (1911) and St Andrews (1911).
- Greenstreet biography
- William J Greenstreet was educated at St Saviour's Grammar School, Southwark and entered St John's College, Cambridge in 1879, graduating in 1883.
- Anthemius biography
- ',1)">1] (see also [Anthemius of Tralles (Cambridge, Mass., 1959).',3)">3]):-
.
- Knapowski biography
- His first visit was to England where he spent just under a year working in Cambridge.
- Carlitz biography
- After his marriage Carlitz and his wife headed for Cambridge in England where he spent the academic year 1931-32 as an International Research Fellow with G H Hardy.
- Davies Paul biography
- Following the award of his doctorate, he spent two years, 1970-72, as a Research Fellow at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy at the University of Cambridge working with Fred Hoyle.
- Bernstein Sergi biography
- At the International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge in 1912, Bernstein talked about his work on constructive function theory, which today is called approximation theory.
- Ackermann biography
- After submitting his dissertation, Ackermann went to Cambridge, England, where he spent the first half of 1925.
- Schiffer biography
- Before leaving the United States, he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Russell biography
- Educated at first privately, and later at Trinity College, Cambridge, Russell obtained first class degrees both in mathematics and in the moral sciences.
- Milne William biography
- He took all the available prizes in mathematics and natural philosophy and a Ferguson Scholarship (that year all five scholarships, open to students in all the ancient Scottish universities, went to Aberdeen) allowed him to continue his studies at Cambridge where he also too first-class honours.
- Alfven biography
- He spent two short periods abroad during these years, spending a few months in Berlin and a few in Cambridge.
- Salmon biography
- Salmon was awarded honorary degrees at Oxford (1868), Cambridge (1874), Edinburgh (1884) and University of Christiana (Oslo) (1902).
- Guinand biography
- After being an assistant at Cambridge, he became a lecturer at the Royal Military College of Science in 1947.
- Fox Leslie biography
- Wright Sewall biography
- Turner looks at this dispute in [The probabilistic revolution 2 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987), 313-354.',10)">10] and explains what divided these two leaders in mathematical population genetics:-
.
- Al-Khwarizmi biography
- However, Rashed [A source book in medieval science (Cambridge, 1974).',7)">7], put a rather different interpretation on the same words by Al-Tabari:-
.
- Sylvester biography
- On 7 July 1831 Sylvester matriculated as a student at St John's College, Cambridge, although his studies were interrupted when he was forced to take most of the two years 1833-34 and 1834-35 out due to a lengthy illness.
- Bohr Harald biography
- He continued his work until shortly before his death, in fact he attended the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts four months before his death.
- Boys biography
- His (alleged) ill-treatment of his wife led to her having an affair with Forsyth and a scandal at Cambridge resulted.
- Schlapp biography
- Supported by a Drummond Mathematical Scholarship, he then studied at St John's College, Cambridge, for his doctorate which was awarded in 1925 for his thesis The Reflexion of X-rays from Crystals.
- De Moivre biography
- Desperate to get a chair in Cambridge he begged Johann Bernoulli to persuade Leibniz to write supporting him.
- Ostrowski biography
- After being awarded a Rockefeller Research Fellowship, Ostrowski spent the academic year 1925-26 in Britain, spending periods at each of the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh.
- Petryshyn biography
- In 1995 his second monograph Generalized Topological Degree and Semilinear Equations appeared in print, published by Cambridge University Press.
- Keen biography
- Keen, working with Nikola Lakic, wrote the book Hyperbolic geometry from a local viewpoint which was published in 2007 by Cambridge University Press in the London Mathematical Society Student Texts series.
- Craig biography
- However, during his time as an undergraduate in Edinburgh, he travelled down to Cambridge in 1685 where he published a mathematical text of which we give some details below.
- Bacon biography
- Lindberg [Mathematics and its applications to science and natural philosophy in the Middle Ages (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 249-268.',23)">23] says Bacon's experiments included:-
.
- Valiant biography
- After graduating from Latymer Upper School, he studied at King's College, Cambridge then, after the award of his first degree, a BA in mathematics, he entered Imperial College, London to study theoretical computer science.
- Jones Vaughan biography
- Vaughan Jones attended St Peter's School in Cambridge, New Zealand from the age of eight years until he was 12.
- Speiser biography
- He visited Maurice Wilkes' computing laboratory in Cambridge, England, in 1947 and realised the potential of the digital computers that were being designed there.
- Bergman biography
- He lectured first at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he gave a series of lectures on Theory of pseudo-conformal transformations and its connection with differential geometry during 1939-40.
- Griffiths Lois biography
- She was promoted to an assistant professorship of mathematics in 1930 then, after spending research leave in Cambridge, England, in 1936-37, she was promoted to associate professor at Northwestern University in 1938.
- Rademacher biography
- Rademacher was invited to deliver an address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950.
- Good biography
- Good entered Jesus College, Cambridge where he attended lectures by A E Ingham, J C Burkill, F P White and G H Hardy.
- Gregory David biography
- These 'modern' theories were not taught in universities until much later and at this time even Cambridge was still teaching Greek natural philosophy.
- Gromov biography
- In 1985 Gromov was a plenary speaker at the British Mathematical Colloquium in Cambridge when he lectured on Differential geometry with and without infinitesimal calculus: anatomy of curvature.
- Von Neumann biography
- In [John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From mathematics to the technologies of life and death (Cambridge, MA, 1980).',5)">5] von Neumann's death is described in these terms:-
.
- Spitzer biography
- Having won a fellowship to St John's College, Cambridge to enable him to study there during the academic year 1935-36, he was taught by Arthur Eddington and was strongly influenced by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar who was about four years older than Spitzer.
- Hooke biography
- It was a well off church being in the patronage of St John's College, Cambridge.
- Zylinski biography
- He then went to the University of Marburg where he studied with Hensel and finally he spent time at the University of Cambridge in England where he studied with G H Hardy.
- Van Vleck biography
- The Harvard group was particularly adamant: Osgood, I remember father said, claimed he suffered from insomnia if he left Cambridge.
- Mazur biography
- Prizes offered included wine, spirits, or a meal in Cambridge but Mazur offered a live goose as the prize for this particular problem.
- Hellins biography
- On 4 July 1789 he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a 'Ten-year man' to undertake work in divinity for a B.D.
- Nightingale biography
- The early education of Parthenope and Florence was placed in the hands of governesses, later their Cambridge educated father took over the responsibility himself.
- Bombieri biography
- Bombieri studied with G Ricci in Milan and then went to Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied with H Davenport.
- Fejer biography
- Despite these difficulties, Fejer was honoured with election to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1911 and being a vice-president of the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Cambridge, England, in August 1912.
- Bell Robert biography
- from Cambridge in 1948, and LL.D.
- Xu Yue biography
- Needham writes in [Science and Civilisation in China 3 (Cambridge, 1959).',4)">4] that Xu Yue:-
.
- Timms biography
- Timms then went to Cambridge where his doctoral work was supervised by H F Baker.
- Pratt biography
- John attended Oakham School, Rutland, before matriculating at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge in 1829.
- Cowling biography
- He sat the mathematics scholarship examinations for Cambridge in December 1923 but just missed out on an award.
- Craig James biography
- He then was an undergraduate at the University of Edinburgh, where he was awarded an M.A., then went to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.
- Sprague biography
- Sprague was elected a Fellow of St John's College following his attainment, in 1853, of the position of Senior Wrangler and First Smith's Prizeman at Cambridge University (first place among those attaining first class honours in mathematics) [8].
- Seidel Jaap biography
- Strongly regular graphs, Seventh British Combinatorial Conf., Cambridge, 1979;
.
- Fresnel biography
- At this stage he had carried out fairly similar investigations that Thomas Young had carried out between 1797 and 1799 in Cambridge, but Fresnel next moved forward to a new understanding by developing a theory based on a new mathematical formulation.
- McVittie biography
- He graduated in 1928 with an M.A., and then studied for a doctorate, beginning work in Edinburgh with Whittaker as advisor, and continuing at Christ's College Cambridge with Eddington as his advisor.
- Hadamard biography
- After the War he became an active peace campaigner and it required the strong support of mathematicians in the USA to allow him to enter the country for the International Congress in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950.
- Polya biography
- He spent 1924 partly in Oxford, partly in Cambridge, working with Hardy and Littlewood and they began a collaboration on the book Inequalities was published in 1934.
- Goldie biography
- Archibald attended Harris Academy, Dundee, Angus, and then the University of St Andrews before going to Cambridge to study the Mathematical Tripos.
- Lemaitre biography
- Now, with the strong mathematical background obtained from his studies with de la Vallee Poussin, Lemaitre turned towards mathematical astronomy and went to Cambridge in England where he studied with Eddington during the academic years 1923-24, then he went to the United States spending the next academic year at the Harvard College Observatory in Massachusetts.
- Moser Jurgen biography
- Moser was invited to give the Gibbs lecture of the American Mathematical Society in Dallas in 1973, the Pauli lectures at ETH in 1975, the American Mathematical Society Colloquium lectures in Toronto in 1976, the Hardy lectures in Cambridge in 1977, the Fermi lectures in Pisa in 1981, and the John von Neumann Lecture of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in Seattle in 1984.
- Brocard biography
- He attended the International Congress of Mathematicians at Zurich in 1897, Paris in 1900, Heidelberg in 1904, Rome in 1908, Cambridge, England in 1912, and Strasbourg in 1920.
- Franklin biography
- Coming to Harvard first then to MIT he brought a new field to Cambridge.
- Zariski biography
- Later, he lectured at Kyoto (1956), the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique (1961 and again 1967), and the University of Cambridge (1972).
- Serre biography
- He has been awarded honorary degrees from the University of Cambridge in 1978, the University of Stockholm in 1980, the University of Glasgow in 1983, the University of Harvard in 1998 and the University of Oslo in 2002.
- Rutherford biography
- His thesis appears as the Cambridge Tract Modular Invariants (1932) and was reprinted in New York in 1964.
- Moore Jonas biography
- His task was to work on the draining of the Fens, a natural region of about 40,100 sq km of reclaimed marshland in eastern England between Lincoln and Cambridge.
- Padoa biography
- He lectured at congresses in Paris (1900, 1935), Rome (1908), Cambridge (1912), Livorno, Parma, Padua, Bologna (1911, 1928) and Florence (1937).
- Smith biography
- He received many honours including honorary degrees from the universities of Cambridge and Dublin.
- Saint-Venant biography
- Anderson writes in [A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge, 1997).',2)">2]:-
.
- Ritt biography
- He was invited to lecture on this work at the International Congress of Mathematicians, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950.
- McQuistan biography
- He then went to Cambridge where he undertook research in the Cavendish Laboratory for three years 1904-06.
- Morrison biography
- A report of their observations up to 1908 was published in 1909 by the Cambridge University Press for the Royal Society, and a report of their observations up to 1910 was published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1912.
- Hayes David biography
- At the conference on 'Number theory related to Fermat's last theorem' held at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1981 he gave the lecture Elliptic units in function fields.
- Machin biography
- We know that he acted as a private tutor to Brook Taylor teaching him mathematics in 1701, two years before Taylor entered St John's College Cambridge.
- Wilder biography
- At the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950 he addressed the Congress on The cultural basis of mathematics.
- Rado biography
- He was invited to speak at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1950 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and he chose a similar theme to his American Mathematical Society Colloquium Lectures, lecturing on Applications of area theory in analysis.
- Carslaw biography
- From Glasgow Carslaw went to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1894.
- Temple biography
- Chapman obtained a scholarship for Temple to undertake further research and he spent a year at Imperial working on quantum theory before going to Cambridge where he worked with Eddington.
- Wallace biography
- Peacock was keen to claim that the introduction of differential notation in Britain was due to Cambridge mathematicians, especially the Analytical Society.
- Brown Alexander biography
- Brown then taught as a Mathematics Master at Dundee High School for session 1897-8, then went to Gonville and Caius College of the University of Cambridge.
- Steklov biography
- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).',3)">3], say of Steklov:-
.
- Grunsky biography
- Grunsky have an invited address at the International Congress of Mathematicians held at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950.
- Golub biography
- During 1959-60 he was an NSF Fellow at the Mathematical Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in England.
- Bassi biography
- The marriage was considered wrong by many in Bologna who felt, in the same spirit as fellows in Colleges at the University of Cambridge could not marry and continue to hold their fellowships, Bassi should not be allowed to marry and continue to hold a lecturing position.
- Taussky-Todd biography
- In 1932-1933 Taussky tutored in Vienna, then she spent a year at Bryn Mawr before taking up a research fellowship from Girton College, Cambridge in 1935.
- Kantorovich biography
- He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the universities of Glasgow (1966), Warsaw (1966), Grenoble (1966), Nice (1968), Helsinki (1969), Munich (1970), Paris (Sorbonne) (1975), Cambridge (1976), Pennsylvania (1976), the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta (1978), and Martin-Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg (1984).
- Faulhaber biography
- It is not known how much Jacobi was influenced by Faulhaber's work, but we do know that Jacobi owned Academia Algebra since his copy of it is now in the University of Cambridge.
- Warschawski biography
- Ostrowski had taken up the position in Gottingen in 1923 but when Warschawski began his studies in 1926 he had just returned from a year of study in Britain at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh.
- Janiszewski biography
- His paper to the International Mathematical Congress in Cambridge in England in 1912 was of major importance for it sketched the definition of a curve without arcs, so that it had no homeomorphic images of a segment of a straight line.
- Potts biography
- His paper on this Some Generalized Order-Disorder Transformations, in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (1952) is his most cited paper.
- Whitney biography
- This topic had been the subject of the lecture which Whitney gave to the International Congress of Mathematicians, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950.
- Robins biography
- He gave this as individual tuition to pupils who were aiming to enter the University of Cambridge, but he never taught a class.
- Brown Gavin biography
- He spent two years in England during his time on the staff at New South Wales, namely 1979 when he was Visiting Professor at the University of York and 1986 when he was Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge.
- Conforto biography
- He travelled to Cambridge in the United States for the International Congress of Mathematicians in August 1950.
- Flajolet biography
- Indeed, his Complete Works are being prepared for publication by Cambridge University Press and the seven-volume work is expected to appear in 2013.
- Behrend biography
- He went first to England, where he studied at Cambridge, then moved to Zurich and finally to Prague.
- Askey biography
- Published by Cambridge University Press, this new work is six times the length of the earlier one.
- Spence David biography
- He then moved to England where he undertook research in engineering at Clare College, Cambridge, being awarded his doctorate in 1952.
- Thomson W L biography
- He then was awarded a scholarship to allow him to study mathematics at Caius College, Cambridge.
- Cesari biography
- Rado and Cesari were invited to address the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts in September 1950 and they presented their paper Applications of area theory in analysis.
- Lindemann biography
- In England he made visits to Oxford, Cambridge and London, while in France he spent time at Paris where he was influenced by Chasles, Bertrand, Jordan and Hermite.
- Kleene biography
- In particular he lectured on Recursive functions and intuitionistic mathematics at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950.
- Barclay biography
- The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in February 1883 and it was Barclay together with Alexander Yule Fraser, also a mathematics master at George Watson's College at the time, together with Cargill Gilston Knott, an Assistant to the Professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh University, who issued a circular 'to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally whom they deemed likely to take an interest in such a Society' calling for a Mathematical Society to be set up.
- Gentry biography
- She had undertaken research at Girton College, University of Cambridge, England, on algebraic geometry under Cayley's supervision.
- Schooten biography
- It was from Exercitationes mathematicae by van Schooten that Isaac Newton learnt much of his mathematics while a student at Cambridge.
- James biography
- Returning to England, James was Tapp Research Fellow at Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge in 1956 before returning to the University of Oxford.
- Lexis biography
- 1 (Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 287-292.
- Piaggio biography
- H T H Piaggio was educated at the City of London School and at St John's College, Cambridge.
- Lifshitz biography
- For example, he lectured at Cambridge University in England in 1985.
- Wolf Frantisek biography
- Shortly after his appointment, Wolf travelled to England to study at Cambridge University with Hardy and Littlewood.
- Ferrar biography
- Ferrar wrote many research papers which deal with the convergence of series, an interest which came from working with G N Watson at Cambridge for during a summer vacation while an undergraduate.
- Porphyry biography
- Porphyry spent five years in Rome with Plotinus and during this time he [Porphyry, Life of Plotinus (Cambridge, MA, 1966).',2)">2]:-
.
- Castillon biography
- The first volume contains Newton's mathematical essays, the second volume contains the philosophical treatises which mainly consist of Newton's "Optical Lectures", which were originally delivered in Latin at Cambridge in 1669, 1670, and 1671.
- Price biography
- We note that his religious views would have made it impossible for him to attend Oxford or Cambridge university, and the Dissenting academy provided an alternative to a university education for those wishing to study in England but who had views at odds with the standard beliefs of the Church of England.
- Browne biography
- Browne's grant allowed her to study combinational topology at Cambridge University.
- Brouwer biography
- He was awarded honorary doctorates the University of Oslo in 1929, and the University of Cambridge in 1954.
- Iwasawa biography
- In 1950 Iwasawa was invited to give an address at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Pairman biography
- It was a highly productive year for not only did she produce a substantial joint publication with Karl Pearson On corrections for the moment-coefficients of limited range frequency distributions when there are finite or infinite ordinates and any slopes at the terminals of the range which appeared in Biometrika (November 1919), but she also wrote Tracts for Computers which was published by Cambridge University Press (1 January 1920).
- Neumann Hanna biography
- At Easter 1934 Hanna visited Bernhard in Cambridge, England, and they were secretly engaged.
- Richardson biography
- His education was completed at King's College, Cambridge, graduating with a First Class degree in the Natural Science Tripos in 1903.
- Morse biography
- At an International level he served as vice president of the International Congress of Mathematicians from 1958 to 1962 having earlier in his career given important lectures at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich in 1932 and Cambridge, USA in 1950.
- Fogels biography
- He became a dozent in 1937 and gave lectures on algebra and number theory up until the end of 1938 when he travelled to England to undertake research at Cambridge.
- Wilks biography
- In 1933 he went to Cambridge where he worked with John Wishart, who had been a research assistant to both Karl Pearson and R A Fisher.
- Hsu biography
- He spent four years in Britain mainly at University College, London but he also spent some time studying at Cambridge.
- Enriques biography
- His work on algebraic surfaces gained world-wide recognition when it was highlighted by H F Baker in his presidential address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge in 1912.
- Choquet-Bruhat biography
- In 1952, in addition to two short papers, she published a major paper in Acta mathematica with the same title as her thesis [Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 334-342.',2)">2]:-
.
- Cramer Harald biography
- The results of his studies were written up in his Cambridge publication Random variables and probability distributions which appeared in 1937.
- Rudin Walter biography
- Rudin attended the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Cambridge, Massachusetts 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Shen Kua biography
- Needham [Science and Civilisation in China (Cambridge, 1959).
- Fox Ralph biography
- In 1950 the International Congress of Mathematicians took place in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Fox was an invited speaker giving the lecture Recent development of knot theory at Princeton on the work of his Princeton group.
- Airey biography
- Airey taught as a Mathematics Master at Porth Intermediate School, Glamorganshire, until 1903 when, at the age of 35, he gave up his job to matriculate at St John's College, Cambridge to study the Natural Science Tripos.
- Penney biography
- After two years at the University of Wisconsin he returned to England and obtained a doctorate from the University of Cambridge in 1935 on the application of quantum mechanics to the physics of crystals.
- Delsarte biography
- Back in Nancy he did not let his poor eyesight prevent him from attending several European conferences visiting Cambridge, Liege, Brussels, Louvain, Lausanne, Basel, and Zurich.
- Rogers biography
- Born: 1 November 1920 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
.
- The twins were born in Cambridge in 1920, the year in which their father returned from India.
- He succeeded Harold Davenport as the Astor Professor of Mathematics who had moved to Cambridge in 1958.
- The Publisher of the book, Cambridge University Press, writes:-
.
- This little book maintains the high standard of scholarly exposition which has distinguished the Cambridge Tracts for several generations.
- Adams Edwin biography
- He studied in Harvard, Berlin, Gottingen and Cambridge, England, obtaining his doctorate in 1904 from Harvard.
- Nicolson biography
- in Physics (1946) from Manchester University and was a research student (1945-46) and research fellow (1946-49) at Girton College, Cambridge.
- Jourdain biography
- He attended Cheltenham College where he was already finding it difficult to walk and was essentially a cripple by the time he went up to Cambridge in 1898.
- Walfisz biography
- Let us note that Sarvadaman D S Chowla was an Indian mathematician who had studied for his doctorate at the University of Cambridge advised by John Edensor Littlewood.
- Gorenstein biography
- At the end of the period, there were a number of others: Foote from Canada working with John Thompson in Cambridge, England, Geoffrey Mason from England, coming to the United States, and writing his thesis with Fong, himself a student of Brauer, and in Germany, Timmesfeld and Stellmacher, students of Fischer, and Stroth, a student of Huppert, but writing his thesis on a problem suggested by Held, who had himself been a student of Janko.
- Lehmer Emma biography
- The Lehmers remained at Lehigh until 1940 except for the year 1938-39 which they spent in England visiting both the University of Cambridge and the University of Manchester.
- Ladd-Franklin biography
- Hurvich writes in [Notable American women 3 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), 354-356.
- Landau biography
- He was officially retired on 7 February 1934, moved to Berlin and after this only lectured outside Germany, spending some time in Cambridge and in Holland.
- Smith Karen biography
- The published, Cambridge University Press, writes:-
.
- Bradwardine biography
- This work is discussed in [Mathematics and its applications to science and natural philosophy in the Middle Ages (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 103-137.',14)">14] where the author notes that this work by Bradwardine is a good early example of the application of mathematics to natural philosophy.
- Crawford biography
- He completed his studies at King's College, Cambridge, where he won the Glynn and Richards Prizes and was Fifth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1890 (meaning he was ranked fifth among the First Class students).
- Lehmer Derrick biography
- Lehmer and his wife remained at Lehigh until 1940 except for the year 1938-39 which they spent in England visiting both the University of Cambridge and the University of Manchester.
- Stueckelberg biography
- In the spring Stueckelberg, together with Morse, moved to England to spend time at Cambridge.
- Kuczma biography
- Jaroslav Smital describes the book in a review (which was used by the publisher Cambridge University Press to create its own publicity for the work):-
.
- Brown Thomas biography
- After the war ended, he was awarded a Carnegie Fellowship to enable him to undertake research at Trinity College, Cambridge, under E W Hobson.
- Poisson biography
- His studies were purely theoretical, however, for as we mentioned above, he was extremely clumsy with his hands [Andre-Marie Ampere (Cambridge, 1995), 113-118.',19)">19]:-
.
- Bass biography
- Other examples of such visits are Trinity College, University of Cambridge, England for a term in 1973, the Instituto de Matematica Pura e Applicada, Rio de Janeiro, in the summer of 1977, the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, in the autumn in 1977, then the University of California, Berkeley, in the winter of 1977-78.
- McCowan biography
- After five years' loyal service my friend Mr Capstick left us for Cambridge.
- Valiron biography
- Valiron delivered the lectures in French and they were translated into English by Edward Collingwood who, after undergraduate studies at Cambridge, had gone to Aberystwyth at the invitation of W H Young.
- Diaconis biography
- He received the Rollo Davidson Prize from the University of Cambridge (1981), and the Van Wijngaarden Award (2006).
- Cartan Henri biography
- He has received honorary doctorates from several universities including ETH Zurich (1955), Munster (1952), Oslo (1961), Sussex (1969), Cambridge (1969), Stockholm (1978), Oxford (1980), Zaragoza (1985), and Athens (1992).
- Kutta biography
- During this period he spent the year 1898-99 in England at the University of Cambridge.
- Newcomb biography
- In 1857, at the suggestion of the director to the Smithsonian Institution, he obtained a position in the American Nautical Almanac Office (situated in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at that time).
History Topics
- Fractal Geometry
- 1972 ',5)">5] [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] Indeed, when one has only worked with curves that are differentiable almost everywhere, an obvious question when one encounters a formula for a curve that is not is, "what does it look like?"
.
- The boundaries of the various basins of attraction turned out to be very complicated and are known today as Julia sets, [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] an example of which can be seen in Figure 6.
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] Julia published a 199-page paper in 1918 called Memoire sur l'iteration des fonctions rationelles, which discussed much of his work on iterative functions and describing the Julia set.
- On rare occasions, they can be "dendrites" (Figure 8), where they are "made up completely of continuously sub-branching lines, which are only just connected since the removal of any point from them would split them in two," [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] at which point, they would be considered "dust".
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7]
.
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7]
.
- Mandelbrot, like Helge von Koch before him, preferred visual representations of mathematical problems, as opposed to the symbolic, [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] though this may also stem from his lack of formal education, due to World War II.
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7]
.
- While this method was not always possible on other sections, he managed to pass [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] and after a one-day career at the Ecole Normale, Mandelbrot started at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he met another of his mentors, Paul Levy, [13] who was a professor at there from 1920 until his retirement in 1959 [12].
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7]
.
- [Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).',7)">7] However, even if the field lacked these links, it would be hard for those so inclined to resist the aesthetic appeal of most fractals.
- references
- (1995), Exploring General Equilibrium, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- G., MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.
- Minsky M., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- P., Cambridge University Press, New York.
- Fischer S., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- J., Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- J., Ballinger Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- and Fischer F, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- (1967), The Random Character of Stock Market Prices, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (contains the translation from French of Bachelier's doctoral thesis and contains Sprenkle's, 1961 paper).
- (1984), Introduction to Probability Theory, Cambridge University Press (translated from the Japanese),
.
- Water-clocks
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- EMS History
- Chrystal, who had his 32nd birthday four day earlier, was a graduate of Aberdeen and Cambridge.
- We are told of a circular issued by Cargill Knott, Andrew Barclay and Alexander Fraser, addressed 'to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally whom deem likely to take an interest in such a Society'.
- But next the questions may be asked - What careers are there open for such men after they have completed their post-graduate course? Is there anything like the same possibilities for them as are within the reach of Cambridge wranglers? The answer to the first question is, that there are home and colonial professorships, and masterships in the secondary schools.
- Whittaker had studied at Cambridge (1892-95) where he was elected a fellow of Trinity (1896) and continued as a lecturer, making revolutionary changes to the Cambridge courses based on his famous book A Course of Modern Analysis (1902).
- (Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in Mathematics), on Infinity in Geometry.
- (Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge), on Critical Studies of the Modern Electric Theories.
- Thomas MacRobert was, like Whittaker, educated at Cambridge (1907-10).
- Christianity and Mathematics
- He writes (see for example [The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.',21)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">21]):-
.
- Augustine argues against a literal interpretation in many cases using the argument (see for example [The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.',21)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">21]):-
.
- Galileo, less convinced that Castelli had won the argument, wrote Letter to Castelli to him examining (see for example [The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.',21)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">21]):-
.
- He points out that theologians cannot tell a mathematician what mathematics he must believe to be true (see for example [The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.',21)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">21]):-
.
- Christianity and Mathematics references
- P Machamer (ed.), The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998).
- R Blackwell, Could there be another Galileo case?, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 348-366.
- E McMullin, Galileo on science and Scripture, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.
- M Pera, The god of theologians and the god of astronomers : an apology of Bellarmine, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 367-387.
- Christianity and Mathematics references
- P Machamer (ed.), The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998).
- R Blackwell, Could there be another Galileo case?, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 348-366.
- E McMullin, Galileo on science and Scripture, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 271-347.
- M Pera, The god of theologians and the god of astronomers : an apology of Bellarmine, in The Cambridge companion to Galileo (Cambridge, 1998), 367-387.
- Neptune and Pluto
- On 3 July 1841 Adams, while still an undergraduate at Cambridge, wrote
.
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- He sent has predictions to James Challis, the director of the Cambridge Observatory.
Go directly to this paragraph
- An attempt by Adams to give Airy information on the "new planet" failed when Adams visited Greenwich on 23 September on his way between his home in Laneast, Cornwall and Cambridge since Airy was in France at the time.
Go directly to this paragraph
- On 21 October 1845 Adams made a second attempt to visit Airy on his way to Cambridge.
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- On 9 July Airy asked Challis to begin a search at the Cambridge Observatory.
Go directly to this paragraph
- Cambridge, UK (More information and some other links)
.
- Cambridge, UK (Adams' contribution)
.
- Classical light
- In [Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 83-106.',22)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">22] Hakfoort studies the work of Nicolas Beguelin of 1772:-
.
- However Thomas Young produced a major piece of evidence in favour of the wave theory when he carried out experiments on the interference of light between 1797 and 1799 in Cambridge.
- His explanation of interference, from his own words of 1807, is as follows [Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1]:-
.
- He wrote [Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1]:-
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- Arago stated in his report on Fresnel's entry for the prize to the Academie des Sciences [Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1]:-
.
- In 1864 Maxwell wrote a paper in which he stated (see [Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1]):-
.
- Tait's scrapbook
- Tait remained at Edinburgh University for only one year before entering Peterhouse, Cambridge in 1848.
- This means that he was placed first among the First Class degrees in mathematics awarded by Cambridge in that year.
- He spent another two years at Cambridge and he made an attempt to challenge Hopkins as a coach for the Mathematical Tripos.
- Also during these years he collaborated with William John Steele on writing A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle intended as a text for Cambridge students.
- Routh, who had been First Wrangler at Cambridge in Maxwell's year, was also a candidate but the real competition was always going to be between Tait and Maxwell.
- When examined, forward to Cayley, Garden House, Cambridge.
- Maxwell's House
- He continued his education at the Universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge.
- About this time he was given a "devil - on - two - sticks", a toy which he always had with him from that time on when he was on holiday at Glenlair, on holiday in Glasgow, and he even took it with him when he went to study at Cambridge University.
- While in his final year of study for the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge he wrote a poem A Problem in Dynamics [The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1] which begins:-
.
- Another quote, this time by Sir J J Thomson, concerns one of Maxwell's discoveries [James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.',6)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">6]:-
.
- Sir James Jeans wrote [James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.',3)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">3], also in 1931 on the centenary of Maxwell's birth:-
.
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- Sundials
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- Chinese overview references
- C Cullen, Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).
- Chinese mathematics in the thirteenth century (Cambridge, Mass., 1973).
- Chinese science : explorations of an ancient tradition (Cambridge, Mass., 1973).
- J Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 3 (Cambridge, 1959).
- Chinese overview references
- C Cullen, Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).
- Chinese mathematics in the thirteenth century (Cambridge, Mass., 1973).
- Chinese science : explorations of an ancient tradition (Cambridge, Mass., 1973).
- J Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 3 (Cambridge, 1959).
- Classical light references
- R Baierlein, Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).
- A I Sabra, Theories of light : From Descartes to Newton (Cambridge-New York, 1981).
- J Eisenstaedt, Dark bodies and black holes, magic circles and Montgolfiers : light and gravitation from Newton to Einstein, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 83-106.
- Bolzano's manuscripts references
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 29-40.
- A Coffa, Bolzano and the birth of semantics, in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991), 22-40.
- Classical light references
- R Baierlein, Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).
- A I Sabra, Theories of light : From Descartes to Newton (Cambridge-New York, 1981).
- J Eisenstaedt, Dark bodies and black holes, magic circles and Montgolfiers : light and gravitation from Newton to Einstein, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 83-106.
- Bolzano's manuscripts references
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 29-40.
- A Coffa, Bolzano and the birth of semantics, in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991), 22-40.
- Longitude2
- He persuaded Charles II to grant a warrant so that Cambridge could award an M.A.
- The Commissioners included members of the Admiralty, the Astronomer Royal, the Savilian, Lucasian, and Plumian professors of mathematics in Oxford and Cambridge and ten members of Parliament.
- In [Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman\'s astronomer (Cambridge, 1989).',7)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">7] Howse describes Maskelyne's work on the lunar distance method on this voyage:-
.
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- Modern light references
- R Baierlein, Newton to Einstein (Cambridge.
- J Eisenstaedt, Dark bodies and black holes, magic circles and Montgolfiers : light and gravitation from Newton to Einstein, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 83-106.
- Knots and physics references
- P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).
- C G Knott, Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911).
- Neptune and Pluto references
- J W L Glaisher, Biography of John Couch Adams, in The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams (Cambridge, 1896).
- H M Harrison, Voyager in time and space : the life of John Couch Adams, Cambridge astronomer (Lewes, 1994).
- Maxwell's House references
- J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
- J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
- Sundials references
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- function concept references
- J Lutzen, Between rigor and applications : developments in the concept of function in mathematical analysis, in The modern physical and mathematical sciences (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 2003), 468-487.
- Real numbers 2 references
- J V Grabiner, The origins of Cauchy's rigorous calculus (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981).
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 358-385.
- Cosmology references
- E Grant, Eccentrics and epicycles in medieval cosmology, in Mathematics and its applications to science and natural philosophy in the Middle Ages (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 189-214.
- E R Harrison, Cosmology, the Science of the Universe (Cambridge, 1981).
- Quantum mechanics history references
- A Fine, Einstein's interpretations of the quantum theory, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 257-273.
- P T Matthews, Dirac and the foundation of quantum mechanics, Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 199-224.
- Water-clocks references
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- Knots and physics references
- P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).
- C G Knott, Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911).
- Neptune and Pluto references
- J W L Glaisher, Biography of John Couch Adams, in The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams (Cambridge, 1896).
- H M Harrison, Voyager in time and space : the life of John Couch Adams, Cambridge astronomer (Lewes, 1994).
- Maxwell's House references
- J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
- J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
- Sundials references
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- function concept references
- J Lutzen, Between rigor and applications : developments in the concept of function in mathematical analysis, in The modern physical and mathematical sciences (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 2003), 468-487.
- Real numbers 2 references
- J V Grabiner, The origins of Cauchy's rigorous calculus (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981).
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 358-385.
- Cosmology references
- E Grant, Eccentrics and epicycles in medieval cosmology, in Mathematics and its applications to science and natural philosophy in the Middle Ages (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 189-214.
- E R Harrison, Cosmology, the Science of the Universe (Cambridge, 1981).
- Quantum mechanics history references
- A Fine, Einstein's interpretations of the quantum theory, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 257-273.
- P T Matthews, Dirac and the foundation of quantum mechanics, Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 199-224.
- Water-clocks references
- 1999, Cambridge ; New York :: Cambridge University Press.
- Egyptian Papyri
- This is discussed in [Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).',6)">6] and further ideas, adding and correcting information from [Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).',6)">6], is given in [Janus 68 (1-3) (1981), 33-52.
- Orbits
- Later in the same year in August, Halley visited Newton in Cambridge and asked him what orbit a body would follow under an inverse square law of force
.
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- Le Verrier's personal triumph however was somewhat diminished when, on 15 October, a letter was published from the English astronomer Challis claiming that John Couch Adams of Cambridge University had made similar calculations to those of Le Verrier which he had completed in September 1845.
Go directly to this paragraph
- Fermat's last theorem
- Wiles gave a series of three lectures at the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge, England the first on Monday 21 June, the second on Tuesday 22 June.
Go directly to this paragraph
- I believe that I will be able to finish this in the near future using the ideas explained in my Cambridge lectures.
- Chinese overview
- Although it is widely accepted that the work also contains a proof of Pythagoras's theorem, Cullen in [Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).',3)">3] disputes this, claiming that the belief is based on a flawed translation given by Needham in [Science and Civilisation in China 3 (Cambridge, 1959).',13)">13].
- Newton poetry
- A biography reads: John Brown, D.D., a native of Rothbury, in Northumberland, was educated at St John's Colllege, Cambridge; obtained the living of Great Horkesley, Essex, 1754; Vicar of St Nicholas, Newcastle, about 1758; committed suicide, when insane, 1766.
- The following extract is from Book III, Residence at Cambridge where Wordsworth looks at Newton's statue at Trinity College:
.
- Burt Thompson
- He went from Edinburgh to Cambridge where he studied under F M Balfour and Michael Foster, and after graduating he taught physiology for a year under the latter.
- While at Cambridge, to help pay his way through College, he translated Muller's great work on the fertilization of flowers, which was published in 1883 with an introduction by Charles Darwin, one of the very last of his writings.
- Modern light references
- R Baierlein, Newton to Einstein (Cambridge.
- J Eisenstaedt, Dark bodies and black holes, magic circles and Montgolfiers : light and gravitation from Newton to Einstein, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 83-106.
- Egyptian Papyri references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- Calculus history references
- N Guicciardini, The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain, 1700-1800 (Cambridge, 1989).
- Set theory references
- J W Dauben, Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, MA., 1979).
- Orbits references
- S W Hawking and W Israel (eds.), Three hundred years of gravitation (Cambridge-New York, 1989).
- General relativity references
- J J Stachel, How Einstein discovered general relativity : a historical tale with some contemporary morals, General relativity and gravitation (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 200-208.
- Voting references
- S Merrill and B Grofman, A unified theory of voting (Cambridge, 1999).
- Gravitation references
- I B Cohen, Isaac Newton's papers and letters on natural philosophy and related documents (Cambridge, 1958).
- Fermat's last theorem references
- R de Castro Korgi, The proof of Fermat's last theorem has been announced in Cambridge, England (Spanish), Lect.
- Gravitation references
- I B Cohen, Isaac Newton's papers and letters on natural philosophy and related documents (Cambridge, 1958).
- Voting references
- S Merrill and B Grofman, A unified theory of voting (Cambridge, 1999).
- Chinese numerals references
- J Needham, Mathematics and the science of the heavens and the earth, in J Needham, Science and civilisation in China (Cambridge, 1959).
- Egyptian mathematics references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- Egyptian mathematics references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- 20th century time references
- P Yourgrau, P The disappearance of time: Kurt Godel and the idealistic tradition in philosophy (Cambridge, 1991).
- Fermat's last theorem references
- R de Castro Korgi, The proof of Fermat's last theorem has been announced in Cambridge, England (Spanish), Lect.
- Real numbers 3
- In 1933 David Champernowne, who was an undergraduate at Cambridge University and a friend of Alan Turing, devised Champernowne's number.
- Fractal Geometry references
- Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).
- Gravitation
- Newton himself wrote in a letter to Dr Bentley dated 25 February 1693 (see for example [Isaac Newton\'s papers and letters on natural philosophy and related documents (Cambridge, 1958).',1)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">1], page 302):-
.
- Size of the Universe references
- J and M Gribbin, How far is up? (Icon Books, Cambridge, 2003.
- Real numbers 3 references
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 358-385.
- Group theory references
- H Wussing, The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept (Cambridge, MA., 1984).
- Burnside problem references
- Modern light
- It attempted to explain the dual wave-particle duality of light which, in the words of Baierlein [Newton to Einstein (Cambridge.
- Harriot's manuscripts
- The will was located by Henry Stevens of Vermont (1819-1886), see [Thomas Harriot: Renaissance scientist (Oxford, 1974), 91-106.',5)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">5] and [History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 1-16.',6)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">6] for full details of this interesting episode.
- General relativity references
- J J Stachel, How Einstein discovered general relativity : a historical tale with some contemporary morals, General relativity and gravitation (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 200-208.
- Burnside problem
- Ledermann interview
- I was interviewed after the war; Mordell had left to go to Cambridge, and Manchester University had been taken over by Max Newman and Sydney Goldstein.
- Knots and physics
- However, more than 100 years after they were written these manuscripts were published in [James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).',2)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">2].
- 20th century time references
- P Yourgrau, P The disappearance of time: Kurt Godel and the idealistic tradition in philosophy (Cambridge, 1991).
- Orbits references
- S W Hawking and W Israel (eds.), Three hundred years of gravitation (Cambridge-New York, 1989).
- Egyptian mathematics references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- Fractal Geometry references
- Introducing Fractal Geometry (Cambridge, 2000).
- Babylonian and Egyptian references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- Calculus history references
- N Guicciardini, The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain, 1700-1800 (Cambridge, 1989).
- Size of the Universe references
- J and M Gribbin, How far is up? (Icon Books, Cambridge, 2003.
- Real numbers 3 references
- Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), 358-385.
- Egyptian Papyri references
- R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs (Cambridge, MA., 1982).
- The four colour theorem
- Kempe was a London barrister who had studied mathematics under Cayley at Cambridge and devoted some of his time to mathematics throughout his life.
Go directly to this paragraph
- Chinese numerals references
- J Needham, Mathematics and the science of the heavens and the earth, in J Needham, Science and civilisation in China (Cambridge, 1959).
- Harriot's manuscripts references
- Harriot's will, History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 1-16.
- Burnside problem references
- Group theory references
- H Wussing, The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept (Cambridge, MA., 1984).
- Harriot's manuscripts references
- Harriot's will, History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 1-16.
- Set theory references
- J W Dauben, Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite (Cambridge, MA., 1979).
- Longitude2 references
- D Howse, Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman's astronomer (Cambridge, 1989).
- Longitude2 references
- D Howse, Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman's astronomer (Cambridge, 1989).
- Weather forecasting
- Richardson, who had studied a number of sciences at both Newcastle University and the University of Cambridge, worked in the British Meteorological Office from 1913 until 1916.
- Real numbers 2
- Grabiner writes [The origins of Cauchy\'s rigorous calculus (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981).',2)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">2]:-
.
Famous Curves
- Lituus
- Appointed professor at Cambridge at the age of 24 his work was published only after his death.
Societies etc
- Letter 1985
- LETTER FROM CAMBRIDGE BMC SECRETARY CONCERNING HULL BMC
.
- The Secretary should pay a visit by car to Cambridge at some time during the Easter term to collect the files and to discuss with me what is involved in his job.
- I enclose copies of the letters sent to this years' speakers, which are the only items he will need before coming to Cambridge.
- In Cambridge the organising committee which selected the speakers changed completely for the Michaelmas term.
- Minutes for 1985
- A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Lady Mitchell Hall, Sidgwick Site, University of Cambridge at 2.00 p.m.
- Current serving members of the committee are Dr B Bollobas (Cambridge)(1), Dr D J H Garling (Cambridge)(1), Dr.
- Further nominations were made en bloc for Dr R C Mason (Cambridge), Dr F J Yeadon (Hull), Dr D Strauss (Hull), Professor P Vamos (Exeter), Dr D L Johnson (Nottingham).
- There was some discussion concerning the high cost in Cambridge.
- It was observed by Dr Garling that Cambridge operated commercially as a conference centre, and that costs were known to be high many years ago.
- Mason and the rest of the Cambridge organisers for arranging such an enjoyable meeting.
- Minutes for 1986
- The minutes of the General Meeting held in Cambridge in 1985 were read and approved.
- The accounts of the Cambridge BMC were accepted.
- Of the other members of the Committee at the Cambridge Colloquium, those present in Hull were re-elected, as follows (previous number of years' service in brackets):
.
- I T A C Adamson (EMS representative), H R Dowson (EMS representative), D J H Garling (Cambridge) (2), D L Johnson (Nottingham) (1), J J O'Connor (St Andrews) (2), A R Pears (LMS representative), J S Pym (LMS representative), D Strauss (Hull) (1), F J Yeadon (Hull) (1).
- (a) Dr Pinch referred to Professor Vamos's suggestion at the General Meeting in Cambridge that a cheaper and lighter lunch be provided.
- (b) Dr Sproston referred to the Committee's discussions at Cambridge concerning the reduction in the Colloquium balance being urged by the LMS and the EMS.
- (c) In reply to a question, Dr Sproston said that his impression was that the reduction in registration fee for research students, introduced at Cambridge, had had a noticeable effect which had been consolidated at the Hull Colloquium.
- Minutes for 1998
- Dr Walker expressed disappointment at the number of participants, and drew attention to the fact that some large departments such as Cambridge, Oxford and Warwick had sent very few people.
- It was suggested that Prof Vaughan F R Jones (U C Berkeley) and Prof Ken Ribet (U C Berkeley) should be contacted, with Prof Richard E Borcherds (Cambridge), Prof Dusa McDuff (SUNY at Stony Brook) and Prof F Buekenhout (Brussels) as alternatives.
- Dr M C White (Newcastle: refused 50th, but was keen), Prof A G O'Farrell (Maynooth, Ireland), Dr A Grigoryan (Imperial), Dr S Bullett (QMW), Dr C J K Batty (Oxford), Dr F A Rogers (Kings), Dr A V Sobolev (Sussex), Dr M Levitin (Heriot-Watt), Prof W T Gowers (Cambridge, proposed earlier in the meeting by MJT).
- Dr D Singerman (Southampton), Prof J W Bruce (Liverpool), Dr D Joyce (Oxford, refused 50th), Dr W J Harvey (Kings), Dr A D King (Bath), Dr J C Wood (Leeds), Dr R M W Wood (Manchester), Dr N Strickland (Cambridge), Dr Bailey (which one?), Dr B H Bowditch (refused 50th, good reason.
- Prof R E Borcherds (Cambridge, refused 50th), Dr J Nekovar (Cambridge, refused 50th with good reason), Dr D Solomon (Kings), Dr B ni Fhlathuin (formerly Bath, now in Ireland?), Dr D Burns (Kings).
- Prof N Biggs (LSE, Comb.), Dr N S Manton (Cambridge, Math/Physics), Dr I B Leader (Kings, Comb.), Dr G Brightwell (LSE, Comb.), Dr J J Gray (Open, History), Dr J Chapman (Oxford, Phys.), Dr R J Wilson (Open, History), Dr R Hill (Salford, Comb.).
- Minutes for 1997
- Suggested alternative speakers were (1) Karen Uhlenbeck (Texas) and (2) Michael Atiyah (Cambridge).
- Algebra Dr A A Premet (Manchester), Dr D Testerman (Warwick), Dr M Nazarov (York), Dr J Saxl (Cambridge), Prof J S Wilson (Birmingham), *Dr M P F du Sautoy (Cambridge).
- Number Theory Prof R E Borcherds (Cambridge), Dr J Nekovar (Cambridge), Prof I B Fesenko (Nottingham), Prof C J Bushnell (King's), Dr R Heath-Brown (Oxford), *Dr J McKee (Edinburgh), *Dr B ni Fhlathuin (Bath).
- Other *Dr J Chapman (Oxford), Dr R M Roberts (Warwick), Prof N H Bingham (Birkbeck), Prof C St-J A Nash-Williams (Reading), Dr N S Manton (Cambridge).
- Minutes for 1997
- Suggested alternative speakers were (1) Karen Uhlenbeck (Texas) and (2) Michael Atiyah (Cambridge).
- Algebra Dr A A Premet (Manchester), Dr D Testerman (Warwick), Dr M Nazarov (York), Dr J Saxl (Cambridge), Prof J S Wilson (Birmingham), *Dr M P F du Sautoy (Cambridge).
- Number Theory Prof R E Borcherds (Cambridge), Dr J Nekovar (Cambridge), Prof I B Fesenko (Nottingham), Prof C J Bushnell (King's), Dr R Heath-Brown (Oxford), *Dr J McKee (Edinburgh), *Dr B ni Fhlathuin (Bath).
- Other *Dr J Chapman (Oxford), Dr R M Roberts (Warwick), Prof N H Bingham (Birkbeck), Prof C St-J A Nash-Williams (Reading), Dr N S Manton (Cambridge).
- Minutes for 1997
- Suggested alternative speakers were (1) Karen Uhlenbeck (Texas) and (2) Michael Atiyah (Cambridge).
- Dr A A Premet (Manchester), Dr D Testerman (Warwick), Dr M Nazarov (York), Dr J Saxl (Cambridge), Prof J S Wilson (Birmingham), *Dr M P F du Sautoy (Cambridge).
- Prof R E Borcherds (Cambridge), Dr J Nekovar (Cambridge), Prof I B Fesenko (Nottingham), Prof C J Bushnell (King's), Dr R Heath-Brown (Oxford), *Dr J McKee (Edinburgh), *Dr B ni Fhlathuin (Bath).
- *Dr J Chapman (Oxford), Dr R M Roberts (Warwick), Prof N H Bingham (Birkbeck), Prof C St-J A Nash-Williams (Reading), Dr N S Manton (Cambridge).
- Clay Award
- Presented on May 10, 1999 in Cambridge, MA.
- Presented on October 30, 2002 in Cambridge, MA.
- Presented on October 30, 2002 in Cambridge, MA.
- Presented on November 14, 2003 in Cambridge, MA.
- Presented on November 14, 2003 in Cambridge, MA.
- Groups St Andrews.html
- Jim Roseblade (Cambridge)
.
- John Thompson (Cambridge)
.
- Chris Brookes (Cambridge)
.
- Marcus du Sautoy (Cambridge),
.
- EMS Founder Members
- St Peter's College, Cambridge
.
- Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
.
- Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
.
- Fellow and Tutor, Jesus College, Cambridge
.
- Minutes for 1985
- Minutes of the meeting of the Committee of the British Mathematical Colloquium held in the 'White' Combination Room, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, on Wednesday 3rd April 1985 at 8.45 p.m.
- The high cost of the Cambridge Colloquium was discussed, having been raised at the General Meeting earlier in the day.
- It was appreciated that costs were likely to be high at places such as Cambridge, and it was suggested that, with the long planning period currently in operation, the cost of any future BMC that appeared likely to be expensive could be spread over a number of Colloquia.
- The Committee unanimously passed a vote of thanks to the Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer of the Cambridge Organising Committee for all their hard work.
- Minutes for 1953
- The chairman informed the meeting that an invitation had been received through Professor Hodge to hold the next meeting of the colloquium in Cambridge but pointed out that the International Congress was meeting in Amsterdam in September 1954.
- (b) that this meeting be in Cambridge from the 5th to 9th of April,
.
- (c) that the University of Cambridge be thanked for their invitation.
- Minutes for 2005
- Rachael Camina (Cambridge) - until 31 May 2007
.
- Helen Robinson (Coventry), Caroline Series (Warwick), Rachel Camina (Cambridge)
.
- Rachel Camina (Cambridge) - until 31 May 2007 R.D.Camina@dpmms.cam.ac.uk
.
- BMC Committee
- W V D Hodge (Cambridge)
.
- F Smithies (Cambridge)
.
- Minutes for 2007
- Morning speakers: Anton Cox (City), John Cremona (Warwick), Patrick Dorey (Durham), Ben Green (Cambridge), Dominic Joyce (Oxford), Raphael Rouquier (Oxford), Jonathan Sherratt (Herriot Watt), Caterina Stroppel (Glasgow), Peter Symonds (Manchester), Franco Vivaldi (Queen Mary), Michael Weiss (Aberdeen).
- Rachel Camina (Cambridge) - until 31 May 2007 R.D.Camina@dpmms.cam.ac.uk
.
- BMC 1985
- This was held at Cambridge: 2 - 4 April 1985.
- A letter from the Cambridge BMC Secretary is available at THIS LINK
.
- Minutes for 1953
- It was decided that "following the Cambridge Colloquium the Chairman of the Organising Committee be also Chairman of the Colloquium".
- (A Deputy Chairman of the Organising Committee was elected as Professor Hodge could not be in Cambridge during the Colloquium).
- Minutes for 1949
- W V D Hodge (Cambridge)
.
- F Smithies (Cambridge)
.
- Minutes for 2006
- LMS: Rachel Camina (Cambridge), Garth Dales (Leeds)
.
- Rachel Camina (Cambridge) - until 31 May 2007 R.D.Camina@dpmms.cam.ac.uk
.
- Minutes for 1954
- A meeting of the Committee of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Pembroke College Cambridge on April 7th 1954 at 9.30 pm.
- It was decided to send a telegram to Dr Relton regretting his absence from the Colloquium at Cambridge.
- MAA Hedrick Lecturer
- 1993 Sir Michael Atiyah, University of Cambridge
.
- 2006 W T Gowers, University of Cambridge Centre for Mathematical Sciences, UK
.
- British Mathematical Colloquium
- New York Mathematical Society
- The idea for a mathematical society in the United States came during a six month visit T S Fiske, a graduate student at Columbia College, made to England in 1887 when he visited Cambridge.
- He arrived with letters of introduction to Cayley, Glaisher, Forsyth and Darwin written by G L Rives, a trustee of Columbia College who had been a wrangler at Cambridge in 1872.
- British Mathematical Colloquium
- Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
- A Boston/Cambridge section was established and the first SIAM meeting outside Philadelphia was held in Cambridge on 20 May 1953, addressed by Norbert Wiener.
- International Congress Speaker
- CAMBRIDGE, UK 1912
.
- CAMBRIDGE, USA 1950
.
- Minutes for 1955
- The minutes of the General Meeting held in Cambridge in 1954 were read and approved.
- The accounts for the Colloquium held in Cambridge were approved.
- Minutes for 2008
- James Ward informed the committee that the following had accepted invitations as Plenary Speakers: David Eisenbud (Berkeley) (through the good offices of Garth Dales), Ron Graham (UC San Diego), Ben Green (Cambridge), Rostislav Grigorchuk (Texas A & M) and Frances Kirwan (Oxford).
- Scientific Committee 2005
- LMS: Rachel Camina (Cambridge), Garth Dales (Leeds), Caroline Series (Warwick),
.
- Minutes for 1978
- It was agreed to ask the University of Hull to act as hosts for the Colloquium, and if this was not possible, the Universities of Aberdeen, Bristol and Cambridge in that order.
- SCminutes2002.html
- State); John Conway (Princeton); Tim Gowers (Cambridge); Michael Harris (Paris VII).
- BMC 1954
- This was held at Cambridge: 6 - 8 April 1954.
- International Mathematical Union
- Much of the groundwork was done during the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1950 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Minutes for 1992
- Dr R G E Pinch (Cambridge)
.
- Edinburgh Mathematical Society
- to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge, and throughout Scotland generally whom we deem likely to take an interest in such a Society..
- Whittaker John
- Baker
- BMC-BAMC meeting 2005
- LMS: Rachel Camina (Cambridge), Garth Dales (Leeds), Caroline Series (Warwick),
.
- Minutes for 1981
- Professor Cassels invited the meeting to a BMC in Cambridge from 1st - 5th April 1985: the invitation was accepted by acclamation.
- Minutes for 1986
- The minutes of the Cambridge Committee meeting were approved.
- Scientific Committee 2002
- State); John Conway (Princeton); Tim Gowers (Cambridge); Michael Harris (Paris VII).
- Minutes for 1980
- The Committee agreed to ask if CAMBRIDGE would issue an invitation for 1985.
- History of the EMS
- to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally..
- Plumian chair
- This is one of the professorships at the University of Cambridge.
- References for Plato
- Minutes for 2008
- James Ward informed the committee that the following had accepted invitations as Plenary Speakers: David Eisenbud (Berkeley) (through the good offices of Garth Dales), Ron Graham (UC San Diego), Ben Green (Cambridge), Rostislav Grigorchuk (Texas A & M) and Frances Kirwan (Oxford).
- Minutes for 1952
- Professor Hodge suggested that the 1954 Colloquium should be held at Cambridge and said that he would look into the matter.
- BMC 2008
- Montgomery, H LForty years ago in Cambridge
.
- History of the AMS
- It appears that the idea for a mathematical society in the United States came from a visit T S Fiske made to England where he visited Cambridge.
- Minutes for 2000
- Dr D J H Garling (Cambridge) suggested that under the current system it was possible for Departments to obtain a guarantee of LMS funding several years ahead, before full budget details were finalised; also, that the Scientific Committee currently has 3 LMS appointees and 3 EMS appointees, each serving a 3-year period so providing some continuity.
- Minutes for 1979
- The Universities of Bristol, Cambridge and Bath could be approached if Warwick was unable to accommodate the BMC.
- References for RS
- H Lyons, The Royal Society 1660-1940 (Cambridge, 1944).
- Lucasian Chairs
- The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics was founded in 1663 at Cambridge University as a result of a gift from
.
- Minutes for 1987
- J F Adams (1) Cambridge
.
- Lowndean chair
- This is one of the professorships at the University of Cambridge.
- Minutes for 1954
- A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in the Arts School, Cambridge on April 7th, 1954 at 8.30 pm.
- Scientific Committee 2006
- LMS: Rachel Camina (Cambridge), Garth Dales (Leeds); Charles Goldie (Sussex);
.
- References for Royal Society
- H Lyons, The Royal Society 1660-1940 (Cambridge, 1944).
- Minutes for 1987
- Professor J F Adams (Cambridge)
.
References
- References for Dirac
- R H Dalitz (ed.), The collected works of P A M Dirac : 1924-1948 (Cambridge, 1995).
- H Kragh, Dirac : A Scientific Biography (Cambridge, 1991).
- B N Kursunoglu and E P Wigner (eds.), Reminiscences about a great physicist: Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987).
- A Pais, M Jacob, D I Olive, and M F Atiyah, Paul Dirac : The man and his work (Cambridge, 1998).
- R H Dalitz, A biographical sketch of the life of Professor P A M Dirac, OM, FRS, in J G Taylor (ed.), Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 3-28.
- C J Eliezer, Some reminiscences of Professor P A M Dirac, in J G Taylor (ed.), Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 58-60.
- Harish-Chandra, My association with Professor Dirac, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 34-36.
- N Kemmer, What Paul Dirac meant in my life, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 37-42.
- A D Krisch, An experimenter's view of P A M Dirac, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 46-52.
- S A Kursunoglu, Dirac in Coral Gables, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 9-28.
- J E Lannutti, Recollections of Paul Dirac at Florida State University, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 29-33.
- P T Matthews, Dirac and the foundation of quantum mechanics, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 199-224.
- J Mehra, Dirac's contribution to the early development of quantum mechanics, in Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 63-75.
- N Mott, Reminiscences of Paul Dirac, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 230-233.
- A Pais, Paul Dirac : aspects of his life and work, in Paul Dirac (Cambridge, 1998), 1-45.
- R Peierls, Dirac's way, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 43-45.
- R Peierls, Address to Dirac memorial meeting, Cambridge, in Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 35-37.
- J C Polkinghorne, At the feet of Dirac, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 227-229.
- J C Polkinghorne, A brief reminiscence of Dirac, in Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 33-34.
- S Shanmugadhasan, Dirac as research supervisor and other remembrances, in Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985 (Bristol, 1987), 48-57.
- H K Stanford, Dirac at the University of Miami, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 53-56.
- E P Wigner, Remembering Paul Dirac, in Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Cambridge, 1987), 57-65.
- References for Maxwell
- A D D Craik, Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007)
.
- 1846-1862 (Cambridge, 1990).
- 1862-1873 (Cambridge, 1995).
- A Einstein, Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 66-73.
- A Fleming, Some memories, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 116-124.
- A T Fuller, James Clerk Maxwell's Cambridge manuscripts : extracts relating to control and stability, V.
- W Garnett, Maxwell's laboratory, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 109-115.
- R T Glazebrook, Early days at the Cavendish laboratory, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 130-141.
- P M Harman, Edinburgh philosophy and Cambridge physics : the natural philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell, in Wranglers and physicists (Manchester, 1985), 202-224.
- P M Harman, Maxwell and Saturn's rings : problems of stability and calculability, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 477-502.
- J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
- H Lamb, Clerk Maxwell as lecturer, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 142-146.
- J Larmor, The scientific environment of Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 74-90.
- O Lodge, Clerk Maxwell and wireless telegraphy, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 125-129.
- M Planck, Maxwell's influence on theoretical physics in Germany, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 45-65.
- J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
- References for Einstein
- M Beller, J Renn and R S Cohen (eds.), Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993).
- A centenary volume (Cambridge, Mass., 1979).
- T Hey and P Walters, Einstein's mirror (Cambridge, 1997).
- A Whitaker, Einstein, Bohr and the quantum dilemma (Cambridge, 1996).
- M Beller, Einstein and Bohr's rhetoric of complementarity, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 241-255.
- Y Ben-Menahem, Struggling with causality : Einstein's case, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 291-310.
- A Fine, Einstein's interpretations of the quantum theory, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 257-273.
- The anti-Einstein campaign in Germany in 1920, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 107-133.
- T P Hughes, Einstein, inventors, and invention, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 25-42.
- A J Kox, Einstein and Lorentz: more than just good colleagues, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 43-56.
- H Melcher, Some supplements to Einstein-documents, in Proceedings of the ninth international conference on general relativity and gravitation (Cambridge, 1983), 271-284.
- J Renn, Einstein as a disciple of Galileo : a comparative study of concept development in physics, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 311-341.
- R Schulmann, Einstein at the Patent Office : exile, salvation, or tactical retreat?, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 17-24.
- J Stachel, How Einstein discovered general relativity : a historical tale with some contemporary morals, in General relativity and gravitation (Cambridge-New York, 1987), 200-208.
- J Stachel, The other Einstein : Einstein contra field theory., in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 275-290.
- References for Russell
- (1897) An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry, Cambridge: At the University Press.
- (1903) The Principles of Mathematics, Cambridge: At the University Press.
- in B Russell, Logic and Knowledge (London, Allen and Unwin, 1956), 59-102, and in J van Heijenoort, From Frege to Godel (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1967), 152-182.
- (1910, 1912, 1913) (with Alfred North Whitehead) Principia Mathematica, 3 vols, (Cambridge: At the University Press).
- Abridged as Principia Mathematica to *56, (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1962).
- G H Hardy, Bertrand Russell and Trinity, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).
- (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 41-52, in E D Klemke (ed.), Essays on Bertrand Russell (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 341-354, and in D F Pears (ed.), Bertrand Russell: A Collection of Critical Essays (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1972), 175-191.
- in P Benacerraf and H Putnam (eds), Philosophy of Mathematics, 2nd ed., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 447-469, and in D F Pears, (ed.) Bertrand Russell: A Collection of Critical Essays, (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1972), 192-226.
- 1, (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1990), 137-172 and in A D Irvine, Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, Vol 2, (London: Routledge, 1996).
- in F P Ramsey, The Foundations of Mathematics (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1931), 62-81, in F P Ramsey, Foundations (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978), 213-232, and in F P Ramsey, Philosophical Papers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 225-244.
- References for Newton
- I B Cohen, Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' (Cambridge, Mass., 1971).
- J E McGuire and M Tamny, Certain philosophical questions : Newton's Trinity notebook (Cambridge-New York, 1983).
- R S Westfall, The Life of Isaac Newton (Cambridge, 1993).
- Z Bechler, Newton's ontology of the force of inertia, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 287-304.
- J B Brackenridge, The critical role of curvature in Newton's developing dynamics, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 231-260.
- K Figala, J Harrison and U Petzold, 'De scriptoribus chemicis' : sources for the establishment of Isaac Newton's (al)chemical library, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 135-179.
- A Gabbey, Newton's 'Mathematical principles of natural philosophy' : a treatise on 'mechanics'?, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 305-322.
- J Gascoigne, The universities and the scientific revolution : the case of Newton and Restoration Cambridge, Hist.
- A R Hall, Newton and the absolutes : sources, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 261-285.
- S W Hawking, Newton's 'Principia', in Three hundred years of gravitation (Cambridge, 1987), 1-4.
- A E Shapiro, Beyond the dating game : watermark clusters and the composition of Newton's ' Opticks', in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 181-227.
- References for Black Fischer
- (1995), Exploring General Equilibrium, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- G., MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.
- Minsky M., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- P., Cambridge University Press, New York.
- Fischer S., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- J., Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- J., Ballinger Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- and Fischer F, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- (1967), The Random Character of Stock Market Prices, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (contains the translation from French of Bachelier's doctoral thesis and contains Sprenkle's, 1961 paper).
- (1984), Introduction to Probability Theory, Cambridge University Press (translated from the Japanese),
.
- References for Chrystal
- Letter from G Chrystal to Professor G G Stokes, 30 July 1877, Cambridge University Library Add MSS7656c529.
- Letter from G Chrystal to Professor G G Stokes, August 1877, Cambridge University Library Add MSS 7656c535.
- Letter from George Chrystal to Professor Maxwell, 7 July 1874, Tubingen, Cambridge University Library Add MSS.
- Letter from Professor G Chrystal to Professor J C Maxwell, 6 March 1879, Cambridge University Library Add.
- Letter from Professor G Chrystal to Sir J Larmor, 5 January 1906, Cambridge University Library Add MSS.
- Letter from Professor G Chrystal to Sir William Thomson, 9 October 1878, Cambridge University Library Add MSS 7342 c86.
- Letter from Professor J C Maxwell to George Chrystal, 17 July 1877, Cambridge University Library Add MSS8375.
- Letter from Professor J C Maxwell to Professor G Chrystal, 3 June 1879, Cambridge University Library Add.
- References for Clifford Alfred
- K H Hofmann and J D Lawson, Linearly ordered semigroups: historical origins and A H Clifford's influence, Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 15-39.
- D D Miller, Reminiscences of a friendship, Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 1-2.
- G B Preston, A H Clifford's work on unions of groups, Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 5-14.
- J Rhodes, The relationship of Al Clifford's work to the current theory of semigroups, Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 43-51.
- References for Colson
- W W Rouse Ball, A history of the study of mathematics at Cambridge (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1889).
- R Bruen, John Colson, The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University.
- A history of Cambridge University's Lucasian professors of mathematics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003), 171-204.
- References for Whewell
- A D D Craik, Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007) M Fisch, William Whewell, Philosopher of Science (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991) [This Link]
.
- R Yeo, Defining Science : William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993).
- H W Becher, William Whewell and Cambridge Mathematics, Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 11 (1980-81), 1-48.
- H W Becher, Voluntary Science in Nineteenth-Century Cambridge University to the 1850s, British Journal for the History of Science 19 (1986), 57-87.
- L Stephen, Whewell, William (1794-1866), master of Trinity College, Cambridge, Dictionary of National Biography (London, 1899).
- References for Bell John
- Brown (eds.), The Ghost in the Atom (Cambridge, 1986) [Contains an interesting interview with John Bell.]
.
- Rae, Quantum Physics: Illusion or Reality (Cambridge, 1986).
- Whitaker, Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma (Cambridge, 1996).
- Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge, 2000).
- Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge, 1987).
- Amati (eds.), Quantum Reflections (Cambridge, 2000).
- References for Kuiper
- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xiii-xv.
- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), xi-xii.
- 32 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1997), 341-348.
- References for Stokes
- J Larmor, Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1907).
- A D D Craik, Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007)
.
- J Z Buchwald, Why Stokes never wrote a treatise on optics, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 451-476.
- Sajjadi & Hunt, (Cambridge: June 2003).
- H P Stokes, Reminiscences of Sir George Stokes, The Cambridge Chronical (13 Feb, 1903).
- References for Adams
- W G Adams (ed), The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams (2 vols.) (Cambridge, 1896-1900).
- A D D Craik, Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007)
.
- H M Harrison, Voyager in time and space : the life of John Couch Adams, Cambridge astronomer (Lewes, 1994).
- J W L Glaisher, Biography of John Couch Adams, in The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams I (Cambridge, 1896), xv-xlviii.
- D W Hughes, J C Adams, Cambridge and Neptune, Notes and Records of the Royal Society 50 (1996), 245-248.
- References for Bohr Niels
- A P French and P J Kennedy (eds), Niels Bohr : A centenary volume (Cambridge, Mass., London, 1985).
- R Moore, Niels Bohr : the man, his science, and the world they changed (Cambridge, Mass., 1966).
- D Murdoch, Niels Bohr's philosophy of physics (Cambridge, 1987).
- S Petruccioli, Atoms, metaphors and paradoxes : Niels Bohr and the construction of a new physics (Cambridge, 1993).
- A Whitaker, Einstein, Bohr and the quantum dilemma (Cambridge, 1996).
- M Beller, Einstein and Bohr's rhetoric of complementarity, in Einstein in context (Cambridge, 1993), 241-255.
- References for Eddington
- S Chandrasekhar, Eddington : the most distinguished astrophysicist of his time (Cambridge, 1983).
- H Dingle, The Sources of Eddington's Philosophy (Cambridge, 1954).
- L P Jacks, Sir Arthur Eddington : man of science and mystic (Cambridge, 1948).
- C W Kilmister, Eddington's search for a fundamental theory : a key to the universe (Cambridge, 1994).
- A D Ritchie, Reflections on the philosophy of Sir Arthur Eddington (Cambridge, 1948).
- References for Quetelet
- L J Daston, Rational individuals versus laws of society : from probability to statistics, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 295-304.
- B-P Lecuyer, Probability in vital and social statistics : Quetelet, Farr, and the Bertillons, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 317-335.
- A Oberschall, The two empirical roots of social theory and the probability revolution, The probabilistic revolution 2 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987), 103-131.
- T M Porter, Lawless society: social science and the reinterpretation of statistics in Germany, 1850-1880, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 351-375.
- The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900 (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1986), 161-.
- References for Guarini
- Thesis in Cambridge University Library and Microfilm Copy in the British Library, London (June, 1991).
- A Perez-Gomez, Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science (Cambridge, Mass., 1983).
- C Lohr, Metaphysics, in Ch B Schmitt (ed.), The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge, 1988), 537-638.
- J McQuillan, The Mathematical Places of Mario Bettini, Scroope the Cambridge architectural magazine (2) (June, 1990), 18-23.
- References for Laplace
- M-N Bourguet, Decrire, compter, calculer : the debate over statistics during the Napoleonic period, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 305-316.
- A Kamlah, The decline of the Laplacian theory of probability : a study of Stumpf, von Kries, and Meinong, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 91-116.
- L Kruger, The slow rise of probabilism : philosophical arguments in the nineteenth century, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 59-89.
- I Schneider, Laplace and thereafter : the status of probability calculus in the nineteenth century, in The probabilistic revolution 1 (Cambridge, MA-London, 1987), 191-214.
- The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900 (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1986), 100-.
- References for Tait
- A D D Craik, Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century (Cambridge 2007)
.
- P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).
- C G Knott, Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911).
- References for Hobbes
- T Sorell (ed.), The Cambridge companion to Hobbes (Cambridge, 1996).
- H Grant, Hobbes and mathematics, in The Cambridge companion to Hobbes (Cambridge, 1996), 108-128.
- References for Leibniz
- J E Hofmann, Leibniz in Paris, 1672-1676 (Cambridge, 1974).
- H Ishiguro, Leibniz's philosophy of logic and language (Cambridge, 1990).
- A R Hall, Philosophers at war : The quarrel between Newton and Leibniz (Cambridge, 1980).
- D Rutherford, Leibniz and the rational order of nature (Cambridge, 1995).
- References for Kepler
- J Kepler (translated W Donahue), Astronomia nova: New Astronomy Cambridge, 1992)
.
- J V Field, Kepler's Rejection of Numerology in B W Vickers (ed.), Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance (Cambridge, 1984), 273-296.
- O Gingerich, Johannes Kepler, in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics Part A (Cambridge, 1989), 54-78.
- N M Swerdlow, Shadow measurement : the 'Sciametria' from Kepler's 'Hipparchus' - a translation with commentary, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 19-70.
- References for Frege
- W Demopoulos (ed.), Frege's Philosophy of Mathematics (Cambridge, MA, 1995).
- P Benacerraf, Frege : the last logicist, in Frege's philosophy of mathematics (Cambridge, MA, 1995), 41-67.
- C Parsons, Frege's theory of number, in Frege's philosophy of mathematics (Cambridge, MA, 1995), 182-207.
- P M Simons, Frege's theory of real numbers, in Frege's philosophy of mathematics (Cambridge, MA, 1995), 358-385.
- References for Whiteside
- Preface, The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992), xi-xii.
- Publications of D T Whiteside, The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992), xiii-xvi.
- References for More Henry
- H G Jentsch, Henry More in Cambridge (Gottingen, 1935).
- A Lichtenstein, Henry More : The rational theology of a Cambridge Platonist (Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
- R Ward, The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr Henry More (Cambridge, 1710).
- References for Zeno of Elea
- 2) (Cambridge, 1962).
- G S Kirk, J E Raven and M Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge, 1983).
- A text with Translation and Commentary (Cambridge, 1936).
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- Friedmann : the man who made the universe expand (Cambridge, 1993).
- References for Huygens
- Christiaan Huygens and the mathematization of nature (Cambridge, 1988).
- References for Madhava
- R C Gupta, Madhava's rule for finding angle between the ecliptic and the horizon and Aryabhata's knowledge of it, in History of oriental astronomy, New Delhi, 1985 (Cambridge, 1987), 197-202.
- References for Cusa
- P E Sigmund, Nicholas of Cusa and Medieval Political Thought (Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass., 1963).
- References for Mackey
- Mackey, 90 : Obituary, Harvard News (Cambridge, March 2006.
- References for Brauer
- R Brauer, Preface, in W J Wong and P Fong (eds.), Richard Brauer : Collected papers (Cambridge, MA, 1980), xv-xix.
- References for Glaisher
- J J Thomson, Dr Glaisher (Obituary), The Cambridge Review 1 (1929), 212-231.
- References for Rogers James
- G H Hardy, J E Littlewood and G Polya, Inequalities (Cambridge, 1934).
- References for Edgeworth
- The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900 (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1986), 305-.
- References for Reinher
- of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
- References for Segre Corrado
- 179 (Cambridge, 1992), 175-188.
- References for Leonardo
- V C Zubov, Leonardo da Vinci (Cambridge, 1968).
- References for Richardson
- O M Ashford (ed.), Collected papers of Lewis Fry Richardson (Cambridge, 1993).
- References for John
- E Hlawka, On the work of Professor Fritz John, in 75 years of Radon transform, Vienna, 1992 (Cambridge, MA, 1994), 36-38.
- References for Novikov Sergi
- S C Ferry, A Ranickiand J Rosenberg, A history and survey of the Novikov conjecture, in Novikov conjectures, index theorems and rigidity 1 (Cambridge, 1995), 7-66.
- References for Johnson
- R B Braithwaite, W E Johnson, Cambridge Review (30 Jan 1931).
- References for Briggs
- A J Thompson, Logarithmetica Britannica (Cambridge, 1952).
- References for Maskelyne
- D Howse, Nevil Maskelyne: The seaman's astronomer (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).
- D W Dewhirst, The Greenwich-Cambridge axis.
Additional material
- W H and G C Young
- At Cambridge, a year later, again with a Peterhouse Scholarship, he found virtually the same thing as he had just had - to us, a century later, it would seem hardly worthy of a University.
- Why not? Let us just say that his enthusiasm for what was then called "mathematics" in Cambridge was not all-entrancing.
- Will turned over this last suggestion in his mind, and realized that Cambridge -could do with some life put into mathematics! However, the way to cause this, was not to write an abstruse textbook for the Smith's Prize.
- At Cambridge, Will established his coaching business with extreme efficiency: it was partly conducted with up to 3 pairs of pupils in different rooms, and partly as lecturer at Girton.
- It was also the year in which, in spite of her lack of a conventional education, she passed the Cambridge Examination.Her ambition was to take medicine: like so many young women, she was inspired by the example of Florence Nightingale, and charitable duties had taken her, unafraid, into the most dreadful districts of London.
- However, her mother being totally against her taking medicine, Grace decided on mathematics and surprised everyone by winning the Sir Francis Goldsmith Scholarship at Girton College, Cambridge.
- Her father doubled its value for her, and in April 1889 she went up to Cambridge to pass the Little-go examination which included Greek: she obtained a First Class and was cross at the unnecessary effort! Little did she know how she would later love Greek..
- She had to work hard at straightening out her mathematics, for her coach took her along at a rapid rate and she was also attending, in Cambridge itself, lectures delivered at an equally hurried pace.
- Directly after, they were allowed to take, unofficially, the Oxford equivalent of the Tripos, and while they were sitting these examinations the Cambridge results came out.
- (Isabel got only a 2nd Class.) Grace's high score was in response to a challenge from her brother Hugh: naturally she went all out, she represented womanhood and Cambridge! In the Tripos she had only wanted to do creditably -- she regarded it with somewhat supercilious interest, and after all, what was it really worth? Heavy bets were made on the results, church bells were rung in the Senior Wrangler's home-town, but the rumours!!!
.
- She returned to Cambridge for the academic year 1892-93 and completed the Tripos Part II.
- One cannot imagine a more complete contrast to what Grace had experienced at Cambridge.
- One such concept, particularly stressed by Klein, was that of groups: it was almost totally ignored by Cambridge for another 40 years, until I myself, as a student, founded the "Group group".
- It was partly to reflect on what the New Life should be, that they went back for one year to the familiar routine of Cambridge: there Frankie (Francis Chisholm Young) was born, his naming linking them to their chosen dedication, which seemed to them like that of St.
- A visit to Cambridge by Felix Klein, who was awarded an honorary degree there, decided them.
- To most friends and relatives, this came as a shock; to those of England's money-making class as a matter of course; but still more to many members of the mathematical community in Cambridge! This, at least, has long changed: now one is greeted in the Cambridge Mathematical Library by great photographs of Felix Klein and David Hilbert.
- For 41/2 more years the flood of my parents' papers still continued, unabated and uninterrupted: 1 by my mother alone, 73 by my father or joint, as well as my father's Cambridge tract on the fundamental theorems of the differential Calculus.
- ( He gave a lecture at Coimbra in 1927, and a quarter of a century later a research student from Coimbra came to Cambridge to work under W.H.
- Three Sadleirian Professors
- In the present month Professor G H Hardy, who for eleven years has been resident in Oxford, will return to Cambridge and occupy the Sadleirian chair of mathematics, vacant by the resignation of Professor Hobson.
- 58,1895; reprinted in Cayley's Collected Mathematical Papers).] to a benefaction of Lady Mary Sadleir, who by her will of 1701 left the University of Cambridge an estate, the income from which was to be used to maintain lecturers in algebra at nine colleges.
- Thus arose the strange paradox that Cambridge possessed a number of eminent professors whose lectures had little (if any) influence on even the best students, and with whom most of the undergraduates were wholly unacquainted.
- Born in Glasgow on 18th June, 1858, he was educated at Liverpool College and at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He returned to Cambridge as a College and University lecturer and assistant tutor in 1884.
- His lectures on the Calculus of Variations were the earliest in Cambridge to expound the Weierstrass theory: these were embodied in a treatise published in 1927 which extended the whole range of the subject and included much new research.
- For over thirty years the mathematical teachers represented by our Association endeavoured to free the schools from the tyranny of Euclid, but their efforts were in vain until they found allies in the British Association, in engineers like Professor Perry, and in Cambridge mathematicians like Professor Forsyth.
- It was cautiously worded, avoiding the exaggerations that had weakened the arguments of some of the more enthusiastic reformers, and it undoubtedly paved the way for the decisive step, namely the adoption by Cambridge of the recommendations of a Special Syndicate (of which, among others, Professor Forsyth, Messrs Barnard, Godfrey, and Siddons were members) of a new syllabus in Geometry that for the first time did not make Euclid compulsory.
- These recommendations related to the Previous Examination: shortly afterwards, they were adopted by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate for their examinations open to the whole country.
- Born at Derby on 27th October, 1856, he was educated at Derby School and Christ's College, Cambridge.
- Born on 7th February, 1877, he was educated at Winchester and at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- He resigned this to take up his duties in Cambridge as Sadleirian Professor in October.
- Many eminent Cambridge mathematicians remain almost unknown to the rest of the mathematical world, but Professor Hardy has never been isolated.
- The subsequent correspondence led ultimately to Ramanujan settling in Cambridge.
- Professor Hardy has written three of the Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics.
- This brought Cambridge and English mathematics into an isolated state, from which they were rescued at the beginning of the nineteenth century by the labours of Woodhouse and of the Analytical Society (Peacock, Babbage, and Herschel).
- A N Whitehead: 'Autobiographical Notes
- My university life at Trinity College, Cambridge, commenced in the autumn of 1880; and, so far as residence is concerned, continued without interruption until the summer of 1910.
- I cannot exaggerate my obligation to the University of Cambridge, and in particular to Trinity College, for social and intellectual training.
- Throughout the nineteenth century, the University of Cambridge did a brilliant job.
- The formal teaching at Cambridge was competently done, by interesting men of first-rate ability.
- That was the way by which Cambridge educated her sons.
- There we discussed with Maitland, the historian, Verrall, Henry Jackson, Sidgwick, and casual judges, or scientists, or members of Parliament who had come up to Cambridge for the weekend.
- My Cambridge education with its emphasis on mathematics and on free discussion among friends would have gained Plato's approval.
- As times changed, Cambridge University has reformed its methods.
- For about eight years (1898-1906) we lived in the Old Mill House at Grantchester, about three miles from Cambridge.
- elie Halevy, the historian of England in the early nineteenth century, frequently visited Cambridge, and we greatly enjoyed our friendship with him and his wife.
- He was a great factor in our lives, during our Cambridge period.
- At the close of the University session, in the summer of 1910, we left Cambridge.
- There were the Oxford and Cambridge type, and the German type.
- To turn now to another side of life, during my later years at Cambridge, there was considerable political and academic controversy in which I participated.
- Our worst experience was at a meeting in the Guildhall at Cambridge, addressed by Keir Hardie who was then the leading member of the new Labour Party.
- Muir on research in Scotland
- In time he graduates: this entitles him to compete for a scholarship: he competes, and is successful, leaves for Cambridge, and his University knows him no more.
- But next the questions may be asked - What careers are there open for such men after they have completed their post-graduate course? Is there anything like the same possibilities for them as are within the reach of Cambridge wranglers? The answer to the first question is, that there are home and colonial professorships, and masterships in the secondary schools.
- The answer to the second question we may give in the national manner, by asking in return if Cambridge of recent years has done anything more than this for her ordinary wranglers.
- If she has, it is due to nothing else than the lamentable system in vogue which marks out Cambridge as a University, and the so-called Universities of Scotland as Schools.
- We often hear it said that, other things being equal, the mathematician who hails from Cambridge has in competitions for professorships and masterships a marked advantage.
- But in ordinary fairness we must bear in mind that, as matters are at present arranged, when the said other things are not equal, it amounts almost to certainty that the inequality is not due to the inferiority of the Cambridge-trained man.
- How could it be otherwise? There is a three years' course of mathematical drill at Cambridge not to be matched in any other country of the world.
- This superiority of Cambridge, I have said, is quite independent of the question whether the system pursued there be in its details good or bad.
- There are many thoughtful mathematicians and other men of science, even among those who have enjoyed a Cambridge training, who are strongly of opinion that it is not by any means wholly good.
- The perfect man under the Cambridge system is too often, they say, the man who can merely acquire mathematical theorems and methods with rapidity, and reproduce them on demand with like speed.
- And my contention - made with all deference - is, that the Scotch graduate who spends three additional years in his own University, following out the course I have indicated, partly and chiefly devoting himself to the study of the higher departments of his subject in continuation of his undergraduate course, partly busying himself with teaching and lecturing, partly engaged in literary work and mathematical investigations, and all this under the eyes of professors earnestly occupied themselves in similar ways - such a graduate, I say, has every chance to turn out a better man for his profession than the graduate of Cambridge under the present regime.
- We recognise, as has been said, two qualifications for a professorship - skill to instruct and ability for research: it is hard to see where there are now at Cambridge special facilities for obtaining either the one or the other.
- Muir on research in Scotland
- In time he graduates: this entitles him to compete for a scholarship: he competes, and is successful, leaves for Cambridge, and his University knows him no more.
- But next the questions may be asked - What careers are there open for such men after they have completed their post-graduate course? Is there anything like the same possibilities for them as are within the reach of Cambridge wranglers? The answer to the first question is, that there are home and colonial professorships, and masterships in the secondary schools.
- The answer to the second question we may give in the national manner, by asking in return if Cambridge of recent years has done anything more than this for her ordinary wranglers.
- If she has, it is due to nothing else than the lamentable system in vogue which marks out Cambridge as a University, and the so-called Universities of Scotland as Schools.
- We often hear it said that, other things being equal, the mathematician who hails from Cambridge has in competitions for professorships and masterships a marked advantage.
- But in ordinary fairness we must bear in mind that, as matters are at present arranged, when the said other things are not equal, it amounts almost to certainty that the inequality is not due to the inferiority of the Cambridge-trained man.
- How could it be otherwise? There is a three years' course of mathematical drill at Cambridge not to be matched in any other country of the world.
- This superiority of Cambridge, I have said, is quite independent of the question whether the system pursued there be in its details good or bad.
- There are many thoughtful mathematicians and other men of science, even among those who have enjoyed a Cambridge training, who are strongly of opinion that it is not by any means wholly good.
- The perfect man under the Cambridge system is too often, they say, the man who can merely acquire mathematical theorems and methods with rapidity, and reproduce them on demand with like speed.
- And my contention - made with all deference - is, that the Scotch graduate who spends three additional years in his own University, following out the course I have indicated, partly and chiefly devoting himself to the study of the higher departments of his subject in continuation of his undergraduate course, partly busying himself with teaching and lecturing, partly engaged in literary work and mathematical investigations, and all this under the eyes of professors earnestly occupied themselves in similar ways - such a graduate, I say, has every chance to turn out a better man for his profession than the graduate of Cambridge under the present regime.
- We recognise, as has been said, two qualifications for a professorship - skill to instruct and ability for research: it is hard to see where there are now at Cambridge special facilities for obtaining either the one or the other.
- Whittaker EMS Obituary.html
- In December 1891 he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, and, after an undergraduate career of unusual distinction, was bracketed with J H Grace as Second Wrangler in the Tripos of 1895; Bromwich was Senior Wrangler.
- Whittaker's working life from now onwards can be divided into three parts, namely, his Cambridge days from his election to his fellowship until 1906 when he became Astronomer Royal for Ireland, his time in Dublin until 1912 when he was appointed Professor of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh, and the rest of his life spent in Edinburgh.
- During his period in Cambridge, Whittaker wrote two of the five standard treatises which have made a major contribution to his fame and for which he will long be remembered.
- Indeed, Whittaker often used to relate how at the time he sat the Tripos examination, Cambridge mathematicians were speaking of "Cocky's" theorem! Modern Analysis was therefore the first book in English to present the theory of functions of a complex variable at undergraduate level.
- The second treatise written by Whittaker while in Cambridge was A treatise on the analytical dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, with an introduction to the problem of three bodies; it was published in 1904.
- Concerning the original work done by Whittaker during his years in Cambridge, mention should first be made of his long paper on automorphic functions, published in 1898.
- During his stay in Cambridge, he had made his mark on the Tripos courses and no doubt his many distinguished pupils, including H Bateman, A S Eddington, G H Hardy, J H Jeans, J E Littlewood, G I Taylor, H W Turnbull and G N Watson, owed much to his inspiring teaching and to his outlook on mathematics, both pure and applied.
- There also appeared in 1907 the Cambridge Tract entitled The theory of optical instruments.
- In 1945 he was knighted and in 1949 was elected an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- In 1901 he had married Mary, daughter of the Rev Thomas Boyd of Cambridge, and there were three sons and two daughters.
- Nevertheless, he was able to go to Cambridge in the following October to have lunch with the Queen in Trinity College, but subsequently he grew weaker and, with great tranquillity of mind and with gratitude for the good innings he had had in his earthly life, awaited his approaching end.
- Edinburgh Mathematical Society members 1929
- BAKER, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge, 3 Storey's Way, Cambridge (Hon.
- BIRKHOFF, Ph.D., Professor of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.
- I'A BROMWICH, Sc.D., F.R.S., 1 Selwyn Gardens, Cambridge
.
- GUTHRIE, Trinity College, Cambridge
.
- DAVID HOWAT, M.A., Clare College, Cambridge
.
- MACKENZIE, M.A., B.Sc., Newnham College, Cambridge
.
- M'VITTIE, 6 Jesus Terrace, Cambridge
.
- RICHMOND, M.A., LL.D, F.R.S., King's College, Cambridge
.
- Sir ROBERT SCOTT, M.A., Master of St John's College, Cambridge
.
- WATT, M.A., Jesus College, Cambridge
.
- Science at St Andrews
- Among the direct descendants of the elder James Gregory a talent for medical sciences and for philosophy was conspicuous, but mathematics once more reappeared at the fifth generation in Duncan Farquharson Gregory (1813-44) who became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
- In Italy Gregory, inspired by the recent advances of the Italian and French schools, made his first discoveries in the differential and integral calculus, probably quite unaware that Barrow and Newton were doing the like at Cambridge.
- The six years that Gregory spent at St Andrews were a period of great intellectual activity, enhanced at the end of the first year by news from Collins that a young pupil of Barrow's at Cambridge, Isaac Newton by name, was performing wonders in the analyticks.
- What he and Newton were doing simultaneously at St Andrews and Cambridge was fundamentally to inaugurate a revolution in mathematics, comparable to that effected in arithmetic by the introduction into Europe of the Arabic numerals.
- His son, George Forbes, who shared his love of adventure and of science, was a student at St Andrews and then at Cambridge, a world-wide traveller who had crossed the Desert of Gobi.
- Among other teachers and students of the sciences who are memorable are Thomas Duncan and Lyon Playfair, whose portraits hang in the College Hall, Balfour Stewart, John Adams, William Fischer and George Chrystal: Adams, the astronomer, who occupied Gregory's Chair - for one year only until Cambridge claimed him - and who shared with Le Verrier the honour of discovering the planet Neptune.
- Fischer who had come from Berlin had been fourth wrangler at Cambridge in the year when William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) was placed second.
- A Cambridge friend of James Stuart (afterwards Rector, 1898) describes an episode of the Dundee meeting of the British Association in 1867: "On Saturday I went with an excursion to St Andrews where I slunk away from a geological walk which I would hardly tell you if I had not the excuse of the company of Maxwell and two Scotch Professors and Thomson the electrician.
- Under his successor, Arthur Stanley Butler (a nephew of Montague Butler, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge), a small room for practical work was fitted up (which is now the Mathematical Class Library): and in 1900 the first physical laboratory was erected.
- His outstanding pupil is Gordon Sutherland of Dundee who is now in America, having been assistant director of research in the Department of Colloid Science at Cambridge, and one of the leading authorities in the world on infra red analysis.
- EMS obituary
- In Cambridge the situation was fully appreciated by H W Richmond, who had exploited it in papers written about 1900.
- Nor was it only Baker who so carefully prepared the ground: the lectures and the advocacy of F P White helped to sow in Cambridge the seed for the approaching harvest.
- If you carry out your plan of coming to Cambridge this summer I shall be very glad to see you; but shall not be able to go right round the Farm.
- My short screed, in which I use the "synthemes", is in type, with the proofs revised, as a Cambridge-Tract.
- Baker, though practically confined to his study, was able to make one or two visits by taxi, but it soon became necessary to move her away from Cambridge.
- Yet in April 1954, when a colloquium was held in Cambridge, several of his old pupils called to pay their homage and there was no trace in his conversation or demeanour of any resentment or distress.
- R A Sampson, who succeeded Dyson in 1910, was 2 years junior to Baker at Cambridge and emulated his friend by winning a Smith's Prize and a St John's Fellowship; this was one of Baker's closest friendships and Sampson was Baker's best man in 1893.
- of Edinburgh University; he stayed several times with the Whittakers in George Square and had known E T Whittaker and H W Turnbull since their Cambridge days.
- Let it be there that we look our last on him, the Cambridge professor savouring the most enjoyable of his too rare holidays, on the meridian of life and at the zenith of happiness, gazing along the West Sands and across the bright estuary to the outline of the Angus hills.
- Baker wrote 10 books, all published by the Cambridge University Press.
- W Burnside: 'Theory of Groups of Finite Order
- Entitled Theory of groups of a finite order, the book was published by Cambridge University Press.
- To Mr A R Forsyth, Sc.D., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Sadlerian Professor of Mathematics, and to Mr G B Mathews, M.A., F.R.S., late Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and formerly Professor of Mathematics in the University of North Wales, I am under a debt of gratitude for the care and patience with which they have read the proof-sheets.
- Finally I must thank the Syndics of the University Press of Cambridge for the assistance they have rendered in the publication of the book, and the whole Staff of the Press for the painstaking and careful way in which the printing has been done.
- Again it was published by Cambridge University Press.
- Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge
.
- I owe my best thanks to the Rev Alfred Young, M.A., Rector of Birdbrook, Essex, and formerly Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, who read the whole of the book as it passed through the press.
- Mr Harold Hilton, M.A., Lecturer in Mathematics at Bedford College, University of London, and formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, gave me great assistance by reading, and criticising the chapters on groups of linear substitutions; and Dr Henry Frederick Baker, F.R.S., Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, helped me with most valuable suggestions on the chapter dealing with invariants.
- John Maynard Keynes: 'Newton, the Man
- Let no one here suppose that my object today is to lessen, by describing, Cambridge's greatest son.
- I do not think that any one who has pored over the contents of that box which he packed up when he finally left Cambridge in 1696 and which, though partly dispersed, have come down to us, can see him like that.
- At the top of this stairway stood his telescope - not to be confused with the observatory erected on the top of the Great Gate during Newton's lifetime (but after he had left Cambridge) for the use of Roger Cotes and Newton's successor, Whiston.
- There is an unusual number of manuscripts of the early English alchemists in the libraries of Cambridge.
- In 1696 his friends were finally successful in digging him out of Cambridge, and for more than another twenty years he reigned in London as the most famous man of his age, of Europe, and - as his powers gradually waned and his affability increased - perhaps of all time, so it seemed to his contemporaries.
- And he looked very seldom, I expect, into the chest where, when he left Cambridge, he had packed all the evidences of what had occupied and so absorbed his intense and flaming spirit in his rooms and his garden and his elaboratory between the Great Gate and Chapel.
- In 1888 the mathematical portion was given to the University Library at Cambridge.
- Disturbed by this impiety, I managed gradually to reassemble about half of them, including nearly the whole of the biographical portion, that is, the 'Conduitt Papers', in order to bring them to Cambridge which I hope they will never leave.
- J L Synge and Hamilton
- In 1937 J L Synge wrote Geometrical optics: An introduction to Hamilton's method which was published by Cambridge University Press in the same year.
- Notice that although Synge wrote the Preface on October 1937, Cambridge University Press still managed to publish the text in the same year.
- I (Cambridge, 1931), that it was possible to form a more correct and balanced judgment of Hamilton as an applied mathematician.
- It is also a pleasure to pay tribute to the skill and accuracy of the Cambridge University Press.
- E T Whittaker, The Theory of Optical Instruments (Cambridge Tracts, No.
- J G Leathem, The Elementary Theory of the Symmetrical Optical Instrument (Cambridge Tracts, No.
- O C Steward, The Symmetrical Optical System (Cambridge Tracts, No.
- I (edited by A W Conway and J L Synge, Cambridge, 1931).
- EMS obituary
- Henry Frederick Baker was born at Cambridge on 3rd July 1866.
- And although freer to travel abroad again by 1928, when both the Royal Society and Cambridge University appointed him a delegate to the International Congress of Mathematicians at Bologna, he was disinclined to go.
- In 1899 Cambridge celebrated Sir George Stokes' 50 years tenure of his professorial chair and Baker contributed 1, a paper on the theory of functions of several complex variables; he followed this in 1903 with 2.
- Baker rejoiced in their achievements and they gave him ample cause; a Smith's Prize was won by one of them every year from 1927 to 1933, a run of 7 consecutive prizes: few Cambridge teachers can have had so rewarding an experience.
- The International Congress of Mathematicians met at Cambridge; Baker was one of its organising committee of six and presided at the first meeting of the geometry section on 23rd August.
- Elections to professorships at Cambridge were presided over by the Vice-Chancellor, who issued the notice of the election on the day the electors met.
- Baker's pupils could fittingly make a pilgrimage to Terling Place, Witham, where the Chancellor signed that notice for, in addition to making 5th January 1914 a red-letter day in Baker's life, the appointment has been of immense benefit to the study of geometry at Cambridge and elsewhere.
- Gordon Preston on semigroups
- I have no records, and my memory may be playing me false, but I believe the first paper I read on semigroups was his paper On semi-groups from the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1940, together with the small technical note that followed it, Note on semi-groups, ibid., 1941.
- Rees wrote his 1940 paper in the summer vacation after completing his undergraduate honours degree at Cambridge.
- I assumed that, on going down from Cambridge, David Rees had read this book of Albert's and tried, what was a natural thing to do, to reproduce the ring structure theory for a system without the addition operation.
- Certainly there was one strong influence on algebra operating in Britain at that time, much of which did not see its way into print, and that was the lectures given at Cambridge by Philip Hall.
- Philip Hall lectured on algebra, in its widest sense, at Cambridge.
- I have often thought that Garrett Birkhoff, who went to work with Philip Hall at Cambridge in the early thirties, received the inspiration for his work on universal algebra from Philip Hall, especially from his paper A contribution to the theory of groups of prime-power order, in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, in 1933.
- an old friend from undergraduate days who was a theoretical chemist at Cambridge, that they might be of use in the quantum theory of the molecule.
- Napier Tercentenary
- Professor Hobson, Cambridge, was called to the chair.
- Dr J W L Glaisher, Cambridge, gave an address on the work of Napier.
- Lord Napier, owing to indisposition, was unable to be present, but Colonel Napier and Sir Alexander Napier were both in the company, which included, among others, Professor H Andoyer, Paris; Professor D Arany, Budapest; Professor Bauschinger, Strassburg; Mr G T Bennett, Cambridge; Sir William and Lady Bilsland, Glasgow; Professor and Mrs Cajori, Colorado; Professor James Geikie, Dr Glaister, Cambridge; Professor and Mm.
- Hekloff, St Petersburg; Professor Hobson, Cambridge; Mrs Isaac-Roberts; Professor Melikoff, St Petersburg; Professor Dr Conrad Muller; Professor and Mrs Normand, Bombay; Dr Ogilvie, London: Sheriff R L Orr, K.C.; Sir David Paulin; Professor Putnam, University of California; the Right Hon.
- Mr R Cunningham, M.A., Fellow of St John's College Cambridge, will deliver four lectures on "Critical Studies of Modern Electric Theories of the Constitution of Matter, Gravitation, Spectroscope, etc." Mr H W Richmond, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, will give four lectures on "Infinity in Geometry," and Professor Whittaker will supplement the lectures of Professor d'Ocagne by demonstrating the arithmetical methods of solving certain classes of equations in the mathematical laboratory.
- Andrew Russell Forsyth by Leonard Roth
- However, some knowledge of the rudiments of analysis was essential to an understanding of the work; and as the Cambridge men of his generation had none, the author, who had now succeeded to Cayley's chair, set himself the task of educating them.
- Nevertheless, for all its shortcomings, this was the work which brought modern pure mathematics into Cambridge.
- For Cambridge now found itself equipped with a corps of modern pure mathematicians whose nominal leader was a living fossil firmly fixed in the Sadlerian chair.
- The end of it was that she decided to leave her husband; and this meant that Forsyth was compelled to resign his professorship, for in the Cambridge of those days there was no place for even the suggestion of divorce.
- He set himself to learn Arabic and Persian; he wrote several enormous volumes on what were ostensibly branches of modern mathematics all treated from the eighteenth century point of view; the Cambridge University Press, which made a fortune out of his earlier publications must have lost a good deal of it on these.
- And all the time he was filling reams of paper with formulae and calculations; I happen to possess some manuscripts of his Cambridge lectures and also of sonic work on which he was engaged a year or two before his death.
- I am pleased to relate that I have been able to pay one small tribute to this remarkable son of Cambridge.
- Leonard Woolf on G H Hardy
- Levy [Paul Levy, Moore: G E Moore and the Cambridge Apostles (Oxford, 1981)] introduces his study of G E Moore by discussing the assessment made of Moore by Leonard Woolf, drawing not only on Woolf's five volumes of autobiography, but also on an interview he had with Woolf.
- An abbreviation of this formula is used when Hardy appears again, in the company of many other old friends, all Apostles, when Woolf first revisits Cambridge on his return from Ceylon in 1911 [Beginning Again: An Autobiography of the Years 1911-1918 (Hogarth Press, London, 1964), p.18; see also, p.20].
- But I decided, with some misgiving - for I did not know what I should find there - to plunge straight back into the life of Cambridge which I had left seven years ago.
- Three days after my arrival in Putney I took the train to Cambridge to stay with Lytton Strachey, who was living there in rooms on King's Parade.
- There was Cambridge and Lytton and Bertie Russell and Goldie, the Society and the Great Court of Trinity, and Hardy and bowls - all the eternal truths and values of my youth - going on just as I had left them seven years ago.
- Though I was fresh from the sands of Jaffna and Hambabtota and from the Kiplingesque, Anglo-Indian society of Ceylon, I found that I was still a native of Trinity and King's, a Cambridge intellectual.
- The Edinburgh Mathematical Society: the first hundred years
- In conjunction with Dr Cargill Gilston Knott (1856-1922), who was then Assistant to the Professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh University, they issued the following circular 'to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally whom they deemed likely to take an interest in such a Society'.
- Of these 15 had a university connection, including five from Cambridge, but about 40 were teachers, of whom five came from George Watson's, and one (R T Omand) was the director of the observatory on the summit of Ben Nevis.
- In time he graduates: this entitles him to compete for a scholarship: he competes, and is successful, leaves for Cambridge, and his University knows him no more.
- Muir was, of course, well aware of the deficiencies of the Cambridge coaching and examination system; after all these had been referred to by Augustus De Morgan in his presidential address in 1865 to the London Mathematical Society, of which Muir was a member.
- What was relevant was that the 'three years' course of mathematical drill at Cambridge', whether 'well planned or ill planned,' was to be 'got nowhere else, certainly not in Scotland.'
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- Perhaps the only things they had in common were that they had been undergraduates at Trinity College, Cambridge, had been classed as Wranglers in the Mathematical Tripos and had an interest in the theory of special functions.
- EMS 1930 Colloquium
- The following will be the course of lectures and the lecturers:- "Rational Curves and Surfaces," by H F Baker, F.R.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge; "Arithmetical Properties of Curves and Surfaces," by H W Richmond, F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; "The Wave Mechanics," by C G Darwin, F.R.S., Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh; "Elementary Mathematics from the Higher Standpoint," by H W Turnbull, M.A., Professor of Mathematics in the United College, St Andrews; "Recent Developments in Symmetric Functions, Determinants and Algebraic Equations," by A C Aitken, D.Sc., Lecturer in Actuarial Science, University of Edinburgh.
- In addition to the courses of lectures given by Professor H F Baker, Cambridge; Dr H W Richmond, Cambridge: Professor C G Darwin, Edinburgh; Dr A C Aitken, Edinburgh, and Professor H W Turnbull, St Andrews, there were several special meetings addressed by Professor E T Whittaker, Edinburgh: Dr B van der Pol, Philips Radio Research Laboratory, Holland; Dr G C M'Vittie, Cambridge; Dr W H M'Crea, Edinburgh: Professor C A Noble, California; Professor D'Arcy Thompson, St Andrews; and Professor E C Titchmarsh, Liverpool.
- J M Whittaker Chair
- Dr Whittaker, who graduated at the Edinburgh University with first class honours in mathematics and natural philosophy, was a lecturer at that University from 1927 to 1929, and later was awarded a Fellowship and appointed to a lectureship in Pembroke College, Cambridge.
- Dr Whittaker, who was born in 1905, and is a son of Professor E T Whittaker, F.R.S., of the Chair of Mathematics in Edinburgh University, was educated at Fettes College, Edinburgh University, and Cambridge.
- At Edinburgh in the years 1920-24 he was one of a group of students who have already made their mark in the academic world, such as J Williamson, now Professor of Mathematics in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; J Wishart, now Reader in Statistics in Cambridge University; and W V D Hodge, now Fellow of St John's College and University lecturer in mathematics at Cambridge.
- In 1925 Mr Whittaker was elected to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, becoming later a Wrangler, Smith's Prizeman, Fellow of Pembroke, and University lecturer.
- R L Wilder: 'Cultural Basis of Mathematics I
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Thus, there is the belief expressed by G H Hardy [A mathematician\'s apology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1941).',8)" onmouseover="window.status='Click to see reference';return true">8] (pp.
- G H Hardy, A mathematician's apology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1941).
- Hardy and Veblen on Max Newman
- And Newman in Cambridge is quite something else again than N at P you may believe me.
- Newman thinks that Cambridge Press should really represent us [for Princeton's Colloquium Lecture series], not B&B [Bowes and Bowes], as people think of them first always.
- [Scattered impressions] How charming things are here in Cambridge, but how uncharming their imitations in Princeton! We are not , we have fine things of our own, so why imitate?
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- [On Trinity College, Cambridge notepaper]
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- [H F Baker's successor as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in 1936 was Mr W V D Hodge, who had been elected Fellow, Lecturer, and Director of Mathematical Studies at Pembroke College, Cambridge the previous year.]
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- Scotland in 1883 and the EMS
- C W Crossley Barlow joined as a founder member in February 1883 when at St Peter's College, Cambridge and George N Stewart joined in November 1884, and then went to Owen's College, Manchester a couple of years later.
- The other was Alexander Russell who joined the Society in March 1884 while at Caius College, Cambridge.
- He was John Weir who was awarded First Class Honours and joined the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in December 1884 when at St Peter's College, Cambridge.
- One of these students was David Rintoul who joined the Edinburgh Mathematical Society as a founder member in February 1883 when he was at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
- Candidates, before they can receive the certificates, must have studied in at least three of the Classes of the "Edinburgh Association for the University Education of Women," that are recognised by the Senatus Academicus; and they must also have passed the Local Examinations of the University of Edinburgh, or of one of the other Scottish Universities, or of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge.
- Napier Tercentenary 3.html.html
- Professor Hobson, Cambridge, was called to the chair.
- Dr J W L Glaisher, Cambridge, gave an address on the work of Napier.
- Lord Napier, owing to indisposition, was unable to be present, but Colonel Napier and Sir Alexander Napier were both in the company, which included, among others, Professor H Andoyer, Paris; Professor D Arany, Budapest; Professor Bauschinger, Strassburg; Mr G T Bennett, Cambridge; Sir William and Lady Bilsland, Glasgow; Professor and Mrs Cajori, Colorado; Professor James Geikie, Dr Glaister, Cambridge; Professor and Mm.
- Hekloff, St Petersburg; Professor Hobson, Cambridge; Mrs Isaac-Roberts; Professor Melikoff, St Petersburg; Professor Dr Conrad Muller; Professor and Mrs Normand, Bombay; Dr Ogilvie, London: Sheriff R L Orr, K.C.; Sir David Paulin; Professor Putnam, University of California; the Right Hon.
- Twenty-Five Years of Groups St Andrews Conferences
- With this aim in mind we invited Seymour Bachmuth (Santa Barbara), Gilbert Baumslag (CUNY), Peter Neumann (Oxford), Jim Roseblade (Cambridge) and Jacques Tits (Paris) to be the main speakers.
- Taking their advice we invited Sandy Green (Warwick), Narain Gupta (Manitoba), Otto Kegel (Freiburg), Sasha Ol'shanskii (Moscow), and John Thompson (Cambridge).
- The main speakers for the 1997 conference were Laszlo Babai (Chicago), Martin Bridson (Oxford), Chris Brookes (Cambridge), Cheryl Praeger (Western Australia) and Aner Shalev (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
- For the Oxford Conference the main speakers were Marston Conder (Auckland), Persi Diaconis (Stanford), Peter Palfy (Eotvos Lorand, Budapest), Marcus du Sautoy (Cambridge), and Mike Vaughan-Lee (Christ Church, Oxford).
- We are grateful to Cambridge University Press, in particular to David Tranah and Roger Astley, for the care and expertise with which they have published the Proceedings.
- George Chrystal's Third Promoter's Address
- When I went to the university of Cambridge, four or five years later, I found that the course there for the ordinary degree in Arts was greatly inferior in educational quality to the Scottish one.
- I have frequently been tempted to think that the three years I spent as an undergraduate at Cambridge were wasted years of my life; if they were to be valued merely by the amount of new knowledge acquired, no doubt they were largely wasted; but, on the other hand, they were of great advantage to me in other respects.
- Cambridge at that time presented strange contrasts.
- Yet the whole of my career has been a turmoil of university reform, beginning in Cambridge, and it may as well end as it began, if it be decreed that it is to continue any longer.
- Harold Jeffreys: 'Scientific Inference' Preface
- Jeffreys used the ideas from these papers in his book Scientific Inference published by Cambridge University Press in 1931.
- CAMBRIDGE
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- My thanks are due to the staff of the Cambridge University Press for their care and courtesy; also to Dr Wrinch and Mr M H A Newman, who have read the whole in proof and suggested many improvements.
- CAMBRIDGE, JANUARY 1931
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- Keynes: 'Probability' Preface
- Keynes worked on the theory of probability and submitted a dissertation on that topic for a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge in March 1908.
- Fellow of King's College, Cambridge
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- It may be perceived that I have been much influenced by W E Johnson, G E Moore, and Bertrand Russell, that is to say by Cambridge, which, with great debts to the writers of Continental Europe, yet continues in direct succession the English tradition of Locke and Berkeley and Hume, of Mill and Sidgwick, who, in spite of their divergences of doctrine are united in a preference for what is matter of fact, and have conceived their subject as a branch rather of science than of the creative imagination, prose writers, hoping to be understood.
- KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
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- Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904
- The Association met in Cambridge, England, in August and Lamb addressed Section A - Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
- It will be felt as a matter of legitimate pride by many present that the University of Cambridge has been so conspicuously associated with this work.
- I have myself not had to look very far, for I found that when the British Association last met in Cambridge, in the year 1862, this Section was presided over by Stokes, and moreover that the Address which he gave was probably the shortest ever made on such an occasion, for it occupies only half a page of the report, and took, I should say, some three or four minutes to deliver.
- Generations of Cambridge students recall the enthusiasm which characterised his experimental demonstrations in Optics.
- EMS 1914 Colloquium
- (Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in Mathematics), on INFINITY IN GEOMETRY.
- (Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge), on CRITICAL STUDIES OF THE MODERN ELECTRIC THEORIES.
- Mr Richmond, F.R.S., King's College, Cambridge, lectured on points and lines at infinity, the theory of which now forms a very important part in modern geometrical principles.
- Mr E Cunningham, St John's College, Cambridge, in his lecture, dealt with the ideal theory of the electrical constitution of matter.
- Groups St Andrews Conferences
- Jim Roseblade (Cambridge)
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- John Thompson (Cambridge)
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- Chris Brookes (Cambridge)
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- Marcus du Sautoy (Cambridge),
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- EMS 1914 Colloquium 1.html.html
- Mr R Cunningham, M.A., Fellow of St John's College Cambridge, will deliver four lectures on "Critical Studies of Modern Electric Theories of the Constitution of Matter, Gravitation, Spectroscope.
- etc." Mr H W Richmond, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, will give four lectures on "Infinity in Geometry," and Professor Whittaker will supplement the lectures of Professor d'Ocagne by demonstrating the arithmetical methods of solving certain classes of equations in the mathematical laboratory.
- Mr Richmond, F.R.S., King's College, Cambridge, lectured on points and lines at infinity, the theory of which now forms a very important part in modern geometrical principles.
- Mr E Cunningham, St John's College, Cambridge, in his lecture, dealt with the ideal theory of the electrical constitution of matter.
- W H Young: 'Differential Calculus
- The Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics was a series of pamphlets published by Cambridge University Press.
- Formerly Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge;
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- CAMBRIDGE: at the University Press 1910
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- M Bôcher: 'Integral equations
- The Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics was a series of pamphlets published by Cambridge University Press.
- CAMBRIDGE: at the University Press 1909
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- CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
- Mathematics in Glasgow
- Assistants to the Professor of Mathematics: J M Dodds, M.A., Fellow of St Peter's College, Cambridge, and H C Robson, M.A.
- A Treatise on Natural Philosophy, by Professors Sir William Thomson and P G Tait (Cambridge University Press); Elements of Natural Philosophy, by the same authors (Cambridge University Press) ; A Lecture on Navigation, by Professor Sir William Thomson (W Collins & Sons); Dynamics and Hydrostatics, by J T Bottomley (W Collins & Sons) ; Heat, and Elasticity, by Sir W Thomson, reprinted from the Encyclopaedia Britannica (A & C Black); Ganot, Experimental Physics, translated by Atkinson (Longmans & Co.) Electrical Measurements, by A Gray (Macmillan & Co.) Mathematical Tables, J T Bottomley (W Collins & Sons).
- Northcott: 'Ideal theory
- Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, No.
- Cambridge, at the University Press, 1953.
- CAMBRIDGE
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- The Tercentenary of the birth of James Gregory
- Meanwhile, a young man working independently at Cambridge, Isaac Newton, four years junior to Gregory, had invented a reflecting telescope which was exhibited at the Royal Society in 1672 and brought fame to the maker.
- It was here that Gregory first learnt, through a letter of Collins, about the geometrical methods of Barrow, the Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, and the analytics of his still more wonderful pupil, Isaac Newton, to whom Barrow relinquished his Chair.
- Today, in this room where Gregory worked so long, we have their mathematical descendants, distinguished guests from the world of science, from the Cambridge of Newton, the Paris of Cassini, the Germany of Leibniz and the Flanders of Huygens, assembled in a Scotland where mathematics is still pursued for its beauty and its truth.
- Donald C Spencer's publications
- Cambridge Philos.
- (Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., 1950), (Amer.
- Kodaira), (Iwanami Shoten Publishers and Cambridge University Press, 1977), 319-356.
- J A Schouten's Opening Address to ICM 1954
- In 1936 we had the congress in Oslo with 500 and after the war Cambridge (Mass.) with 2316 and this congress at Amsterdam with 1550 attendants, notwithstanding the fact that in Cambridge there were 1410 Americans and among us only 240.
- On the one hand we may be happy with this progress, but on the other hand it is wise not to shut the eyes for the fact already pointed out by Professor Veblen in his opening address at Cambridge, that there is a limit to congresses of this kind.
- R L Wilder: 'Cultural Basis of Mathematics III
- Address given on 30 August 1950 by R L Wilder to the International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
- G H Hardy, A mathematician's apology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1941).
- L E Dickson: 'Linear algebras
- The Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics was a series of pamphlets published by Cambridge University Press.
- CAMBRIDGE: at the University Press 1905
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- EMS obituary
- Turnbull was educated at Sheffield Grammar School and was a Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge at a time when Herman, Whittaker, Whitehead, Barnes and Hardy were members of the college staff.
- After holding teaching posts for short periods at Cambridge and Liverpool Universities, he took up an appointment as lecturer in Hong Kong University, where he became Warden of the Church Missionary Society Hostel.
- In the light of this it is not surprising that in those days the best Honours graduates were encouraged to take a second first degree at Cambridge.
- James Stuart in Vanity Fair
- Andrews University and at Trinity, Cambridge) he fashioned himself into a Professor of Mechanics and Applied Mechanics.
- Then he tried to become Member for Cambridge University; but Cambridge University refusing the honour, he went to Hackney, which place he represented for precisely one year.
- EMS 1930 Colloquium 3.html
- In addition to the courses of lectures given by Professor H F Baker, Cambridge; Dr H W Richmond, Cambridge: Professor C G Darwin, Edinburgh; Dr A C Aitken, Edinburgh, and Professor H W Turnbull, St Andrews, there were several special meetings addressed by Professor E T Whittaker, Edinburgh: Dr B van der Pol, Philips Radio Research Laboratory, Holland; Dr G C M'Vittie, Cambridge; Dr W H M'Crea, Edinburgh: Professor C A Noble, California; Professor D'Arcy Thompson, St Andrews; and Professor E C Titchmarsh, Liverpool.
- Northcott: 'Ideal theory
- Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, No.
- Cambridge, at the University Press, 1953.
- CAMBRIDGE
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- Kerr: 'Technical Education
- It was published as an Appendix to John Kerr's book Scottish Education: School and University (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910).
- In that report attention is directed to the suggestive fact that the roll of students contains the names of 175 graduates of the Universities of Aberdeen, Berlin, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ireland (Royal), London, Oxford, St Andrews and Victoria.
- Heath: Everyman's Library 'Euclid' Introduction
- I know of one actual case, that of an undergraduate at Cambridge suddenly presented with a copy of Euclid, where this happened.
- A faithful translation of Heiberg's text into English is contained in the present writer's The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, with Introduction and Commentary, 3 vols., second edition, 1926 (Cambridge University Press).
- Those who wish to sample the original Greek text of Euclid, which is well worth while, may be referred to Euclid in Greek, Book I, with Introduction and Notes (Cambridge 1920).
- EMS obituary
- Miss Hamill graduated at Cambridge in 1945, a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.
- This primal was encountered by Coble, in 1906, who saw that it has 45 nodes, and gave some details of their configuration, Now H F Baker, on a visit to Gottingen to study under Klein, had there met Burkhardt who gave him off-prints of his papers; these Baker studied and copiously annotated and when, nearly 50 years on, retirement from his Cambridge chair had brought comparative leisure he set out to describe, without any dependence on theta-functions, the geometry of the 45-nodal primal, calling it Burkhardt's primal.
- The outcome was the Cambridge tract: A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations published in 1946.
- H W Turnbull's LMS Obituary by Ledermann
- He was educated at Sheffield Grammar School and from there went to Trinity College, Cambridge, as a scholar.
- A conventional academic career, which began with appointments at Cambridge and Liverpool, was interrupted by his move to Hong Kong, where from 1913 to 1915 he was acting Warden of the Church Mission Society hostel of Hong Kong University whilst at the same time holding the post of a lecturer in Mathematics.
- During his student years at Cambridge he was introduced to this fascinating branch of algebra when the memories of the great British and Continental masters of the subject were still fresh.
- R L Wilder: 'Cultural Basis of Mathematics II
- Address given on 30 August 1950 by R L Wilder to the International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
- G H Hardy, A mathematician's apology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1941).
- G H Hardy: 'Integration of functions
- The Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics was a series of pamphlets published by Cambridge University Press.
- CAMBRIDGE: at the University Press 1905
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- Roth Family
- The School knew that Leonard needed tuition they could not give in order to gain a Mathematics scholarship to Cambridge and it was with the headmaster's agreement that he went for a term in autumn 1922, before the Cambridge scholarship examinations, to attend Dulwich College.
- In 1926 he took up a post at Imperial College on graduating from Cambridge, so would have been resident in London; there may be a technical reason why he was the nominal tenant acting for his parents.
- William and Grace Young: 'Sets of Points
- Sometime Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge,
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- Formerly Sir Francis Goldsmid Scholar of Girton College, Cambridge.
- CAMBRIDGE:
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- H F Baker's locus with 25920 linear self-transformations - Introduction
- In 1945 H F Baker wrote the book A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1946.
- The title page gives Baker as Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge; Lowndean Professor.
- EMS obituary
- He was awarded the Vans Dunlop post-graduate scholarship in mathematics, and also won an open scholarship to Caius College, Cambridge, where he took up rowing with distinction.
- On leaving Cambridge he entered the teaching profession, and, after some experience in Kirkwall and at Kilmarnock Academy, was appointed in 1899 to succeed Mr J W Butters in the mathematical department of George Heriot's School, Edinburgh.
- George Chrystal's First Promoter's Address
- Time after time I lose honours men simply because they cannot afford to stay with me any longer; but must either go to some educational centre, such as Cambridge, where inducements are held out to them, or they must turn themselves to the making of their livelihood.
- The system of education in Cambridge owing to this abuse is, scholastically considered, certainly the most expensive, and perhaps the most ineffective in Europe.
- D'Arcy Thompson by David Burt
- He went from Edinburgh to Cambridge where he studied under F M Balfour and Michael Foster, and after graduating he taught physiology for a year under the latter.
- While at Cambridge, to help pay his way through College, he translated Muller's great work on the fertilization of flowers, which was published in 1883 with an introduction by Charles Darwin, one of the very last of his writings.
- Eddington: 'Mathematical Theory of Relativity' Preface
- Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S., Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, University of Cambridge, wrote The Mathematical Theory of Relativity which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1923.
- Turing as a runner
- He did not run while an undergraduate at Cambridge, preferring to row, but once he had won his fellowship to King's College he began to run more seriously, his frequent route being from Cambridge to Ely and back, a distance of around 50 km.
- Eddington: 'Mathematical Theory of Relativity' Introduction
- Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S., Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, University of Cambridge, wrote The Mathematical Theory of Relativity which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1923.
- The Edinburgh Mathematical Society: the first hundred years (1883-1983) Part 2
- After ten years as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, he moved to Dublin in 1906 to take up the post of Royal Astronomer of Ireland.
- Robert Franklin Muirhead (1861-1941) was a graduate of Glasgow and Cambridge Universities and spent some time at the University of Gottingen.
- EMS 1930 Colloquium 1.html
- The following will be the course of lectures and the lecturers:- "Rational Curves and Surfaces," by H F Baker, F.R.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge; "Arithmetical Properties of Curves and Surfaces," by H W Richmond, F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; "The Wave Mechanics," by C G Darwin, F.R.S., Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh; "Elementary Mathematics from the Higher Standpoint," by H W Turnbull, M.A., Professor of Mathematics in the United College, St Andrews; "Recent Developments in Symmetric Functions, Determinants and Algebraic Equations," by A C Aitken, D.Sc., Lecturer in Actuarial Science, University of Edinburgh.
- Mathematics at Aberdeen 4
- One of two nominees for the vacant chair was Frederick Fuller, fourth wrangler at Cambridge in 1842, fellow and tutor of St Peter's College.
- With David Thomson, the then Professor of Natural Philosophy, he formed a powerful team, rapidly raising standards in Aberdeen and sending a succession of students on to become wranglers at Cambridge.
- O Veblen's Opening Address to ICM 1950
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- CAMBRIDGE,
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- The St Andrews Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope
- The extensive calculations which led to the design of the new telescope have been carried out under the direction of Dr E H Linfoot, John Couch Adams Astronomer in the University of Cambridge and Assistant Director of the Cambridge Observatory, who has made a special study of new and improved optical systems for telescopes.
- Reminiscences of a Friendship: Miller on Clifford
- the full reference is D D Miller, Reminiscences of a friendship, Semigroup theory and its applications, New Orleans, LA, 1994 (Cambridge Univ.
- Press, Cambridge, 1996), 1-2.
- Napier Tercentenary 4.html.html
- Mr R Cunningham, M.A., Fellow of St John's College Cambridge, will deliver four lectures on "Critical Studies of Modern Electric Theories of the Constitution of Matter, Gravitation, Spectroscope, etc." Mr H W Richmond, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, will give four lectures on "Infinity in Geometry," and Professor Whittaker will supplement the lectures of Professor d'Ocagne by demonstrating the arithmetical methods of solving certain classes of equations in the mathematical laboratory.
- EMS obituary
- With the George A Clark Scholarship from Glasgow he went up to Cambridge, to St Catharine's College.
- Akin to the latter paper was one on the Foundations of Geometry read at the International Congress at Cambridge in 1912.
- Gowers laureation
- Royal Society Research Professor, University of Cambridge.
- In the same year he was elected to the prestigious Rouse Ball Chair at the University of Cambridge.
- Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905
- In Mr Ronald Hudson, who was one of our Secretaries at the Cambridge Meeting a year ago, we have lost a mathematician whose youthful promise had ripened into early performance.
- Your Astronomer Royal, in the Royal Observatory at Cape Town, will not lightly forget his gift of a great telescope: and the University of Cambridge, the grateful recipient of his munificent endowment of the Isaac Newton Studentships fifteen years ago, and of his no less munificent bequest of manuscripts, early printed books, and objects of art, has done what she can towards perpetuating his memory for future generations by including his name in the list, that is annually recited in solemn service, of her benefactors who have departed this life.
- Thomas Bromwich: 'Infinite Series
- Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College Cambridge
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- CAMBRIDGE,
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- Coolidge: 'Origin of Polar Coordinates
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.
- EMS obituary
- He was born in London and educated at the City of London School and Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his degree as Second Wrangler and afterwards winning the First Smith's Prize, as Kelvin and Clerk Maxwell had done before him.
- Frazer and Steggall were fellow students at Cambridge, and it is interesting to note that the one took second place in the Classical Tripos in the same year as that in which the other was Second Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.
- D'Arcy Thompson's family
- He studied there for twelve years, then, in 1847, he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, but later in his undergraduate career moved to Pembroke College.
- It is worth noting that one of his two closest friends at Cambridge was Peter Guthrie Tait.
- Journal of the Statistical Society of London
- In the summer of 1833, the Statistical Section was formed in the British Association for the advancement of Science, during the period of its meeting at Cambridge; and before the close of that year, the Manchester Statistical Society was established.
- The Statistical Society of London, which had been projected at Cambridge, was established in the spring of l834, and since that time the pursuit of this science has extended very rapidly.
- H F Baker: 'A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations' Introduction
- In 1945 H F Baker wrote the book A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1946.
- The title page gives Baker as Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge; Lowndean Professor.
- Bronowski and retrodigitisation
- On the other hand, although Robert Sibson, like Goodstein a year earlier, was a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos at Magdalene College, Cambridge in 1934, he pursued a different career, going into school teaching, and thence joining HM Inspectorate of Schools in 1947, retiring in 1973.
- Although Jacob Bronowski's name is most remembered in association with the BBC television documentary series The Ascent of Man he made at the end of his life - it inspired discussion [17, 18] in the Gazette of a tessellation found at the Alhambra - he read mathematics at the University of Cambridge, where he went on to take a doctorate with a thesis in geometry and topology.
- EMS honours Maxwell and Tait
- They were, together at the Edinburgh Academy, and both later had distinguished careers at the Universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge.
- After holding professorships at Aberdeen and London, Maxwell became the first occupant of the Cavendish Chair of Experimental Physics at Cambridge.
- H F Baker: 'A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations' Preface
- In 1945 H F Baker wrote the book A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1946.
- The title page gives Baker as Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge; Lowndean Professor.
- Mathematics in Edinburgh
- The Text-Book for the Course will be Thomson and Tait's Elements of Natural Philosophy (Pitt Press, Cambridge, 2nd edition, 1879.) But, as the first volume only has yet been published, for the remainder of the subject the student may consult Balfour Stewart's Lessons in Elementary Physics, and Tait's Recent Advances in Physical Science.
- Candidates, before they can receive the certificates, must have studied in at least three of the Classes of the "Edinburgh Association for the University Education of Women," that are recognised by the Senatus Academicus; and they must also have passed the Local Examinations of the University of Edinburgh, or of one of the other Scottish Universities, or of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge.
- EMS 1914 Colloquium 0.html.html
- (Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in Mathematics), on INFINITY IN GEOMETRY.
- (Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge), on CRITICAL STUDIES OF THE MODERN ELECTRIC THEORIES.
- Steggal obituary.html
- He was born in London and educated at the City of London School and Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his degree as Second Wrangler and afterwards winning the First Smith's Prize, as Kelvin and Clerk Maxwell had done before him.
- Frazer and Steggall were fellow students at Cambridge, and it is interesting to note that the one took second place in the Classical Tripos in the same year as that in which the other was Second Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.
- Veblen's Opening Address to ICM 1950
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- CAMBRIDGE,
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- Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905, Part 2
- But Euclid is on the verge of being disestablished; my own University of Cambridge, which has had its full share in maintaining the restriction to Euclid's methods, and which was not uninfluenced by the report of a Committee of this Association upon the subject, will, some six or seven weeks hence, hold its last examination in which those methods are prescriptively required.
- Its activity, however, has not yet met with the sympathetic goodwill of all the pure biologists; and those who remember the quality of the discussion that took place last year at Cambridge between the biometricians and some of the biologists will agree that, if the new school should languish, it will not be for want of the tonic of criticism.
- EMS obituary
- After taking her Edinburgh degree she entered Girton College, Cambridge, and was a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.
- In 1935, during a year spent in research at Cambridge, she published her first paper, on the asymptotic periods of integral functions.
- John Couch Adams' account of the discovery of Neptune
- This investigation was founded exclusively on the modern observations, and the errors of the tables were taken from those given in the equations of condition of Bouvard's tables as far as the year 1821, and subsequently from the observations given in the Astronomische Nachrichten, and from the Cambridge and Greenwich Observations.
- For the modern observations, the errors of the tables were taken exclusively from the Greenwich Observations as far as the year 1830, with the exception of an observation by Bessel in 1823; and subsequently from the Cambridge and Greenwich Observations, and those given in various numbers of the Astronomische Nachrichten.
- John Couch Adams' account of the discovery of Neptune
- This investigation was founded exclusively on the modern observations, and the errors of the tables were taken from those given in the equations of condition of Bouvard's tables as far as the year 1821, and subsequently from the observations given in the Astronomische Nachrichten, and from the Cambridge and Greenwich Observations.
- For the modern observations, the errors of the tables were taken exclusively from the Greenwich Observations as far as the year 1830, with the exception of an observation by Bessel in 1823; and subsequently from the Cambridge and Greenwich Observations, and those given in various numbers of the Astronomische Nachrichten.
- Gregory tercentenary
- The ceremony was held in the Upper Hall of the University Library, and among those present were the following delegates from learned societies:- Royal Society of Edinburgh, Dr A C Aitken; Royal Society of London, Professor E T Whittaker; London Mathematical Society, Professor J M Whittaker; Institute of Physics, Professor T Alty; Royal Astronomical Society, London, Professor W H H Greaves; Edinburgh Mathematical Society, Mr George Lawson; Institution of Civil Engineers, Dr David Anderson; University of Cambridge, Professor E Cunningham; University of Oxford, Professor E T Copson; University of Glasgow, Professor T M MacRobert; University of Aberdeen, Professor E M Wright; University of Edinburgh, Professor Max Born; Educational Institute of Scotland, Mr Harry Blackwood.
- It was at St Andrews, continued the Professor, that Gregory first learned, through a letter of Collins, about the geometrical methods of Barrow, the Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, and the analytics of his still more wonderful pupil, Isaac Newton, to whom Barrow relinquished his Chair.
- Zariski and Samuel: 'Commutative Algebra
- Cambridge, Massachusetts
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- Cambridge, Massachusetts
.
- Ince obituary.html
- The war years - a physical disability precluded active service - he spent in Edinburgh and Trinity College, Cambridge, as a research student; in various forms of national service (including a period at University College, London, where he had contacts with that enthusiast for singular solutions of differential equations, M J M Hill); and as a temporary lecturer at the University of Leeds.
- To these years of - to use his own words - "war-time stagnation" belong his Smith's Prize from Cambridge and his doctorate from Edinburgh.
- Turnbull and Aitken: 'Canonical Matrices
- Formerly Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge,
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- We take the opportunity of acknowledging our indebtedness to the work of those writers who have given a sustained account of the theory, in one guise or another; in particular to Muth, as above, to Bromwich (Cambridge Tract on Quadratic Forms, 1906, and various papers), to Bocher (Higher Algebra, 1907), Hilton (Linear Substitutions, 1914), Cullis (Vol.
- Edwin Elliot: 'Algebra of Quantics
- The reader will not, however, find that the present work is a compilation from others which have preceded it, great as has been the help which those others have afforded Constant recourse has been had to the original authorities, particularly of course to Cayley's series of memoirs, and to Sylvester's writings in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, the American Journal of Mathematics, and elsewhere.
- Hardy and Veblen on Erdos
- Turnbull lectures on Colin Maclaurin, Part 2
- These assumed a new significance when the elegant theorem discovered by Cotes, concerning a general curve, was communicated to Maclaurin by Dr Robert Smith, master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 'a gentleman not less remarkable for his learning and works, than for his fidelity and regard for his friends'.
- EMS 1913 Colloquium 6.html.html
- Reminiscences of college days in Cambridge, Dublin, and Edinburgh formed the nucleus of a varied gossip, which had usually a certain mathematical flavour.
- The Earle Raymond Hedrick Lecturers
- 1993 Sir Michael Atiyah, University of Cambridge
.
- Eddington on the Expanding Universe
- Mathematics in St Andrews
- The Examiners: The Professors and, in addition for Mathematics, Professor Stuart, M.A., LL.D., Cambridge, appointed 1882.
- Chrystal: 'Algebra' Preface
- For the rest I am heavily indebted to the examination papers of the various colleges in Cambridge.
- Heath: 'The thirteen books of Euclid's Elements' Preface
- Lastly, my best acknowledgments are due to the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press for their ready acceptance of the work, and for the zealous and efficient cooperation of their staff which has much lightened the labour of seeing the book through the Press.
- EMS obituary
- From King Edward's School, Birmingham, he went up to Cambridge in 1916 with an open scholarship at Trinity: in 1919 be took the Tripos, and remained in residence until, in January 1920, he was appointed as Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Liverpool.
- J L Synge: 'Geometrical Optics
- In 1937 J L Synge wrote Geometrical optics: An introduction to Hamilton's method which was published by Cambridge University Press in the same year.
- Eddington on the Expanding Universe
- Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, University of Cambridge
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- George Temple's Inaugural Lecture II
- These views on the appropriateness of the romantic and classic styles to lectures and textbooks are admirably expressed by Professor J E Littlewood, [The Elements of the Theory of Real Functions, Cambridge, W Heffer & Sons Ltd., 1926.] in the Introduction to his lectures on the theory of real functions.
- E P Adams
- In 1903 those four were joined by P E Robinson and E P Adams, the latter having just completed 4 years of graduate work at Harvard, Berlin, Gottingen, and Trinity College, Cambridge, after taking his bachelor's degree at Beloit College in 1899.
- Turnbull Professor
- As a lecturer he has held appointments at St Catherine's College, Cambridge, at Liverpool University, and at Hong-Kong.
- Keynes: 'Probability' Introduction Ch I
- Keynes worked on the theory of probability and submitted a dissertation on that topic for a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge in March 1908.
- A CONTRIBUTION TO THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF BIG GAME HUNTING
- John's College, Cambridge, England; to the M.I.T.
- Richard Courant: 'Differential and Integral calculus' English edition
- Mathematicians and Music 2.2
- It was long used as a text at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
- James Jeans: 'Physics and Philosophy' II
- The book, published by Cambridge University Press, was intended (in Jeans' own words from the Preface):-
.
- Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904, Part 2
- The Association met in Cambridge, England, in August and Lamb addressed Section A - Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
- Freeman Dyson: autobiographical notes
- Studied mainly mathematics at Cambridge University.
- Gaschutz's reminiscences
- thesis in 1959 at Cambridge University, working under the supervision of Derek Taunt.
- Phillip Griffiths Looks at 'Two Cultures' Today
- Nor does Snow spare himself, recalling his own past as a research physicist at Cambridge University: In his words, "We prided ourselves that the science we were doing could not, in any conceivable circumstances, have any practical use.
- George Stewartson
- His pride in life were his two sons, both of whom had been to Cambridge.
- R A Fisher: the life of a scientist' Preface
- In 1943 he moved to Cambridge University as Balfour Professor of Genetics.
- James Jeans: 'Physics and Philosophy' I
- The book, published by Cambridge University Press, was intended (in Jeans' own words from the Preface):-
.
- Levi-Civita: 'Absolute Differential Calculus
- Late Scholar of Girton College, Cambridge
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- Keynes: 'Probability' Introduction Ch II
- Keynes worked on the theory of probability and submitted a dissertation on that topic for a fellowship at King's College, Cambridge in March 1908.
- EMS obituary
- After leaving school as its dux in 1885, he went first to Edinburgh University and then to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was a Wrangler.
- Sommerville obituary.html
- George Chrystal's Second Promoter's Address
- It is an excellent thing to interest the population of London, for example, by giving popular lectures on various branches of university culture, and by organising excursions to Oxford and Cambridge to hear a young university Don or two give dozen lectures on some tolerably digestible university subject; to take a walk along the banks of Isis or Cam, to see where Erasmus lived and Newton worked, and where their degenerate successors live and dine - (laughter and applause) - but, as the advocates of a teaching university for London very pertinently insisted lately, all this does nothing for the higher learning in London or elsewhere.
- Schrödinger: 'Statistical Thermodynamics
- In 1952 a Second Edition was published by Cambridge University Press.
- Carl B Boyer
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- EMS 1913 Colloquium
- Reminiscences of college days in Cambridge, Dublin, and Edinburgh formed the nucleus of a varied gossip, which had usually a certain mathematical flavour.
- EMS obituary
- Thereafter he studied mathematics in Cambridge, Italy (where he learned his non-Euclidean geometry), and Germany, and in 1896, when George A Gibson became professor at the Technical College, he was appointed assistant in the Mathematics Department at the University.
- MacRobert Professor
- From 1905 to 1910 he pursued his Mathematical studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, gaining a first-class in the first part, and a Wranglership in the second part of the Mathematical Tripos.
- Review of du Bois-Reymond's 'Die allgemeine Functionentheorie
- Thus, although it marked an important stage in the development of the concepts of number and function in the latter part of the 19th century, many of the ideas (such as those involved in the "Infinitarkalkul") were not fully understood until they were taken up by later authors, e.g., by G H Hardy in Orders of infinity, University Press, Cambridge, 1910.
- Phillip S Jones on Brook Taylor
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- F A Behrend's LMS Obituary by B H Neumann
- at the University of Berlin, he emigrated from Nazi Germany in 1934, first to Cambridge, then to Zurich and Prague, where he worked as an actuary in a life insurance company and continued his work in pure mathematics.
- G H Hardy's schedule of lectures in the USA
- Also touring in the USA in 1929 were P A M Dirac, from Cambridge, and E A Milne, from Oxford.
- Levi-Civita: 'Lezioni di calcolo differenziale assoluto
- There is a chapter on the foundations of the absolute calculus, with special reference to the transformation of the equations of dynamics, in Wright's Tract, Invariants of Quadratic Differential Forms (Cambridge University Press, 1908); apart from this, while special researches based on the use of this method were, continued after 1901 by a limited number of mathematicians, yet general attention was not again directed to it until the great renaissance of natural philosophy, due to Einstein, which found in the absolute differential calculus the necessary instrument vii for formulating the new ideas mathematically and for the subsequent numerical work.
- George Temple's Inaugural Lecture I
- [E T Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Cambridge University Press, 4th edition, 1937.]
.
- Harold Jeffreys on Probability
- Jeffreys used the ideas from these papers in his book Scientific Inference published by Cambridge University Press in 1931.
- Frank Harary's books
- 275): "For each area of study in anthropology that involves structure, there is a branch of graph theory that can serve as the appropriate mathematical model." Enlarging on their earlier book ('Structural Models in Anthropology', Cambridge University Press, 1983), also organised in terms of the concepts and techniques of graph theory, they demonstrate what we can learn by an explicit formulation of concepts, directed toward robust substantive application.
- Charles Bossut on Leibniz and Newton
- Newton, gifted by nature with superior intellect, was born at a time when Harriot, Wren, Wallis, Barrow, and others, had already rendered the mathematical sciences flourishing in England, enjoyed likewise the advantage of receiving lessons from Barrow in his early youth at Cambridge.
- Carathéodory: 'Conformal representation
- In 1931 Caratheodory's book entitled Conformal representation was published by Cambridge University Press.
- Carl B Boyer: 'Foremost Modern Textbook
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Charles Bossut on Leibniz and Newton Part 2
- We ought not to omit here for the honour of England, that Roger Cotes, professor of mathematics at Cambridge, had treated the same subject and reduced the integration of rational fractions to general and very commodious formulas in his celebrated work entitled Harmonia Mensurarum: but this was not published until six years after his death, which happened in 1716; no doubt therefore Taylor and the Bernoullis were unacquainted with it's contents.
- Diderot: Nicholas Saunderson
- Saunderson taught mathematics at the University of Cambridge with astonishing success.
- Hardy in the USA
- It is true that the worst specimen is a Cambridge man.
- Edwin Elliot's Algebra of Quantics
- The reader will not, however, find that the present work is a compilation from others which have preceded it, great as has been the help which those others have afforded Constant recourse has been had to the original authorities, particularly of course to Cayley's series of memoirs, and to Sylvester's writings in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, the American Journal of Mathematics, and elsewhere.
- Cayley: 'Elliptic Functions
- Coulson: 'Electricity
- Yet this book would be incomplete without a reference to my former teacher, Mr E Cunningham, of St John's College, Cambridge, who first showed me how beautifully vector methods fitted the subject of electricity.
- American Mathematical Society Colloquium
- THE CAMBRIDGE COLLOQUIUM, 1898.
- H W Turnbull: 'Scottish Contribution to the Calculus
- An International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA from 30 August to 6 September 1950.
- Turnbull lectures on Colin Maclaurin
- He died in the year 1716 at the age of thirty-four and at the height of his powers: a brilliant mathematician and astronomer who was already acclaimed as a worthy successor to Newton at Trinity College, Cambridge.
- Mathematicians and Music 3
- Smith held the Plumian chair at Cambridge, the one of which A S Eddington is the present incumbent, and his work on harmonics contained the substance of lectures he had delivered for many years.
- Edward Routh's family history
- The eldest son Edward Routh of Cambridge, was a famous mathematician, and formulated "Routh's Rule" related to Moments of Inertia, and was the father of H V Routh, the historian.
- Harold Jeffreys on Logic and Scientific Inference
- Jeffreys used the ideas from these papers in his book Scientific Inference published by Cambridge University Press in 1931.
- Errors of the Royal Society
- I think that for fifty years there was a growing tendency at Cambridge to neglect, in teaching, all that follows the resulting formula or the final equation; though I suspect that this tendency has passed its culminating point.
- Bartlett's reviews
- All statisticians, together with the present and future generations of statistical students, will welcome the reappearance of Professor M S Bartlett's well-known book as a substantially bound paper-back in the Cambridge University Press series.
- Hedrick Lecturers.html
- Association 1904 Part 2.html
- EMS obituary
- He had a brilliant career in mathematics and astronomy at Cambridge where he was Tyson Medallist 1919, Smith's Prizeman 1921, Isaac Newton Student 1921-3, and Fellow of St John's College 1922.
- Craig obituary.html
- After leaving school as its dux in 1885, he went first to Edinburgh University and then to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was a Wrangler.
- H L F Helmholtz: 'Theory of Music' Introduction
- Ellis was twice president of the Philological Society and was a member of the Cambridge Mathematical Society.
- H L F Helmholtz: 'Theory of music' Prefaces
- Ellis was twice president of the Philological Society and was a member of the Cambridge Mathematical Society.
- Florian Cajori on William Oughtred
- Biographers of Sir Isaac Newton make particular mention of five mathematical books which he read while a young student at Cambridge, namely, Euclid's Elements, Descartes's Geometrie, Viete's Works, Van Schooten's Miscellanies, and Oughtred's Clavis mathematicae.
Quotations
- A quotation by Roth
- Newton is, of course, the greatest of all Cambridge professors; he also happens to be the greatest disaster that ever befell not merely Cambridge mathematics in particular, but British mathematical science as a whole.
- Quotations by Eddington
- New Pathways in Science (Cambridge 1939)
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- Nature of the Physical World (Cambridge 1928)
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- Quotations by Gauss
- Quoted in J Koenderink Solid Shape (Cambridge Mass.
- Quotations by Boltzmann
- Quoted in D'A W Thompson On Growth and Form (Cambridge 1917)
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- A quotation by Pappus
- Quoted in D'A W Thompson On Growth and Form (Cambridge 1917)
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- Quotations by De Morgan
- Transactions Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol.
- Quotations by Littlewood
- Quoted in B Bollobas, Littlewood's Miscellany, (Cambridge 1986).
- Quotations by Heaviside
- Quoted in D'A W Thompson On Growth and Form (Cambridge 1917)
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- Quotations by Mordell
- In 1912 I attended an international mathematical congress held in Cambridge.
- Quotations by Lakatos
- Proofs and refutations (Cambridge, 1976).
- Quotations by Planck
- His name stands magnificently over the portal of classical physics, and we can say this of him; by his birth James Clerk Maxwell belongs to Edinburgh, by his personality he belongs to Cambridge, by his work he belongs to the whole world.
- Quotations by Glaisher
- Quoted in D'A W Thompson On Growth and Form (Cambridge 1917)
.
- Quotations by Archimedes
- The Method in The Works of Archimedes translated by T L Heath (Cambridge 1912)
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- Quotations by Thompson D'Arcy
- On Growth and Form (Cambridge 1917)
.
- Quotations by Forsyth
- I began to understand that pure mathematics was more than a collection of random tools mainly fashioned for use in the Cambridge treatment of natural philosophy.
- Quotations by Leibniz
- Quoted in J Koenderink, Solid Shape (Cambridge Mass.
- A quotation by Conway
- I used to feel guilty in Cambridge that I spent all day playing games, while I was supposed to be doing mathematics.
- Quotations by Ball
- Babbage & gave the name to the [Cambridge] Analytical Society, which he stated was formed to advocate 'the principles of pure d-ism as opposed to the dot-age of the university.'
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- Quotations by Quine
- Quoted in J Koenderink Solid Shape (Cambridge Mass.
- Quotations by Feynman
- The character of physical law (Cambridge, USA, 1967)
.
- Quotations by Turnbull
- A simple instance of failing in this is provided by the poll-man at Cambridge, who learned perfectly how to factorize a2 - b2 but was floored because the examiner unkindly asked for the factors of p2 - q2 .
- Quotations by Riemann
- Quoted in I Lakatos, Proofs and refutations (Cambridge, 1976).
Chronology
- Mathematical Chronology
- Barrow becomes the first Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge in England.
- Barrow resigns the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University to allow his pupil Newton to be appointed.
- Peacock, Herschel and Babbage are the leaders of the Analytical Society at Cambridge which publishes an English translation of Lacroix's textbook Traite de Calcul differentiel et integral.
- The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journals begins publication.
- He brings Ramanujan to Cambridge and they go on to write five remarkable number theory papers together.
- Chronology for 1650 to 1675
- Barrow becomes the first Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge in England.
- Barrow resigns the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University to allow his pupil Newton to be appointed.
- Chronology for 1830 to 1840
- The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journals begins publication.
- Chronology for 1910 to 1920
- He brings Ramanujan to Cambridge and they go on to write five remarkable number theory papers together.
- Chronology for 1810 to 1820
- Peacock, Herschel and Babbage are the leaders of the Analytical Society at Cambridge which publishes an English translation of Lacroix's textbook Traite de Calcul differentiel et integral.
This search was performed by Kevin Hughes' SWISH and Ben Soares' HistorySearch Perl script
JOC/BS August 2001