Search Results for Paris


Biographies

  1. Cauchy biography
    • Born: 21 August 1789 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 23 May 1857 in Sceaux (near Paris), France .
    • Paris was a difficult place to live in when Augustin-Louis Cauchy was a young child due to the political events surrounding the French Revolution.
    • When he was four years old his father, fearing for his life in Paris, moved his family to Arcueil.
    • They soon returned to Paris and Cauchy's father was active in the education of young Augustin-Louis.
    • Cauchy felt that he had to return to Paris if he was to make an impression with mathematical research.
    • In September of 1812 he returned to Paris after becoming ill.
    • Back in Paris Cauchy investigated symmetric functions and submitted a memoir on this topic in November 1812.
    • In 1817 when Biot left Paris for an expedition to the Shetland Islands in Scotland Cauchy filled his post at the College de France.
    • By 1830 the political events in Paris and the years of hard work had taken their toll and Cauchy decided to take a break.
    • He left Paris in September 1830, after the revolution of July, and spent a short time in Switzerland.
    • Political events in France meant that Cauchy was now required to swear an oath of allegiance to the new regime and when he failed to return to Paris to do so he lost all his positions there.
    • Cauchy returned to Paris in 1838 and regained his position at the Academy but not his teaching positions because he had refused to take an oath of allegiance.
    • Valson writes in [',' C A Valson, La vie et les travaux du baron Cauchy (Paris, 1868).','7]:- .
    • Also in [',' C A Valson, La vie et les travaux du baron Cauchy (Paris, 1868).','7] a letter by Cauchy's daughter describing his death is given:- .
    • A Walk Around Paris .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  2. La Condamine biography
    • Born: 28 January 1701 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 4 February 1774 in Paris, France .
    • Charles-Marie was baptised in the Saint-Roch church in Paris.
    • Charles-Marie de La Condamine studied at the Jesuit College of Louis-le-Grand in Paris.
    • Back in Paris, he lived in a house in the cul-de-sac St Thomas du Louvre near the Louvre Gallery close to the Seine.
    • In Paris in the late 1720s, he regularly attended the informal salon at the Cafe Procope, which was presided over at the time by the flamboyant dramaturge Antoine Houdart de La Motte.
    • At this point La Condamine, who already had many contacts with scientists in Paris, was proposed for election to the Academie Royale des Sciences as an adjoint in chemistry.
    • Certainly his friendship with Paris scientists, particularly Maupertuis, was a factor here but some members of the Academy were wary of La Condamine given his recent exploits with the lottery.
    • The quiet life in Paris did not suit him either and, using funds from his lottery wins, he sailed on the ship L'Esperance of the Levant Company commanded by Pierre Blouet de Camilly on a voyage to Algiers, Alexandria, Palestine, Cyprus and Constantinople (now Istanbul) where he spent five months.
    • On his return to Paris he published mathematical and physical observations of his voyage in the paper Observations mathematiques et physiques faites dans un voyage de Levant en 1731 et 1732 Ⓣ.
    • In February 1745 La Condamine made the final leg of his journey arriving in Paris on 23rd of that month.
    • However, after reaching Paris he learnt that Bouguer had presented their joint work to the Academy under his own name.
    • La Condamine wrote (see [',' J E McClellan, Specialist Control: The Publications Committee of the Academie Royale Des Sciences (Paris), 1700-1793 93 (3) (American Philosophical Society, 2003).','4]):- .
    • It stated (see [',' J E McClellan, Specialist Control: The Publications Committee of the Academie Royale Des Sciences (Paris), 1700-1793 93 (3) (American Philosophical Society, 2003).','4]):- .
    • Condorcet writes in [',' M-J-A-N de Cariat Marquis de Condorcet, Eloge de M de La Condamine, Histoire de I’Acaemic royale des sciences, 1774 (Paris, 1778), 85-121.','12] (or [',' M-J-A-N de Cariat Marquis de Condorcet, Eloge de M de La Condamine, in Oeuvres complete de Condorcet 2 (Henrichs, Paris, 1804), 185-256.','13]) that his character:- .
    • However, Condorcet writes that La Condamine was [',' M-J-A-N de Cariat Marquis de Condorcet, Eloge de M de La Condamine, Histoire de I’Acaemic royale des sciences, 1774 (Paris, 1778), 85-121.','12]:- .

  3. Dubreil-Jacotin biography
    • Born: 7 July 1905 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 19 October 1972 in Paris, France .
    • When she took the university entrance examinations she did not do sufficiently well to gain a place in Paris and was only given a Bourse de licence which allowed her to enter higher education outside Paris.
    • Further pressure on the administration to justify their decision to prevent Mlle Jacotin studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure resulted in them backing down, and she was given a place to study in Paris.
    • Jacotin returned to Paris where she married Paul Dubreil on 28 June 1930.
    • In 1934 she defended her thesis in Paris:- .
    • In May 1940 German forces invaded France and had taken Paris by the middle of June.
    • In fact Edith was brought up in Paris with Paul and Marie-Louise spending weeks about with her [',' J Leray, Marie-Louise Dubreil : 7 juillet 1905 - 19 octobre 1972, l’Annuaire des Anciens Eleves de l’Ecole Normale Superieure (1972).
    • The defeat, the occupation and the liberation made these never-ending trips to and from Paris slower and more difficult and dangerous.
    • During the winter of 1944-45 the trip from Poitiers to Paris meant crossing the Loire river by foot bridge that rising water was on the verge of washing away.
    • However Marie-Louise was still commuting weekly from Poitiers to Paris and her mother's ill health put her under increasing stress.
    • During 1954-55 she was mainly in Paris, being appointed as Research Director at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    • After the death of her mother she returned to teach at Poitiers, then in 1956 she was appointed to Faculty of Science in Paris [',' L Lesieur, Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, Semigroup Forum 6 (1973), 1-2.
    • (I discovered somewhat later that he, who had a doctorate from Amsterdam, was the only example of this old tradition that I could find!) Thus he arranged for me to go to Paris with a NATO scholarship, to be supervised by Madame Dubreil-Jacotin.
    • This was my first trip out of the UK and it was arranged that I meet her at the Institut Henri Poincare at 5 pm on the day after I arrived in Paris.
    • On arriving at the Place Vendome she told me to see her again in two weeks, after I had enjoyed discovering some of the niceties of Paris.

  4. Mersenne biography
    • Died: 1 September 1648 in Paris, France .
    • Mersenne, however, was devoted to study, which he loved, and, showing that he was ready for responsibilities of the world, had decided to further his education in Paris.
    • He left for Paris staying en route at a convent of the Minims.
    • After reaching Paris he studied at the College Royale du France, continuing there his education in philosophy and also attending classes in theology at the Sorbonne where he also obtained the degree of Magister Atrium in Philosophy.
    • Mersenne entered the Order on 16 July 1611, and was ordained a priest in Paris in July 1612 after a two and a half month probationary period in the monasteries at Nigeon and Meaux.
    • After two years teaching Mersenne was elected superior of the Place Royale monastery in Paris where he remained, except for brief journeys, until his death in 1648.
    • From the beginning of his time in Paris, mathematical problems played an important role in his life.
    • Very early on he had links with important scholars in Paris whom he met often, exchanging ideas and discussing projects.
    • It was because of this publication that, in September 1624 when he returned to Paris, he met Gassendi who had been asked to comment on Mersenne's results, and later became his closest friend.
    • Marin Mersenne was central to the new mathematical approach to nature in Paris in the 1630s and 1640s.
    • In the early 1620s, Mersenne was known in Paris primarily as a writer on religious topics, and a staunch defender of Aristotle against attacks by those who would replace him by a new philosophy.
    • He always had a philosophical approach to mathematics and believed that the cause of the sciences is the cause of God, see [',' R Lenoble, Mersenne ou la naissance du mecanisme (Paris, 1943).','5].
    • From 1623 he began to make a careful selection of savants who met at his convent in Paris or corresponded with him from all across Europe and even from as far afield as Constantinople and Transylvania (present-day Hungary).
    • When Roberval arrived in Paris, after joining Mersenne's circle of scholars, his talent was soon recognised by Mersenne who encouraged him to work on the cycloid.
    • On his return to Paris, he reported this news to encourage French scholars to carry out the experiments too.
    • Huygens had intended to move to Paris in 1646 to be near Mersenne in order to enable them to contact each other more easily, however Huygens did not move until several years after Mersenne had died so they never met.
    • He returned to Paris in 1647.
    • Gassendi was there for Mersenne throughout his illness and remained with him until his death on 1 September 1648 in Paris, just 8 days from his 60th birthday.
    • In an unpublished manuscript preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris he gave the 40320 permutations of 8 notes.
    • Mersenne explained the problem to Etienne Pascal, his son Blaise Pascal, Petit, Roberval, and others in Paris.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  5. Laplace biography
    • Died: 5 March 1827 in Paris, France .
    • Once he knew that mathematics was to be his subject, Laplace left Caen without taking his degree, and went to Paris.
    • Although Laplace was only 19 years old when he arrived in Paris he quickly impressed d'Alembert.
    • Not only did d'Alembert begin to direct Laplace's mathematical studies, he also tried to find him a position to earn enough money to support himself in Paris.
    • Imparting geometry, trigonometry, elementary analysis, and statics to adolescent cadets of good family, average attainment, and no commitment to the subjects afforded little stimulus, but the post did permit Laplace to stay in Paris.
    • He began producing a steady stream of remarkable mathematical papers, the first presented to the Academie des Sciences in Paris on 28 March 1770.
    • Before Lagrange could act on d'Alembert's request, another chance for Laplace to gain admission to the Paris Academie arose.
    • Lexell visited the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1780-81 and reported that Laplace let it be known widely that he considered himself the best mathematician in France.
    • It was while Lexell was in Paris that Laplace made an excursion into a new area of science [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.','2]:- .
    • Laplace served on a committee set up to investigate the largest hospital in Paris and he used his expertise in probability to compare mortality rates at the hospital with those of other hospitals in France and elsewhere.
    • Two years later Lagrange left Berlin to join Laplace as a member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • Thus the two great mathematical geniuses came together in Paris and, despite a rivalry between them, each was to benefit greatly from the ideas flowing from the other.
    • Before the 1793 Reign of Terror Laplace together with his wife and two children left Paris and lived 50 km southeast of Paris.
    • He did not return to Paris until after July 1794.
    • Although Laplace managed to avoid the fate of some of his colleagues during the Revolution, such as Lavoisier who was guillotined in May 1794 while Laplace was out of Paris, he did have some difficult times.
    • Also in 1795 the Bureau des Longitudes was founded with Lagrange and Laplace as the mathematicians among its founding members and Laplace went on to lead the Bureau and the Paris Observatory.
    • Together with the chemist Berthollet, he set up the Society which operated out of their homes in Arcueil which was south of Paris.
    • The Hundred Days were an embarrassment to him the following year and he conveniently left Paris for the critical period.

  6. Galois biography
    • in Bourg La Reine (near Paris), France .
    • in Paris, France .
    • You can see a map of Paris in the 19th Century, showing Bourg-la-Reine at THIS LINK .
    • By the end of 1793 there were 4595 political prisoners held in Paris.
    • The failed Russian campaign of 1812 was followed by defeats, the Allies entering Paris on 31 March 1814.
    • Napoleon entered Paris on March 20, was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June and abdicated for the second time on 22 June.
    • It was the leading University of Paris and Galois must have wished to enter it for academic reasons.
    • He hanged himself in his Paris apartment only a few steps from Louis-le-Grand where his son was studying.
    • The paper was sent to Fourier, the secretary of the Paris Academy, to be considered for the Grand Prize in mathematics.
    • There was rioting in the streets of Paris and the director of Ecole Normale, M.
    • In March 1832 a cholera epidemic swept Paris and prisoners, including Galois, were transferred to the pension Sieur Faultrier.
    • A map of Paris in the 19th Century showing Bourg-la-Reine.
    • A walk Around Paris .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  7. Catalan biography
    • Eugene's father, Joseph Victor Etienne Catalan, was originally from Paris.
    • It is unclear just when the family moved to Paris, but this must have occurred around 1825.
    • He watched the jubilee procession through Paris which took place on 3 May 1826, when the corner-stone of a monument to Louis XVI was laid and dedicated, and he described it in detail in a letter.
    • It is unclear exactly when Jeanne Catalan died, but it must have been soon after the family moved to Paris.
    • This revolution had repercussions across Europe, in particular in Belgium where dissatisfaction with King William I's rule led to moves against the monarchy culminating in the "Belgian Revolution" of August-September 1830, following the July Revolution in Paris earlier that year.
    • It was a time of great political instability and, in April 1834, there were serious disturbances in Paris following the passing of a law to curtail the activities of the Republican Society of Human Rights.
    • In spite of the fact that he was not a practising Christian, they was married in the church of Saint Eustache in Paris.
    • Catalan was keen to return to Paris and he applied for the professorship at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin which had become vacant on the death of his former professor Jean-Baptiste-Omer Lavit in 1836.
    • He wrote to Liouville in January 1837 who replied encouraging him to come to Paris in the Easter holidays to discuss his future with him.
    • Later that year, Catalan resigned his position at Chalons-sur-Marne and returned to Paris.
    • As soon as he had returned to Paris, in addition to these other tasks, Catalan had taken Liouville's advice regarding his baccalaureate, and began studying hard.
    • Augustin-Louis Cauchy, a fervent Royalist, had left Paris in 1830 and, failing to swear an oath of allegiance to the new regime, had lost all his positions there.
    • However, he returned to Paris in October 1838 regaining his position at the Academie des Sciences but not his teaching positions because he still refused to take an oath of allegiance.
    • Piotr Tchihatchef was a Russian geographer and geologist who was spending the winter of 1842-43 in Paris.
    • This in fact proved fortunate for Catalan since Tchihatchef had been given a paper by the Russian mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshev to submit for publication in Paris.
    • Adolphe Quetelet, the Belgium scientist with whom he had corresponded since his 1841 Memoires couronnes Ⓣ in the Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles, encouraged him to seek a university position in Belgium because of his lack of progress in Paris.
    • In September 1846 Catalan wrote to Quetelet indicating that he was beginning to regret having remained in Paris instead of following his suggestion to move to Belgium.
    • For the next few years he lived in Paris, teaching mathematics, but without any proper employment.
    • In 1859 Catalan had tried to persuade the Ministry of Public Instruction to name him as a Professor of Mathematics at one of the lycees in Paris.
    • He arrived there with his wife, two daughters, and his mother-in-law Louise Perin who had lived with the family throughout their married life in Paris.
    • Some biographies state that Catalan also had a son who died in Paris before the family moved to Liege but we have been unable to confirm whether this is true.
    • Catalan's wife took Fanny back to Paris in the hope that this would see her health improve but it was not to be and Fanny died in the spring of 1866.
    • He was a member of the Science Society of Liege, the Mathematical Society of France and, as we mentioned above, the Societe Philomatique of Paris.
    • Catalan, one of the oldest living former pupils, planned a final visit to Paris to take part in the celebrations.

  8. Carnot Sadi biography
    • Born: 1 June 1796 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 24 August 1832 in Paris, France .
    • Under his father's tuition, Sadi Carnot showed great promise and was sent to the Lycee Charlemagne in Paris to prepare him for the examinations to the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • This skirmish against the Allies was fought just outside Paris, to the east of the city.
    • Unhappy at his lack of promotion and the refusal to give him a job which allowed him to make use of his training, in 1819, he sat and passed the examinations to join the recently formed General Staff Corps in Paris.
    • Almost immediately he took leave on half pay, living in Paris in his father's former apartment, but he remained on call for army duty.
    • Carnot began to attend courses at various institutions in Paris, including the Sorbonne and the College de France.
    • After returning to Paris, Carnot began the work which led to the mathematical theory of heat and helped start the modern theory of thermodynamics.
    • When Lazare Carnot died in August 1823, Hippolyte Carnot returned to Paris and there he helped Sadi Carnot to make the book on steam engines that he was working on at the time more understandable to the general public.
    • In 1827, however, the General Staff Corps in Paris was reorganised and he was recalled to full time duties.
    • Still unhappy with his career, Carnot retired permanently and returned to live in Paris where he aimed to continue with his research into the theory of heat.
    • In June 1832 he took ill and had not fully regained his strength when the cholera epidemic of 1832 hit Paris.
    • It was published on 12 June 1824 and on 26 July of that year Pierre Girard gave a long review of it to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.

  9. Francoeur biography
    • Born: 16 August 1773 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 15 December 1849 in Fontainbleau, Paris, France .
    • Louis Benjamin Francoeur was born into a famous Paris family of musicians.
    • Louis Benjamin was brought up in Saint Cloud, a wealthy commune to the west of Paris, and educated at the College d'Harcourt.
    • He became a clerk to a notary in 1790 but, by this time, Paris was in turmoil as the Revolution took its course.
    • He had risen to 'Chef de brigade', a rank equivalent to colonel, but on hearing that technicians for the arms factories were being recruited in Paris, he quickly returned there.
    • Having failed to get such a position, he sadly set off for Maubeuge in August 1794 but when he heard that students were being sought for the new Ecole Centrale des Travaux Publics (soon to be renamed the Ecole Polytechnique) he returned again to Paris.
    • Then he was appointed to the School of Geographical Engineers, which allowed him to remain in Paris to give private lessons to favoured students, such as Jerome Bonaparte, the youngest brother of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    • In 1808 he was made professor of mathematics at the Faculte des Sciences in Paris, a post he was to hold in addition to others until 1845.
    • Francoeur became interested in astronomy as a result of this comet and was appointed professor of astronomy at the Athenee in Paris.
    • His other books include Elemens de statique Ⓣ (1810), La goniometrie Ⓣ (1820), L'enseignment du dessin lineaire Ⓣ (1827), Astronomie practique Ⓣ (1830), Elemens de technologie Ⓣ (1833), Geodesie, ou Traite de la figure de la terre et de ses parties, comprenant la topographie, l'arpentage, le nivellement, la geomorphie terrestre et astronomique, la construction des cartes, la navigation, lecons donnees a la Faculte des sciences de Paris Ⓣ (1835), Algebre superieure Ⓣ (1838), Memoire sur l'Areometrie Ⓣ (1842), and Traite d'arithmetique appliquee a la banque, au commerce, a l'industrie, etc., recueil de methodes propres a resoudre les problemes et a abreger les calculs numeriques Ⓣ (1845).
    • Finally, let us also mention his text Flore parisienne ou Description des caracteres de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement aux environs de Paris, distribuees suivant la methode du jardin des plantes Ⓣ (1800-01).
    • Finally we note that Francoeur's son, Isidore Francoeur, the author of [',' I Francoeur, Notice sur la vie et les oeuvres de M L-B Francoeur (Paris, 1853).','1], was himself a professor of mathematics at the College Chaptal and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

  10. Schwartz biography
    • Born: 5 March 1915 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 4 July 2002 in Paris, France .
    • He was French and did not like the idea of living in Germany so, at the age of fourteen he left his home town and went to Paris where he became a surgeon.
    • When Laurent was young, the family would spend every weekend at Autouillet but lived in Paris during the week.
    • At the lycee he attended in Paris, Schwartz excelled at both mathematics and the classical languages of Greek and Latin.
    • Schwartz entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1934 where he was taught by some of the leading mathematicians in the world.
    • Schwartz received mathematical advice from Georges Valiron who was based in Paris.
    • (Claudine married the mathematician Raoul Robert in 1971.) In 1953 Schwartz's wife, Marie-Helene Schwartz, was awarded a doctorate by the University of Paris for her thesis Formules apparentees a celles de Gauss-Bonnet et Nevanlinna-Ahlfors pour certaines applications d'une variete a n dimensions dans une autre Ⓣ.
    • In 1953 Schwartz returned to Paris where he became professor, holding this position until 1959.
    • He taught at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris from 1959 to 1980.
    • He then spent three years at the University of Paris VII before he retired in 1983.
    • We say a little below about his remarkable mathematical contributions but before we look at these we recount some of the political activity he took part in during his career in Paris.
    • He received prizes from the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1955, 1964 and 1972.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  11. Foucault biography
    • Born: 18 September 1819 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 11 February 1868 in Paris, France .
    • When Leon was young his father retired, since his health was rather poor, and the family moved from Paris to Nantes.
    • His mother decided that they would return to Paris and from the age of ten Leon lived with his mother in a rather fine house on the junction of rue de Vangirard and rue d'Assas.
    • His dexterity suggested to his mother than he would make a superb surgeon and so, having obtained his high school diploma, he entered medical school in Paris in 1839.
    • Bertrand in [',' J Bertrand, Eloge historique de Leon Foucault (Institut de France, Paris, 1882).','2] writes about this task which Foucault carried out with remarkable success:- .
    • Foucault wrote [',' J Bertrand, Eloge historique de Leon Foucault (Institut de France, Paris, 1882).','2]:- .
    • He told Arago of his achievement and Arago asked him to repeat it in the Paris Observatory.
    • Every scientist in Paris received an invitation to view the pendulum in the Paris Observatory on 3 February 1851.
    • Bertrand writes [',' J Bertrand, Eloge historique de Leon Foucault (Institut de France, Paris, 1882).','2]:- .
    • The director of the Imperial Observatory, as Napoleon III had renamed the Paris Observatory, was now Le Verrier.

  12. Rocard biography
    • Died: 16 March 1992 in Paris, France .
    • He begins his autobiography [',' Y Rocard, Memoires sans concessions (B Grasset, Paris, 1988).','2] by saying how his deafness was the most significant thing in making him the person he became:- .
    • The schools that he attended did little to help him overcome his deafness and he is critical of this in [',' Y Rocard, Memoires sans concessions (B Grasset, Paris, 1988).','2].
    • Rocard attended the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris before entering the Ecole Normale Superieure in 1922.
    • He writes in [',' Y Rocard, Memoires sans concessions (B Grasset, Paris, 1988).','2]:- .
    • He also attended physics courses at the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris by Charles Fabry (1867-1945), Aime Cotton (1869-1951), Anatole Leduc (1856-1937), and Amedee Guillet (1863-1939).
    • He graduated with a doctorate in mathematics in 1927 from the University of Paris for his thesis L'hydrodynamique et la theorie cinetique des gaz Ⓣ.
    • However, he wrote [',' Y Rocard, Memoires sans concessions (B Grasset, Paris, 1988).','2]:- .
    • Firstly, to remain in the academic world in France one had to get a first position in a remote university, but he didn't want to leave Paris at this time.
    • He compared the laboratory facilities available at Radiotechnique to those at the Ecole Normale Superieure [',' Y Rocard, Memoires sans concessions (B Grasset, Paris, 1988).','2]:- .
    • On 1 October 1939, he returned to Paris when he was appointed as a lecturer in experimental fluid mechanics at the University of Paris.
    • A site was found for the radio astronomy observatory at Nancay in the Cher region, 200 km due south of Paris.
    • Professor Rocard, who had been the French representative at the Conference of Experts, was a professor of physics at the University of Paris.
    • I remember a superb dinner with him in Paris at the apartment of Madam Rudeau, his mistress.
    • Paris.
    • He died at his home in Paris in 1992 and was buried in a family grave in the Cimetiere du Montparnasse in Paris.

  13. Roberval biography
    • Died: 27 October 1675 in Paris, France .
    • Pierre and Jeanne Personne were of humble origins, living in the village of Roberval, about 50 km north (and a bit east) of Paris.
    • Blanchard, Paris, 1962).','2] that he rode from town to town with an ink bottle strapped to the saddle of his horse.
    • He arrived in Paris in 1628 and made contact with Marin Mersenne's circle, particularly with Claude Hardy, Claude Mydorge, Etienne Pascal and Blaise Pascal.
    • He achieved this in 1632 when he was appointed professor of philosophy in the College Gervais in Paris.
    • This was a small institution attached to the university of Paris.
    • Roberval moved into rooms there where he resided until the end of his life; he never became a property owner in Paris.
    • While teaching at the college he prepared himself as a candidate for one of the most prestigious mathematical positions in Paris: the Ramus Chair at the College Royal which fell vacant in 1634 and was to be filled through public competition.
    • The years between 1648 and 1653 were difficult ones for anyone living in Paris with civil wars known as the Frondes.
    • In August 1648 there was insurrection in Paris and the people barricaded the streets.
    • After a siege by the army, the rebellion faded away by the spring of 1649 but civil war erupted again with a battle being fought around Paris in the summer of 1652.
    • Menerval is, like Roberval's birthplace, north of Paris, but it is further to the west about 80 km from Paris.
    • It was well situated for its produce to be sold in Paris, and also near enough for Roberval to be able to make trips to the farm.
    • In 1666 Roberval was one of a group of scientists making astronomical observations from Jean-Baptiste Colbert's Paris residence.
    • As well as meeting with other scientists in Paris, Roberval also corresponded regularly with Pierre de Fermat and with Evangelista Torricelli until his death in 1647.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  14. Monge biography
    • Died: 28 July 1818 in Paris, France .
    • The completed work was submitted to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in October 1770 and read before the Academie in August 1771 (although it was not published by the Academie until 1785).
    • From 1780, however, he devoted less time to his work at the Ecole at Mezieres since in that year he was elected as adjoint geometre at the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • From that time he spent long periods in Paris, teaching a course in hydrodynamics as a substitute for Bossut as well as participating in projects undertaken by the Academie in mathematics, physics and chemistry.
    • After three years of dividing his time between Paris and Mezieres, Monge was offered yet another post, namely to replace Bezout as examiner of naval cadets.
    • At the onset of the Revolution he was one of the leading scientists in Paris with an outstanding research record in a wide variety of sciences, experience as an examiner and experience in school reforms which he had undertaken in 1786 as part of his duties as an examiner.
    • Louis XVI attempted to flee the country on 20 June 1791, but was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris, and this put an end to attempts to share government between the king and an assembly.
    • Monge returned to Paris bringing the text of the Treaty of Campo Formio with him.
    • Back in Paris Monge slotted back into his previous roles and was appointed to the prestigious new one of Director of the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to Paris in 1799, he soon held absolute power in France.
    • Monge was back in Paris on 16 October 1799 and took up his role as director of the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Napoleon withdrew, the Prussians and Austrians deserted the Grande Armee and in there were attempts at a coup against Napoleon in Paris.
    • Slowly his health returned after Napoleon left the remains of his army and returned to Paris to assert his authority.
    • When Napoleon abdicated on 6 April 1814, Monge was not in Paris, but soon after he did return and tried to pick up his life again.
    • Napoleon escaped from Elba, where he had been banished, and by 20 March 1815 he was back in Paris.
    • Monge returned to Paris in March 1816.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  15. Gassendi biography
    • Died: 24 October 1655 in Paris, France .
    • In April 1615 Gassendi left Provence for the first time, spending the period from April to November in Paris.
    • He did not hold any further academic posts until 1645 when he was appointed professor of mathematics at the College Royale in Paris.
    • Gassendi first met Mersenne in October 1623 when he visited Paris.
    • From that time on until Mersenne's death in 1648, whenever Gassendi was in Paris he would visit Mersenne and the two would celebrate mass together.
    • After returning to Provence from Paris, Gassendi wrote to Galileo with strong support for his argument that the earth revolves round the sun.
    • In May 1628 he again travelled to Paris and through his contacts with Peiresc became friendly with Francois Luillier, the Dupuy brothers, and others from their circle.
    • It had been moved to Paris between 1567 and 1593, and catalogued in 1622.
    • In 1632 Gassendi published Mercury seen on the face of the sun, which described his observations of the transit of Mercury which he observed from Paris in November 1631 following the prediction of the event by Kepler in 1629.
    • Gassendi was not going to allow matters to rest there, and replied again, this time with Instantiae which began to circulate in Paris in 1642.
    • In 1645, on the recommendation of Cardinal Richelieu, Gassendi was offered the Chair of Mathematics at the College Royale in Paris.
    • He accepted the Chair of Mathematics on the condition that he would be able to return to Provence when his health was too poor to remain in Paris; he was appointed with this being accepted.
    • Gassendi remained in Provence until the spring of 1653 when he felt well enough to return to Paris with his assistant Francois Bernier.
    • They met on Saturday mornings, and probably due to their influence, Gassendi produced an anonymous pamphlet attempting to reassure the people of Paris that the predicted eclipse on 12 August 1654 would not lead to a disaster.
    • He was not entirely successful as many of the inhabitants of Paris hid in their cellars on the day the eclipse was predicted.
    • He died at the home of Henri-Louis Habert de Montmor, who had been his patron during his final spell in Paris.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  16. Malebranche biography
    • Born: 6 August 1638 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 13 October 1715 in Paris, France .
    • P Andre writes in [',' P Andre, La vie du R P Malebranche (Paris, 1886).','2] that he found theology:- .
    • Malebranche went to the Sorbonne in Paris until 1659, again intending to make theology his life's work but he found it no more to his liking than he had before.
    • He considered it [',' P Andre, La vie du R P Malebranche (Paris, 1886).','2]:- .
    • In [',' P Andre, La vie du R P Malebranche (Paris, 1886).','2] his reaction to Descartes' book is recounted:- .
    • Malebranche was also influenced by Leibniz who visited Paris in 1672.
    • He had a large influence on the development of mathematics and science, principally through the group which he built up in Paris which was seen as the leading one in France.
    • Malebranche was to have a strong influence on many who visited Paris while he and his disciples exerted a strong influence there.
    • One who was strongly influenced was Berkeley who visited Paris in 1713 and met with Malebranche.
    • He was taken back to the Oratory in Paris and died four months later after great suffering.

  17. Morin biography
    • Born: 19 October 1795 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 7 February 1880 in Paris, France .
    • Arthur Jules Morin grew up at a turbulent time in French history although Paris was peaceful during much of his youth.
    • Morin was fifteen in 1810 when Napoleon was at the height of his power and Paris thrived.
    • The disastrous Russian campaign of 1812 saw Napoleon return to Paris to strengthen his power and his army.
    • As the armies of the allies moved towards Paris in 1814, Morin had to terminate his studies at the Ecole Polytechnique and join in the efforts to defend Paris.
    • As Napoleon led the remnants of the French army east to attack the rear of the enemy troops approaching Paris, Talleyrand, as head of the government in Paris, ordered the city to capitulate.
    • He had already published work on dynamometers in Notice sur divers appareils dynamometriques Ⓣ (Paris, 1841), a work which describes the recording mechanism onto paper, as well as describing a mechanical integrator used so that results of longer experiments could be read off directly.
    • Another important role that Morin filled was as President of the Commission for the first Universal Exhibition which opened in Paris in May 1855.
    • In the following issue of Nature [',' T H N, Arthur Jules Morin, Nature 21 (537) (1880), 349-350.','2], his death in Paris on 7 February was reported.

  18. La Hire biography
    • Born: 18 March 1640 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 21 April 1718 in Paris, France .
    • Laurent was born in Paris and became a painter of some distinction, getting commissions from the church, from politicians, and from wealthy Parisians who wished their portrait painted.
    • The family had two homes in Paris, one in the rue Montmartre with four floors and a garden, and the other, a smaller dwelling, in the rue Gravilliers.
    • Returning to Paris in 1664, La Hire was a wealthy man and able to pursue his interests without the need to seek employment.
    • La Hire's mother died in 1669 and the two Paris homes were left jointly to the five children.
    • He had, at that time, made no contributions to astronomy but Fontenelle [',' B de Fontenelle, Oeuvres Completes de Fontenelle 1 (Paris, 1818), 257-266.','3] suggests that his election was on the strength of his excellent publications in geometry.
    • By this time La Hire's work for the Academy was closely linked to the Paris Observatory which, like the Academy, had been founded largely due to Colbert.
    • The following quote from Fontenelle [',' B de Fontenelle, Oeuvres Completes de Fontenelle 1 (Paris, 1818), 257-266.','3] tells us a lot about La Hire's character:- .
    • In astronomy he installed the first transit instrument in the Paris Observatory.
    • He also studied instruments to measure climatic conditions such as temperature, pressure and wind speed, making measurements with such instruments at the Paris Observatory.
    • A precise and regular observer, he contributed to the smooth running of the Paris Observatory and to the success of the different geodesic undertakings.

  19. Bertillon biography
    • Born: 11 November 1851 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 7 July 1922 in Valmondois, near Paris, France .
    • Jacques Bertillon's father, Louis-Adolphe Bertillon (1821-1883), was a statistician appointed as professor of demography at the School of Anthropology in Paris.
    • Louis-Adolphe taught the first course in demography at the Paris Medical School (1875) and was the director of the Bureau de Statistique Municipale in Paris.
    • In 1883 Bertillon's father, Louis-Adolphe, died and Jacques Bertillon succeeded him as director of the Bureau de Statistique Municipale in Paris; he held this post for thirty years until 1913.
    • His classification was adopted by the American Health Association in 1897 and then it was approved as the international standard by an International Commission in Paris in 1900.
    • In 1895 he founded the Free College of Social Sciences in Paris and he taught statistics and demography there for more than ten years.
    • From 1879 he was a member of the Statistical Society of Paris and in 1897 he was elected president of the Society.
    • Dr Jacques Bertillon, Paris, France.
    • Paris July 7.- Dr Jacques Bertillon, the famous criminologist, died here today.
    • Obituaries printed in the Paris newspapers this afternoon were written by the aged savant himself several days ago.

  20. Arago biography
    • Died: 2 October 1853 in Paris, France .
    • In 1803 he was examined at Toulouse for admission to the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1803 and took up lodgings in a Paris apartment owned by a friend of his father.
    • However he finally decided that he would accept the prestigious offer, was nominated formally on 22 February 1805 and then moved into the Paris Observatory which would become his headquarters.
    • They continued the task which Mechain had been undertaking on his final expedition and by 1808 they were on Mallorca, an important point which allowed the Paris meridian to be continued south of Barcelona.
    • Arriving back in Paris with his logbook containing the measurements he was treated as a hero.
    • He also worked at the Paris Observatory for the rest of his career.
    • He became Director of the Paris Observatory.
    • Later he served as a deputy from Paris.
    • He remained at the Paris Observatory, which Napoleon II had renamed the Imperial Observatory.
    • After giving them advice on a wide range of matters he returned to Paris where he died shortly after.
    • He was buried in the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
    • Metropole Paris (The Paris meridian) .

  21. Bertrand biography
    • Born: 11 March 1822 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 3 April 1900 in Paris, France .
    • They visited them frequently, travelling by train from Paris.
    • He made a major contribution to group theory with his article Memoire sur le nombre de valeurs que peut prendre une fonction quand on y permute les lettres qu'elle renferme Ⓣ which he submitted to the Paris Academy in March 1845.
    • La Societe Mathematique de France (1870-1914) (Paris- Berlin, 1991).','4]:- .
    • The French suffered a military disaster and Paris was under siege from the Prussian armies for four months from September 1870.
    • Following the French defeat the people of Paris formed the Commune of Paris in March 1871.
    • The repression of the Paris Commune took place towards the end of May during a week of street fighting which saw Bertrand's house burned and many of his manuscripts were lost in the fire including an intended third volume of Traite de calcul differentiel et de calcul integral Ⓣ which he never rewrote.
    • Bertrand was appointed a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1856 and he served as its permanent secretary from 1874 to the end of his life.
    • Lest it be judged ephemeral, it must be viewed in the context of nineteenth-century Paris and of Bertrand's brilliant academic career, his exalted social position, and the love and respect given him by his pupils.

  22. Salem biography
    • Died: 20 June 1963 in Paris, France .
    • When Salem was 15 years old, his family moved to France and set up home in Paris.
    • Salem attended the Lycee Condorcet for two years and then entered the Law Faculty of the University of Paris.
    • Of course there were few better places in the world to study mathematics than Paris, and Salem was soon taking mathematics courses with Hadamard.
    • He worked for the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas from 1921.
    • Zygmund writes in [',' A Zygmund, Preface, in Oeuvres mathematique de Raphael Salem (Paris, 1967), 15-18.','3]:- .
    • He did have some connections with Paris mathematicians, however, particularly with Denjoy who may have influenced him towards Fourier series.
    • His career in the bank progressed well and in 1938 he became one of the managers of the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas.
    • Another factor was the arrival of Marcinkiewicz in Paris in the spring of 1939.
    • It was very fortunate for Salem that he had obtained his doctorate in mathematics in the previous year from the University of Paris.
    • This did not seem a problem, however, for [',' A Zygmund, Preface, in Oeuvres mathematique de Raphael Salem (Paris, 1967), 15-18.','3]:- .
    • Zygmund, reviewing [',' Oeuvres mathematique de Raphael Salem (Paris, 1967).','2], puts Salem's contributions to Fourier series into perspective:- .
    • His father died in Paris in 1940 while his mother, his sister, his sister's husband, and his sister's son, were all arrested and deported by the Nazis to a concentration camp where they died.
    • For some years he split his time between Paris and Cambridge, Massachusetts, spending one semester in each.
    • He lived in Paris from that time on until his death.
    • As to Salem's personality we quote from [',' A Zygmund, Preface, in Oeuvres mathematique de Raphael Salem (Paris, 1967), 15-18.','3]:- .

  23. Delambre biography
    • Died: 19 August 1822 in Paris, France .
    • There Delambre studied English and German but in 1764 the Jesuits were banned from France and at this stage he continued his education in Amiens, studying under teachers who had been brought from Paris.
    • At this time he was intent on becoming a parish priest, but one of these new teachers encouraged him to continue his education in Paris.
    • He was awarded a scholarship to the College du Plessis in Paris and there he studied classical languages preparing himself for a university education.
    • His parents could not afford to send him to university without the scholarship and so encouraged him to return to Amiens but he remained in Paris trying to educate himself.
    • In 1771 Delambre came back to Paris where he became tutor to the son of Jean-Claude Geoffroy d'Assy, Receiver General of Finances.
    • In 1787 Geoffroy d'Assy moved into a new house in the le Marais district of Paris, west of the Bastille, and in 1788, encouraged by Lalande, he began building an observatory for Delambre above his bedroom on the top floor of the house.
    • Delambre set out in June and began to seek triangulation points round Paris.
    • He was able to obtain official papers from the National Convention in Paris and continued his mission.
    • Delambre made comparatively little progress before returning to Paris for the winter, then set out the next spring to begin working his way south from Dunkerque.
    • Delambre made accurate baseline measurements in Melun, near Paris, in April 1798.
    • They lived at first in the d'Assy house in the le Marais district of Paris where, except for when he had been on his travels, he had continued to observe in the observatory above his room from the time it was first built for him.
    • Delambre attained further achievements in his career, however, including his appointment to the chair of astronomy at the College de France in Paris in 1807.
    • He had earlier been invested as chevalier of the Legion of Honour by Napoleon at the first such occasion in 1804 at the Hotel des Invalides in Paris, and in 1821 he was made an officier of the Legion of Honour.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  24. Puiseux biography
    • Louis Victor Puiseux was born in Paris on 23 June 1783 and became a tax collector.
    • Francois Leon Puiseux studied at the colleges of Pont-a-Mousson, Metz and Henri IV in Paris, and entered the Ecole normale in Paris in 1834.
    • He attended the College de Pont-a-Mousson and while he was there his brother, who had completed his schooling in Paris and had just been accepted for admission to the Ecole Normale, persuaded Victor also to complete his schooling in Paris.
    • In 1834 Victor went to Paris and became a boarder at the College Rollin.
    • While he was in Paris, he received news that his mother had died.
    • He performed outstandingly in these examinations but, being only 16 years old, he was not allowed to enter the Ecole so had to spend another year in Paris.
    • At this stage he was on his own in Paris since his brother had completed his studies and left the city.
    • In 1840 Puiseux was placed first in his final examination at the Ecole Normale Superieure and spent another year studying in Paris.
    • His thesis, Sur l'invariabilite des grands axes des orbites des planetes, these d'astronomie presentee a la Faculte des sciences de Paris, le 21 aout 1841 Ⓣ, was on celestial mechanics and the stability of the solar system.
    • He describes being in Puiseux's lectures in [',' J Tannery, L’enseignement des mathematiques a l’Ecole, in Le Centenaire de l’Ecole normale (1795-1895) (Paris, 1994).','6]:- .
    • From 1855 to 1859 he worked at the Paris Observatory where he was director of the Bureau des calculs.
    • He replaced Cauchy, who was ill, giving the lecture course on celestial mechanics at the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1856-57.
    • Jules Tannery writes in [',' J Tannery, L’enseignement des mathematiques a l’Ecole, in Le Centenaire de l’Ecole normale (1795-1895) (Paris, 1994).','6] about Puiseux's reaction to the tragic death of his son:- .
    • Puiseux returned to Paris with his two daughters, leaving Pierre with the wife of Augustin Boutan in Lectoure.
    • However, Paris came under siege by the Prussians on 19 September 1870 and conditions became very difficult.
    • Puiseux's daughter Marie became ill during the Paris siege and died from tuberculosis in March 1872.
    • He went on to become professor of astronomy at the University of Paris.
    • Joseph Bertrand says of his election [',' J Bertrand, Victor Puiseux, Eloges academiques (Paris, 1890), 275-285.','2]:- .
    • He returned to Paris, then left for Frontenay in August, staying with the family of his son Pierre's wife.

  25. Girard Pierre biography
    • Died: 30 November 1836 in Paris, France .
    • Then Girard was assigned to Paris and, in 1790, saw that the Academie des Sciences had proposed a prize on the theory of locks applied to seaports and canals, and the best methods of construction.
    • After he returned to Paris, he was offered a major political position by Napoleon but he declined the offer, preferring instead the position of director of the Paris water supply.
    • He was put in charge of the Ourcq canal project, one of many projects ordered by Napoleon to modernise Paris.
    • The purpose of the project was to connect the rivers Seine and Ourcq with a ship canal so that Paris was accessible by shipping [',' H Rouse, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • The first barges reached Paris from Ourcq in 1813 but after that the project ran into difficulties.
    • In part the causes were political ones resulting from the abdication of Napoleon after the Allies captured Paris in April 1814, in part they were technical difficulties resulting from landslides around the Saint-Denis area in 1814 and 1815.
    • Napoleon had been banished to Elba but escaped and returned to Paris in triumph in March 1815.
    • He continued to work on the Ourcq canal scheme but became involved in difficult discussions with the city of Paris over numerous technical issues.
    • Girard gave a full account of the Ourcq canal project in a two volume treatise Memoires sur le Canal de l'Ourcq et la distribution de ses eaux: sur le dessechement et l'assainissement de Paris, et les divers canaux navigables Ⓣ (1831-1840).
    • Once he was no longer involved in the Ourcq canal project, Girard was free to undertake other work and in 1819 he was commissioned to direct a project installing gas lighting in large Paris theatres and in various neighborhoods of Paris.
    • In fact he had continued in his role of director of the Paris water supply throughout all these difficult times, and he remained in this position until he retired in 1831.
    • In [',' L Baldwin, Report on introducing pure water into the city of Boston (Hilliard, Gray and Co., Boston, 1835).','2] there is a description of a visit, made along with Girard himself, of a Mr Geniey to the 5 km long aqueduct supplying the water for Paris:- .
    • The canal is estimated by P-S Girard, the engineer who constructed it and had the whole superintendence of distributing the water in Paris, at 4,000 inches of water.

  26. Mechain biography
    • The picturesque old town, situated on the summit of a scarped hill, lies northwest of Reims and northeast of Paris.
    • His ability at mathematics was soon spotted, however, and he was advised to study at the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris.
    • In 1716 the Bridge and Highway Corps had been founded in Paris and, in 1747 when Mechain was still a small child, it became the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees.
    • Mechain had to interrupt his studies and take on the role of tutor to two young boys from a noble family some 50 km from Paris.
    • The archives were soon transferred to Paris, and there he drew up the maps of the shoreline from Nieuwpoort in Flanders to Saint-Malo.
    • Mechain went to Paris in the permanent position of calculator in the Depot de la Marine, living there from around 1774.
    • He became friendly with Charles Messier who worked in the same department and the two observed from the Hotel de Cluny in Paris where Lalande had observed 25 years earlier.
    • Others, like that carried out in 1787 to find the precise distance between the Greenwich observatory in England and the Paris observatory, were part of an international project.
    • Mechain left Paris on 28 June 1792 and travelled to Barcelona to begin his survey.
    • However in April 1795 the project was restarted and Mechain was told to return to Paris.
    • However he was now reluctant to proceed, was hampered by bad weather, continued to refuse to return to Paris to meet with Delambre who was triangulating the northern sector, and achieved almost nothing for two years.
    • He feared that his error would be discovered if he returned to Paris and his data was examined.
    • Yet by May Mechain still was making no progress and Delambre and Borda arranged for Mechain's wife to travel from Paris to join her husband and ensure that he finish his task.
    • She returned to Paris unable to convince Mechain to complete his task.
    • Mechain wanted to return to Barcelona to take further readings but he was persuaded to return to Paris [',' O Gingerich, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • Faced with the choice of returning to Paris and the warm welcome of his colleagues, or remaining forever an expatriate, Mechain reluctantly came back to Paris.
    • It may have been the promise that he would be made director of the Paris observatory which tempted Mechain back to Paris.
    • Mechain left Paris on 26 April 1803 for Spain.
    • The more sensitive personal letters and the evidence that Mechain had fiddled the results and lied to his colleagues were sealed in the archives of the Paris observatory.

  27. Picard Jean biography
    • Died: 12 October 1682 in Paris, France .
    • Picard left the Jesuit College at La Fleche around 1644 and went to live in Paris.
    • He had gone from the Jesuit College at La Fleche, where he would have learnt some mathematics but not a great deal, to Paris where very soon after he was knowledgeable enough to be an assistant to the leading scientist Gassendi.
    • What is also unclear is how Picard was supporting himself during these years in Paris.
    • Certainly any work with Gassendi ended in 1648 for in that year Gassendi left Paris and went to Provence for health reasons.
    • In 1655 Picard became professor of astronomy at the College de France in Paris, following the death of Gassendi in October of that year, but not on the strength of any published work for none had appeared.
    • By this stage he had gained an outstanding reputation and Huygens, who made his first visit to Paris in 1655, would seek him out to discuss research topics.
    • Picard was a tireless worker, often away in the provinces or abroad on some important project while others were in the limelight in Paris.
    • He began by accurately measuring his baseline from Villejuif to Juvisy-sur-Orge then, using thirteen triangles, measured by triangulation one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian from Malvoisine, in the southern suburbs of Paris, to the clock-tower of Sourdon near Amiens.
    • He produced a map of the Paris region, and then went on to join a project to map France.
    • There over a period of several months, working with Ole Romer, he observed about 140 eclipses of Jupiter's moon Io, while Jean-Dominique Cassini in Paris carried out the same observations.
    • In 1673 Picard moved to the Paris Observatory where he collaborated with Jean Richer, Jean-Dominique Cassini and, slightly later, with La Hire.
    • Romer also went to the Paris Observatory following the visit to Hven Island and, with Picard, continued to observe the moons of Jupiter.
    • Also at the Paris Observatory, Picard was involved with measuring the parallax of Mars.
    • Also at the Paris Observatory, Picard tried to measure the parallax of nearby stars and so verify the fact that the Earth orbits the sun.

  28. DAlembert biography
    • Born: 17 November 1717 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 29 October 1783 in Paris, France .
    • [John Law was a Scottish monetary reformer who founded a bank in Paris in 1716 with authority to issue notes.
    • When his father returned to Paris he made contact with his young son and arranged for him to be cared for by the wife of a glazier, Mme Rousseau.
    • In July 1739 d'Alembert read his first paper to the Paris Academy of Science on some errors he had found in Reyneau's standard text Analyse demontree Ⓣ which were not of great significance but marked the start of his mathematical career.
    • In May 1741 d'Alembert was admitted to the Paris Academy of Science, on the strength of these and papers on the integral calculus.
    • He travelled little and worked at the Paris Academy of Science and the French Academy all his life.
    • D'Alembert became unhappy at the Paris Academy, almost certainly because of his rivalry with Clairaut and disagreements with others.
    • His position became even less happy in 1745 when Maupertuis left Paris to take up the post of head of the Berlin Academy where, at that time, Euler was working.
    • The Paris Academy had not been a place for d'Alembert to publish after he fell out with colleagues there and he was sending his mathematical papers to the Berlin Academy during the 1750s.

  29. Cassini biography
    • Died: 14 September 1712 in Paris, France .
    • Cassini's brilliant discoveries gave him an international reputation and led to him being invited to Paris by Louis XIV in 1668.
    • The construction of the Paris Observatory had just begun and Cassini was offered a generous salary, free accommodation, and a good travel allowance to oversee the project.
    • After he became head of the Paris Observatory in 1671, he soon changed his views on returning to Italy and became a French citizen two years later, changing his name to Jean-Dominique Cassini.
    • There were two sons from this marriage, the younger one Jacques Cassini being born in 1677 and eventually succeeding to his father's position as head of the Paris Observatory.
    • At the Paris Observatory Cassini continued to make revolutionary discoveries, as he had done in Italy, using a telescope he had brought with him.
    • While French expeditions measured the longitudes of numerous places, Cassini remained in Paris coordinating their data and making his own measurements.
    • In 1672 Jean Richer made measurements of Mars from Cayenne, French Guyana, while Jean Picard and Cassini made measurements in Paris.
    • Another measurement made by Jean Richer, namely that a pendulum with a period of one second is shorter in Cayenne than Paris, led him to explain this by suggesting that the Earth was flattened at the poles.
    • The project was begun in 1683 with Cassini making measurements from Paris towards the south, while Philippe de La Hire began making measurements north from Paris.
    • They made measurements of the meridian from Paris to Perpignan, which is 13 km west of the Mediterranean coast.
    • From around 1709 Jacques Cassini gradually took over his father's duties as head of the Paris Observatory.
    • Fontenelle [',' B de Fontenelle, Eloge de J D Cassini, Histoire de l’Academie royale des Sciences 1712 (Paris, 1714), 84-106.','4] says that Cassini's calm and gentle character, coming from a deeply religious belief, allowed him to bear nearly total blindness with good cheer.

  30. Clairaut biography
    • Born: 7 May 1713 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 17 May 1765 in Paris, France .
    • Alexis Clairaut's father, Jean-Baptiste Clairaut, taught mathematics in Paris and showed his quality by being elected to the Berlin Academy.
    • Few people have read their first paper to an academy at the age of 13, but this was the incredible achievement of Clairaut's in 1726 when he read his paper Quatre problemes sur de nouvelles courbes Ⓣ to the Paris Academy.
    • As a result of this work he was proposed for membership of the Paris Academy on 4 September 1729 but the king did not confirm his election until 1731.
    • In July 1731 Clairaut became the youngest person ever elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • The expedition was organised by the Paris Academy of Sciences, still continuing the programme started by Cassini, to verify Newton's theoretical proof that the Earth is an oblate spheroid.
    • Clairaut, more confident with Euler's support, announced to the Paris Academy on 15 November 1747 that the inverse square law was false.
    • He announced his result, that the perihelion would occur on 15 April 1759, to the Paris Academy on 14 November 1758, while the actual date of perihelion turned out to be 13 March.

  31. DArcy biography
    • Died: 18 October 1779 in Paris, France .
    • This arrangement did not last too long for soon it was decided that he would do better in Paris where he could live with another of his uncles, Martin d'Arcy.
    • When James II had been exiled to France in 1688 Martin d'Arcy had followed him and become a successful and wealthy property owner in Paris.
    • D'Arcy was given lodgings in Paris in the home of Jean-Baptiste Clairaut.
    • Jean-Baptiste Clairaut (1680-1766), the father of Alexis Clairaut, taught mathematics in Paris.
    • He had taught his son Alexis mathematics to such a high standard that Alexis read his first paper to the Paris Academy of Sciences at the age of 13.
    • In 1742, when he was only seventeen years old, d'Arcy had a paper published by the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • He was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1749.
    • The last of these memoirs was published by the Paris Academy of Sciences and had a note regarding the refereeing process attached to it:- .
    • Paris, 1 December 1760.
    • When Martin d'Arcy, the uncle who had looked after d'Arcy when he arrived in Paris as a young man, died he left d'Arcy a considerable fortune.
    • She had previously moved to Paris to receive an education there and d'Arcy had become very fond of her.
    • The marriage took place in the church of Saint Philippe du Roule in the 8th arrondissement, which at that time was near the outskirts of Paris where d'Arcy owned property.
    • She returned to Ireland a few years before the French revolution and so avoided the problems that someone of her status would have had in Paris.

  32. Richer biography
    • Died: 1696 in Paris, France .
    • A considerable gulf separates these lucid proposals from the confused ideas about scientific voyaging current in scientific circles in Paris and in London at the time ..
    • After Giovanni Cassini arrived in Paris in early 1669 to head the new Observatory, the secretary of the Academie records that they (see [',' J W Olmsted, The Scientific Expedition of John Richer to Cayenne (1672-73), Isis 34 (1942-43), 117-128.','6]):- .
    • to make various astronomical observations in connection with others which are to be made here [in Paris], and to test the clocks which have been constructed for the determination of longitude at sea.
    • Deshayes will also sail on the same vessel with the instrument that he has made in Paris.
    • By September 1670 Richer was back in Paris following his visit to Acadia.
    • He was to lead the expedition, assisted by Meurisse, and after the equipment and supplies were made ready in October, Richer discussed the final details of the research to be undertaken with Giovanni Cassini in the Paris Observatory in November.
    • Giovanni Cassini observed the planet from the Paris Observatory and later used his own data and that of Richer to compute the parallax of Mars.
    • Richer's second important work on this expedition to Cayenne was to calculate the length of the seconds pendulum in Cayenne and compare this with the length of the seconds pendulum in Paris.
    • One of the most important observations I have made is that of the length of the seconds pendulum, which has been found shorter in Cayenne than at Paris.
    • For the same measurement marked on an iron rod in the former place in accordance with the length found necessary to make a seconds pendulum was transported to France and compared with the Paris measurement.
    • The difference between them was found to be 11/4 lines, by which the Cayenne measurement falls short of the Paris measurement, which is 3 feet, 183/5 lines [a line is 1/144 part of a foot].
    • Isaac Newton expressed the results of Richer's experiment somewhat differently in the Principia when he stated how Richer's pendulum clock which kept perfect time in Paris, went slow in Cayenne:- .
    • Richer measured the positions of many southern hemisphere stars not visible from Paris.
    • After Richer returned to Paris, his service to the Academy of Sciences was terminated.

  33. Laurent Pierre biography
    • Born: 18 July 1813 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 2 September 1854 in Paris, France .
    • The family then moved to Paris and Eleanor, who had been brought up as a Protestant, was baptised as a Roman Catholic in Saint Sulpice church.
    • Pierre Alphonse, the subject of this biography, was born in Paris in 1813.
    • By the end of March 1814, France had suffered military defeat, Paris was occupied by Austrian and Prussian troops so, in April 1814, Pierre Michel and Eleanor Laurent and their five children returned to England.
    • Pierre Alphonse entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1830, in the year of the July Revolution which forced King Charles X from the throne and led to the rule of Louis-Philippe.
    • On 11 February 1840, Laurent's mother, who had been living at 14 rue du Regard, Paris, died.
    • Laurent's father outlived his wife by about a year and Pierre Michel Laurent died in Paris on 25 February 1841.
    • Pierre Georges, born in the Military District of Le Havre, was educated in the schools in Avesnes and Douai, studied in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique from 1861 to 1863 and became a military engineer.
    • However he was not elected and soon after this he was promoted to major and sent to Paris to become a member of a committee set up to look at the problems of fortification.

  34. Lemoine biography
    • Died: 21 February 1912 in Paris, France .
    • Graduating from the Prytanee Militaire in 1860, Lemoine entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • Indeed, for the next few years, although engaged in science teaching in Paris, he seems to have run the round of pleasure of which that city is the home par excellence.
    • However, Lemoine's life was not simply one of enjoying the social life of Paris.
    • He served as an assistant to the astronomer Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen (1824-1907) who had been appointed as professor of physics at the Ecole Speciale d'Architecture in Paris in 1865.
    • This put an end to his teaching and for a while he left Paris and rested in Grenoble.
    • The French army surrendered on 1 September, and on 19 September the German army began to blockade Paris.
    • From March to May 1871, as a result of dissatisfaction with the government, there was an insurrection in Paris against the French government.
    • After peace was restored, Lemoine returned to Paris in the summer of 1871 and, changing career, he became a civil engineer.
    • As a civil engineer he rose to the rank of chief inspector and in that capacity he was responsible for the gas supply to Paris.
    • We note that the American David Smith was a great lover of Paris and its culture and was a frequent visitor there where he met Lemoine [',' D E Smith, Biography.
    • The soirees of M and Mme Lemoine are justly celebrated, and each week of the winter sees an assemblage representing the 'anciens eleves' of the Ecole Polytechnique, the Ecole Normale, the Marine, and in general a good part of the scientific, literary, and artistic circles of Paris, to listen to a musical programme as original as the mathematical labours of the host.
    • These soirees have exerted a great influence in a musical way, the type which they have fixed being adopted by many societies in and about Paris.
    • Long ago he one day remarked to M Lemoine in a jesting way, as the latter was excusing himself to attend one of his musical reunions, "Stay here with me, let the trumpet alone." Struck by the name, Lemoine adopted it, and La Trompette has ever since designated the delightful soirees with which the Paris cultured world is familiar.
    • He has no claim to rank with Hermite, Poincare, Picard, Painleve, Appell, Jordan, Bertrand, Tannery, Darboux, or any of that famous circle which is making Paris such a centre of study in the fields of higher modern mathematics.

  35. Legendre biography
    • Born: 18 September 1752 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 10 January 1833 in Paris, France .
    • We have given his place of birth as Paris, as given in [',' J Itard, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • ','1] and [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.','2], but there is some evidence to suggest that he was born in Toulouse and the family moved to Paris when he was very young.
    • He certainly came from a wealthy family and he was given a top quality education in mathematics and physics at the College Mazarin in Paris.
    • With no need for employment to support himself, Legendre lived in Paris and concentrated on research.
    • Legendre submitted his results to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in January 1783 and these were highly praised by Laplace in his report delivered to the Academie in March.
    • He became an associe in 1785 and then in 1787 he was a member of the team whose task it was to work with the Royal Observatory at Greenwich in London on measurements of the Earth involving a triangulation survey between the Paris and Greenwich observatories.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  36. Bienayme biography
    • Born: 28 August 1796 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 19 October 1878 in Paris, France .
    • His parents, Jean Charles Bienaime and Houdar de la Motte Pierre Marie, were married in the church of St Roch in Paris on 3 July 1795.
    • In 1811 the Bienaime family returned to Paris where Jules attended the Lycee Louis-le-Grand.
    • After taking part in the defence of Paris in 1814, Jules Bienayme entered the Ecole Polytechnique in the following year.
    • This was not an easy time in Paris, as France lost its Empire and the monarchy was restored, and the Ecole Polytechnique was closed in 1816 interrupting his studies.
    • They had long known each other for the Bienayme and Harmand families had shared the same house in Paris for a while.
    • He died on 19 October 1878 and is buried at the Cimitiere de Montparnasse, Paris, in a modest family grave at Division 10, Ligne 4 Sud, Numero 12 ouest.
    • In 1852 Bienayme was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences and for the next 23 years he was the referee for the statistics prize.
    • He was elected to the Societe Philomatique de Paris in January 1838 and, from 1837 to 1845, much of his published material appears as reports of his addresses to meetings of the Society, reported in its journal L'Institut.

  37. Lalande biography
    • Died: 4 April 1807 in Paris, France .
    • In fact it was his parents who encouraged him to continue his education by going to Paris to study law, which he did.
    • While studying for his law degree he lodged at the Hotel de Cluny in Paris and it was there that the astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle had his observatory.
    • Lalande's observations were published in Acta eruditorum, and in publications of the Berlin Academy and the Paris Academy.
    • After his return to France, Lalande was elected to the Academie des Sciences in Paris on 4 February 1753.
    • The Paris Academy set up a commission to settle the argument and it decided in favour of Lalande.
    • His career went from strength to strength and on 17 May 1795 he was appointed director of the Paris Observatory.
    • Later, however, Napoleon decided that the Church would make a better ally than enemy and the Pope came to Paris for his installation as Emperor.
    • She was the chief investigator on Lalande's large-scale study of lunar astronomy, which was undertaken at the Paris Observatory, and she became the first woman in Paris to teach astronomy.
    • In addition to his role in organising science that we have mentioned above, let us also note that he was an active member of the Masonic order and that he founded the Masonic Lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris which was open to leading writers and scientists.
    • See [',' L Amiable, Le franc-macon Jerome Lalande (Paris, 1889).','3] for more details.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  38. Painleve biography
    • Born: 5 December 1863 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 29 October 1933 in Paris, France .
    • While completing the work for his doctoral dissertation he went to Gottingen where he was influenced by Schwarz and Klein; he received a doctorate in mathematics from Paris in 1887 for this thesis.
    • The standard career path for a leading French academic at this time was to obtain a first post in the provinces, then later to attempt to return to Paris.
    • Painleve followed this route, being appointed professor of mathematics at Lille in 1887, and then returning to Paris in 1892 where he taught both at the Faculty of Science and at the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • This was a rapid return to Paris and shows the high regard in which he was held.
    • It was the year in which he was elected to the Government as a Paris Deputy for the fifth arrondissement, the Latin Quarter [','','3]:- .
    • He played a leading role in the Allied Conference at Rapallo in Italy, but was defeated after returning to Paris and he resigned as Prime Minister on 13 November 1917.

  39. Darmois biography
    • Died: 3 January 1960 in Paris, France .
    • Daniel Dugue writes [',' G Darmois, Notice sur les travaux scientifiques (Hermann, Paris, 1937).','7] (see also [',' D Dugue, Georges Darmois, 1888-1960, Ann.
    • He wrote about how this experience changed the direction of his mathematical interests in [',' G Darmois, Notice sur les travaux scientifiques (Hermann, Paris, 1937).','7]:- .
    • He wrote [',' G Darmois, Notice sur les travaux scientifiques (Hermann, Paris, 1937).','7]:- .
    • In fact in 1925 he began teaching the course on probability and statistics at the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris.
    • In 1928 Darmois' first publication on statistics appeared being the monograph Statistique Mathematique, Encyclopedie scientifique appliquees Ⓣ which was a published version of the lectures he was giving at the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris.
    • Paris 250 (1) (1960), 241-245.','5] about the energetic way that Darmois went about promoting statistics in France:- .
    • Darmois left Nancy in 1933 when he was appointed to the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • As well as the Institute of Statistics in Paris, there was also the Institut Henri Poincare set up in 1928, with Borel as its head, to facilitate interactions between researchers in probability and mathematical physics.
    • In his paper Developpements recents de la technique statistique Ⓣ (1934) [',' J Aldrich, Tales of Two Societies: London and Paris 1860-1940, J.
    • Fisher lectured in Paris in 1938 and, in the first half of 1940, Darmois visited London.
    • In contrast, his brother Eugene (1884-1958), a physicist who was Professor in the Faculte des Sciences de Paris, was accused of being a collaborator after the liberation of France.
    • After the end of World War II, Darmois returned to his post in Paris and was appointed as head of the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris.

  40. Le Verrier biography
    • Died: 23 September 1877 in Paris, France .
    • Le Verrier's father was very keen that his son should have every opportunity to further his education so he sold his home in Saint-Lo to get the necessary funds to send Le Verrier to the Mayer Institute in Paris.
    • His main interest had been in chemistry and he spent the first two years after graduating, 1833-35, studying industrial chemistry at Orsay in Paris.
    • Le Verrier was offered a position as a teacher of chemistry in the provinces in 1836 but chose to remain in Paris undertaking research with Gay-Lussac.
    • Of course he required a source of income and he was appointed as a teacher at the College Stanislas in Paris.
    • Paris, April 18, 1846.
    • My Father, Receveur des droits de succession at Paris, left on his death a widow, my mother, who has no income except from a pension of six hundred francs; and a daughter, Mademoiselle Leontine Le Verrier, absolutely without any money.
    • I venture to solicit for her [the mother] a Bureau for the distribution of stamped paper at Paris.
    • He worked at the Paris Observatory for most of his life where his drive for efficiency was to made him very unpopular.
    • Occupied during this period with the reorganization of the meteorological observation service of the Paris observatory, Le Verrier conceived "the project of a vast meteorological network designed to warn sailors of approaching storms." The greatest difficulty lay in securing the cooperation of the various telegraphic services.
    • Also in 1854 Le Verrier became director of the Paris Observatory which, under Arago's leadership, had not performed to standards that Le Verrier expected.
    • It became progressively worse and he died in Paris, being buried in the Montparnasse Cemetery in a grave which has a large stone celestial globe over it.
    • Streets in Besancon, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Caen, Joue-les-Tours, Lille, Nantes, Paris, Saint-Lo, Toulouse, and Tourcoing have been named after him.

  41. Libermann biography
    • Born: 14 November 1919 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 10 July 2007 in Montrouge, near Paris, France .
    • Paulette attended the Lycee Lamartine, a school for girls in the rue du Faubourg, Poissonniere, Paris.
    • Libermann, with her parents and two sisters, fled from Paris in June 1942 after the Vichy Regime required Jews to wear a yellow star.
    • In the autumn of 1944, following the liberation of Paris by the Allies in August, Libermann was able to return to the Ecole Sevres in Paris and obtain her teaching certificate.
    • In 1966 she was named Professor at the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris.
    • She continued to help to run the Geometry and Mechanics seminar in Paris until the end of 2006.
    • She was taken to a retirement home at Montrouge, near Paris, following the operation but her health rapidly declined and she died in the home in July.

  42. De LHopital biography
    • Born: 1661 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 2 February 1704 in Paris, France .
    • Bernard de Fontenelle, in [',' B Fontenelle, Eloge de L’Hopital, Histoires Paris Academy of Sciences (1704), 125.','7], recounts that when l'Hopital was fifteen years old he was, on one occasion, discussing mathematics with the Duke of Roannes and a Mr Arnaud.
    • He certainly did not give up his interest in mathematics, as Fontenelle explains [',' B Fontenelle, Eloge de L’Hopital, Histoires Paris Academy of Sciences (1704), 125.','7]:- .
    • Bernoulli at this time was 24 years old and he had just arrived in Paris after giving lectures on the latest development in mathematics, namely Leibniz's differential calculus.
    • l'Hopital was at the time a member of Nicolas Malebranche's circle at the Congregation of the Oratory which contained the leading mathematicians and scientists of Paris.
    • l'Hopital, for his part, was intrigued to meet Bernoulli, for it quickly became clear to him that he was much more knowledgeable about the new developments in infinitesimal methods than anyone else in Paris.
    • Although others such as Huygens, Leibniz and Newton knew this, it was thought in Paris to be an important open question so l'Hopital, although probably one of the best mathematicians in France, realised he could learn much from Bernoulli.
    • l'Hopital attended these lectures but then moved from Paris to his estate at Ouques where he employed Bernoulli to give him private lessons.

  43. Lacroix biography
    • Born: 28 April 1765 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 24 May 1843 in Paris, France .
    • He was brought up in Paris which gave him access to good schools.
    • He studied at the College des Quatre Nations in Paris where he was taught mathematics by the Abbe Joseph Francois Marie.
    • At this time Monge was officially employed at the Ecole at Mezieres but he had been elected to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1780 and began to spend most of his time there teaching courses such as the one that Lacroix attended.
    • From Rochefort, Lacroix returned to Paris.
    • It was this position which allowed Lacroix to return to teach in Paris but the pure mathematics course at this newly opened school, which attracted most of its students from the nobility, was poorly attended and soon discontinued.
    • He took on a further position in February 1787, again as a substitute, this time at the Ecole Militaire in Paris where he took over the duties of the professor of mathematics Le Paute d'Agelot who had left with the navigator La Perouse on his ill-fated explorations in the Pacific Ocean.
    • Laplace had been an examiner at the Royal Artillery Corps since 1784, but before the Reign of Terror he left Paris with his family.

  44. Mourey biography
    • Died: possibly 1830 in Paris, France .
    • C V Mourey was a French mathematician who is known solely from his work La Vraie Theorie des quantites negatives et des quantites pretendues imaginaires Ⓣ which he published in Paris in 1828.
    • On the title page of this first edition the author's address is given as 'Paris ..
    • In 1861 a reprint of the book was produced by the same publishers, Bachelier [',' C V Mourey, La Vraie Theorie des quantites negatives et des quantites pretendues imaginaires (2nd Edition) (Paris 1861) ','2].
    • The editors write that copies of Mourey (1828) have become extremely rare and that to their knowledge, amongst mathematicians in Paris, only Lefebure de Fourcy had a copy.
    • Since there was no published response to the appeal -- notably, Mourey himself failed to make contact with the editors -- it seems likely that Mourey had left Paris, or died, a short time after the publication of his book.
    • It seems that Mourey was truly an unknown in Paris's academic circles.
    • He is not remembered as a student at any of the well known educational establishments in the city and has never been referred to in connection with the great mathematicians who were known to have been in Paris during that period; thinking of the young talents of Abel and Galois, but also of Cauchy, Poisson, Legendre, Hachette, Dirichlet, Fourier and Lacroix.
    • This is a Claude-Victor Mourey (1791-1830), who was a mecanicien a Paris, and who was born in the Valay department in the Haute-Saone region in the east of France; to parents Claude Joseph Mourey and Anne Francoise Fontaine.
    • In 1822, having moved to Paris, he took out five-year patents for two machines he had invented: a timber-profiling machine and a tree saw.
    • In Paris, on 21 October 1829, Claude-Victor Mourey married Marie Claire Klein, daughter of Henry Klein and Marie Francoise Gregorie.
    • He died in Paris on 30 July 1830, aged thirty-nine; just two years after La Vraie Theorie des quantites negatives et des quantites pretendues imaginaires Ⓣ was published and after only nine months of marriage.
    • Making a positive identification of this Claude-Victor Mourey with our mathematician is difficult because almost all the civil records for Paris prior to 1860 were destroyed by a fire at the Hotel de Ville (where the paper records were stored) in May 1871 during the Paris Commune uprising: between five and eight million records were destroyed.

  45. Hadamard biography
    • Died: 17 October 1963 in Paris, France .
    • At the time that Jacques was born Amedee was teaching at the Lycee Imperial in Versailles but the family moved to Paris when Jacques was three years old when his father took up a position at the Lycee Charlemagne.
    • This was an unfortunate time for a child to be growing up in Paris.
    • The Franco-Prussian War which began on 19 July 1870 went badly for France and on 19 September 1870 the Prussians began a siege of Paris.
    • Paris surrendered on 28 January 1871 and the Treaty of Frankfurt, signed on 10 May 1871, was a humiliation for France.
    • Between the surrender and the signing of the treaty there was essentially a civil war in Paris and the Hadamards' house was burnt down.
    • Jacques' young sister Jeanne died in 1870 before the siege of Paris and another sister Suzanne, who was born in 1871, died in 1874.
    • However after moving to Paris in 1897 he began to discover how evidence against Dreyfus had been forged.
    • Long before the Dreyfus Affair had ended Hadamard had, as we have indicated, moved from Bordeaux to Paris.
    • Soon after arriving in Paris in October 1897, he published the first volume of Lecons de Geometrie Elementaire Ⓣ .
    • His research turned more towards mathematical physics from the time he took up the posts in Paris, yet he always argued strongly that he was a mathematician, not a physicist.
    • During Hadamard's first five years in Paris another three children were born, first another son Mathieu and then two daughters Cecile and Jacqueline.
    • He left before receiving the news which he did not discover until arriving back in Paris despite the best efforts of Fano, Volterra's wife and others to get news to him.
    • Hadamard left the United States soon after and spent a year in England before returning to Paris as soon as was possible after the end of the war.

  46. Biot biography
    • Born: 21 April 1774 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 3 February 1862 in Paris, France .
    • Jean-Baptiste was educated at the college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he specialised in classics.
    • As he was walking towards Paris, he was befriended by an important person who passed in his carriage.
    • He took Biot in his carriage to Paris where he (Biot) was arrested as a deserter (he was still in uniform) and brought before a revolutionary committee.
    • Biot was, by this time, an entrance examiner at the Ecole Polytechnique so was frequently in Paris.
    • From that time on, each time I went to Paris I brought my proof-reading work and personally presented it to M Laplace.
    • Among his other major works we mention: Analyse de la mecanique celeste de M Laplace Ⓣ (1801); Traite analytique des courbes et des surfaces du second degre Ⓣ (1802); Recherches sur l'integration des equations differentielles partielles et sur les vibrations des surfaces Ⓣ (1803); Essai de geometrie analytique applique aux courbes et aux surfaces de second ordre Ⓣ (1806); Recherches experimentales et mathematiques sur les mouvements des molecules de la lumiere autour de leur centre de gravite Ⓣ (1814); Traite de physique experimentale et mathematique Ⓣ (1816); Precis de physique Ⓣ (1817); (with Arago) Recueil d'observations geodesiques, astronomiques et physiques executees en Espagne et Ecosse Ⓣ (1821); Memoire sur la vraie constitution de l'atmosphere terrestre Ⓣ (1841); Traite elementaire d'astronomie physique Ⓣ (1805); Recherches sur plusieurs points de l'astronomie egyptienne Ⓣ (1823); Recherches sur l'ancienne astronomie chinoise Ⓣ (1840); Etudes sur l'astronomie indienne et sur l'astronomie chinoise Ⓣ (1862); Essai sur l'histoire generale des sciences pendant la Revolution Ⓣ (1803); Discours sur Montaigne Ⓣ (1812); Lettres sur l'approvisionnement de Paris et sur le commerce des grains Ⓣ (1835); Traite d'astronomie physique Ⓣ (1850); and Melanges scientifiques et litteraires Ⓣ (1858).

  47. Viete biography
    • Died: 13 December 1603 in Paris, France .
    • In 1570 Viete left La Rochelle and moved to Paris.
    • Although he was never employed as a professional scientist or mathematician, Viete was already working on topics in mathematics and astronomy and his first published mathematical work appeared in Paris in 1571.
    • While Viete was in Paris, Charles IX authorised the massacre of the Huguenots, who were an increasingly powerful group of French Protestants, on 23 August 1572.
    • He remained at Rennes until March 1580 when he returned to Paris.
    • In this tense atmosphere Viete was appointed by Henry III as royal privy counsellor on 25 March 1580, and he was attached to the parliament in Paris.
    • Leaving Paris, Viete went to Beauvoir-sur-Mer, on the coast about 130 km northwest of his home town of Fontenay-le-Comte.
    • A rising of the people of Paris, a Holy League stronghold, on 12 May 1588, caused the king to flee to Chartres.
    • Henry III was reconciled with Henry of Navarre (since it suited them to combine forces) and together they tried to retake Paris in 1589.
    • In 1592 Henry IV did not control Paris, and he was still opposed by the Holy League in France who were supported by Spain.
    • Henry's conversion was certainly effective, for resistance against him lessened and he took Paris on 22 March 1594.
    • Viete continued to serve Henry IV in Paris until 1597 when he went back to his home town of Fontenay-le-Comte.
    • Two years later he was back in Paris, again in the service of Henry IV, but he was dismissed by Henry on 14 December 1602.

  48. Picard Emile biography
    • Born: 24 July 1856 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 11 December 1941 in Paris, France .
    • Emile Picard's father was the manager of a silk factory who died during the siege of Paris in 1870.
    • It went badly for France and on 19 September 1870 the Germans began a siege of Paris.
    • Paris surrendered on 28 January 1871 and The Treaty of Frankfurt, signed on 10 May 1871, was a humiliation for France.
    • He was appointed lecturer at the University of Paris in 1878 and then professor at Toulouse in 1879.
    • In 1881 he returned to Paris when appointed maitre de conference in mechanics and astronomy at the Ecole Normale.
    • In 1885 Picard was appointed to the chair of differential calculus at the Sorbonne in Paris when the chair fell vacant on the death of Claude Bouquet.

  49. Puiseux Pierre biography
    • Born: 20 July 1855 in Paris, France .
    • They lived at 64 rue de l'Ouest in Paris.
    • Pierre, whose studies were all in Paris, began his school studies at the Lycee Henri IV, then entered the Lycee Saint-Louis in 1865.
    • Victor Puiseux returned to Paris with his two daughters, leaving Pierre with the wife of Augustin Boutan in Lectoure.
    • After the armistice at the end of January 1871 Pierre returned to Paris and continued with his schooling at the Lycee Saint-Louis.
    • His sister Marie, who had become ill during the Paris siege, died from tuberculosis in March 1872.
    • On 20 November, Pierre applied for admission to the Paris Observatory as a student-astronomer, and was accepted on 1 December 1879.
    • He continued to be promoted at the Paris Observatory, being made an associate astronomer in 1885.
    • He describes himself on this book as an assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • In 1904 he was promoted to the position of astronomer at the Paris Observatory and, in the same year, he was appointed as professor of celestial mechanics at the Paris Faculty of Science and gave a course on celestial mechanics at the Sorbonne.
    • Loewy, born in Vienna of Jewish parents, escaped the persecution of Jews in his home city and moved to France where he was employed at the Paris Observatory.
    • The Paris Observatory sent an expedition to Cistierna, Leon, Spain led by Pierre Puiseux and also involving Maurice Hamy, Charles Le Morvan, Jules Baillaud and Georges Prin.

  50. Coriolis biography
    • Born: 21 May 1792 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 19 September 1843 in Paris, France .
    • The King tried to escape and fled Paris on 21 June 1791 but he was caught at Varennes and brought back to the capital.
    • Louis XVI was guillotined in Paris in January 1793.
    • On graduating he entered the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris.
    • In July 1830 there was a revolution and, following this Cauchy left Paris in September 1830.
    • Political events in France meant that Cauchy was now required to swear an oath of allegiance to the new regime and when he failed to return to Paris to do so he lost all his positions there.

  51. Schutzenberger biography
    • Born: 24 October 1920 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 29 July 1996 in Paris, France .
    • His family were originally from Alsace but moved to Paris around the time of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71.
    • One of his ancestors was the famous chemist Paul Schutzenberger who worked at the College de France in Paris and discovered the acetylation of cellulose by acetic anhydride in 1865.
    • He studied at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris during World War II but he was also undertaking research in mathematics and published Sur la theorie des structures de Dedekind Ⓣ in 1943 which studied properties of complemented Dedekind structures.
    • Of course studying in Paris in the early 1940 during the German occupation was a difficult time for anyone and Schutzenberger was no exception.
    • Schutzenberger joined the Forces Francaises Combattantes in September 1943 and he served in the organisation until August 1944 when they drove the Germans from Paris and de Gaulle entered the city in triumph.
    • He held this chair until 1970 when he was appointed as Professor in the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris VII where he remained until his death.

  52. Berge biography
    • Born: 5 June 1926 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 30 June 2002 in Paris, France .
    • Claude attended the Ecole des Roches near Verneuil-sur-Avre about 110 km west of Paris.
    • However, he decided to study mathematics at the University of Paris.
    • Also in 1957 he was appointed as a professor in the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris.
    • Bjarne Toft writes [',' B Toft, Claude Berge - sculptor of graph theory, in Graph theory in Paris (Birkhauser, Basel, 2007), 1-9.','21]:- .
    • The first of these, Principes de combinatoire Ⓣ, was essentially lecture notes of a course Berge gave at the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1967-68.
    • His residence at 10 rue Galvani in Paris' 17th arrondissement was like an unkempt museum with his own sculpture competing for space with the many Chinese works of art that he so adored.

  53. Coulomb biography
    • Died: 23 August 1806 in Paris, France .
    • After being brought up in Angouleme, the capital of Angoumois in southwestern France, Coulomb's family moved to Paris.
    • In Paris he entered the College Mazarin, where he received a good classical grounding in language, literature, and philosophy, and he received the best available teaching in mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and botany.
    • Despite his father's good standing, he had made unsuccessful financial speculations, had lost all his money and moved from Paris to Montpellier.
    • Coulomb's mother remained in Paris but Coulomb had a disagreement with her over the direction his career should take so he left Paris and went to Montpellier to live with his father.
    • In October 1758 he went to Paris to receive the tutoring necessary to take the examinations.
    • Martinique was finally captured by the English in 1762 but were returned to France under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
    • However, he now began to write important works on applied mechanics and he presented his first work to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1773.
    • He was elected to the mechanics section of the Academie des Sciences as a result of this work, and he moved to Paris where he now held a permanent post.
    • In July 1784 he was appointed to look after the royal fountains and took charge of a large part of the water supply of Paris.
    • The Academie des Sciences was replaced by the Institut de France and Coulomb returned to Paris when he was elected to the Institute in December 1795.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  54. Cassini de Thury biography
    • Died: 4 September 1784 in Paris, France .
    • He was brought up at the Paris Observatory, however, where his father had taken over as head around the time of his birth.
    • In 1733 Jacques Cassini and his son, assisted by other scientists, measured the perpendicular to the Paris meridian from Paris west to Saint-Malo.
    • In the following year they surveyed the perpendicular to the meridian east of Paris, triangulating the area between Paris and Strasbourg.
    • He now undertook a new survey of the meridian through Paris, setting up a large number of triangulation points in 1739-40 and undertaking the most accurate such survey to have been carried out up to that time.
    • For example in Paris Cassini used the wooden belfry of the church of Saint-Pierre near the summit of Montmartre.
    • The Gothic church at Brie-Comte-Robert, the tower of the medieval fortress of Montjai, the Collegiale Chapel at Dammartin, and the church belfry of Saint-Martin-du-Terre were some of the other stations round Paris from which Cassini took observations.
    • Cassini's data supported the view that the Earth was flattened at the poles and he published his conclusions in 1744 in La meridienne de l'Observatoire royal de Paris verifiee dans toute l'etendue du royaume Ⓣ.
    • They had two children: a son, Jean-Dominique Cassini born in 1748, who succeeded his father as Director of the Paris Observatory (and is sometimes known as Cassini IV), and a daughter, Francoise-Elisabeth.
    • Despite many observations made by Cassini in his role as head of the Paris Observatory, his work in astronomy is of relatively little importance.
    • While he was a good geodesist and a talented cartographer, Cassini III was only a second-rate astronomer; and the name of this third representative of the Cassini dynasty at the Paris Observatory will remain associated with the first map of France produced according to modern principles.

  55. Fourier biography
    • Died: 16 May 1830 in Paris, France .
    • He submitted a paper on algebra to Montucla in Paris and his letters to Bonard suggest that he really wanted to make a major impact in mathematics.
    • Having left St Benoit in 1789, he visited Paris and read a paper on algebraic equations at the Academie Royale des Sciences.
    • Later in 1794 Fourier was nominated to study at the Ecole Normale in Paris.
    • Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to Paris in 1799, he soon held absolute power in France.
    • Fourier was not happy at the prospect of leaving the academic world and Paris but could not refuse Napoleon's request.
    • The memoir was read to the Paris Institute on 21 December 1807 and a committee consisting of Lagrange, Laplace, Monge and Lacroix was set up to report on the work.
    • With this rather mixed report there was no move in Paris to publish Fourier's work.
    • He returned to Paris.
    • During Fourier's eight last years in Paris he resumed his mathematical researches and published a number of papers, some in pure mathematics while some were on applied mathematical topics.
    • A Walk Around Paris .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  56. Maior biography
    • After studying for the academic year 1491-92 at Cambridge, Maior went to Paris where he enrolled at the College de Sainte-Barbe.
    • Graduating with a master's degree in 1495 he then went to the College de Montaigu, one of the colleges making up the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris.
    • In 1499 Standonck was forced to leave Paris and Noel Beda and Maior, both Standonck's students, took charge.
    • However Maior soon left to move to the College de Navarre leaving Beda to maintain the position of the College de Montaigu as one of the leading theological colleges of Paris.
    • He then became a teacher at the College de Sorbonne, a theological college of the University of Paris founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, certainly the leading theology college in Paris but perhaps the world leader at this time.
    • The time Maior spent in Paris was not only the most productive of his life, but also the most influential.
    • A Spanish student who was a member of the school studying under Maior, wrote to the representative of the Spanish King in Paris:- .
    • may the eternal king deign to grant him long life that he may for long years be useful to our alma mater, the University of Paris.
    • Lax was a student of Maior in Paris, who returned to Spain to be a leading calculatores.
    • In 1518, when at the height of his fame in Paris, he returned to Scotland.
    • In this capacity he served on a committee which revised the examination system at St Andrews, giving it a similar structure to that of Paris.
    • If Scotland had attracted him back when in Paris, now that he had spent eight years in Scotland he was attracted back to Paris.
    • Returning in 1526 he seems to have wanted to become fully involved in teaching again and indeed he took up his teaching career in Paris much where he had left it eight years earlier.
    • After five years teaching in Paris, Maior returned again to Scotland and in particular to St Andrews.
    • Rather strangely Maior had also taught John Calvin, who became the leading French Protestant Reformer, during his second spell in Paris.

  57. Bougainville biography
    • Born: 11 November 1729 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 31 August 1811 in Paris, France .
    • He had joined the army in 1754 and now, in 1756 [',' L-A Bougainville, Voyage autour du monde (Paris, 1771).','3]:- .
    • He then sailed for three days along the coast of the (now named) Bougainville Island which he described as [',' L-A Bougainville, Voyage autour du monde (Paris, 1771).','3]:- .
    • There he found a [',' L-A Bougainville, Voyage autour du monde (Paris, 1771).','3]:- .
    • Perhaps a quote from Bougainville himself, taken from [',' L-A Bougainville, Voyage autour du monde (Paris, 1771).','3] which describes his round-the-world voyage in detail, shows most clearly his attitude to exploration:- .
    • During the French Revolution, he escaped the massacres of Paris in 1792 despite his well known Royalist views.

  58. Poincare biography
    • Died: 17 July 1912 in Paris, France .
    • As a student of Charles Hermite, Poincare received his doctorate in mathematics from the University of Paris in 1879.
    • He was to remain there for only two years before being appointed to a chair in the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1881.
    • In his lecture courses to students in Paris [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.','2]:- .
    • Poincare held these chairs in Paris until his death at the early age of 58.
    • One is a lecture which Poincare gave to l'Institute General Psychologique in Paris in 1908 entitled Mathematical invention in which he looked at his own thought processes which led to his major mathematical discoveries.
    • The other is the book [',' E Toulouse, Henri Poincare (Paris, 1910).','30] by Toulouse who was the director of the Psychology Laboratory of l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes in Paris.
    • In [',' E Toulouse, Henri Poincare (Paris, 1910).','30] Toulouse explains that Poincare kept very precise working hours.
    • Perhaps most remarkable of all is the description by Toulouse in [',' E Toulouse, Henri Poincare (Paris, 1910).','30] of how Poincare went about writing a paper.
    • The Prince of Monaco was present, the Bey of Tunis was represented by his two sons, and Prince Roland Bonaparte attended as President of the Paris Geographical Society.

  59. Beaugrand biography
    • Born: about 1590 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 22 December 1640 in Paris, France .
    • Beaugrand was certainly part of this network from a very early stage which, after 1619, became centred around Mersenne and he frequently attended meetings in Mersenne's cell in Paris.
    • Beaugrand corresponded frequently with Fermat after he was in Bordeaux and it is through this correspondence that Fermat's work became known in Paris.
    • Certainly he moved in high political circles in Paris, and was considered highly for his mathematical abilities.
    • Beaugrand met Hobbes on a number of occasions, and Descartes records that the two met in Mersenne's cell in Paris in 1634 and 1637.
    • He corresponded with all three of these mathematicians after he returned to Paris in February 1636.

  60. Frenicle de Bessy biography
    • Born: about 1604 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 1674 in Paris, France .
    • Frenicle de Bessy was an excellent amateur mathematician whose father and brother both held official positions as counsellors at the Court of Monnais in Paris.
    • Very little is known about his life (even his year of birth is a guess) and, given that he was one of the founder members of the Paris Academy of Sciences and has an Eloge written by the Marquis de Condorcet, this must give us one obvious fact about Frenicle de Bessy, namely that he was a very private man.
    • Born and raised in Paris, Frenicle de Bessy must have graduated in law before proceeding to hold the office of 'conseiller a la cour des monnaies'.
    • Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665) was an English courtier but, as a Roman Catholic, spent many years in voluntary exile in Paris during a time of religious difficulties in England.
    • Between 1635 and 1660 he was mostly in Paris where he met both Marin Mersenne and Thomas Hobbes.

  61. Esclangon biography
    • Ernest was educated at this school in Manosque before going to the Lycee in Nice to prepare for entry into the Grand Ecoles of Paris.
    • He studied mathematics in Paris at the Ecole Normale Superieure, entering the Ecole in 1895, and was awarded his licence in mathematical science and in physical science in 1897.
    • In 1902 there appeared in Volume 135 of Comptes rendus of the Paris Academy of Sciences a note written by Esclangon (communicated by Paul Painleve) entitled 'Sur une extension de la notion de periodicite' (On a generalization of the concept of periodicity).
    • The Paris Academy of Sciences awarded Esclangon their Baron de Joest prize in 1917:- .
    • Then, from 1929 to 1946 he was director of the Observatory at Paris, again holding the position of professor of astronomy from 1930 to 1946.
    • One of the first projects he worked on after moving to Paris was the new idea that the solar system was moving through space [',' Solar System Rushing through Space, The Science News-Letter 16 (451) (1929), 331.','22]:- .
    • In 1933, using an astronomical calculation of time, he started the 'talking clock' telephone service in Paris.
    • At the Paris Observatory, Esclangon responded creatively to an increasing demand from citizens to obtain the proper time by telephone.
    • He published the paper L'horloge parlante de l'Observatoire de Paris Ⓣ in 1946.
    • The years of World War II were extremely difficult and he continued to hold his positions in Paris through the time of the German occupation.
    • On that day Esclangon considered operating the speaking clock from Bordeaux to continue to give an accurate time to the radio if Paris fell to the advancing Germans.
    • The speaking clock of the Paris Observatory will be restarted and everyone can use the phone as before.
    • We note that the Paris Observatory speaking clock continued to operate until 1966.
    • Esclangon retired as Director of the Paris Observatory and as Professor of Astronomy at the Sorbonne in 1946.
    • At this time, he was made Honorary Director of the Paris Observatory and Honorary Professor of Astronomy at the Sorbonne.
    • On 22 June 1965 the Paris street previously named Ornano, was named for Esclangon.

  62. Clapeyron biography
    • Born: 26 February 1799 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 28 January 1864 in Paris, France .
    • Clapeyron proposed a railway line from Paris to St Germain and sought funding for the project.
    • In 1835 the construction of the line from Paris to St Germain was authorised and Clapeyron and Lame were put in charge of the project.
    • In 1844 Clapeyron was appointed professor at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees then, in 1848, he was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  63. Ramus biography
    • Died: 26 August 1572 in Paris, France .
    • Ramus was educated at home until, in 1527 at the age of twelve years, he entered the College de Navarre in Paris.
    • In this year he proposed major reforms in the teaching and structure of the University of Paris.
    • The Duc de Guise, a Catholic supporter, with his armed forces took control of the royal family in Paris.
    • Near the end of 1562, Ramus was forced to flee Paris for fear of his life as the Calvinists were ordered out of the city.
    • It granted certain rights of conscience to the Huguenots and Ramus saw it as sufficient to allow him to return to Paris.
    • With tensions rising again in the religious wars, Ramus fled Paris for a second time in 1567.
    • Ramus returned briefly to Paris, found his library destroyed, and requested permission from the King to visit Germany.
    • Feeling that it was again safe to return to Paris, Ramus gained the promise of protection from the King although he was again banned from teaching.
    • In 1572 three thousand Huguenots assembled in Paris to celebrate the marriage of Marguerite de Valois to Henry III of Navarre.
    • He studied the methods of the tradesmen and craftsmen in Paris in order to choose the directly applicable material.

  64. Binet biography
    • Died: 12 May 1856 in Paris, France .
    • Philippe Binet was born in Paris and a student at the Academy there.
    • He spent several years in Italy, returned to Paris where he was involved in the design of the School of Medicine, and then went to Rennes where he was involved in many projects including the cathedral.
    • He moved back to Paris and was appointed to the Lycee Bonaparte.
    • He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris on 22 November 1804 in the same class as Augustin Jean Fresnel.
    • In 1795 the Institut National replaced the Academy but the Societe philomathique continued to have an important role in the scientific life of Paris.
    • The College Royal in Paris was renamed in 1795 as the College de France.
    • On 3 February 1851 Leon Foucault invited members of the Academy of Sciences to come to the Paris Observatory to see his pendulum experiment which demonstrated the rotation of the earth.
    • The mathematicians and physicists, including Binet, viewed the experiment of the pendulum swinging in Meridian Hall, slowly rotating over the Paris Meridian.
    • This meant that, in Paris, it should take just under 32 hours which was experimentally verified.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  65. Sergescu biography
    • Died: 21 December 1954 in Paris, France .
    • Sergescu was awarded a fellowship to study in Paris and, in 1919, he left Romania and travelled to France.
    • On 20 July 1922 he married the Polish girl Marya Kasterska in Paris.
    • She had emigrated to France in 1914 and, in 1918, she had been awarded a doctorate by the University of Paris for her thesis Les poetes latins-polonais (jusqu'en 1589) Ⓣ.
    • She met Sergescu after he arrived in Paris to study for his doctorate.
    • However, he made frequent trips to Cluj and to Paris where he had many friends.
    • Because of the Communist regime, he was forced to leave Romania and from August 1948, Sergescu and his wife Marya Kasterska lived in Paris.
    • In Paris the family lived in a house on Rue Daubenton where a plaque now records that Pierre Sergesco and Marya Kasterska-Sergesco lived there.
    • The two met in Paris where Mieli was creating wide interest in the history of science.
    • After moving to Paris he soon established himself as a leading historian of mathematics with an international reputation.
    • He was a member of the Societe Mathematique de France (1920), the Romanian Academy (1937), the Masaryk Academy, Prague, an honorary member of the Belgian Mathematical Society, a member of the Polish Mathematical Society, elected to the Academy of Lima (1938), a member of the Academie Internationale pour les Sciences de Paris Mathematiques, an honorary member of the Society of Naturalists of Luxembourg (1952), and a member of the German Mathematical Society.

  66. Hardy Claude biography
    • Died: 5 April 1678 in Paris, France .
    • Sebastien had been born in Paris in 1564 but had studied in Le Mans where he became a tax collector.
    • He married Marie Belot Despontis in Paris around 1596 and their son Claude, one of their seven children, was born in Le Mans.
    • The Hardy family moved to Paris soon after Claude was born where Sebastien was named as a Conseiller at the court.
    • Nothing of Hardy's education in Paris is known and the first information about him after 1614 is not until 1622 when records show that Claude Hardy married Perrette Presche in Paris.
    • In 1625 we know for certain that Claude Hardy was a practising lawyer in Paris.
    • Hardy, in his capacity as a lawyer, worked for the Parliament in Paris from 1625.
    • A year later he was certainly attached to the court of justice in Paris as a counsellor.
    • He became involved with a group of mathematicians working in Paris at this time, in particular becoming a friend of Claude Mydorge.
    • Finally, we know Hardy undertook chemistry experiments with Annibal Barlet, a physician who taught alchemy in Paris, and with Pierre Borel, before he became physician to Louis XIV in 1654.

  67. Frechet biography
    • Died: 4 June 1973 in Paris, France .
    • While he was still a very young child, his father Jacques Frechet was appointed as head of a Protestant school in Paris and the family moved there with high expectations of a good future.
    • Maurice entered secondary education at the Lycee Buffon in Paris.
    • After leaving school, Frechet undertook military service before, in 1900, entering the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • Contact with several American mathematicians who were in Paris, in particular Edwin Wilson, led to Frechet publishing some of his early papers in American Mathematical Society publications (Edwin Wilson was editor of the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society from 1903).
    • From November 1928 Frechet held posts in Paris, but from this time on he concentrated more on statistics.
    • It was Borel who encouraged Frechet to seek positions in Paris and he supported his candidacy.
    • There is also a suggestion that Frechet had a difference of opinion with the Council of the Faculty of Science at Strasbourg which meant he was both pleased to return to Paris and not unhappy at leaving Strasbourg.
    • He held several different positions in the field of mathematics in Paris between 1928 and 1948 when he retired.
    • He was director of studies at the Ecole des Hautes-Etudes, then professor at the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • His prodigious correspondence, preserved in the Archive of the Paris Academy of Sciences, sheds light on the genesis and evolution of a broad body of contemporary mathematics.

  68. Poinsot biography
    • Born: 3 January 1777 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 5 December 1859 in Paris, France .
    • Louis Poinsot attended the school of Louis-le-Grand in Paris.
    • From 1804 until 1809 Poinsot was a mathematics teacher at the Lycee Bonaparte in Paris.
    • Moderately liberal in his political opinions [and] he protested against the clericalism of the Restoration but later accepted nomination to the Chambre de Paris (1846) and the Senate (1852).

  69. Montmort biography
    • Born: 27 October 1678 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 7 October 1719 in Paris, France .
    • Returning to France, he followed the advice of his brother and accepted an appointment as a canon at Notre Dame de Paris.
    • Before his marriage, he had given up his position as canon at Notre Dame de Paris.
    • Only those living in Paris could be full members.
    • There were frequent epidemics, the one that struck Paris in 1719 killed 14,000 of the inhabitants of the city.

  70. Sturm biography
    • Died: 18 December 1855 in Paris, France .
    • Before the end of 1823 the family moved from the chateau to spend six months in Paris and Sturm, as tutor, naturally accompanied them.
    • In Paris he was introduced into the scientific circles by the family.
    • The Paris Academy had set a prize topic on the compressibility of water and Sturm, with his friend Colladon, decided to begin experiments on Lake Geneva with the aim of putting in an entry for the prize.
    • In December 1825 Sturm and Colladon went to Paris to take courses in mathematics and physics and also to collect further instruments to repeat their experiments.
    • The Paris contacts that Sturm had made proved useful for he lived at Arago's house for a while as tutor to his son.
    • The value of the prize was enough to allow Sturm and Colladon to continue their research in Paris.
    • Paris was not an easy place for a foreigner and Protestant to obtain a post at this time and, despite his fame from the 1829 paper, he was not appointed.
    • He worked at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris from 1838 where he became a professor of analysis and mechanics in 1840.
    • In the same year he succeeded Poisson in the chair of mechanics in the Faculte des Sciences, Paris.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  71. Leibniz biography
    • He communicated with Oldenburg, the secretary of the Royal Society of London, and dedicated some of his scientific works to the Royal Society and the Paris Academy.
    • Leibniz was also in contact with Carcavi, the Royal Librarian in Paris.
    • Leibniz wished to visit Paris to make more scientific contacts.
    • He formed a political plan to try to persuade the French to attack Egypt and this proved the means of his visiting Paris.
    • In 1672 Leibniz went to Paris on behalf of Boineburg to try to use his plan to divert Louis XIV from attacking German areas.
    • His first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, Leibniz made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Arnauld and Malebranche, discussing with Arnauld a variety of topics but particularly church reunification.
    • In Paris Leibniz studied mathematics and physics under Christiaan Huygens beginning in the autumn of 1672.
    • Also in the autumn of 1672, Boineburg's son was sent to Paris to study under Leibniz which meant that his financial support was secure.
    • Leibniz returned to Paris on hearing that the Elector of Mainz had died.
    • In August 1675 Tschirnhaus arrived in Paris and he formed a close friendship with Leibniz which proved very mathematically profitable to both.
    • It was during this period in Paris that Leibniz developed the basic features of his version of the calculus.
    • Leibniz would have liked to have remained in Paris in the Academy of Sciences, but it was considered that there were already enough foreigners there and so no invitation came.
    • He left Paris in October 1676 making the journey to Hanover via London and Holland.
    • He perfected his system by 1679 but he did not publish anything until 1701 when he sent the paper Essay d'une nouvelle science des nombres to the Paris Academy to mark his election to the Academy.
    • He learnt of its contents in 1713 in a letter from Johann Bernoulli, reporting on the copy of the work brought from Paris by his nephew Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli.

  72. Pisier biography
    • In 1956, while Gilles was approaching his sixth birthday, the family returned to Paris when Gilles was educated.
    • He attended the Lycee Buffon in Paris from 1966 to 1967, being awarded his Baccalaureat in 1967.
    • He then entered the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris where he prepared for university entrance.
    • After spending the years 1967-69 at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, Pisier entered l'Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • He was awarded his Master's Degree in Mathematics from the Universite Denis Diderot, Paris VII, in 1971 and a D.E.A.
    • in Pure Mathematics (with distinction) from the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, in 1972.
    • Then in October 1972, as a Stagiaire de Recherche (trainee researcher) at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (C.N.R.S.) (National Centre of Scientific Research), he began research for his doctorate with Laurent Schwartz as his thesis advisor [',' G Pisier, Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Gilles Pisier, Academie des sciences (21 September 2001, Paris).','2]:- .
    • On 10 November 1977 Piser was awarded his doctorate from the Universite Denis Diderot, Paris VII.
    • in October 1979 and, in October 1981, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI.
    • At Paris VI he became Professeur, classe exceptionnelle (Distinguished Professor) in February 1991.
    • In [',' G Pisier, Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Gilles Pisier, Academie des sciences (21 September 2001, Paris).','2] he gives the following overview of his work:- .
    • Let us give a few more quotes from [',' G Pisier, Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Gilles Pisier, Academie des sciences (21 September 2001, Paris).','2] in which Pisier gives a fascinating account of his contributions up to 2001.
    • Other major achievements by Pisier include solving a problem posed by Walter Rudin in 1960 on Sidon sets and doing fundamental work on probability in Banach spaces [',' G Pisier, Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Gilles Pisier, Academie des sciences (21 September 2001, Paris).','2]:- .
    • Pisier writes [',' G Pisier, Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Gilles Pisier, Academie des sciences (21 September 2001, Paris).','2]:- .
    • These include the Salem Prize (1979), the Cours Peccot at the College de France (1981), the Prix Carriere from the Academie des Sciences in Paris (1982), the Grand Prix from the Academie des Sciences in Paris: Prix Fonde par l'Etat (1992), the Faculty Distinguished Achievement Award in Research from Texas A&M University (1993) and the 1997 Ostrowski Prize.

  73. Mannheim biography
    • Born: 17 July 1831 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 11 December 1906 in Paris, France .
    • The summer of 1848 between Mannheim completing his studies at the College de Charlemagne and entering university, was a time of revolution in Paris.
    • Mannheim entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1848 at the age of 17, again the youngest student in the course.
    • After several years in the military, Mannheim was appointed to the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, while continuing his army career.
    • Charles "residing at 21 Boulevard Beausjour, Paris, France, invented new and useful Improvements in a Progressive Change-Speed Gear".

  74. Serret biography
    • Born: 30 August 1819 in Paris, France .
    • Joseph was born at 397 Rue St Honore, Paris.
    • He had an older sister who was also born in Paris; Marie Ernestine Serret was born on 12 September 1812.
    • Serret graduated entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1838 and, after two years of study, graduated in 1840.
    • However, after working in the tobacco factory for a while Serret resigned his position and returned to Paris.
    • At the same time he undertook research for a doctorate in mathematical sciences at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris.
    • The book, based on lectures he gave to the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • The first edition of this book was a summary of lectures given at the Sorbonne in the Chair of Higher Algebra of the Faculty of Sciences of Paris.
    • During his lifetime Serret was honoured with election to the Paris Academy of Sciences and, after his death, he has been honoured with a Paris street named for him.

  75. Weil biography
    • Born: 6 May 1906 in Paris, France .
    • Andre Weil was born in Paris, the son of Jewish parents.
    • The Weil family being from Alsace had the right to opt for French nationality and they had done this and moved to Paris.
    • Bernard and Selma Weil were married in Paris in 1905.
    • When Andre was born in the following year, in addition to his parents, his paternal grandmother and several uncles were living in Paris but his paternal grandfather Abraham Weill had died in Strasbourg.
    • In the following year he was tutored privately before the family returned to their home in Paris.
    • He graduated from the Lycee Saint-Louis in 1922 and, later that year, Weil entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • He then undertook research for his doctorate in the University of Paris, supervised by Jacques Hadamard.
    • He received his doctorate from Paris in 1928 for his thesis Arithmetique des courbes algebriques Ⓣ.
    • The manuscripts they found appeared suspicious - like those of Sophus Lie, arrested on charges of spying in Paris, in 1870.
    • In addition he has been elected to the Academy of Sciences in Paris and to the National Academy of Sciences in the United States.

  76. Harlay biography
    • Born: 1768 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 1832 in Paris, France .
    • Jerome Lalande taught astronomy to them both and wrote the following description of Amelie in his work Bibliographie Astronomique (Paris, 1803):- .
    • A daughter was born on 20 January 1790, the day the comet discovered by Caroline Herschel was first visible in Paris.
    • lectured on astronomy in Paris, and worked independently as well as in collaboration with her husband.

  77. Malgrange biography
    • Born: 6 July 1928 in Paris, France .
    • Bernard grew up in Paris, living in the family home on the Rue de Rennes near the Luxembourg gardens.
    • The war changed dramatically for France on 10 May 1940 when the German army crossed the Dutch and Belgium borders and soon German armies approached Paris.
    • His father was held as a prisoner for a time, but when the family were able to return to Paris and he entered the Lycee there, he found himself to be the best pupil in the class.
    • In 1952 Schwartz was appointed as a professor in Paris and his students went to Paris with him to complete their doctorates.
    • After Grothendieck's thesis defense, which took place in Paris, Malgrange recalled that he, Grothendieck, and Henri Cartan piled into a taxicab to go to lunch at the home of Laurent Schwartz.
    • In 1960 he returned to Paris where he was appointed as an assistant lecturer in the Faculty of Sciences.
    • The University of Paris, the Ecole Normale Superieure and the College de France had set up a site at Orsay, in the south west suburbs of Paris, after World War II.

  78. Ozanam biography
    • Died: 3 April 1718 in Paris, France .
    • Ozanam was a generous man, despite always being short of money, and it was an act of great generosity which led to him moving from Lyon to Paris.
    • One day Ozanam met two strangers who did not have sufficient money to allow them to return to Paris.
    • He gave them a loan of money to fund their return trip to Paris without any real guarantee that it would be repaid.
    • After the two returned to Paris they told a friend, M.
    • Daguesseau was the father of the French Chancellor, and when he learnt of Ozanam's generosity towards his father's friends, he invited him to Paris.
    • Of course Paris was a place where someone like Ozanam would find it easy to spend money, and indeed he did.
    • He worked hard, teaching mathematics to many foreign pupils who came to Paris to be educated.
    • He did well in Paris after his marriage, having a high reputation as a teacher and as a popular writer of mathematical texts.
    • The effect was that most foreign students, finding that their country was at war with France, left Paris.

  79. Wantzel biography
    • Born: 5 June 1814 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 21 May 1848 in Paris, France .
    • Pierre Wantzel attended primary school in Ecouen, near Paris, where the family lived.
    • This had never previously been achieved and, as related in [',' G Pinet, Ecrivains et Penseurs Polytechniciens (Paris, 1902), 20.','3]:- .
    • Wantzel was not one to take life easy and he took on additional duties taking charge of the entrance examinations at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1843 and in addition taught various mathematics and physics courses at various schools around Paris, including at the College Charlemagne.

  80. Dubreil biography
    • Died: 9 March 1994 in Soisy sur Ecole (near Paris), France .
    • After teaching at Nice, then at Lorient, she taught at the lycee Montesquieu in Le Mans from 1929 to 1934 before moving to Paris where she obtained a doctorate on the topic of the novelist Joseph Conrad.
    • Graduating from the lycee Montesquieu in 1921, Dubreil went to Paris where he studied at the Lycee St Louis, preparing for the entrance examinations to one of the Ecole Normale Superieure or the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1982), 69-81.','5] that his:- .
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1982), 69-81.','5]:- .
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1982), 69-81.','5]:- .
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1983), 61-73.','6]:- .
    • He returned to Paris to marry Marie-Louise Jacotin on 28 June 1930.
    • Dubreil returned to Paris briefly to defend his doctoral thesis Recherches sur la valeur des exposants des composants primaires des ideaux de polynomes Ⓣ in October 1930.
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1983), 61-73.','6]:- .

  81. Levy Paul biography
    • Born: 15 September 1886 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 15 December 1971 in Paris, France .
    • Paul attended the Lycee Saint Louis in Paris and he achieved outstanding success winning prizes not only in mathematics but also in Greek, chemistry and physics.
    • Levy became professor Ecole des Mines in Paris in 1913, then professor of analysis at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1920 where he remained until he retired in 1959.

  82. Mineur biography
    • Died: 7 May 1954 in Paris, France .
    • He later moved to Paris where he taught at the College Rollin (which was renamed the Lycee Rollin in 1919 and, since 1944 has been known as the Lycee Jacques-Decour).
    • Henri received all his schooling in Paris at the College Rollin where he showed remarkable talents in mathematics.
    • In 1917 Mineur took the highly competitive examinations for admission to the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Normale Superieur in Paris.
    • We have already noted that Mineur had been interested in astronomy from a young age and in 1925 he left teaching to take up the post of "astronomer adjoint" in the Paris Observatory.
    • In fact he had worked at the Paris Observatory a few years earlier, being a trainee there in 1922-23.
    • In 1936 the service for research in astrophysics was set up comprising of the Observatoire de Haute Provence Ⓣ and a laboratory in Paris.
    • Mineur was Secretary General of this service and director of the Paris laboratory but he was removed from these positions by the Vichy government after the fall of France during World War II.
    • After the war he became director of the Institute d'Astrophysique in Paris, a post he held for the rest of his life.
    • In addition, as he hated any place other than Paris, he never went to Forcalquier where he was expected to build an observatory.

  83. Chatelet biography
    • Born: 17 December 1706 in Paris, France .
    • He was an official at the Court of Louis XIV at Versailles with property in Paris and also land in Touraine.
    • She is described in [',' R Vaillot, Madame du Chatelet (Paris, 1978).','10] as "studious and disciplined".
    • At this stage he retired to his big house in Paris overlooking the Tuileries gardens.
    • Every night Emilie's parents entertained guests in their Paris house and she would have seen mathematicians like Bernard de Fontenelle there frequently.
    • After the marriage du Chatelet spent time in Semur-en-Auxois but she also lived in Paris and a number of other places.
    • How could a woman like du Chatelet participate in scientific discussions? The meetings of the Academie des Sciences in Paris were the focus of discussions on research topics but these were not open to women.
    • The other places where discussions took place were the cafes of Paris but again women were not allowed to enter them.
    • This Paris cafe was the most famous as a meeting place of the top mathematicians, astronomers and physical scientists and it was the cafe where Maupertuis and other mathematicians spent many hours in debate.
    • The Academie des Sciences in Paris set the topic for the Grand Prix of 1737 to be on the nature of fire and its propagation.

  84. Cassini Jacques biography
    • Born: 8 February 1677 in Paris, France .
    • Jean-Dominique Cassini was head of the Paris Observatory at the time of his marriage to Genevieve in 1674 and, two years previously, had become a French citizen, changing his name from Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
    • Jacques, the second of his parents two sons, was born at their home at the Observatory in Paris.
    • The Paris Observatory where his family lived provided an excellent place to educate a young boy with enthusiastic interests in science.
    • This is where Jacques had his earliest education, after which he studied at the College Mazarin in Paris.
    • An early biographer [',' B de Fontenelle, Eloge de M Cassini, Histoire et memoires de l’Academie des Science (Paris, 1756), 134-147.','3] states that, when he was fifteen years old, he dedicated a thesis on mathematics to the Duc de Bourgogne.
    • In 1700 Cassini's father undertook a project to measure the meridian from Paris to Perpignan, which is 13 km west of the Mediterranean coast.
    • Applying this method, and using data from the 1700 Paris to Perpignan survey, he claimed to have proved [',' R Taton, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • His scientific role was one of major importance, playing a major role in the Academie des Sciences and taking over as head of the Paris Observatory from his father.
    • He undertook the measurement of the Paris meridian north to Dunkerque in 1718.

  85. Maupertuis biography
    • In 1714 Maupertuis was sent to study at the College de la Marche in Paris.
    • After two years in Paris, however, Maupertuis' mother insisted that he come home to Saint Malo.
    • By 1722 he had given up his career as a cavalry officer and was living in Paris enjoying the intellectual life of the cafes.
    • Back in Paris by July of 1730, Maupertuis began writing papers on mechanics in which he used the expertise he had already developed on curves.
    • In May 1735 the Paris Academy sent an expedition to Peru to make measurements of the Earth.
    • Back in Paris he attended the meeting of the Academy on 20 August 1737, reporting that his results confirmed that the Earth was oblate.
    • By June he was back in Paris, somewhat shaken by his experiences.
    • Back in Paris, Maupertuis was appointed assistant director of the Academie des Sciences and in the following year be became its director.
    • He decided to accept the position and returned to Paris in the spring of 1745 to tidy up his affairs before taking up his new role.
    • While in Berlin he had arranged a marriage to Eleonor Borck and, after his brief visit to Paris, he married her in Berlin on 25 August 1745.
    • Maupertuis had now committed himself to Berlin, and the Paris Academy cancelled his membership in September 1745 after a campaign against him led by Jacques Cassini.
    • His presidency did not get off to a good start, however, for in June his father died and he returned to Paris, remaining there until September.
    • Frederick tried to support the president of his Academy, but Maupertuis's failing health collapsed under the strain and he left Berlin for Paris in 1753.
    • Shortly after this Maupertuis's membership of the Academie des Sciences was renewed and he was awarded a pension from the Paris Academy.
    • He returned to Paris in July 1756, but by September he was in his home town of Saint Malo.

  86. Malus biography
    • Born: 23 July 1775 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 24 February 1812 in Paris, France .
    • Souvenirs de l’expedition d’Egypte, 1798-1801 (Paris, 1892).','3], .
    • After returning in 1801 Malus held posts in Antwerp, Strasbourg, and Paris.

  87. Arnauld biography
    • Born: 6 February 1612 in Paris, France .
    • He had become famous when he defended the University of Paris against the Jesuits in 1594.
    • The buildings fell into disrepair and the nuns moved to Paris in 1626 where they set up a another monastery called Port-Royal de Paris.
    • Jacqueline-Marie-Angelique Arnauld, one of Antoine Arnauld's sisters, was the abbess at Port-Royal des Champs when the community moved to Paris and she continued to be abbess at Port-Royal de Paris.
    • Arnauld's mother joined Port-Royal de Paris in 1629 where another of her daughters Jeanne-Catherine-Agnes Arnauld was twice abbess.
    • When, in 1665, the nuns at Port-Royal de Paris refused to sign they were sent to Port-Royal des Champs.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  88. Carcavi biography
    • Died: April 1684 in Paris, France .
    • In 1636 Carcavi, with the financial help of his father, bought an office of counsellor in the Grand Conseil in Paris.
    • The friendship remained and Fermat, clearly having considerable respect for Carcavi as a mathematician, sent details of his mathematical discoveries to him in Paris.
    • In Paris, Carcavi was able to have personal contact with Roberval, with whom he had already corresponded, and with Mersenne and the young Blaise Pascal.
    • This document states that Carcavi's father had paid off the outstanding debt on his son's purchase of the office of counsellor in Paris, and made his son an annual allowance.
    • Once over the difficulties of his marriage, Carcavi settled down to a few good years in Paris during which he fully participated in the discussions between leading mathematicians gathered round Marin Mersenne [',' D J Sturdy, Science and social status: the members of the Academie des sciences 1666-1750 (Boydell & Brewer, 1995).','2]:- .
    • He was an important member of the Adademie de Montmor which began meeting at the Paris home of Henri-Louis Habert de Montmor in 1654 (but was not formally founded until December 1657).
    • Fermat sent many of his works to Carcavi after he moved to Paris in 1636.
    • With Colbert's approval, Carcavi bought en bloc several major collections in Paris rapidly increasing the size of the library.
    • At this stage the machine had not been built but Leibniz met with Carcavi when he visited Paris in 1672 and indeed his calculating machine was demonstrated to the Academie des Sciences in 1675.

  89. Humbert Georges biography
    • Born: 7 January 1859 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 22 January 1921 in Paris, France .
    • He studied classics at the College, then he went on to study at the College Stanislas in Paris.
    • His first position in this capacity took him to Vesoul, but after that he moved to Paris where, in addition to his work as a mining engineer, he was soon employed as a teacher at the Ecole Polytechnique and at the Ecole des Mines.
    • His work was officially recognised when he was awarded the Poncelet Prize from the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1891 and the prize from the French Mathematical Society in 1893.

  90. Lagrange biography
    • Died: 10 April 1813 in Paris, France .
    • The Academie des Sciences in Paris announced its prize competition for 1764 in 1762.
    • Lagrange entered the competition, sending his entry to Paris in 1763 which arrived there not long before Lagrange himself.
    • Lagrange arrived in Paris shortly after his entry had been received but took ill while there and did not proceed to London with the ambassador.
    • Leaving Turin in August, he visited d'Alembert in Paris, then Caraccioli in London before arriving in Berlin in October.
    • However, for 20 years Lagrange worked at Berlin, producing a steady stream of top quality papers and regularly winning the prize from the Academie des Sciences of Paris.
    • The offer which was most attractive to Lagrange, however, came not from Italy but from Paris and included a clause which meant that Lagrange had no teaching.
    • On 18 May 1787 he left Berlin to become a member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris, where he remained for the rest of his career.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  91. Mydorge biography
    • Born: 1585 in Paris, France .
    • Died: July 1647 in Paris, France .
    • His father Jean Mydorge was a councillor in the Parlement in Paris and a judge in the Grande Chambre.
    • He published books on optics and conic sections, for example De sectionibus conicis, libri quattuor Ⓣ (Paris, 1644) contains a wealth of new examples and ideas which were used by many later geometers.
    • One of Mydorge's most famous results was an extremely accurate measurement of the latitude of Paris.

  92. Rodrigues biography
    • Died: 17 December 1851 in Paris, France .
    • Isaac had taken his family to Paris in the late 1790s.
    • There Isaac worked for the banker Fould and later, remaining in Paris, he became an independent stockbroker.
    • Olinde entered the Lycee Imperial (now the Lycee Louis-le-Grand) in Paris.
    • The Ecole Polytechnique was the most famous of the Paris universities and most historians suggest that Rodrigues could not attend it as he was a Jew.
    • Despite coming top in the entrance examination, Rodrigues chose to enter neither of the two famous Ecoles, instead entering the University of Paris.
    • Rodrigues was awarded a doctorate in mathematics from the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris in 1816 for a thesis that contains one of the two results for which he is known today, namely the Rodrigues formula for Legendre polynomials: Pn = 1/(2nn!)dn/dxn [(x2 - 1)n].
    • The Paris Ethnological Society as set up in 1839 to:- .
    • Rodrigues joined the Paris Ethnological Society.
    • These views were much criticised by other members of the Paris Ethnological Society who argued that Rodrigues was being sentimental and that science proved that he was wrong.

  93. Samuel biography
    • Born: 12 September 1921 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 23 August 2009 in Paris, France .
    • Pierre studied at the Lycee Janson-de-Sailly in Paris before entering the Ecole Normale Superieure where he studied for his Agrege de mathematique.
    • Another beautiful little book by Samuel is Anneaux factoriels Ⓣ which was published in 1963 and contained the lecture course that Samuel gave on unique factorisation domains in Paris in 1961-62.
    • In 1961 Samuel was appointed as professor at Universite Paris-Sud XI - Orsay.

  94. Mathieu Claude biography
    • Died: 5 March 1875 in Paris, France .
    • Having heard about exciting educational developments in Paris where the Ecole Polytechnique, a state supported institution of higher education and research, had been founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge in 1794, he went to Paris in 1801 to try to gain admission to the Ecole.
    • Arago, however, had been appointed as secretary of the Paris Observatory in 1804.
    • After Arago and Biot left Paris in 1806 to begin their measurements in Spain, Mathieu was appointed as secretary of the Paris Observatory to replace Arago.
    • This was established in 1870 in Paris, meeting at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers from 8 to 13 August 1870.
    • Lapparent writes of Mathieu's final years in [',' A De Lapparent, Claude-Louis Mathieu (1783-1875), in Livre du Centenaire de l’Ecole Polytechnique (Paris, 1897).','3]:- .
    • Fremy, the president of the Academy, said on his death that [',' A De Lapparent, Claude-Louis Mathieu (1783-1875), in Livre du Centenaire de l’Ecole Polytechnique (Paris, 1897).','3]:- .

  95. Pascal biography
    • Died: 19 August 1662 in Paris, France .
    • In 1632 the Pascal family, Etienne and his four children, left Clermont and settled in Paris.
    • Mersenne belonged to the religious order of the Minims, and his cell in Paris was a frequent meeting place for Gassendi, Roberval, Carcavi, Auzout, Mydorge, Mylon, Desargues and others.
    • In December 1639 the Pascal family left Paris to live in Rouen where Etienne had been appointed as a tax collector for Upper Normandy.
    • After this time Pascal made visits to the Jansenist monastery Port-Royal des Champs about 30 km south west of Paris.
    • These were written in defence of his friend Antoine Arnauld, an opponent of the Jesuits and a defender of Jansenism, who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works.
    • After that time on he took little interest in science and spent his last years giving to the poor and going from church to church in Paris attending one religious service after another.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  96. Poisson biography
    • Died: 25 April 1840 in Sceaux (near Paris), France .
    • One immediate consequence for his support of the Revolution was the fact that he became president of the district of Pithiviers which is in central France, about 80 km south of Paris.
    • His teachers at the Ecole Centrale were extremely impressed and encouraged him to sit the entrance examinations for the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • It was therefore to his credit that he was able to undertake his academic studies with great enthusiasm and diligence, yet find time to enjoy the theatre and other social activities in Paris.
    • It was quite unusual for anyone to gain their first appointment in Paris, most of the top mathematicians having to serve in the provinces before returning to Paris.
    • A Walk Around Paris .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  97. Cassini Dominique biography
    • Born: 30 June 1748 in Paris, France .
    • His mother, Charlotte Drouin de Vandeuil, married Cesar-Francois Cassini in 1747 and they lived in the Paris Observatory where Jacques Cassini was effectively the director, although this official position was only created somewhat later.
    • Dominique received his early education in the Paris Observatory, then he attended the College du Plessis in Paris and the College Oratorien run by the Congregation of the Oratory at Juilly.
    • In 1771 Cassini's father, Cassini de Thury, was made Director of the Paris Observatory by the King with the conditions that succession would be preserved for the Cassini family.
    • After the death of his father in 1784, Cassini assumed the role of Director of the Paris Observatory.
    • In 1787 he was involved in a joint project with English scientists to determine the precise distance between the observatories at Greenwich and at Paris.
    • Two days later, around 300 armed men forced their way into the Paris Observatory looking for food, arms and munitions.
    • He still felt that tradition required him to lead the expedition and so he proposed that he remain in command in Paris while assistants undertook the surveying.

  98. Duhem biography
    • Born: 10 June 1861 in Paris, France .
    • Pierre, the eldest of his parents four children, was born in the Rue des Jeuneurs in Paris after his parents moved there.
    • He became professor of theoretical physics at the University of Bordeaux on 13 October 1894 but a move to Paris, which a scientist of his outstanding ability would naturally expect, was blocked.
    • In spite of having grown aware of Duhem's scientific triumph over him, Berthelot could not bring himself to acknowledge this to the extent of letting him obtain a chair in Paris.
    • It was all too human of Berthelot to protect that interpretation from Duhem's devastating criticism which, if delivered from a chair in Paris, would have forced Berthelot into the open.
    • One would have to add that Duhem's thesis was not the only reason that he did not achieve the appointment in Paris.
    • Late in his career Duhem was offered a professorship in Paris as a historian of science and not as a mathematical physicist.
    • Duhem refused the chance to work in Paris that he had always longed for saying that he was a mathematical physicist and did not want to get to Paris through the back door.

  99. Liouville biography
    • Died: 8 September 1882 in Paris, France .
    • From Toul he went to the College St Louis in Paris where he studied mathematics at the highest levels.
    • By now Liouville was set on an academic career and he found it impossible to study away from Paris.
    • This he did in October of 1830 but even at this stage he had written a number of papers which he had submitted to the Paris Academy on electrodynamics, partial differential equations and the theory of heat.
    • Certainly he was unhappy with the style of the Paris Journals for he wrote in 1836:- .
    • From November to July he lived in Paris and carried out his teaching and administrative duties.
    • However there was unrest in Paris as workers felt that their revolution had been taken over by the bourgeoisie.
    • In September of 1843 he announced to the Paris Academy that he had found deep results in Galois's work and promised to publish Galois's papers together with his own commentary.

  100. Cartan biography
    • Died: 6 May 1951 in Paris, France .
    • After the College de Vienne, he then studied at the Lycee in Genoble for the two years 1885-87 before completing his school education by spending one year at the Janson-de-Sailly Lycee in Paris where he specialised in mathematics.
    • The state stipend was extended to allow him to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • Cartan set about completing Killing's classification and he was able to benefit greatly from a six-month visit by Sophus Lie to Paris in 1892.
    • He remained there until 1909 when he moved to Paris [',' M A Akivis and B Rosenfeld, Elie Cartan (1869-1951) (Amer.
    • His appointment in 1909 in Paris was as an assistant lecturer at the Sorbonne but three years later he was appointed to the Chair of Differential and Integral Calculus in Paris.
    • Paris 192 (1931), 709-712].
    • Just as Freud was influenced by the mechanistic world view of 19th century science, but used this background to create something new and revolutionary which has profoundly influenced 20th century thought, so Cartan built, on a foundation of the mathematics which was fashionable in the 1890's in Paris, Berlin and Gottingen, a mathematical edifice whose implications we are still investigating.

  101. Camus biography
    • Born: 25 August 1699 in Crecy-en-Brie (near Paris), France .
    • Died: 4 May 1768 in Paris, France .
    • He was keen to have the best education and he persuaded his parents to let him study at the College de Navarre of the University of Paris.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  102. Chasles biography
    • Died: 18 December 1880 in Paris, France .
    • Epernon, the town where Chasles was born, is in the region of Chartres lying about one third of the way from the town of Chartres to Paris.
    • Then, in 1812, he entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • Chasles was called up to take part in the defence of Paris in early 1814.
    • Shortly after Paris fell, Napoleon abdicated on 6 April 1814 and the war was over.
    • At this point Chasles returned to living at home but his father insisted that he join a firm of stockbrokers in Paris.
    • This was not the occupation for Chasles but he obeyed his father's wishes and went to join the firm in Paris to learn the trade of a stockbroker.
    • On the strength of his fine work Chasles became professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1841, at the age of nearly 48.

  103. Jordan biography
    • Died: 22 January 1922 in Paris, France .
    • After the examination he continued to work as an engineer, first at Privas, then at Chalon-sur-Saone, and finally in Paris.
    • The references [',' J Dieudonne (ed.), Oeuvres de Camille Jordan I (Paris 1961).','3], [',' J Dieudonne (ed.), Oeuvres de Camille Jordan II (Paris 1961).','4], [',' J Dieudonne (ed.), Oeuvres de Camille Jordan III (Paris 1962).','5], [',' J Dieudonne (ed.), Oeuvres de Camille Jordan IV (Paris 1964).','6] are to the four volumes of his complete works and the range of topics is seen from the contents of these.
    • His work had gained him a wide international reputation and both Sophus Lie and Felix Klein visited him in Paris in 1870 to study with him.
    • A Walk Around Paris .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  104. Bouquet biography
    • Died: 9 September 1885 in Paris, France .
    • Then during the years he was attending the Lycee there were many disturbances with fighting in the streets of Paris and Lyon on many occasions as enemies of the regime tried to overthrow it by force.
    • However by the time Bouquet went to Paris to enter university there, France had entered a period of political stability and relative prosperity.
    • Bouquet entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in 1839, obtaining his doctorate in 1842 for a thesis Sur la variation des integrales doubles Ⓣ which he submitted to the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • Bouquet returned to Paris shortly before Louis-Napoleon declared himself emperor of the French on 2 December 1852; the Second Empire lasted until 1870.
    • From 1852 until 1858 Bouquet taught at the Lycee Bonaparte (later renamed the Lycee Condorcet) in Paris.
    • In 1858 Bouquet moved to the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, the school Galois had graduated from 30 years before, and there again put his energies into preparing pupils for the entrance examinations for the two major Paris universities.
    • In the year that he published this text he was elected to the Academy of Sciences in Paris.
    • Jules Tannery, who was to write an obituary of Bouquet [',' J Tannery, Jean Claude Bouquet, Memorial de l’Association des anciens eleves de l’Ecole normale (Paris, 1885).','2], was taught by him and praised him highly as a teacher.

  105. Humbert Pierre biography
    • Born: 13 June 1891 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 17 November 1953 in Paris, France .
    • All of Pierre Humbert's school education took place in Paris, and following this he went on to attend the Ecole Polytechnique there entering the famous French university in 1910.
    • After studying in Paris for three years he left for Scotland to undertake research at the University of Edinburgh.

  106. Peres biography
    • Died: 12 February 1962 in Paris, France .
    • Joseph, like his father, chose to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, entering in 1908 and graduating three years later.
    • After Peres returned to France from Italy, he taught at the Lycee at Montpellier and he was there when he submitted his thesis Sur les fonctions permutable do Volterra Ⓣ on 30 January 1915 to the Faculty of Sciences in Paris for the degree of Doctor of Mathematical Sciences.
    • Delassus, born on 25 March 1868 in Amiens, Somme, had studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure (class of 1888), was awarded a doctorate in Mathematical Sciences from Paris in 1895, and had been appointed professor at the Faculty of Sciences at Bordeaux in 1913.
    • The Ministry wanted to increase research in aeronautics by creating a network of institutes for fluid mechanics, the first in Paris and the second in Marseille.
    • When Peres moved to Paris in 1932, Malavard moved with him and in 1934 was awarded a diploma in aeronautical engineering.
    • At the Sorbonne he balanced his career between teaching and research being active in both while at the same time taking on some major administrative roles such as Dean of the Faculty of Science in Paris from 1954 to 1961.
    • In addition to election to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1942, he was also elected to the Academies in Rome, in Turin and in Washington.
    • Henri Villat, who had been his teacher, colleague and friend, delivered 'Notice necrologique sur Joseph Peres' to the Paris Academy of Sciences on 26 February 1962.

  107. Reynaud biography
    • Born: 12 September 1771 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 24 February 1844 in Paris, France .
    • Antoine-Andre-Louis Reynaud's father was a lawyer in the parliament in Paris.
    • In 1796 Reynaud gave up his accountant job and entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  108. Navier biography
    • Died: 21 August 1836 in Paris, France .
    • Claude-Louis Navier's father was a lawyer who was a member of the National Assembly in Paris during the time of the French Revolution.
    • At this time the family were living in Paris but after Navier's father died, his mother returned to her home town of Chalon-sur-Saone and left Navier in Paris to be cared for by her uncle Emiland Gauthey.
    • Emiland Gauthey was a civil engineer who worked at the Corps des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris.
    • It was not long after Navier's graduation that his granduncle Emiland Gauthey died and Navier, who had left Paris to undertake field work, returned to Paris, at the request of the Corps des Ponts et Chaussees, to take on the task of editing Gauthey's works.
    • Navier received many honours, perhaps the most important of which was election to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1824.

  109. Germain biography
    • in Paris, France .
    • in Paris, France .
    • In 1808, the German physicist Ernst F F Chladni had visited Paris where he had conducted experiments on vibrating plates, exhibiting the so-called Chladni figures.

  110. Godement biography
    • Died: 21 July 2016 in Paris, France .
    • As a result, he continued living at home until 1940 preparing to enter the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • In fact he was fortunate to have Henri Cartan as a lecturer since he was on the faculty at Strasbourg but after a visit to Paris he could not return to Strasbourg since the Germans controlled the city and the university.
    • Godement defended his thesis Les fonctions de type positif et la theorie des groupes Ⓣ in Paris in July 1946.
    • He also was a major contributor to the Bourbaki Seminar in Paris.
    • In that year he was appointed to the Faculty of Sciences in Paris (or Paris VII) where he spent the rest of his career until he retired in 1990.
    • One notes, a curious coincidence, that in 1673 Leibniz had presented his calculating machine to the Royal Society of London and the Academie des Sciences of Paris.
    • While teaching in Paris, Godement supervised the Ph.D.

  111. Boussinesq biography
    • Died: 19 February 1929 in Paris, France .
    • The examining committee, however, comprised of Joseph Serret, Joseph Bertrand and Charles Auguste Briot and Boussinesq defended his thesis in Paris before this committee on 13 May 1867.
    • A condition of this appointment was that Boussinesq move to Paris so he requested that he be given a transfer from the Faculty of Science in Lille to the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • This was agreed and he was appointed Professor of Physical and Experimental Mechanics at the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • Boussinesq was no dashing young man when he arrived in Paris at the beginning of 1886.
    • In Paris he made another study of turbulent flows, using experimental results due to Bazin and ideas due to Reynolds.
    • He had already published a number of other important texts in such as Application des potentiels a l'etude de l'equilibre et du mouvement des solides elastiques Ⓣ (1885) while still in Lille, and, after moving to Paris: Cours d'analyse infinitesimale en vue de ses applications mecaniques et physiques Ⓣ (2 volumes) (1887 and 1890); Lecons synthetiques de Mecanique generale servant d'introduction au cours de Mecanique physique Ⓣ (1889); and Theorie analytique de la chaleur mise en harmonie avec la thermodynamique et avec la theorie mecanique de la lumiere, Tome I : Problemes generaux Ⓣ (1901).
    • Eight years after Boussinesq arrived in Paris, his wife Jeanne died; they had no children.

  112. Ostrogradski biography
    • The leading mathematical centre in the world at this time was Paris and Ostrogradski made the bold decision to study there, arriving in May 1822.
    • Becoming friendly with these leading mathematicians, he made rapid progress and soon began to publish papers in the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • His papers at this time show the influence of the mathematicians in Paris and he wrote on physics and the integral calculus.
    • For example, he submitted his paper Demonstration d'un theoreme du calcul integral Ⓣ to the Paris Academy of Sciences on 13 February 1826.
    • Ostrogradski presented this theorem again in a paper in Paris on 6 August 1827, and finally in St Petersburg on 5 November 1828.
    • In fact many of Ostrogradski's papers which he wrote in Paris were later incorporated in a major work on hydrodynamics with he published in Paris in 1832.
    • His time in Paris, however, did have its problems.
    • Cauchy then managed to get Ostrogradski a position teaching at the College Henri IV (today called Lycee Henri-IV) so he could continue living in Paris.
    • describes four manuscripts dating from Ostrogradski's Paris residence (1822-1827) and discovered by Yushkevich in the French Academy archives in 1963.
    • Although he came to St Petersburg full of enthusiasm looking to create a research environment like he had experienced in Paris, nevertheless he was looked at with suspicion and distrust by the local police who put him under surveillance.
    • He had a second visit to Paris in May 1830 being in the city at the time when there were street disorders and barricades were erected.
    • In 1856, in accord with the Paris treatise, Russia was deprived of the right to have a fleet on the Black Sea.
    • We note that the Treaty of Paris of 1856 ended the Crimean war which Russia fought against Turkey supported by Britain and France.

  113. Mylon biography
    • Born: 1618 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 1660 in Paris, France .
    • Mylon is important in the history of mathematics, not for his own achievements, but for his role in the Academie Parisienne, the group of scholars which was a continuation of the group formed in Paris by Mersenne, which was to form the foundation on which the Paris Academy of Sciences was formed.

  114. Huygens biography
    • In this same year he made his first visit to Paris.
    • He informed the mathematicians in Paris including Boulliau of his discovery and in turn Huygens learnt of the work on probability carried out in a correspondence between Pascal and Fermat.
    • By 1656 Huygens was able to confirm his ring theory to Boulliau and the results were reported to the Paris group.
    • Huygens returned to Paris in 1660 and went to meetings of various scientific societies there.
    • He arrived in Paris that year to discover that the Society was not yet organised.
    • From his youth Huygens' health had never been robust and in 1670 he had a serious illness which resulted in him leaving Paris for Holland.
    • Before he left Paris, believing himself to be close to death he asked that his unpublished papers on mechanics be sent to the Royal Society.
    • By 1671 Huygens returned to Paris.
    • However in 1672 Louis XIV invaded the Low Countries and Huygens found himself in the extremely difficult position of being in an important position in Paris at a time France was at war with his own country.
    • In 1672 Huygens and Leibniz met in Paris and thereafter Leibniz was a frequent visitor to the Academie.
    • By 1678 Huygens had returned to Paris.
    • Colbert died in 1683 and a return to Paris without the support of his patron seemed impossible.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  115. Lichnerowicz biography
    • Died: 11 December 1998 in Paris, France .
    • Andre's mother had received her university education at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Jeunes Filles at Sevres just outside Paris.
    • He continued to study for his doctorate advised by Georges Darmois and received the degree in 1939 from the Faculty of Science in Paris for his thesis Problemes globaux en mecanique relativiste Ⓣ.
    • In 1949 Lichnerowicz was named professor at the University of Paris, where he established the diploma Mathematical Methods in Physics.
    • Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, who was Lichnerowicz's student in Paris, writes [',' M Berger, J-P Bourguignon, Y Choquet-Bruhat, C-M Marle and A Revuz, Andre Lichnerowicz (1915-1998, Notices of the American Mathematical Society 46 (11) (1999), 1387-1396.','6]:- .
    • In 1963, at the age of only 48, Lichnerowicz was elected to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • When Lichnerowicz was elected to the Academie des Sciences de Paris ..
    • With his wife Susa, who was born in Peru and taught Spanish in a Paris high school for many years, he formed an extremely interesting blend of different sensitivities.

  116. Reyneau biography
    • Died: 24 February 1728 in Paris, France .
    • On 17 October 1676 Reyneau entered the Maison d'Institution of the Congregation of the Oratory in Paris where he met Nicolas Malebranche and Jean Prestet (1642-1691), who had just published his Elements des mathematiques Ⓣ, the first edition appearing in 1675.
    • After giving up the struggle to continue his job in these difficult circumstances, Reyneau went to Paris and lived at the Oratorian house on rue Saint-Honore for the rest of his life.
    • For many years Reyneau was not really abreast of these new developments, even when Johann Bernoulli visited Paris in 1692, and Reyneau did not rush to keep up to date with the important new ideas.
    • While he was still teaching at the University of Angers, Reyneau visited Paris in 1700 and spent from July to August there learning more mathematics from Pierre Varignon, someone who he would naturally get to know since Varignon was a leading member of the group around Malebranche.
    • In fact he kept a diary of the Varignon-Rolle dispute from 1701 to 1704 most of which was only recorded in the unpublished proceedings of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • Reyneau, not content with making himself master of every thing worth knowing, which the modern analysis, so fruitful in sublime speculations and ingenious discoveries, had already produced, undertook to reduce into one body, for the use of his scholars, the principal theories scattered here and there in Newton, Descartes, Leibniz, Bernoulli, the Leipsic Acts, the Memoirs of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and in other works; treasures which by being so widely dispersed, proved much less useful than they otherwise might have been.
    • In 1716 he was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  117. Lefebure biography
    • Died: 12 March 1869 in Paris, France .
    • Louis Lefebure de Fourcy spent his childhood in Nantes but was sent to Paris to complete his education at the College de la Marine et des Colonies.
    • By May 1807 he was back in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique where he was appointed as an assistant repetiteur in analysis.
    • Lefebure taught at the College of Saint-Louis for five years, leaving in December 1825 when he was appointed as an assistant to Sylvestre Lacroix at the faculty of Science in Paris.
    • The country was divided into four regions, and also Paris, and an examiner travelled in a region for some weeks during the summer to interview promising young boys nominated by local families or dignitaries.
    • Most students dreaded being examined by Lefebure and a report by an Inspector from the Paris Academy of Sciences lets us see the reason:- .
    • In May 1843 Lacroix died and, in July of the same year, Lefebure succeeded him in the chair of differential and integral calculus at the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • A report by an Inspector from the Paris Academy of Sciences, written in 1860, states that:- .

  118. Fine biography
    • Died: 8 August 1555 in Paris, France .
    • Fine's father was Francois Fine who was a medical doctor, educated at the University of Paris, and practicing in Briancon at the time that his son was born.
    • Francois Fine was certainly at the University of Paris in 1472-73 since copies of lecture notes of a course on Aristotle made by him in that year still survive.
    • Oronce Fine was brought up in Briancon until his father died after which he was sent to Paris where he was cared for by Antoine Silvestre.
    • Fine was educated at the University of Paris obtaining a medical degree from the College de Navarre in 1522.
    • Before being awarded his medical degree, Fine had edited mathematics and astronomy books for a Paris printer.
    • Fine was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the College Royal in Paris in 1531 and he taught there from this time until his death.

  119. Fizeau biography
    • Born: 23 September 1819 in Paris, France .
    • His father Louis Fizeau, coming from a family many generations of which had been doctors, was Professor of Pathology at the Paris Medical School.
    • He attended the prestigious College Stanislas in Paris where he was friendly with one of his fellow students Leon Foucault.
    • Louis-Jacques Daguerre put on a free course on his new photographic techniques in Paris and the two friends Fizeau and Foucault attended.
    • After an excellent education at the College Stanislas, Fizeau entered the Paris Medical School in 1840.
    • In July 1849 Fizeau set up a mirror at his parents' home at Suresnes and another on Montmartre, the hill on the right bank of Paris.
    • From there he rarely went into Paris for meetings of the Academy or of the Bureau des Longitudes.

  120. Duhamel biography
    • Died: 29 April 1872 in Paris, France .
    • Despite Napoleon's skill in using the troops at his disposal, the allies reached Paris in 1814.
    • Even though the Ecole Polytechnique's students defended Paris fiercely, the city fell to the advancing allies.
    • After Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to Paris, Monge immediately rallied to him and gave him his full support.
    • By October Monge feared for his life and fled from France but returned to Paris in March 1816.
    • Duhamel returned to Rennes, but did not go back to Paris after the Ecole Polytechnique was reorganised and reopened in 1817, preferring to remain in Rennes where he studied law.
    • Duhamel did return to Paris after taking his law degree and taught mathematics and physics both at the Institution Massin and at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand.
    • Also from 1851 Duhamel was professor at the Faculte des Sciences in Paris.

  121. Borel biography
    • Died: 3 February 1956 in Paris, France .
    • There he showed extraordinary talents and, several years later, went to Paris as a bursar to the College Sainte-Barbe.
    • He returned to Paris in January 1897 when appointed Maitre de Conference at the Ecole Normale Superieure.
    • On the outbreak of war, as his students left for the front, he had organised a project partly in Paris and partly at the front on sound-ranging; but in 1915 Painleve, then Minister of War, placed him in charge of a central department of research and inventions and later, when Prime Minister, appointed him Secretary-General in the Cambinet Office.
    • Also in 1921 he was appointed to succeed Joseph Boussinesq in the chair of Probability and Mathematical Physics and, in the following year, he founded the Institut de Statistique de l'Universite de Paris (Institute of Statistics at the University of Paris).
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  122. Valiron biography
    • Died: March 1955 in Paris, France .
    • After graduating from the lycee he studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, being the top student when he was awarded his degree in mathematical science in 1908.
    • Valiron was awarded a bursary to enable him to study for his doctorate at the Faculty of Science in Paris and he spent the years 1912-14 undertaking research advised by Emile Borel.
    • He defended his thesis Sur les fonctions entieres d'ordre nul et d'ordre fini et en particulier les fonctions a correspondance reguliere Ⓣ before a panel at the Faculty of Science in Paris on 20 June 1914 and was awarded his doctorate.
    • In 1931 he left Strasbourg when called to the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • During World War II Valiron continued to teach in Paris.
    • This is slightly puzzling since Valiron spent the war years in Paris and had not taught at Strasbourg in the preceding ten years.
    • Laurent Schwartz studied in Paris at the Ecole Normale Superieure in the 1930s and at this time took a course by Valiron on Functions of a complex variable.

  123. Poncelet biography
    • Died: 22 December 1867 in Paris, France .
    • On 30 May 1814 the Treaty of Paris was signed making peace between France and Russia (and the other countries involved in the conflict).
    • While writing this book he consulted with Francois Servois who he had known while he worked at Metz but who had moved to Paris in 1816.
    • Poncelet was promoted to Chef de Bataillon in 1831, and then moved to Paris in 1834 when he was elected in March of that year to the mechanics section of the Academie des Sciences.
    • He served on the Committee for Fortifications of Paris from 1835 to 1848.
    • During his time in this role there occurred in Paris the "June Days Uprising" by French workers on 23-26 June 1848.
    • Prompted by the Great Exhibition of 1851, the French organised the first Universal Exhibition which opened in Paris in May 1855.

  124. Choquet biography
    • Eventually the family were evacuated but had to suffer a long journey, first to Switzerland, then back to Paris, before settling in the Vendee region near the west coast of France.
    • He then went to Paris where he studied at the Lycee Saint-Louis, preparing for his university career.
    • In August 1940 he was demobilized at Limoges and shortly afterwards returned to Paris with his fiancee.
    • During the war the couple lived frugally in a little two-room apartment in Paris, where their two sons were born.
    • His two sons Bernard and Christian had been born in Paris, and now his third child, his daughter Claire, was born at Grenoble.
    • In 1949 the family moved to Paris when Choquet was appointed as Maitre de conferences at the University of Paris.
    • In 1950 he was promoted to professor at the University of Paris.
    • He retired from his Paris chair in 1984.
    • He has been Professor of Mathematics at the Universites de Paris VI and XI, and at the Ecole Polytechnique, and is a Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur.
    • His three-volume work Cours d'analyse (1964) was based on his courses at the University of Paris.
    • However, he received many other honours such as four prizes from the Paris Academy of Sciences, namely the Houllevigue Prize (1945), the Dickson Prize (1951), the Carriere Prize (1956), and the Grand Prix des sciences mathematiques (1968).
    • He was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1976.

  125. Carre biography
    • Died: 11 April 1711 in Paris, France .
    • Louis did not want to take holy orders but, out of respect for his father, he spent three years studying theology in Paris.
    • Bernard de Fontenelle writes [',' B Le Bouyer de Fontenelle, Eloge de M Carre, in Jean-Pierre Niceron (ed.), Memoires pour servir a l’histoire des hommes illustres dans la republique des lettres (Briasson, Paris, 1731), 347-351.','3]:- .
    • However, he was fortunate for he managed to avoid poverty by becoming an amanuensis to the philosopher Nicolas Malebranche who was professor of mathematics at the Congregation of the Oratory in Paris.
    • The group which Malebranche had built up at the Oratory in Paris was the leading one in France at the time containing mathematicians such as Pierre Varignon, Guillaume De l'Hopital and Charles Rene Reyneau.
    • It was in this remarkable atmosphere of learning and scholarship that Carre, who was in many ways a country lad lacking in the ways of sophisticated Paris, was taught mathematics and metaphysics by Malebranche.
    • He then remained in Paris, becoming a popular teacher giving private lessons.
    • employed himself in teaching mathematics and philosophy at Paris.

  126. Lebesgue Victor biography
    • Victor Amedee began his schooling at the Lycee in Amiens and there he met and became friends with Charles Alexandre (born 19 February 1797 in Amiens; died 6 June 1870 in Paris).
    • After leaving the Lycee in Amiens, Lebesgue completed his studies at the College de Beauvais in Paris in 1809.
    • He studied in Paris and was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1813.
    • In 1834, he went to Paris to attend the Sorbonne, with the intention of competing for the agregation.
    • One of his friends was the number theorist Eugene Prouhet (1817-1867) who had been a student of Charles-Francois Sturm at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • Extraits, Commentaires et Recherches relatifs a l'Analyse indeterminee et a la Theorie des Nombres Ⓣ (Libraire Centrale des Sciences, Paris, 1859).
    • However, prince Alphonse de Polignac (1826-1863), himself a number theorist, supported the publication of Lebesgue's second book Introduction a la Theorie des Nombres Ⓣ (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1862).
    • In fact after retiring from Bordeaux, Lebesgue returned to Paris where he spent the years from 1858 to 1861 working on the two books we have just mentioned.
    • It was while he was in Paris that he was able to get the support he needed from prince Alphonse de Polignac.
    • Despite the fact that he was working on his books during these years in Paris, Lebesgue still managed to publish three papers in 1858, seven papers in 1859, and three papers in 1860.
    • In 1861 he returned to Bordeaux, mainly because he found the winters in Paris too severe and wished to return to the warmer climes of Bordeaux.
    • Lebesgue and Houel collaborated and Houel did much to help Lebesgue in preparing Tables diverses pour la Decomposition des Nombres en leurs Facteurs premiers Ⓣ (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1864).
    • After two years at Bordeaux, when he was working on his Tables, Lebesgue again went to Paris but after only a short stay he again returned to south west France, living in Bordeaux.

  127. Vandermonde biography
    • Born: 28 February 1735 in Paris, France .
    • Died: 1 January 1796 in Paris, France .
    • He had set up a medical practice in Paris and was working there as a doctor when his son Alexandre-Theophile was born.

  128. Chazy biography
    • Died: 9 March 1955 in Paris, France .
    • They swept forward and the French government made strenuous efforts to defend Paris at all costs.
    • Chazy was able to compute the position of the Big Bertha guns firing at Paris from long-range with surprising accuracy.
    • In 1923 Chazy was appointed as a lecturer at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris and he was also appointed as an examiner at the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • He continued to work at the Sorbone until his retirement in 1953, but over the years he worked in Paris he held a number of different chairs such as analytical and celestial mechanics, and rational mechanics.
    • Chazy published a number of influential texts while working as a professor in Paris.
    • The purpose of this book, which is the development of a course taught at the Faculty of Sciences of Paris in 1927, is to expose as clearly as possible the theory of relativity in dealing with celestial mechanics, taking as a starting point the knowledge of a student who has attended a few lessons on differential and integral calculus, and mechanics.

  129. Burckhardt biography
    • Died: 22 June 1825 in Paris, France .
    • But Burckhardt went to France rather than to England, for Zach had also recommended him to his friend Joseph-Jerome Lalande in Paris.
    • He made the decision to go to Paris because working for Lalande he would have as his assistants other competent astronomers who had been pupils of Lagrange, Laplace and Lalande.
    • Paris became his second home and there he worked at both the Bureau des longitudes and the Observatoire de l'Ecole militaire.
    • Arriving in Paris towards the end of 1797, he took some courses at the College de France, his salary being paid by the Duchesse de Gotha.
    • His two main works, however, were published in Paris in French: Tables de la lune Ⓣ (1812) and Table des diviseurs pour tous les nombres du premier, second et troisieme million Ⓣ (1817).
    • The treatment which M Delambre has given in his 'Abrege d'astronomie' (Paris, 1813) seems to me to merit preference.

  130. Fontenelle biography
    • Died: 9 January 1757 in Paris, France .
    • The le Bovier family were by tradition lawyers who came originally from Alencon, about 150 km south-west of Rouen and about 170 km west of Paris.
    • From 1677 Fontenelle began to live partly in Paris and partly in Rouen, only taking up permanent residence in Paris ten years later.
    • The year 1677 was certainly not the first time he had been to Paris, having first been taken there by his uncle Thomas Corneille in the previous year.
    • Before his move to Paris Le Mercure galant encouraged him to do so.
    • When Fontenelle arrived in Paris, he soon made contact with the groups of scientists and free thinkers who gathered around men like Henri Justel, the physician Bourdelot, the chemist Lemery, and the geometer Sauveur.

  131. Condorcet biography
    • Died: 29 March 1794 in Bourg-la-Reine (near Paris), France .
    • He was educated in Jesuit Colleges in Reims and at the College de Navarre in Paris.
    • He then studied at the College Mazarin in Paris.
    • He was elected as the Paris representative in the Legislative Assembly and he became the secretary of the Assembly.
    • In March 1794 he thought that the house in which he was hiding in Paris was being watched by his enemies and he no longer felt safe.
    • He fled from Paris and after three days he was arrested and imprisoned on 27 March 1794.

  132. Pascal Etienne biography
    • Died: 24 September 1651 in Paris, France .
    • Etienne was trained in law in Paris, receiving his degree in 1610.
    • In 1631 Etienne Pascal went to Paris so that his son could have the best education and he devoted himself the Blaise's education there.
    • In March 1638 he fled from Paris to avoid this punishment and returned to the Auvergne.
    • In August 1648 Etienne went to Paris, returning to the Auvergne in May 1649.
    • He left for Paris again in November 1650 and continued to live there until his death less than a year later.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  133. Brillouin biography
    • Died: 16 June 1948 in Paris, France .
    • Marcel Brillouin's father was a painter and the family moved from Melle to Paris where Marcel was educated.
    • He attended the Lycee Condorcet but this was not a good time to be in Paris.
    • France declared war on Prussia on 19 July 1870 but suffered defeats and by 1 September 1870 the Prussian army began to besiege Paris.
    • The Brillouin family had left Paris to avoid the worst problems of the war and returned to Melle.
    • Brillouin was able to return to Paris in 1872 and, having spent the intervening time well, excelled at his studies.
    • He then held posts as assistant professor of physics at Nancy, Dijon and Toulouse before returning to Paris to the Ecole Normale Superieure in 1888.

  134. Lions Jacques-Louis biography
    • Died: 17 May 2001 in Paris, France .
    • While there he was advised by an examiner, after an oral exam, to sit the entrance examinations for the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • As was typical in France at this time, university professors began their careers in the provinces and if they were successful enough could be promoted to a chair in Paris.
    • Lions followed this pattern when he was appointed Professor in the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris in 1963.
    • In Paris he began a weekly numerical analysis seminar series and, later, he set up a numerical analysis laboratory.
    • In particular the University of Paris was to be split into thirteen separate universities from 1970.
    • Lions chose to work in Paris VI, the university which was later named Universite Pierre et Marie Curie.

  135. Abel biography
    • On reaching Copenhagen, Abel found that Degen had died and he changed his mind about taking Hansteen's advice to go directly to Paris, preferring not to travel alone and stay with his friends who were going to Berlin.
    • It had been Abel's intention to travel with Crelle to Paris and to visit Gauss in Gottingen on the way.
    • Crelle was detained in Berlin and could not travel with Abel to Paris.
    • Abel therefore did not go directly to Paris, but chose to travel again with his Norwegian friends to northern Italy before crossing the Alps to France.
    • In Paris Abel was disappointed to find there was little interest in his work.
    • Two referees, Cauchy and Legendre, were appointed to referee the paper and Abel remained in Paris for a few months [',' D Stander, Makers of modern mathematics : Niels Henrik Abel, Bull.
    • The masterpiece which he had submitted to the Paris Academy seemed to have been lost and so he wrote the main result down again [',' O Ore, Niels Henrik Abel, Mathematician Extraordinary (New York, 1974).','3]:- .
    • It was a monument resplendent in its simple lines - the main theorem from his Paris memoir, formulated in few words.
    • After Abel's death his Paris memoir was found by Cauchy in 1830 after much searching.
    • In this same year 1830 the Paris Academy awarded Abel and Jacobi the Grand Prix for their outstanding work.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  136. Choquet-Bruhat biography
    • In 1927, when Yvonne was under four years old, her father was appointed to the Faculty of Science in Paris so she was brought up in that city.
    • Yvonne Bruhat undertook her secondary school education in Paris.
    • In 1943 Yvonne Bruhat began her studies at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Jeunes Filles at Sevres just outside Paris.
    • University studies in occupied Paris was difficult enough but tragedy struck the Bruhat family in 1944 [',' F Apery, Roger Apery, 1916-1994: A Radical Mathematician, The Mathematical Intelligencer 18 (2) (1996), 54-61.','1]:- .
    • They were all published under the name Yvonne Foures-Bruhat, since she had married the mathematician Leonce Guy Foures who, like Bruhat, was undertaking research in Paris.
    • She only held this position for one year before being appointed as a full professor at Faculty of Science in Paris in 1960.
    • He was a mathematician who had obtained his doctorate in 1946 and, from 1950, had been a professor at the University of Paris.
    • Bruhat was appointed to the Chair of Mechanics at the University of Paris VI, the Pierre and Marie Curie University, where her husband was also a professor.
    • This University was established in 1971 when the University of Paris was divided into several separate universities.
    • The Pierre and Marie Curie University was largely the old Faculty of Sciences, on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of Paris.
    • Bruhat gave courses at the University of Paris to students taking the Master of Mathematics degree which prepared them for the practical use of distributions in the partial differential equations of theoretical physics.
    • Daniel Choquet studied bioengineering in Paris and obtained a doctorate from the Pierre and Marie Curie University in 1988.

  137. Flajolet biography
    • Died: 22 March 2011 in Paris, France .
    • It was Maurice Paul Nivat who recruited Flajolet to work at the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique but, in addition to him, Jean Vuillemin and Marcel-Paul Schutzenberger, who had been appointed as Professor in the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris VII in 1970, were major influences on the young researcher.
    • Flajolet and Steyaert presented Une formalisation de la notion d'algorithme de tri non recurrent Ⓣ as a joint work to the Universite de Paris VII for their Ph.D.'s in 1973.
    • Flajolet presented his Habilitation thesis Analyse d'algorithmes de manipulation d'arbres et de chiers Ⓣ to Universite de Paris XI, Orsay in 1979 and was awarded the degree of Doctorat es Sciences both in mathematics and computer science.
    • He was awarded the Grand Prix Scientifique by the Union des assurances de Paris in 1986, the Michel Monpetit prize from the French Academy of Sciences in 1994, and the Silver Medal from the French National Centre for Scientific Research in 2004.
    • Ten years later, his 60th birthday was marked with a Colloquium held in Paris on 1-2 December 2008, with papers presented at this meeting published in the journal Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science.
    • A conference, 'Philippe Flajolet and Analytic Combinatorics: Conference in the memory of Philippe Flajolet', was held at Paris-Jussieu, 14-16 December 2011.

  138. Lebesgue biography
    • Died: 26 July 1941 in Paris, France .
    • Henri began his studies at the College de Beauvais, then he went to Paris where he studied first at the Lycee Saint Louis and then at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand.
    • Lebesgue entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1894 and was awarded his teaching diploma in mathematics in 1897.
    • This outstanding piece of work appears in Lebesgue's doctoral dissertation, Integrale, longueur, aire Ⓣ , presented to the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1902, and the 130 page work was published in Milan in the Annali di Matematica in the same year.
    • This was in keeping with the standard French tradition of a young academic first having appointments in the provinces, then later gaining recognition in being appointed to a more junior post in Paris.
    • He also taught at the Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris between 1927 and 1937 and at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Sevres.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  139. Faa di Bruno biography
    • He travelled to Paris in 1850 where he studied at the Sorbonne under Augustin-Louis Cauchy who [',' H C Kennedy, Peano : Life and Works of Giuseppe Peano (Dordrecht, 1980).','2]:- .
    • However, his time in Paris was not all spent on academic studies for he also assisted in the parish of Saint Sulpice and visited the homes of the poor.
    • He greatly enjoyed visiting the bookshops of Paris and shops where scientific instruments were sold.
    • While in Paris he began publishing mathematical papers: Note sur un nouveau procede pour reconnaitre immediatment, dans certains cas, l'existence de racines imaginaires dans une equation numerique Ⓣ (1850); Demonstration d'un theoreme de M Sylvester, relatif a la decomposition d'un produit de deux determinants Ⓣ (1851); and Demonstration d'un theoreme relatif a la reduction des fonctions homogenes a deux lettres a leur forme canonique Ⓣ (1852).
    • After graduating from Paris with his Licence in Science in 1851, he returned to Turin but this was a difficult time for anyone who was a devout Catholic [',' V Messori, Il beato Faa di Bruno.
    • In May 1855 Faa di Bruno returned to Paris to undergo further training at the astronomical observatory at Brera.
    • The authorities in Turin promised him that, after he returned from Paris, he would be employed at the Observatory in Turin - a promise they did not keep.
    • However, in Paris Faa di Bruno studied astronomy under Urbain Le Verrier and also undertook research with Cauchy on mathematics.
    • While in Paris he had also invented a mechanical device to allow blind people to write.
    • He continued to publish papers in both French and in Italian: Sullo sviluppo delle Funzioni Ⓣ (1855), Sulle Funzioni Isobariche Ⓣ (1856) and Note sur une nouvelle formule de calcul differentiel Ⓣ (1857) were all written while he was undertaking research in Paris.
    • After his time in Paris, he was appointed as a lecturer in higher analysis at the University of Turin, and he also gave popular astronomy courses.
    • He had seen food being prepared and distributed to the poor while in Paris and, back in Turin, he began to organise a similar scheme during the winter months.

  140. Savart biography
    • Died: 16 March 1841 in Paris, France .
    • With Savart showing little interest in his medical practice, and patients showing little interest in joining, he decided to go to Paris in 1819 and seek a publisher for his translation of Celsus's De medicina Ⓣ.
    • He had another reason to go to Paris, and that was to see Biot so that he could discuss with him the acoustics of musical instruments that was by now fascinating Savart.
    • As it happened, at the time that Savart reached Paris Biot was lecturing on acoustics at the Faculty of Science.
    • When Savart arrived in Paris, Biot was undertaking research on electricity in addition to lecturing on acoustics.
    • Biot helped Savart find a teaching position in Paris and from 1820 he taught science in a private school there.
    • First let us note that although one of Savart's main aims in going to Paris was to publish his translation of Celsus's De medicina the work never appeared.

  141. Rouche biography
    • Rouche completed his schooling at the Sainte-Barbe College in Rue Valette in Paris.
    • Then, in 1855, he was appointed as professor of mathematics at the Lycee Charlemagne in Paris.
    • He now undertook research and, on 17 July 1858, he presented two theses to the Faculty of Science in Paris for the degree of Doctor of Mathematical Sciences.
    • In 1858 Rouche was appointed as admissions examiner for the Ecole Centrale in Paris, a position he held until 1877.
    • In 1867 Rouche was nominated professor of descriptive geometry and stereotomy at the Ecole Centrale in Paris.
    • In 1884 he was named professor holding the chair of descriptive geometry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris.
    • Lucien Levy taught mathematics at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris and, for 23 years, was an examiner at the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • His most famous textbook was the geometry book written jointly with Charles Jules Felix de Comberousse (1826-1897) who taught mathematics at the College Chaptal in Paris.
    • The book went through many editions, for example the seventh edition of this work was published in Paris by Gauthier-Villars in 1900.
    • Editions continued to be published after Rouche's death, with a new edition published in Paris by Gauthier-Villars in 1922 and another in 1954.
    • He was also a member of the Societe philomathique in Paris and a member of the Conseil superieur de l'enseignement technique.

  142. Bacon biography
    • The teachings of Aristotle had been banned at the University of Paris for several years on the grounds that Aristotle was not a Christian.
    • However in the early 1240s Paris reintroduced the teachings of Aristotle into their courses.
    • They looked to the young lecturer Bacon, who had become an expert on Aristotle at Oxford where his teachings formed a major part of the course material, to lecture at the University of Paris on Aristotle's ideas.
    • He joined the Faculty of Arts in Paris, which was divided into four administrative units, three being French and one, which Bacon joined, being English.
    • lectures impossibly early in universities today should note that lectures in Paris in Bacon's time began at 6 a.m.
    • It was while at Paris that he met Peter Peregrinus who was to be a major influence on him.
    • Bacon visited Paris in 1251 but later left the University of Oxford and entered the Order of Friars Minor, the Franciscan Friary in Oxford.
    • Perhaps, therefore, it is not surprising that soon after Richard was appointed, Bacon was forced to end his academic studies at the Oxford friary and was sent to a friary in Paris.
    • Bacon was also able to teach mathematics while in the Paris friary, so although it appears that the intention was to prevent him from undertaking research which the Church did not approve, life of a sort was still possible.
    • Bacon saw this as his only chance to restart his scientific studies and be free from the Paris friary.
    • About this time, however, Bacon was able to leave the friary in Paris and return to England.

  143. Bruhat biography
    • Born: 8 April 1929 in Paris, France .
    • Francois Bruhat's parents were Georges Bruhat, who was assistant director of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, and Berthe Hubert.
    • Francois attended the Lycee Henri IV in Paris, going on to prepare for university entry at the Lycee Saint-Louis, also in Paris.
    • By this time Bruhat had an appointment in Paris, having been appointed to the Faculty of Science there in 1961.
    • He was appointed to Universite de Paris VII in 1970 and he held this post until 1989.

  144. Pollaczek biography
    • Died: 29 April 1981 in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, France .
    • He realised that he would have to get out of Germany if he was to survive so he went to Paris.
    • They made their way to Paris and at first it seemed that he had made a good move for he was appointed Maitre de Recherches at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    • During this time Pollaczek continued to work in Paris.
    • In August 1944 Paris was liberated and Pollaczek was able to begin working again for the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    • He lectured during these years at the Institut de Statistique at the Faculty of Science in Paris.

  145. Pisot biography
    • Died: 7 March 1984 in Paris, France .
    • This was a major factor in his decision to move to Paris in 1955 when he was offered a position at the Faculty of Science there.
    • On the one hand he was happy in Bordeaux, but the realisation that he would be able to train many more number theorists in Paris was the major factor in his decision to move.
    • In Paris, Pisot worked with his colleagues Hubert Delange and Georges Poitou organising the Delange-Pisot-Poitou seminar.
    • Pisot retired from his positions in Paris in 1979.
    • He had received several honours for his outstanding contributions including the Dickson Prize from the Academie des Sciences in 1947 and the city of Paris prize, also awarded by the Academie des Sciences, in 1966.

  146. Flato biography
    • Died: 27 November 1998 in Paris, France .
    • He was awarded a grant by the French government to undertake research at the Institut Henri Poincare in Paris [',' D Sternheimer, Moshe’s memoirs, in G Dito and D Sternheimer (eds.), Conference Moshe Flato 1999 (Kluwer Acad.
    • The arrival in Paris of the 'sabra' bull-in-a-china-shop that Moshe was then, and remained to the very end, created quite a stir.
    • He remained in Lyon until 1967, defending his Doctorat-es-Science Physiques in Paris in 1965 before a committee chaired by Lichnerowicz.
    • It began at the restaurant at the Dijon station where I was invited to lunch by a telephone call from Paris.
    • He served as president of the Scientific Council of the Union des Assurances de Paris from 1984 to 1992.

  147. Brisson biography
    • On 11 November 1793 he entered the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris and, on 21 December of the following year, he began to study at the newly created Ecole Centrale des Travaux Publics which had opened that year.
    • In this work they applied method of geometry they had learnt from Monge to problems of geography, in particular systems of canal routing [',' Duleau (ed.), Barnabe Brisson and Dupuis de Torcy, Essai sur le systeme general de navigation interieure de la France (Paris, 1829).','2]:- .
    • It also linked with Paris and Le Havre via the Oise and the Seine.
    • These connect the rivers Somme, Oise and Escaut, connecting the region with the navigable waterways that link Paris and Flanders.
    • Brisson wrote to Becquey on 10 November 1819 ( see [',' Duleau (ed.), Barnabe Brisson and Dupuis de Torcy, Essai sur le systeme general de navigation interieure de la France (Paris, 1829).','2]):- .
    • In it he asked Brisson to come to Paris as quickly as possible to work with M.
    • Reed Geiger writes [',' Duleau (ed.), Barnabe Brisson and Dupuis de Torcy, Essai sur le systeme general de navigation interieure de la France (Paris, 1829).','2]:- .
    • From 1 May 1820 he was put in charge of the project to build a canal from Paris to Tours.
    • As Reed Geiger writes [',' Duleau (ed.), Barnabe Brisson and Dupuis de Torcy, Essai sur le systeme general de navigation interieure de la France (Paris, 1829).','2]:- .
    • once ensconced in Paris he began a meteoric rise that carried him to the top of the corps in less than five of the eight years he had left to live.
    • As to his character, the author of [',' Notice sur M Brisson, Essai sur le systeme general de navigation interieure de la France (Paris, 1829), xxii-xxiv.','7] writes that he had great virtues as a family man.

  148. Hermite biography
    • Died: 14 January 1901 in Paris, France .
    • Charles attended the College de Nancy, then went to Paris where he attended the College Henri.
    • When Mittag-Leffler arrived in Paris to study with him, Hermite greeted him warmly but said:- .
    • Cross, reviewing [',' Lettres de Charles Hermite a Gosta Mittag-Leffler (1874-1883), Proceedings of the seminar on the history of mathematics 5 (Paris, 1984), 49-285.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  149. Boulliau biography
    • Died: 25 November 1694 in Paris, France .
    • By the age of 26 he was ordained as a Catholic priest and one year later, in 1632, he went to Paris.
    • This library, which dated back to the fourteenth century, was moved to Paris between 1567 and 1593.
    • It had been catalogued in 1622, ten years before Boulliau arrived in Paris, and Pierre and Jacques Dupuy travelled throughout France amassing books and manusctripts for the library.
    • Boulliau had the right skills for the work he undertook, for he was a broad scholar with a deep interest in history, philosophy and classics, yet equally at home in the scientific circles of Paris where he began to shine building on the firm foundations in astronomy taught by his father.
    • This correspondence covers about sixty years, between shortly after his arrival in Paris in 1632 and the year before his death.

  150. Cournot biography
    • Died: 31 March 1877 in Paris, France .
    • A preliminary course in mathematics at College Royal in Besancon in session 1820-21 prepared him for entry to Ecole Normale Superieur in Paris which he entered in 1821.
    • Cournot remained in Paris and, along with his fellow student Dirichlet, was taught mathematics at the Sorbonne by Lacroix and Hachette.
    • Poisson was impressed with Cournot and, in 1833, he obtained a position for him with the Academy in Paris.
    • In [',' A A Cournot, Souvenirs (Paris, 1913).','6] Cournot writes of Poisson's opinion of his first papers in mechanics:- .

  151. Meyer Paul-Andre biography
    • Born: 21 August 1934 in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, France .
    • Back in France, Paul-Andre entered the lycee Janson de Sailly in Paris.
    • This school, one of the best-known lycees in central Paris, traditionally educated many of France's intellectuals.
    • The Parisian mathematicians, being aware of this danger, invited Michel Loeve, a former disciple of Paul Levy, to come from Berkeley and spend a year in Paris, in order to sow the good seed by giving a course and a seminar ..
    • Michel Loeve (1907-1979), who had been born in Palestinian, was a French-American probabilist and a mathematical statistician who had studied in Paris under Paul Levy and had been appointed as Professor of Mathematics at Berkeley.
    • Meyer had spent time at Berkeley following Loeve's visit to Paris and, while in the United States, he met Joseph Doob.

  152. Mandelbrojt biography
    • Died: 1983 in Paris, France .
    • He was awarded his doctorate from the Universite de Paris (Sorbonne) in 1923 for a thesis inspired by Jacques Hadamard.
    • Others who strongly influenced Mandelbrojt after he arrived in Paris were Edouard Goursat, Henri Lebesgue, Paul Montel, and Emile Picard.
    • They would go to Paris to attend the Seminaire de mathematiques in the Institut Henri-Poincare every second Monday.
    • This gave them the chance to visit bookstores and libraries as well as meet up with other friends which they made during their studied in Paris.
    • In the following year he published Series adherentes, regularisation des suites, applications Ⓣ in Paris, then in 1958 Composition theorems in the Rice Institute Series.

  153. Dionis biography
    • Born: 11 January 1734 in Paris, France .
    • Louis-Achille Dionis du Sejour held a legal position in the Cour des Aides, the board of excise, in Paris.
    • Dionis du Sejour attended the College Louis-le-Grand in Paris and the studied at the Faculte de Droit.
    • In 1758 he was appointed as a member of the parliament in Paris.
    • He was elected as a deputy of the Paris nobility on 10 May 1789.
    • On 31 November 1791 Dionis du Sejour was appointed as a judge of the Paris tribunal but later he resigned and retired to his estate in Argeville.

  154. Buffon biography
    • Died: 16 April 1788 in Paris, France .
    • The rich young man was now able to make an impression in the highest ranks of the political and scientific circles in Paris.
    • As a result of this fine memoir Buffon was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris on 9 January 1734.
    • Each spring, from 1740 on, Buffon left Paris for Montbard, to administer his estates, continue his research, and edit his writings.
    • For fifty years, Buffon spent the summer on his estate, returning to Paris in the autumn.

  155. Budan de Boislaurent biography
    • Died: 6 October 1840 in Paris, France .
    • The College, close to Paris in the diocese of Meaux, was run by priests of the Oratory and much patronized by the prominent families.
    • On 3 October 1778 he entered the Maison de l'Institution situated in the Rue Saint-Honore in Paris where he underwent religious training for a year before being sent to Nantes where members of his family lived.
    • Budan took up the study of medicine in Paris and, in 1803, received the title of doctor of medicine for a thesis entitled Essai sur cette question d'economie medicale : Convient-il qu'un malade soit instruit de sa situation? Ⓣ At around this time he was submitting mathematical works to the Academy of Sciences which we will discuss in more detail below.
    • All four children were born in Paris.
    • A paper giving a proof was presented to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1811 and he published it in 1822.

  156. Aubin biography
    • Died: 21 March 2009 in Paris, France .
    • Thierry Aubin was ranked first in the Concours General de Mathematiques in 1961 and, in the same year, he entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris where he studied mathematics.
    • He remained at Lille for five years before, in 1973, being appointed as a professor at Paris VI, the Pierre and Marie Curie University.
    • He writes in [',' P Delanoe, Un cours memorable (Paris VI, DEA 1976-77), Soc.
    • He writes [',' P Delanoe, Un cours memorable (Paris VI, DEA 1976-77), Soc.
    • While in Paris, I asked him once if he would allow us to organize a symposium in his honour.

  157. Albert biography
    • The first definite date that we know is Albert's degree of Master of Arts from the University of Paris in March 1351.
    • It is fairly certain that Albert grew up in the Helmstedt district and, before studying in Paris, he visited a number of other places.
    • He taught at Paris from 1351 to 1362 becoming rector there for a term of six months beginning in June 1353.
    • The rector of the University of Paris was head the teaching; it was an elected position of short duration.
    • During the ten years, 1352-62, that Albert spent teaching in Paris he lectured on Aristotle's Physics and other works on natural philosophy.
    • Buridan taught natural philosophy and logic at the University of Paris during the first half of Albert's time there.
    • He left Paris in November 1362 being named prebend of the cathedral in Mainz.
    • Albert was left to organise the setting up of the University which he did, modelling the Arts Faculty on the Paris model.
    • He set up, like Paris, four Nations: Austria, Bohemia, Saxony and Hungary.
    • The reader of this biography might well be wondering by now why Albert is included in this archive for, except for mentioning that he taught natural philosophy while in Paris, we have not mentioned any other mathematical expertise.
    • In all he published around 30 texts, mostly produced during his years teaching in Paris, many of these being commentaries on the works of Aristotle.

  158. Deparcieux biography
    • Died: 2 September 1768 in Paris, France .
    • He showed great promise in scientific subjects at the College and when he left he went to Paris to study mathematics.
    • In Paris Deparcieux found that the financial support provided by Montcarville was not sufficient to allow him to study without a job.
    • He devised a way of bringing the water of the river Yvette to Paris and, although he did not see his plan put into being during his lifetime, it was carried out after his death.
    • Nicolas, in [',' M Nicolas, Antoine Deparcieux, in Nouvelle Biographie Generale 13 (Paris, 1855), 694-696.','4], describes Deparcieux's character:- .

  159. Lepaute biography
    • Born: 5 January 1723 in Paris, France .
    • Nicole-Reine Etable de Labriere was born in the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris where her father was in the service of the Queen of Spain, Elisabeth d'Orleans.
    • He was sent to the Cape of Good Hope to make astronomical observations and, returning to Paris in 1753 after a very successful trip, he was elected to the Academy of Sciences.
    • This prompted Jean-Andre Lepaute to become interested in building astronomical clocks and he published Traite d'Horlogerie contenant tout ce qui est necessaire pour bien connoitre et pour regler les pendules et les montres Ⓣ in Paris in 1755.
    • Clairaut published Theorie des cometes Ⓣ (Paris, 1760) describing how the calculations had been carried out.
    • Thousands of copies of Lepaute's chart were distributed in Paris.

  160. De Prony biography
    • Died: 29 July 1839 in Paris, France .
    • He graduated in 1779 as the top student and remained for a further year in Paris, doing as the head of the Ecole des Ponts et Chausses told him:- .
    • In 1780 he became an engineer with the Ecole des Ponts et Chausses and after three years in a number of different regions of France he returned to the Ecole des Ponts et Chausses in Paris 1783.
    • In 1785 de Prony visited England on a project to obtain an accurate measurement of the relative positions of the Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory.
    • Around this time he was involved with the work on the Louis XVI Bridge in Paris which is now called the Pont de la Concorde.

  161. Tisserand biography
    • Died: 20 October 1896 in Paris, France .
    • Tisserand was then appointed as an assistant-astronomer at the Paris Observatory.
    • This was an unfortunate time at the Paris Observatory since its Director Le Verrier had become very unpopular following his drive for efficiency and attempts were being made to have him removed.
    • In 1870 Delaunay was appointed as Director of the Paris Observatory to replace Le Verrier.
    • From 1892 until his death he was director of the Paris Observatory.

  162. Arnold biography
    • Died: 3 June 2010 in Paris, France .
    • In addition to his Russian positions, in 1993 he was appointed Professor at the University Paris-Dauphine in France.
    • He has been elected to membership of the London Mathematical Society (1976), the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (1983), the Academy of Sciences of Paris (1984), the Academy of Arts and Sciences of the United States (1987), the Royal Soceity of London (1988), Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome (1988), the Russian Academy of Sciences (1990), the American Philosophical Society (1990), the Academy of Natural Sciences of Russia (1991), and the Academia Europaea (1991).
    • In addition to these honours, Arnold has been awarded honorary degrees from the University P and M Curie, Paris (1979), Warwick University, Coventry (1988), Utrecht University, Netherlands (1991), University of Bologna, Italy (1991), University Complutense, Madrid (1994), and the University of Toronto, Canada (1997).
    • In an address on teaching of mathematics, given in the Palais de Decouverte in Paris on 7 March 1997, he said:- .
    • Calculus textbooks by Goursat, Hermite, Picard were recently dumped by the student library of the Universities Paris 6 and 7 (Jussieu) as obsolete and, therefore, harmful (they were only rescued by my intervention).

  163. Lame biography
    • Died: 1 May 1870 in Paris, France .
    • After graduating from the Ecole Polytechnique, Lame studied engineering at the Ecole des Mines in Paris, graduating from there in 1820.
    • In 1832 Lame returned to Paris and at first he formed part of an engineering firm set up jointly with Clapeyron and two others.
    • In 1836 he was appointed chief engineer of mines and he was also involved in the building of the railway from Paris to Versailles and of the railway from Paris to St Germain, which was opened in 1837.

  164. Lagny biography
    • Died: 11 April 1734 in Paris, France .
    • After his time at the Jesuit College in Lyon, he studied law in Toulouse for three years, then went to Paris.
    • In 1686 De Lagny became a mathematics tutor to the Noailles family in Paris, a position he held for about 10 years.
    • He collaborated with de L'Hopital while in Paris and it was during this time that he began to publish mathematics papers.
    • He had been taught by Lagny during his time as tutor to the Noailles family in Paris.

  165. Descartes biography
    • He spent a while in Paris, apparently keeping very much to himself, and some have speculated that he might have suffered some sort of a breakdown at this time.
    • He may have returned to Paris before he enlisted in the military school at Breda in 1618, becoming a volunteer in the army of Maurice of Nassau.
    • After this he left the army but since the plague was ravaging in Paris he could not return there but instead began a period of travel.
    • He spent time in 1623 in Paris where he made contact with Marin Mersenne, an important contact which kept him in touch with the scientific world for many years, and with Claude Mydorge.
    • From Paris he travelled through Switzerland to Italy where he spent some time in Venice and in Rome, then he returned to France again (1625).
    • His Paris home became a meeting place for philosophers and mathematicians and steadily became more and more busy.
    • By 1628 Descartes, tired of the bustle of Paris, the house full of people, and of the life of travelling he had before, decided to settle down where he could work in solitude.
    • What he longed for was somewhere peaceful where he could work away from the distractions of a city such as Paris yet still have access to the facilities of a city.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  166. Couturat biography
    • Born: 17 January 1868 in Ris-Orangis (near Paris), France .
    • He won prizes in most subjects he studied at the Lycee and he entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1887.
    • He obtained unpaid leave of absence and was able to undertake further study in Paris at the time when he defended his theses there.
    • He remained in Caen until 1899 when he moved to Paris, again taking leave of absence, to continue his research on the logic of Leibniz.
    • Super., Paris, 1983), 17-33.','7] discusses Couturat's inaugural lecture at the College de France in which he argued against the irrationalism of his time and firmly rejected all attempts to subordinate philosophy to psychology, sociology, or religion.

  167. Bour biography
    • Died: 9 March 1866 in Paris, France .
    • Bour continued his studies at the Ecole des Mines in Paris and worked on a major paper Sur l'integration des equations differentielles de la mecanique analytique Ⓣ which was read before the Academie des Sciences on 5 March 1855 and published in the Journal de mathematiques pures et appliquees.
    • Both were presented to the Faculte des Sciences in Paris on 3 December 1855 and were outstanding pieces of work.
    • This was an appointment that he held for only a year before returning to Paris when he accepted a professorship at the Ecole des Mines there.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  168. Castel biography
    • Died: 11 January 1757 in Paris, France .
    • His early writings had been seen by Fontenelle and after his disappointment at failing to get to China, he persuaded Castel to go to Paris.
    • Indeed late in 1720 Castel did go to Paris and taught physics and mathematics at the Jesuit school in the rue Saint-Jaques which was later to become the Lycee Louis-le-Grand.
    • Castel was never to leave Paris again except for a short visit to the South of France near the end of his life.
    • Immediately on arriving in Paris, Castel was appointed as an associate editor of the Journal de Trevoux, remaining on the editorial board of this monthly publication until 1745.

  169. Laurent Hermann biography
    • Died: 19 February 1908 in Paris, France .
    • At this time the Laurent family were awarded a state pension, and Hermann was sent to study first at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and then at the Ecole d'Application at Metz.
    • The war was disastrous for France, however, and after 83000 encircled French troops surrendered on 2 September 1870, the Prussians began to besiege Paris on 19 September.
    • Paris surrendered on 28 January 1871 and the war was lost for the French.
    • He was appointed as professor at the Ecole Agronomique in Paris in 1889 and he was honoured in 1905 when he was made Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur.

  170. Bouvard biography
    • Died: 7 June 1843 in Paris, France .
    • However in 1785, when aged 18, he went to live in Paris and received mathematics lessons so that he could earn his living as a computer.
    • He became fascinated by astronomy after a visit to the Paris Observatory.
    • He also had at his disposal two fine series of post-discovery observations, one by the Paris observatory, the other by the Greenwich observatory.
    • Bouvard believed this was due to another planet perturbing the orbit of Uranus but, although he asked an astronomer at the Paris Observatory to follow up the idea, nothing came of it since unfortunately for Bouvard the astronomer left soon after he made his request.

  171. Dandelin biography
    • Born: 12 April 1794 in Le Bourget, near Paris, France .
    • In November 1813 Dandelin began his university studies at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • However his career was to be very much influenced by the political events of these turbulent times and within weeks of beginning his studies there was an imperial decree requiring students to join with the National Guard in the defence of Paris against the advancing allied armies.
    • When the allied armies arrived near Paris on 30 March 1814, Dandelin was in the opposing French army defending the walls of the city.
    • During Napoleon's time back in control of France, Dandelin worked at the Ministry of the Interior under the command of Lazare Carnot who presented him with the Legion d'Honneur for his bravery in the defence of Paris in the previous year.

  172. Shimura biography
    • Shimura presented his paper On complex multiplications to the International Symposium and, probably as a result of meeting Weil, Shimura received an invitation from him in 1956 to spend the academic year 1957-58 in Paris.
    • Henri Cartan arranged a position of 'charge de recherches' for him at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Centre for Scientific Research) in Paris.
    • Before he left for Paris his book Modern number theory (Japanese), written in collaboration with Yutaka Taniyama, was published.
    • The Paris trip was memorable for Shimura.
    • In 1957 while in Paris I became interested in [the Fuchsian group of Poincare type].
    • He attended the International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh, Scotland, in August 1958, during the months of the Paris trip, as an official Japanese delegate and presented his paper Fonctions automorphes et correspondances modulaires.
    • In addition to this visit to Scotland, was able to make other trips from Paris, going to Switzerland, Germany and Italy.
    • While he was in Paris he made remarkable mathematical advances on modular function fields and modular correspondences, as well as on the Fuchsian group of Poincare type.
    • At the end of his ten-month Paris visit, Shimura spent seven months at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
    • Since Taniyama had died in 1958, even the 1961 text had been largely due to Shimura incorporating the new understanding that he had achieved during his Paris visit.

  173. Hachette biography
    • Died: 16 January 1834 in Paris, France .
    • Monge, who had alternated between Mezieres and Paris for a number of years, had finally left Mezieres in December 1784 but the courses which he had set up were still being taught.
    • This period in his life was short, however, for in the following year the Committee of Public Safety in Paris required his services and he went there immediately.
    • Another educational establishment, the Ecole Normale, was set up to train secondary school teachers and from 1810 Hachette taught there and at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris in addition to the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Since his political activity seems confined to Mezieres in 1793, and in other ways he seems to have remained in favour in Paris, speculation about his exclusion seems pointless.

  174. Fatou biography
    • Leaving Lorient in 1894, Fatou went to Paris where he studied elementary mathematics and special mathematics at the College Stanislas for three years.
    • Fatou spent the year 1897-98 at the lycee Saint-Louis in Paris preparing for the entrance examinations to the Ecole Normale Superieure and the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Fatou entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1898 to study mathematics having been ranked first in the entrance examination.
    • Jules Tannery was at this time the assistant director of the Ecole Normale Superieure and he believed that the Paris Observatory, which had declined over the previous years, needed to appoint top mathematics graduates who were intending to undertake research towards doctorates in mathematics.
    • Fatou was just such a graduate and having a position in the Paris Observatory would benefit both the Observatory and allow him to work on his thesis in Paris without having teaching commitments.
    • Having been appointed to the astronomy post at the Paris Observatory in November 1901, Fatou worked under Maurice Loewy (1833-1907) who had been made director of the Observatory in 1896 and had done much in reorganising it.
    • At the time he joined the French Mathematical Society in late 1904, Fatou was living with his mother at 172 Boulevard Montparnasse, Paris, close to the Paris Observatory.
    • In 1915, the Academie des Sciences in Paris gave the topic for its 1918 Grand Prix.

  175. Gateaux biography
    • Rene Eugene Gateaux was born on 5 May 1889 in Vitry-le-Francois in the departement of Marne, 200 km east to Paris.
    • On July 8th, 1912 a ministerial decree appointed Gateaux as Professor of Mathematics at the Lycee of Bar-le-Duc, the main town of the departement of Meuse, 250 km east of Paris, and not very distant from his native Vitry-le-Francois.
    • Volterra himself, invited by Borel and Hadamard, came to Paris to give a series of lectures on functional analysis, published in 1913 ([',' Vito Volterra, Lecons sur les fonctions de lignes (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1913).','23]) and whose redaction was precisely made by Peres.
    • For a young doctoral student the natural people to be in contact with in these years were obviously Hadamard in Paris and Volterra in Rome.
    • An interesting document, found among the documents of the Academie des Sciences in Paris, is the draft of a report Gateaux had to write at the end of his visit, probably for the David Weill foundation.
    • At the meeting of 18 December 1916 the prix Francoeur was awarded to Gateaux ([',' Jacques Hadamard, Rapport sur le Prix Franc¤ur, Comptes rendus de l’academie des sciences Paris (18 December 1916), 791-792.','42], pp.791-792).
    • In 1918, the Paris Academie des Sciences, following Hadamard's proposal, decided to call Paul Levy for the Cours Peccot in 1919.
    • In his autobiography ([',' Paul Levy, Quelques aspects de la pensee d’un mathematicien (Albert Blanchard, Paris, 1970).','14]), Levy has observed how in [',' Paul Levy, Lecons d’Analyse fonctionnelle (Gauthier-Villars, 1922).','12], he was close to Wiener measure.
    • Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles aleatoires et Institut de Mathematiques (Histoire des Sciences Mathematiques), Universite Paris VI, France.

  176. Possel biography
    • Died: 1974 in Paris, France .
    • Rene attended the Institution Melizan and the Lycee at Marseille before going to Paris to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure.
    • They would go to Paris to attend the Seminaire de mathematiques in the Institut Henri-Poincare every second Monday.
    • This gave them the chance to visit bookstores and libraries as well as meet up with other friends which they had made during their studied in Paris.
    • From 1959 he was professor of numerical analysis at the Faculty of Science in Paris.

  177. Lang biography
    • Born: 19 May 1927 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, France .
    • Serge Lang was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye close to Paris.
    • Serge lived in Paris and attended school there until the beginning of World War II when he was in the 10th grade.
    • The war began in September 1939 but it was not until June 1940 that German troops entered Paris.
    • Among your many monographs there is one called 'The Beauty of Doing Mathematics', a collection of three dialogues you gave in Paris in the '80s.

  178. Montel biography
    • Died: 22 January 1975 in Paris, France .
    • He was educated at the Lycee in Nice then, in 1894, he entered Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, graduating three years later.
    • Montel's friends saw the great talent which he possessed and they persuaded him to return to Paris and work on a thesis for his doctorate in mathematics.
    • He was appointed to his first university post in Paris in 1918 at the age of 42.
    • In 1915 the Paris Academy of Sciences announced that its 1918 Grand Prix would be awarded for a study of iteration from a global point of view.

  179. Appell biography
    • On 19 September the Germans began to besiege Paris.
    • Metz surrendered on 27 October and Paris surrendered on 28 January 1871.
    • Strasbourg was annexed by the Germans and Appell moved to Nancy to become a French citizen and prepare himself to study at university in Paris.
    • He entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1873 and graduated in first place in 1876 with a doctorate in mathematics.
    • Appell now worked in Paris but returned for each vacation to German held Alsace.
    • There he was given information by his half-brother Charles, which he would report to the French War Office on his return to Paris.
    • He served as Dean of the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris from 1903 to 1920 and, at the end of his deanship, he was appointed Rector of the University of Paris.
    • Also following the war the League of Nations was set up by the Allies at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and Appell served as secretary-general for the French Association during the 1920s when the League had its headquarters at Geneva.

  180. Sacrobosco biography
    • Died: 1256 in Paris, France .
    • In 1220 Sacrobosco went to study in Paris.
    • Although almost all dates for Sacrobosco are guesses we do know one date precisely for, on 5 June 1221, he was appointed a teacher at the University of Paris.
    • Soon after this he became professor of mathematics at Paris.

  181. Herigone biography
    • Died: 1643 in Paris, France .
    • Little is known of his life except that he taught for most of it in Paris.
    • We know that Herigone served on a number of committees and took a full part in the mathematical life of Paris.
    • The translation into French by Denis Henrion was published as Traite des Globes et de Leur Usage, traduit du Latin de Robert Hues, et Augmente de plusieurs nottes et operations du Compas de proportion par D Henrion, mathematicien Ⓣ in Paris in 1618.

  182. Wronski biography
    • Died: 8 August 1853 in Neuilly-sur-Seine (near Paris), France .
    • Then in 1810 he moved to Paris and, in the same year, he married Victoire Henriette Sarrazin de Mountferrier, whose brother was the mathematician Alexandre Mountferrier.
    • His first memoir on the foundations of mathematics was published there in 1810 but, after it received less than good reviews from Lacroix and Lagrange, Wronski broke off relations with the Institute in Paris.
    • He did, however, have strong financial support from a financier Pierre Arson after he arrived in Paris and this continued for many years.

  183. Bonnet biography
    • Died: 22 June 1892 in Paris, France .
    • Pierre Bonnet attended the College in Montpellier, then in 1838 he entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • In 1859 he submitted an important memoir for the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  184. Lucas biography
    • Died: 3 October 1891 in Paris, France .
    • After this he worked at the Paris Observatory under Le Verrier.
    • After the French were defeated, Lucas became professor of mathematics at the Lycee Saint Louis in Paris.
    • He later became professor of mathematics at the Lycee Charlemagne, also in Paris.

  185. Richard Louis biography
    • Died: 11 March 1849 in Paris, France .
    • In 1920 he went to Paris where he was appointed to teach mathematics at the College Saint-Louis.
    • Remaining in Paris, he then taught at the famous College Louis-le-Grand where he was given the chair of Special Mathematics in 1822.
    • It was situated in the heart of the student area of Paris close to the Sorbonne and the College de France.

  186. Parseval biography
    • Died: 16 August 1836 in Paris, France .
    • He did not make it but was arrested and brought back to Paris.
    • By the end of 1793 there were 4595 political prisoners held in Paris.
    • He was successful in avoiding arrest and was able to return to Paris.

  187. Broch biography
    • In Paris, he worked on mathematics within the abelian tradition, including elliptic functions and abelian integrals.
    • Broch was therefore well received in Paris, not least by Cauchy, one of the central figures in the Abel scandal.
    • During his stay in Paris, he became familiar with new theories in optics, and attended lectures in various topics in both mathematics and physics.
    • The title of the thesis was Lovene for Lysets Forplantelse i isophane og eenaxig krystalliserede Legemer Ⓣ, a topic that had interested him since his time in Paris.
    • He was the delegate from Norway and Sweden at the International Diplomatic Conference in Paris in 1880 and was, from 1881 to 1882, Norway's negotiator for the conclusion of a new trade treaty with France.
    • He also participated at the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property in 1883, at the Conference on electrical units in 1884, and had been appointed as Norway's general commissioner at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889, although he died in that year before carrying out his duties.
    • During the tense days in June 1884, when Christian Homann Schweigaard's "April government" resigned, Ole Jacob Broch was called back from Paris and asked to try to form a government.
    • The attempt failed, and Broch left politics permanently and returned to Paris.

  188. Goursat biography
    • Died: 25 November 1936 in Paris, France .
    • He began teaching at the University of Paris in 1879, receiving his doctorate in 1881 from l'Ecole Normale Superieure for his thesis Sur l'equation differentialle lineaire qui admet pour integrale la serie hypergeometrique Ⓣ.
    • Then he taught analysis at the University of Paris until his retirement.
    • He was elected to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1919, became Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, and was elected president of the French Mathematical Society (Societe Mathematique de France) in 1895.

  189. Puissant biography
    • Died: 10 January 1843 in Paris, France .
    • He returned to Paris in 1796 where he was appointed professor at the Ecole Centrale d'Agen.
    • He directed the Ecole de Geographes in Paris from 1809 to 1833.
    • The Bourbons' constitutional monarchy fell in 1830 and revolutions led to fighting in the streets of Paris.

  190. Lafforgue biography
    • Laurent Lafforgue was born in Antony, on the southern outskirts of Paris.
    • After spending the two years 1984-86 at the lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris preparing for his university studies, he entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1986.
    • Lafforgue became charge de recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in 1990 and worked in the Arithmetic and Algebraic Geometry team at the Universite Paris-Sud at Orsay.
    • After this year he returned to his position at Universite Paris-Sud at Orsay where he received his doctorate in 1994 for his dissertation D-stukas de Drinfeld written with Gerard Laumon as his thesis advisor.
    • In 2000 Lafforgue was promoted to directeur de recherche of the CNRS working in the Mathematics Department of the Universite Paris-Sud.
    • In fact the year 2000 was significant for Lafforgue in another way too, for on 24 May, at the Paris Millennium Meeting at the College de France, he received the 2000 Clay Research Award.
    • In 2003 Lafforgue became Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur and was elected to the Paris Academie des Sciences.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  191. Borda biography
    • Died: 19 February 1799 in Paris, France .
    • While in this post Borda undertook research on ballistics and, on 29 May 1756, he submitted a memoir studying the theory of the projectiles to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • One was substitution weighing to which Borda's contribution is assessed by Jenemann in [',' J Mascart, La vie et les travaux du Chevalier Jean-Charles de Borda : episodes de la vie scientifique au xviiie siecle (Lyon-Paris, 1919).','4].

  192. Dixmier biography
    • In October 1942 Dixmier entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • They had a one room apartment in Paris and travelled a lot to their respective jobs.
    • We travelled a lot and travelling by train from Paris to Toulouse was not easy at all in 1947.
    • In the following year, he delivered the lecture Homologie et cohomologie singulieres Ⓣ to Henri Cartan's seminar in Paris.
    • Living in Paris and working in Toulouse was certainly not an ideal thing for anyone to do, so Dixmier decided that, since Dijon was much closer to Paris, he would apply for the position there.
    • Dixmier was on the faculty at Dijon from 1949 to 1955 when he was nominated for a position at the Institut Henri Poincare in Paris.
    • He spent the rest of his career in Paris.
    • He was also awarded the Emile Picard medal by the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 2001.

  193. Koenigs biography
    • Died: 29 October 1931 in Paris, France .
    • He then went to Paris where he attended the Lycee S Louis, again showing his outstanding abilities, before entering the Ecole Normale Superieure in 1879 where he was taught by Darboux.
    • He returned to the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1886 where he was appointed as a mathematics lecturer, but he also held an appointment at the College de France where he taught analytical mechanics.
    • Secretary General Koenigs, Professor at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) and Member of the French Academy of Sciences, had not attended any of the pre-war International Congresses.

  194. Chevalley biography
    • Died: 28 June 1984 in Paris, France .
    • He studied under Emile Picard at the Ecole Normale Superieur in Paris, graduating in 1929.
    • He was awarded his doctorate from the University of Paris in 1933 for his thesis Sur la theorie du corps de classes dans les corps finis et les corps locaux.
    • However he ran into severe difficulties in his application for this chair and was unable to return until 1957 when he was appointed to the Universite de Paris VII.

  195. Bernoulli Daniel biography
    • He submitted his work on this to the Paris Academy and in 1725, the year he returned from Italy to Basel, he learnt that he had won the prize of the Paris Academy.
    • By this time his younger brother Johann(II) Bernoulli was also with him in St Petersburg and they left St Petersburg in 1733, making visits to Danzig, Hamburg, Holland and Paris before returning to Basel in 1734.
    • Daniel Bernoulli submitted an entry for the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy for 1734 giving an application of his ideas to astronomy.
    • The result of this episode of the prize of the Paris Academy had unhappy consequences for Daniel.
    • The 1737 prize of the Paris Academy also had a nautical theme, the best shape for a ship's anchor, and Daniel Bernoulli was again the joint winner of this prize, this time jointly with Poleni.
    • In total he won the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy 10 times, for topics in astronomy and nautical topics.
    • He was elected to most of the leading scientific societies of his day including those in Bologna, St Petersburg, Berlin, Paris, London, Bern, Turin, Zurich and Mannheim.

  196. Denjoy biography
    • Died: 21 January 1974 in Paris, France .
    • From Paris, Denjoy moved back to Montpellier in 1909 when he was appointed "Maitre des conferences" at the University of Montpellier.
    • He was appointed to a professorship at Utrecht in 1917 then at the University of Paris from 1922, a post he held until he retired in 1955.
    • Not long after his appointment at the University of Paris, he married Therese-Marie Chevresson in June 1923.

  197. Werner Wendelin biography
    • He studied at the Lycee Franco-Allemand of Buc, lying south-west of Paris and close to Versailles.
    • Remaining in Paris, he undertook research for his doctorate at the Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Universite Paris VI, with Jean-Francois Le Gall as his thesis advisor.
    • He worked at the CNRS until 1997 when he was named as professor of mathematics at the Universite Paris-Sud 11.
    • He continued to undertake research at the Laboratoire de mathematiques of the Orsay Faculty of Science, a laboratory jointly run by the Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS.
    • In 1999 Werner was awarded the Doisteau-Emile Blutet prize from the Academy of Sciences in Paris and was honoured with an invitation to give the Cours Peccot at the College de France.
    • His work continued to be recognised by further awards and, in 2003, he received another award from the Academy of Sciences in Paris, namely their Jacques Herbrand prize.
    • in 1993 under the supervision of Jean-Francois Le Gall in Paris with a dissertation concerning planar Brownian Motion ..
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  198. Branges biography
    • Born: 21 August 1932 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, France .
    • Louis de Branges was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a residential suburb of Paris lying to the northwest of the centre of the city.
    • Shortly after Louis de Branges, who was twenty-five years old, sailed with his wife to France where they settled into an apartment in the Square du Roule, Paris.
    • Louis began his education in Louveciennes, in the western suburbs of Paris, in 1937.

  199. Tannery Jules biography
    • Died: 11 December 1910 in Paris, France .
    • In 1872 Tannery returned to Paris and began teaching at the Ecole Normale Superieur.
    • From 1884 he was an adviser of studies at the Ecole Normale and, from 1903, Professor of differential and integral calculus at the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • Emile Picard writes in [',' E Picard, Eloges et discours academiques (Paris, 1931).','2] about both Jules Tannery and his brother Paul Tannery:- .

  200. Vessiot biography
    • He defended his thesis in an oral examination at the University of Paris in June 1892, the jury being chaired by Charles Hermite.
    • In the Preface to this edition he explains that the first edition quickly sold out and he was approached by the publisher J Hermann of Paris to produce a second edition.
    • It was standard for academics to begin their careers in the provinces and eventually gain an appointment in Paris.
    • Vessiot taught for thirteen years in the Faculty of Science Lyon before gaining an appointment in Paris in 1910.
    • He also assisted Claude Guichard (1861-1924), the professor of general mathematics at the University of Paris, in delivering his courses.
    • However, we have moved ahead and we should return to saying something of Vessiot's career after his appointment to the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1910.
    • Vessiot spent the last 25 years of his career in Paris, concentrating on his role as a lecturer and as an examiner.
    • He was appointed Deputy Director (1920) and then, in 1927, to the prestigious post of Director of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • Vessiot also held other roles in Paris, for example he was an examiner at the Naval Academy and an examiner at the Ecole Polytechnique where he also acted as an analysis tutor.

  201. Belanger biography
    • On graduating Belanger was ranked second in his class and, in 1812, he entered the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris to train to become an engineer.
    • Belanger provided a stepwise integration of this equation in the simple case of the horizontal aqueduct that had been built recently to bring the waters of the Ourcq River into Paris.
    • In this he worked with Antoine-Remi Polonceau (1778-1847) in the Seine-et-Oise departement, a large region to the north, west and south of Paris.
    • [The departement of Seine-et-Oise was created in 1790 and abolished in 1968.] These two engineers were involved in the design of the railway from Paris to Le Havre along the valley of the Seine passing through Rouen.
    • Also, as part of this study, they included the design of a railway line to Dieppe which left the Paris-Rouen-Le Havre line north of Rouen and heads north to Dieppe while the Rouen-Le Havre line heads west.
    • This integrated design therefore incorporated both Paris-Rouen-Le Havre and Paris-Rouen-Dieppe lines.
    • Chemin de Fer de Paris a Rouen, au Havre et a Dieppe, par la Vallee de la Seine (4 volumes) (Impr.
    • The work was undertaken by the Riant-Laffitte-Jourdan company and the Paris to Rouen line was completed in 1843 with the extension to Le Havre being completed in 1847.

  202. Wexler-Kreindler biography
    • Died: August 1992 in Paris, France .
    • Her own research interests in Paris focused on some difficult problems in modern algebra, such as Ore's extensions, the theory of filtered rings, or algebraic microlocalisation.
    • On settling in Paris she worked first as an untenured assistant professor but eventually was appointed to a tenured position at the Pierre & Marie Curie University Paris VI.

  203. Broglie biography
    • Died: 19 March 1987 in Paris, France .
    • Louis studied at the Lycee Janson de Sailly in Paris completing his secondary school education in 1909.
    • He entered the Sorbonne in Paris taking a course in history, intending to make for himself a career in the diplomatic service.

  204. Bernstein Sergi biography
    • After this, following his mother's wishes, he went with his elder sister to Paris.
    • Bernstein's sister studied biology in Paris and did not return to the Ukraine but worked at the Pasteur Institute.
    • Bernstein returned to Paris and submitted his doctoral dissertation Sur la nature analytique des solutions des equations aux derivees partielles du second ordre Ⓣ to the Sorbonne in the spring of 1904.
    • This problem, posed by Hilbert at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900, was on analytic solutions of elliptic differential equations and asked for a proof that all solutions of regular analytical variational problems are analytic.
    • Bernstein received his doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1904 and left Paris to attend the International Congress of Mathematicians in Heidelberg later that year.
    • In 1927 Gosta Mittag-Leffler died and Bernstein was elected as a corresponding member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris to replace him.
    • For this brilliant book, Bernstein was awarded a prize by the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • During the two years 1922-24, as well as visiting Paris, he visited Germany.
    • He was elected a full member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1955.

  205. Baire biography
    • Born: 21 January 1874 in Paris, France .
    • Rene grew up in Paris at the time when the Eiffel tower was being constructed.
    • Baire felt that he deserved a professorship in Paris and failing to achieve this, it was suggested, caused him depression and hence his ill health.

  206. Chatelet Albert biography
    • Died: 30 June 1960 in Paris, France .
    • German forces entered Paris on 14 June and a couple of days later France requested armistice terms but fighting continued.
    • He became Dean of the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1949, taking over from Jean Cabannes (1885-1959), a physicist who had made major contributions to optics.

  207. Stampacchia biography
    • Died: 27 April 1978 in Paris, France .
    • He was a visiting professor at the University of Sussex in February 1976, then spent a month at the College de France in Paris in May/June.
    • He returned to Paris for another visit in February 1978 and while there he suffered a serious heart attack.

  208. Petit Pierre biography
    • In 1633 Petit moved to Paris to play a role in national rather than local government.
    • Being in Paris had another advantage for Petit since it allowed him to become more involved with men of science than he could be in a town like Montlucon.
    • When Petit arrived in Paris in 1633 he was appointed 'Commissaire Provincial de l'Artillerie' by Richelieu.
    • In Paris Petit joined with the group of scientists meeting with Mersenne at the Minims de l'Annociade near Place Royale.
    • In the year Petit arrived in Paris, Mersenne published Traite des mouvements, and in the following year he published Les Mecanique de Galilee which was a version of Galileo's lectures on mechanics.
    • Etienne Pascal had arrived in Paris two years before Petit so that his son could have the best education.
    • Petit's instrument was later used by Giovanni Cassini in the Royal Observatory in Paris.
    • Petit had argued strongly in favour of setting up an official scientific organisation in France so it is rather surprising that when the Academie des Sciences was founded in Paris in 1666 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, at that time controller general of finance in France, Petit was not made a member.

  209. Chern biography
    • His meeting with Wilhelm Blaschke when he visited Peking had convinced him that Hamburg would be better for him than the other big European mathematics centres such as Paris, Gottingen or Berlin.
    • At this stage he was forced to choose between two attractive options, namely to stay in Hamburg and work on algebra under Emil Artin or to go to Paris and study under Elie Cartan.
    • Although Chern knew Artin well and would have liked to have worked with him, the desire to continue working on differential geometry was the deciding factor and he went to Paris in September 1936.
    • Before leaving for Paris he had gone to Berlin to watch the Olympic games there in August.
    • His time in Paris was a very productive one and he learnt to approach mathematics, in the same way that Cartan did, see [',' W G Chinn and J B Lewis, Shiing-Shen Chern: A man and his times, The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal 14 (5) (1983), 370-376.','28]:- .
    • In 1937 Chern left Paris to become professor of mathematics at Tsing Hua University.
    • He also renewed his contacts with Andre Weil who he had met in Paris seven years earlier.
    • He was elected to the Academia Sinica (1948), the United States National Academy of Sciences (1961), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1963), the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (1971), the Academia Peloritana, Messina, Sicily (1986), the Accademia dei Lincei (1989), the Academie des Sciences, Paris (1989), the American Philosophical Society (1989) the Chinese Academy of Sciences (1994), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (2001).

  210. Bloch biography
    • Died: 11 October 1948 in Paris, France .
    • He was confined to a psychiatric hospital (Saint-Maurice Hospital also called Maison de Charenton) situated in the Paris outskirts where he was a model patient.
    • One day Bloch's younger brother Henry, who had been living in Mexico, passed through Paris and went to the Maison de Charenton to visit his brother [',' H Baruk, Mathematician of Charenton, in Patients are People Like Us: The Experiences of Half a Century in Neuropsychiatry (William Morrow, New York, 1978).','2]:- .

  211. Mascheroni biography
    • Died: 14 July 1800 in Paris, France .
    • Mascheroni was sent to Paris to study the new system and to report to the governing body in Milan.
    • He remained in Paris where he died in the following year after a brief illness resulting from complications after catching a cold.

  212. Dieudonne biography
    • Died: 29 November 1992 in Paris, France .
    • After completing his school studies he entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris where he was inspired by Emile Picard, Jacques Hadamard, Elie Cartan, Paul Montel, Arnaud Denjoy and Gaston Julia.
    • Dieudonne was elected to the Academy of Sciences (Paris) in 1968, received the Gaston Julia prize in 1966, and he was made an Officer of the Legion d'Honneur.

  213. DOcagne biography
    • Born: 26 March 1862 in Paris, France .
    • His one-act comedy La Candidate Ⓣ was performed at the Theatre Cluny in Paris for over a hundred performances.

  214. Argand biography
    • Died: 13 August 1822 in Paris, France .
    • Jean-Robert Argand was an accountant and bookkeeper in Paris who was only an amateur mathematician.
    • His son was born in Paris and continued to live there, while his daughter, Jeanne-Francoise-Dorothee- Marie-Elizabeth Argand, married Felix Bousquet and they lived in Stuttgart.

  215. Papin biography
    • At this stage in his career, Papin intended to follow medicine so, after some months back in Blois, he went to Paris in 1670 to begin life as a medical doctor.
    • Christiaan Huygens, one of the leading scientists of his day, had been persuaded to work in Paris and was a leading member of Colbert's group.
    • He assisted Huygens with air pump experiments from 1671 to 1674, during which time he lived in Huygens's apartments in the Royal Library in Paris [',' L Boschiero, Translation, experimentation and the spring of the air: Richard Waller’s ’Essayes of Natural Experiments’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 64 (1) (2010), 67-83.','8]:- .
    • Under Huygens's supervision, Papin published a book, 'Nouvelles Experiences du Vuide' (Paris, 1674), based on the experiments he had heard about during his apprenticeship.
    • A French edition was published in Paris in 1682.
    • There had been an attempt by Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti to turn the Accademia in Venice into a Society modelled on the Royal Society in London and the Academie Royale in Paris.
    • There is a Rue Papin in Paris as well as a Rue Denis Papin in Echirolles and in Begles, near Bordeaux.

  216. Le Fevre biography
    • Died: 1706 in Paris, France .
    • Father Pierre was Professor of rhetoric at the College de Lisieux in Paris and as such he was a colleague of Jean Picard and de La Hire.
    • Then in that year La Hire's son, Gabriel-Philippe de La Hire who had been commissioned by the Academie des Sciences to draw up new astronomical tables, published in Paris Ephemerides ad annum 1701.

  217. Delsarte biography
    • In 1922 Delsarte entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • In addition he lectured at the Henri Poincare Institute in Paris on Hilbert spaces.
    • It was during his regular visits to Paris during 1934-35 that Delsarte became heavily involved in the Bourbaki project to write a new analysis textbook which expanded into the remarkable Elements de Mathematique Ⓣ.
    • He served on the admissions board of the Ecole Centrale in Paris during the 1930s and also was head of research at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique from July 1932 to October 1936.
    • While the war slowly ran its painful course, Delsarte continued to undertake duties for French mathematics both in Nancy and in Paris at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique where he served on a pure mathematics commission, and also as an examiner for entry to various Ecoles.
    • In 1953 he created the Elie Cartan Institute at Nancy which, to a certain extent, was modelled on the Henri Poincare Institute in Paris.
    • A review of [',' J Delsarte, Oeuvres de Jean Delsarte Vol I (editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1971).','2] states:- .
    • Levitan looks at this aspect of Delsarte's work in detail in [',' B M Levitan, Une notice sur l’oeuvre de Delsarte relative aux operateurs de translation, in Oeuvres de Jean Delsarte Vol II (editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1971).','4].

  218. Boutroux biography
    • Born: 6 December 1880 in Paris, France .
    • Boutroux was educated in Paris at the Ecole Normale Superieure and he received his licentiate with a thesis, which was published by the University of Paris, L'imagination et les mathematiques selon Descartes Ⓣ.

  219. Auzout biography
    • In 1647 he left Rouen and settled in Paris, some sources claiming that he went with Pascal in the spring of that year.
    • Sturdy investigates in [',' D J Sturdy, Science and Social Status : The Members of the Academie des Sciences 1666-1750 (Boydell & Brewer, 1995).','2] where his income came from; it was sufficient apparently let him live fairly comfortably in Paris:- .
    • By these and perhaps other means Auzout evidently made enough money to survive in Paris, even if he was not necessarily a wealthy man.
    • We know that in the summer of 1648 he left Paris to undertake work for Jacques de Crevant de Brigueil, the abbee de Saint-Maixent in Poitou.
    • In 1666 Auzout was one of a group of scientists making astronomical observations from Jean-Baptiste Colbert's Paris residence.
    • Of the latter, those requiring corresponding or simultaneous observations at Paris are differentiated from those which may be made independently at Madagascar.
    • He had always had a strong interest in architecture and had spent much time with Christopher Wren when Wren visited Paris in the summer of 1665.
    • Auzout did not completely cut himself off from his previous life, however, for when William Petty claimed that London was greater than Paris and Rouen combined, quoting population statistics to prove his case, Auzout responded vigorously in November 1686.

  220. Yoccoz biography
    • Born: 29 May 1957 in Paris, France .
    • Given his outstanding work it was clear that he would quickly be offered appointments and indeed he was appointed as professor at the University of Paris-Sud (Orsay).
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  221. Darboux biography
    • Died: 23 February 1917 in Paris, France .
    • Lebon in [',' E Lebon, Gaston Darboux (Paris, 1910, 1913).','3] lists over 100 Scientific Societies which elected Darboux as a member.

  222. Thomason biography
    • Died: November 1995 in Paris, France .
    • In October 1989 Thomason was appointed to a post in Max Karoubi's laboratory at the University of Paris VII.
    • Early in November 1995 [some accounts say late October], just before his 43rd birthday, he went into diabetic shock and died in has apartment in Paris.

  223. Dirksen biography
    • Died: 16 July 1850 in Paris, France .
    • He retired from teaching at the University in the winter semester of 1848-49 and, already seriously ill, went with his wife to Paris.
    • After his death in Paris he was buried in the Montmartre cemetery.

  224. Lighthill biography
    • Born: 23 January 1924 in Paris, France .
    • His father, Ernest Balzar Lighthill was a mining engineer who was working in Paris at the time his son was born.
    • Many universities have awarded Lighthill honorary doctorates including Liverpool (1961), Leicester (1965), Strathclyde (1966), Essex (1967), Princeton (1967), East Anglia (1968), Manchester (1968), Bath (1969), St Andrews (1969), Surrey (1969), Cranfield (1974), Paris (1975), Aachen (1975), Rensselaer (1980), Leeds (1983), Brown (1984), Southern California (1984), Lisbon (1986), Rehovot (1987), London (1993), Compiegne (1994), Kiev (1994), St Petersburg (1996), and Tallahassee (1996).

  225. Rolle biography
    • Died: 8 November 1719 in Paris, France .
    • In 1675, probably seeking a better life, he went to Paris where he worked as a scribe and arithmetical expert.
    • However, quite soon after he arrived in Paris he married and children quickly followed.

  226. Dupin biography
    • Died: 18 January 1873 in Paris, France .
    • Dupin was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, where he learnt geometry from Monge.
    • Dupin was appointed professor at Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris in 1819.

  227. Tschirnhaus biography
    • With a letter of recommendation from Oldenburg, he went to Paris in the autumn of 1675 where he remained for a while after meeting Leibniz and Huygens.
    • Nadler [',' S M Nadler, Spinoza : A Life (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001).','3] quotes a letter from G H Schuller to Spinoza written in the autumn of 1675 which describes Tschirnhaus meeting Leibniz in Paris:- .
    • [Tschirnhaus] has met [in Paris] a man named Leibniz of remarkable learning, most skilled in the various sciences and free from the common theological prejudices.
    • While in Paris, Tschirnhaus taught one of Jean-Baptiste Colbert's sons but, as Tschirnhaus did not know French, the lessons had to be in Latin.
    • In November 1676 he left Paris, accompanying Count Nimpsch of Silesia.
    • His travels continued with visits to Naples, Sicily, Milan, and Geneva before returning in 1679 to Paris, The Hague (where he visited Huygens) and Hanover (where he visited Leibniz).
    • He was soon on his travels again, however, going to Paris via Holland and Belgium in 1680.
    • He made a third visit to Paris in 1682, and on 22 July he was elected to the Academie des Sciences.

  228. Morin Jean-Baptiste biography
    • Died: 6 November 1656 in Paris, France .

  229. Lions biography
    • When Pierre-Louis was six years old his father became a professor in Paris and the family lived there.
    • His thesis, supervised by H Brezis, was presented to the University of Pierre and Marie Curie (formally Paris VI when the University of Paris was split into thirteen separate universities in 1970) and in 1979 he received his Doctorat d'Etat es sciences.
    • From 1979 to 1981 Lions held a research post at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris.
    • Then, in 1981, he was appointed professor at the University of Paris-Dauphine.
    • In addition to the Paris Academy, Lions has been elected a member of the Naples Academy and the European Academy.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  230. Fermat biography
    • In 1636 Carcavi went to Paris as royal librarian and made contact with Mersenne and his group.
    • This first letter did however contain two problems on maxima which Fermat asked Mersenne to pass on to the Paris mathematicians and this was to be the typical style of Fermat's letters, he would challenge others to find results which he had already obtained.
    • They asked him to divulge his methods and Fermat sent Method for determining Maxima and Minima and Tangents to Curved Lines, his restored text of Apollonius's Plane loci and his algebraic approach to geometry Introduction to Plane and Solid Loci to the Paris mathematicians.
    • The period from 1643 to 1654 was one when Fermat was out of touch with his scientific colleagues in Paris.
    • Fermat's correspondence with the Paris mathematicians restarted in 1654 when Blaise Pascal, Etienne Pascal's son, wrote to him to ask for confirmation about his ideas on probability.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  231. Bourbaki biography
    • Born: 1935 in Paris, France .
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  232. Delaunay biography
    • He went to Paris in 1833 and in the following year he entered the Ecole Polytechnique, being ranked second from all the students entering in that year.
    • Arago suggested to Delaunay that he come to the Paris Observatory and train to become an astronomer but Savary advised against this course of action.
    • Le Verrier was the Director of the Paris Observatory and by 1869 he had become very unpopular with his colleagues at the Observatory following his drive for efficiency.
    • On 19 September the German army began to blockade Paris which surrendered on 28 January 1871.
    • This was a time of extreme difficulty for Delaunay who succeeded against all the odds to save the Paris Observatory.
    • The French government was threatened by an uprising in Paris in March 1871, in which radicals established their own short-lived government, the Paris Commune.

  233. Bossut biography
    • Died: 14 January 1814 in Paris, France .

  234. Bouguer biography
    • Died: 15 August 1758 in Paris, France .
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  235. Chuquet biography
    • in Paris, France .

  236. Apery biography
    • It was in 1926 that the family moved again, this time going to Paris where Roger continued his education at the lycee Ledru-Rollin.
    • The Apery family had moved into very basic accommodation in Paris with the intention of improving their position as soon as their finances allowed them to better themselves.
    • Roger, however, continued to show his brilliance, moving to the famous lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris.
    • German forces entered Paris on 14 June and a couple of days later France requested armistice terms but fighting continued.
    • These, of course, were difficult times with Paris under the control of the occupying German forces.
    • Paul Dubreil, who spent the years of World War II in Nancy, returned to Paris in 1946 and advised Apery on submitting his thesis on algebraic geometry and ideals, which he did in 1947.
    • He was buried in Paris, with his parents, in a small tomb set in a wall of Pere Lachaise cemetery's Columbarium.

  237. Mathieu Emile biography
    • Entering the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris his progress was almost unbelievable, even given the remarkable achievements of the brilliant mathematicians in this archive who also attended this institution.
    • By March 1859 he had been awarded his Docteur es Sciences by the Faculty of Science in Paris for his thesis Sur le nombre de valeurs que peut acquerir une fonction quand on y permute ses lettres de toutes les manieres possibles Ⓣ on transitive functions, the work which led to his initial discovery of sporadic simple groups.
    • In April, 1862, the Paris Academy of Sciences had to elect a member in the section of geometry.
    • Discouraged by this report and realising that he had little chance of a position in Paris, Mathieu sought a position in the provinces.
    • However, Mathieu still longed to obtain a position in Paris.
    • Although Mathieu showed great promise in his early years, he never received such normal signs of approbation as a Paris chair or election to the Academie des Sciences.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  238. Cartan Henri biography
    • When Henri was five years old, his father was appointed as a lecturer at the Sorbonne and the family moved from Nancy to Paris.
    • After completing his school education Henri studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and soon became friendly with Andre Weil who was one year ahead.
    • The university was displaced to Clermont-Ferrand, where I taught for a year before I was appointed professor at the Sorbonne in Paris, in November 1940 (in fact, I was to be in charge of the mathematics students at the Ecole Normale).
    • We explained above that Cartan was appointed professor at the Sorbonne in Paris in November 1940.
    • He taught in Paris from that time until 1969 and then at the Universite de Paris-Sud at Orsay from 1970 to 1975.
    • Cartan is a member of the Academie des Sciences of Paris and of other academies in Europe, the United States, and Japan.

  239. Varignon biography
    • Died: 23 December 1722 in Paris, France .
    • In 1686, together with his friend Charles Castel, Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Varignon went to Paris and immediately made contact with mathematicians and scientists there.

  240. Le Tenneur biography
    • Born: 1610 in Paris, France .
    • It is thought that he spent the first 30 or so years of his life in Paris where he was almost certainly educated.

  241. Perrin-Riou biography
    • Both Perrin-Riou's parents had been born in Les Vans but, her mother being a physicist and her father a chemist working in Paris, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, within the Paris area.
    • She was appointed as a research assistant at Pierre et Marie Curie University in Paris in 1978 she worked towards her These de 3eme cycle, advised by Georges Poitou.
    • After the award of the degree from Universite Paris-Sud XI in Orsay in 1979 she continued to work towards a doctorate supervised by John Coates who had been appointed to a professorship there in 1978.
    • She began teaching at Universite Paris VI and two years later her third son was born.
    • The same year in which this fundamental 80-page paper was published, she moved to Universite Paris-Sud Orsay [',' C Morrow, Bernadette Perrin-Riou, in Charlene Morrow and Teri Perl (eds.), Notable Women in Mathematics: A Biographical Dictionary (Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 1998), 161-164.','2]:- .
    • In 1994 she obtained her present position at the University of Paris-Sud in Orsay.

  242. Connes biography
    • He entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1966, graduating in 1970.
    • In 1976 he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Paris VI, then he was promoted to professor.
    • He left the University of Paris VI in 1980 but, the previous year, he had been appointed as professor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques at Bures-sur-Yvette.
    • Another position he was appointed to was professor at the College de France at Rue d'Ulm in Paris in 1984.
    • In addition to the Fields Medal he was awarded the Prix Aimee Berthe in 1975, the Prix Pecot-Vimont in 1976, the gold medal of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in 1977, the Prix Ampere from the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1980 and in 1981 the Prix de Electricite de France.
    • He has continued to receive major honours such as the Clay Research Award, presented on 24 May 2000 in Paris:- .
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  243. Privat de Molieres biography
    • Died: 12 May 1742 in Paris, France .
    • However he had a deep love of science in general, and mathematics in particular, and in 1704 he went to Paris to take up a more active scientific career.

  244. Julia biography
    • Died: 19 March 1978 in Paris, France .
    • Julia won a scholarship which allowed him to go to Paris and spend the year 1910-11 at the Lycee Janson-de-Sailly where he took classes in higher mathematics.

  245. Bernoulli Johann biography
    • From Geneva, Johann made his way to Paris and there he met mathematicians in Malebranche's circle, where the focus of French mathematics was at that time.
    • Contrary to what is commonly said these days, de l'Hopital was a fine mathematician, perhaps the best mathematician in Paris at that time, although he was not quite in the same class as Johann Bernoulli.
    • This Johann agreed to do and the lessons were taught both in Paris and also at de l'Hopital's country house at Oucques.
    • Let us return to an account of Bernoulli's time in Paris.
    • In 1692, while in Paris, he met Varignon and this resulted in a strong friendship and also Varignon learned much about applications of the calculus from Johann Bernoulli over the many years which they corresponded.
    • He was elected a fellow of the academies of Paris, Berlin, London, St Petersburg and Bologna.

  246. Lie biography
    • In the spring of 1870 Lie and Klein were together again in Paris.
    • While in Paris Lie discovered contact transformations.
    • While Lie and Klein thought deeply about mathematics in Paris, the political situation between France and Prussia was deteriorating.
    • For Klein, a Prussian citizen who happened to be in Paris when war was declared, there was only one possibility: he had to return quickly to Berlin.
    • However, Lie was a Norwegian and he was finding mathematical discussions in Paris very stimulating.
    • The French army had surrendered on 1 September, and on 19 September the German army began to blockade Paris.
    • The dissertation contained ideas from his first results published in Crelle's Journal and also the work on contact transformations, a special case of these transformations being a transformation which maps a line into a sphere, which he had discovered while in Paris.

  247. Ampere biography
    • The city of Lyon refused to carry out instructions from Paris and the city was besieged for two months.
    • This research resulted in him composing a treatise on probability, The Mathematical Theory of Games, which he submitted to the Paris Academy in 1803.
    • He decided to leave Lyon for Paris.
    • His subsequent depression contributed to his decision to take the earliest opportunity to leave Lyon for new surroundings in Paris.
    • In Paris Ampere worked on a wide variety of topics.
    • Orsted's work was reported the Academy in Paris on 4 September 1820 by Arago and a week later Arago repeated Orsted's experiment at an Academy meeting.

  248. Lax biography
    • After studying arts and theology at the University of Zaragoza, where he obtained a first degree, Gaspar Lax went to Paris where he took further degrees including a divinity degree taken at the Sorbonne.
    • Lax remained in Paris and taught there at the College de Calvi during 1507 and 1508.
    • The College de Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon.
    • After these two years at the College de Calvi, Lax transferred to the College de Montaigu, one of the leading theological colleges of Paris, where he studied under Maior but also was an important teacher at the College.
    • One of Lax's fellow countrymen, who was also studying under Maior, wrote to the representative of the Spanish King in Paris:- .
    • may the eternal king deign to grant him long life that he may for long years be useful to our alma mater, the University of Paris.
    • This school seems to have originated with Lax and other students of Maior who studied in Paris, then returned to Spain.

  249. Corominas biography
    • He had been appointed by the Chilean President as special consul for Spanish emigrants in Paris.
    • Corominas married Maria Edith Guevara in Mendoza in 1946; they later had three children, Edith, Henri, and Helene who were all born in Paris.
    • Corominas was dismissed from his position but Arnaud Denjoy, who had been impressed by Corominas's papers, offered him a position at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris in 1947.
    • He was awarded his doctorate in 1952 from the University of Paris for his thesis which contained two parts, the first part on generalised derivatives and the second part on asymptotic properties of polynomials.
    • Later in the paper Corominas also expressed his appreciation of the support he had received from various of the Paris mathematicians:- .
    • I especially want to show my appreciation of the honour he has given me by allowing me to participate in the mathematical activity of Paris.
    • He sent some of his work to Paris but published mostly in Spanish.

  250. Mercator Nicolaus biography
    • Died: 14 January 1687 in Paris, France .
    • Jean-Baptiste Colbert, founder of the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1666 and controller general of finance in France, had invited Mercator to undertake the project.

  251. Leger biography
    • Died: 15 December 1838 in Paris, France .
    • The students were told to defend Paris and Leger was decorated for his bravery defending the capital.

  252. Saurin biography
    • Died: 29 December 1737 in Paris, France .
    • Back in Paris in 1690 he had to seek a new career and he felt that it was either to be mathematics or the legal profession.

  253. Canard biography
    • Died: 1833 in Paris, France .

  254. Savary biography
    • Born: 4 October 1797 in Paris, France .

  255. Hilbert biography
    • Klein then told both Study and Hilbert that they should visit Paris.
    • Klein had given them instructions as to which of the Paris mathematicians they should visit and they did as he told them, alternately writing to Klein about their experiences.
    • In Paris, Camille Jordan gave a dinner for Hilbert and Study to which George-Henri Halphen, Amedee Mannheim and Gaston Darboux were invited.
    • It is clear that Hilbert's thoughts were entirely on mathematics during his time in Paris and he wrote nothing of any sightseeing.
    • Hilbert's famous 23 Paris problems challenged (and still today challenge) mathematicians to solve fundamental questions.
    • Hilbert's famous speech The Problems of Mathematics was delivered to the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris.

  256. Boscovich biography
    • He set off for Paris in 1759; details of his visit are given in [',' R Taton, Les relations entre R.
    • Boscovich, who attended meetings of the Academy of Sciences during his stay in Paris, was known in France for his studies on astronomy, the aurora borealis, and the measurement of the arch of the meridian through Rome and Rimini which he had carried out in 1739.
    • He became friendly with Clairaut who admired his vast culture and his dynamic personality; they corresponded between May 1760 and July 1764 after he left Paris.
    • After six months in Paris, Boscovich went to London where he was elected to the Royal Society on 15 January 1761.
    • Paris was where he had travelled to before to escape from problems and he sought to do so again.
    • In 1773 he went to Paris to take up the post of Director of Optics for the French Navy.

  257. Plucker biography
    • His next move was to go to France in March 1823 where he attended courses on geometry at the University of Paris.
    • He completed his doctoral dissertation Generalem analyeseos applicationem ad ea quae geometriae altioris et mechanicae basis et fundamenta sunt e serie Tayloria deducit Ⓣ while he was in Paris which he submitted to the University of Marburg.
    • He sent the thesis from Paris to Marburg in July 1823 and was awarded his doctorate 'in absentia' on 30 August 1823.
    • He remained in Paris working towards his habilitation at the University of Bonn.
    • It was while he was studying in Paris that Plucker learned the importance of analytical mechanics as developed by Laplace and Lagrange as well as that of geometric mechanics as developed by Poinsot.
    • At the beginning of April 1825 he left Paris and returned to Bonn where he delivered his habilitation lecture on 28 April.

  258. Gromov biography
    • In 1979 he gave a course of lectures Structures metriques pour les varietes riemanniennes at Paris VII which have been remarkably influential.
    • These notes are from a course given at the University of Paris VII during the last trimester of 1979.
    • We have been following the remarkable developments which have come from Gromov's 1979 course in Paris.
    • In 1981 he moved from the State University of New York at Stony Brook to the Universite de Paris VI and the following year he moved to the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques where he was made a permanent member.
    • the Prix Elie Cartan of the Academie des Sciences of Paris (1984); the Prix de l'Union des Assurances de Paris (1989); and the Wolf Prize in Mathematics (1993).

  259. Herbrand biography
    • Born: 12 February 1908 in Paris, France .

  260. Yano biography
    • He therefore decided to go to Paris to study with Cartan and began to work for one of three science scholarships which were awarded for Japanese students each year to study for two years in France.
    • He set out from Tokyo on a journey to Paris which took around 30 days by boat and train.
    • He was in Paris for the start of the academic year 1936.
    • S S Chern had also gone to Paris at the same time to work with Cartan.
    • Of course World War II started in the year following Yano's return to Tokyo from Paris and during the war years of 1939-45 Yano was isolated from most mathematicians.
    • He attended the Congress, then made visits to Paris, Durham, Leeds, Southampton, Amsterdam, Leiden and Marseilles before returning to Rome to gave a lecture course at the Istituto nazionale di Alta Matematica.

  261. Albertus biography
    • He was sent to the Dominican convent of Saint-Jacques at the University of Paris in about 1241 where he read the new translations, with commentaries, of the Arabic and Greek texts of Aristotle.
    • In 1245 he received the degree of Master of Theology from the University of Paris and, after receiving this degree, one of the first students he taught was Thomas Aquinas.
    • While in Paris Albertus began the task of presenting the entire body of knowledge, natural science, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, astronomy, ethics, economics, politics and metaphysics.
    • In 1248 Albertus left Paris to set up the new Studium Generale which was essentially a Dominican university in Cologne.
    • He was Regent of the Studium Generale from the time that he set it up until 1254 and during this time he lectured, wrote important works, and worked closely with his student Thomas Aquinas who was appointed Master of Students (at least until 1252 when Aquinas returned to Paris).
    • By this time Albertus was an old man, but he travelled to Paris to argue in favour of Thomas Aquinas, whose ideas of course, although not identical to his own, were similar in their support for the teachings of Aristotle.

  262. Petit biography
    • Died: 21 June 1820 in Paris, France .

  263. Sidler biography
    • In 1852, Sidler moved to Paris to study there for a further two years.
    • In his memoirs, partly quoted in [',' F Rudio, Georg Sidler, Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich 53, 1908, 1-32.','4] and retold in [',' J H Graf, Georg Joseph Sidler, Mitteilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern, 1907, 230-256.','2], Sidler describes his activities and acquaintances in Paris as well as the political events he witnessed, such as the newly crowned Emperor Napoleon III parading around Paris, and the population's restrained reaction.
    • It was Puiseux's lectures that inspired Sidler's doctoral dissertation Sur les inegalites du moyen mouvement d'Uranus dues a l'action perturbatrice de Neptun Ⓣ, published after his return from Paris in 1854.
    • In addition to submitting his thesis, which he wrote during his stay in Paris, Sidler reports in [',' F Rudio, Georg Sidler, Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich 53, 1908, 1-32.','4] that he had to pass two written exams, one set by Raabe, the other one set by A Muller, and an oral exam.
    • No doubt one can imagine the autodidact Schlafli's interest when he asked Sidler to tell him about the famous lectures in Paris and Berlin, and how valuable Sidler's exemplary lecture notes were to him.

  264. Frisi biography
    • In the same year he was elected as a corresponding member of the Paris Academie des Sciences.
    • He had made a submission to the 1758 Grand Prix of the Paris Academy of Sciences which argued that the planets had atmospheres.
    • In Paris he met, among others, Jean d'Alembert, Denis Diderot, Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon, Marie-Jean Caritat de Condorcet, Jean-Etienne Montucla, and Louis-Antoine de Bougainville.
    • In Paris he showed his work De gravitate universal corporum Ⓣ to members of the Academy and Jean d'Alembert and Etienne Bezout wrote positive reports on the work which they presented to the Academy in September.
    • Frisi discussed the three body problem with French mathematicians, visited science museums and observatories of Paris and Greenwich, and attended meetings of the Royal Society of London and the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  265. Briot biography
    • He sat the entrance examinations for the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and was placed second in these highly competitive entrance examinations.
    • He went to Paris in 1838 and entered the Ecole Normale Superieure now one year ahead of his school friend Claude Bouquet who joined him there the following year.
    • In 1851 Briot returned to Paris where he taught at various Lycees.
    • He taught engineering and surveying in the year he moved back to Paris, then he taught a calculus course in 1853 and, two years later, courses on mechanics and astronomy.
    • Pasteur had presented a paper to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1848 on his discovery that certain chemical compounds could exist in dual forms having both a right hand version and a left hand version, one being the mirror image of the other.
    • For his outstanding contributions to mathematics the Academie des Sciences in Paris awarded Briot their Poncelet Prize in 1882 shortly before he died.

  266. Volterra biography
    • He visited Henri Poincare in Paris in 1888 and was invited to come to Paris again in the following year for the Congres international de bibliographie des sciences mathematique.
    • In 1897 he attended the first International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich and there met Paul Painleve and Emile Borel who invited him to Paris in the following year.
    • The next International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Paris in August 1900 and Volterra was invited to give one of the four plenary lectures; he gave the lecture Betti, Brioschi, Casorati - Trois analystes italiens et trois manieres d'envisager les questions d'analyse Ⓣ.
    • By the time Volterra gave his lecture in Paris he was married.
    • From the following year he lived mostly abroad, mainly in Paris but also Spain and other countries.

  267. Coates biography
    • scholarship and was advised by Kurt Mahler and Hanna Neumann to go to study for his doctorate at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • His wife joined him in Paris after completing her undergraduate degree.
    • However, Coates was unhappy with the areas of research in Paris feeling that he did not have the mathematical background to cope with the abstraction.
    • He was accepted so, after spending a year in Paris, he went to Cambridge to complete his doctorate:- .
    • Coates' thesis advisor at Cambridge was Alan Baker and, as soon as he arrived, he made the decision to start a new research project rather than continue the one he had begun in Paris.
    • However, he did not remain for long in his home country, moving back to France in 1978 to a professorship at the University of Paris XI at Orsay.

  268. Desargues biography
    • His family (on both his mother's and his fathersearchit's side) had been very rich for several generations and had supplied lawyers and judges to the Parlement in Paris as well as to that in Lyon (then the second most important city in France).
    • Desargues seems to have made several extended visits to Paris in connection with a lawsuit for the recovery of a huge debt.
    • When in Paris, Desargues became part of the mathematical circle surrounding Marin Mersenne (1588 - 1648).
    • A small number of copies was printed in Paris in 1639.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  269. Thom biography
    • After this he returned to his parents home in Montbeliard but was soon in Paris again to continue his education.
    • Thom attended the Lycee Saint-Louis in Paris and applied to enter the Ecole Normale Superieure but failed to gain entrance in 1942.
    • At the Ecole Normale Superieure times were difficult as Paris was occupied by the German forces.
    • The work of the thesis was carried out in Strasbourg but Thom presented it to Paris.
    • Thom was awarded the Grand Prix Scientifique de la Ville de Paris in 1974.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  270. Tannery Paul biography
    • Tannery worked from 1865 to 1867 in the state tobacco factory at Lille before moving to Paris to an administrative post in the administration of the state tobacco industry.
    • The war went badly for France and on 19 September 1870 the Germans began a siege of Paris.
    • Tannery was present during the siege, and was dismayed when Paris surrendered on 28 January 1871.
    • By 1883 Tannery was finding the academic isolation of Le Havre too much to bear and he applied for a transfer to Paris.
    • From 1890 until 1893 he was back at the headquarters of the administration of the state tobacco industry in Paris, and then in 1893 he made his final move to be director of a tobacco factory at Pantin near Paris.

  271. Marcinkiewicz biography
    • There he collaborated with Julius Schauder who had returned to Lwow a year earlier having spending time in Paris working with Hadamard and Leray.
    • Perhaps through his contacts with Schauder, who had greatly benefited from his time in Paris, Marcinkiewicz applied to the Fund for National Culture for another Fellowship, this time to study in Paris.
    • He was successful and in the spring of 1939 he went to Paris.
    • From Paris Marcinkiewicz went to England and he was there in August 1939 when the deteriorating political situation made him decide to return to Poland.
    • During his time in Paris and England, Marcinkiewicz had produced some mathematical work which he had written down in manuscript form.

  272. Bruno Giordano biography
    • Moving on to Paris in 1581 Bruno became a lecturer in philosophy at the University of Paris where he continued to develop his art of memory-training.
    • Paris seemed to provide an answer to Bruno's problems for his views were not seen to be a problem there.
    • Bruno also attacked Aristotle's physics in these works and, after he returned to Paris in October 1585, these views were to land him in trouble again.
    • By the time Bruno returned to Paris the atmosphere had changed.
    • Bruno was forced to leave Paris and he went to Germany where he travelled around the universities lecturing on his beliefs, and attacking the views of mathematicians and philosophers.

  273. Grothendieck biography
    • Eventually, in 1921, he escaped to live for a while in Berlin and then in Paris under the name Alexander Tanaroff.
    • Although Alexander Schapiro was hiding his Jewish origins by using the name Tanaroff, he still considered that Berlin was too dangerous a place for a Jew and he returned to Paris in May 1933.
    • Meanwhile Hanka had joined Alexander's father in Paris and, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), they both went to Spain where they supported the Republicans.
    • He had been taught by Elie Cartan and he advised Grothendieck to go to Paris and work with Cartan.
    • Grothendieck followed that advice and, after graduating from Montpellier with his licence, he spent the year 1948-49 at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • After Grothendieck's thesis defense, which took place in Paris, Malgrange recalled that he, Grothendieck, and Henri Cartan piled into a taxicab to go to lunch at the home of Laurent Schwartz.

  274. Jonquieres biography
    • De Jonquieres' appointment to the Admiralty Council meant that he was living in Paris during this period and he was already interested in mathematical research after reading the works of Poncelet and Chasles.
    • In Paris de Jonquieres could take full advantage of the mathematical environment [',' G Loria, Ernest de Jonquieres, sailor and scientist, Scripta Math.
    • After the period in Paris, de Jonquieres visited several countries as part of his naval duties.
    • The work [',' Ernest de Jonquieres, Notice sur la carriere maritime administrative et scientifique du Vice-Admiral de Jonquieres (Paris, 1883).','2] in the list of references is an autobiography.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  275. Mandelbrot biography
    • Mandelbrot attended the Lycee Rolin in Paris up to the start of World War II, when his family moved to Tulle in central France.
    • After studying at Lyon, Mandelbrot entered the Ecole Normale in Paris.
    • granted by the University of Paris, he went to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton where he was sponsored by John von Neumann.
    • In 1900 in a famous address to the International Congress of mathematicians in Paris David Hilbert listed some 25 open problems of outstanding significance.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  276. Plana biography
    • In 1800 Plana entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • In 1818 Laplace proposed that the Academie des Sciences in Paris set up a prize to be awarded to whoever succeeded in constructing lunar tables based solely on the law of universal gravity.
    • When he was nearly 80 years old, in 1860, he was elected a member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • He held the chair of mathematical physics at the University of Turin during a period when he was highly active in research, yet political events forced him to leave Paris.
    • Plana is generally considered one of the major Italian scientists of his age because, at a time when the quality of instruction at Italian universities had greatly deteriorated, his teaching was of the highest quality, quite comparable with that of the grandes ecoles of Paris, at which he had studied.

  277. Newcomb biography
    • When he was in Paris to observe a solar eclipse in 1870, he discovered they had made high quality observations since 1672 and still held the data from those observations.
    • In fact Newcomb was in Paris at a very difficult period for, following humiliation by the Prussians in the previous year, the victorious German armies marched through Paris.
    • In a rather remarkable international agreement in Paris in 1896, it was decided that the ephemerides of every country in the world should use Newcomb's values for these constants.
    • The Paris conference at which the agreement was reached also gave Newcomb the task of completing a catalogue of the positions and motions of the bright stars and also with computing a new value for precession.

  278. Pade biography
    • He then went to Paris to continue his education at the Lycee St Louis where he spent two years preparing to sit the university entrance examinations.
    • After completing his studies at Lycee St Louis, Pade sat the entrance examination for the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, entering the Ecole in 1883.
    • In 1892 he presented his doctoral thesis Sur la representation approchee d'une fonction par des fractions rationelles Ⓣ to the Sorbonne in Paris.
    • In this post he succeeded Emile Borel who had just left Lille to take up an appointment at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • The subject proposed for the Grand Prix of the Paris Academy of 1906 was on the convergence of algebraic continued fractions.

  279. Gregory biography
    • He acted as an editor for Viete and fully incorporated Viete's ideas into his own teaching in Paris.
    • In London Gregory also met Robert Moray, president of the Royal Society, and Moray attempted to arrange a meeting between Gregory and Huygens in Paris.
    • However, Huygens was not in Paris and the meeting did not materialise.
    • He visited Flanders, Rome and Paris on his journey but spent most time at the University of Padua where he worked on using infinite convergent series to find the areas of the circle and hyperbola.
    • In 1674 Gregory cooperated with colleagues in Paris to make simultaneous observations of an eclipse of the moon and he was able to work out the longitude for the first time.

  280. Dupre biography
    • After completing his school studies at the College in Auxerre, the capital of the Yonne department, he entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 1826.
    • In 1838 Dupre married Louise Euphrasie Rousseau, born in 1804 in Villeneuve-la-Guyard in the Yonne department, and they lived on the rue de Paris in Rennes.
    • M Athanase Dupre calculates, for the Academy of Sciences of Paris, that a cube of water, having a side equal to one thousandth of a millimetre, (or about six one hundred billionths of a cubic inch,) contains more than 125,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules of that valuable compound.
    • For example, Elme Marie Caro, the professor of philosophy in Paris, was influenced by Dupre's work.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  281. Borel Armand biography
    • However, receiving an exchange grant from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique he was able to spend the year 1949-50 in Paris.
    • After his year in Paris, Borel went to Geneva where he substituted for the professor of algebra from 1950 to 1952.
    • However, during this time he made frequent visits to both Zurich and to Paris.
    • During the whole period when he was based in Geneva he was working on his thesis on the cohomology with integer coefficients of Lie groups which he defended at the Sorbonne in Paris in the early part of 1952.
    • He was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Geneva in 1972, received the Brouwer Medal by the Dutch Mathematical Society in 1978, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976, the National Academy of Sciences (United States) in 1987, and the Academy of Sciences (Paris) in 1987.

  282. Carleman biography
    • As a Liljewalch scholar he visited the Technical University in Zurich during the period 1 June 1917 to 31 March 1918, and also Paris and Oxford in 1921.
    • Carleman had good relations with many mathematicians, visiting and giving lectures at, Zurich, Gottingen, Oxford, Sorbonne, Nancy and Paris.
    • He was a frequent visitor to Paris.
    • During meetings he was often a bit drunk, and afterwards in Paris I saw him come to Mandelbrojt's apartment for an advance on the travel money due him, red-eyed, with a three-day beard.
    • He was invited to give lectures on this subject at the Institute H Poincare in Paris in the spring of 1930 and also at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich in 1932.

  283. Zygalski biography
    • Zdzisław Krygowski (1872-1955) was a mathematician who had been awarded a doctorate by Krakow University in 1895, had studied with Lazarus Fuchs and Hermann Schwarz in Berlin, then with Emile Picard in Paris.
    • They did not wait but contacted the French who arranged for them to go to Paris.
    • From Italy they entered into France and made their way to Paris.
    • Bruno which was established in Gretz-Armainvillers close to Paris.
    • On 14 June German troops entered Paris and, on 22 June, French Marshal Petain signed an armistice.

  284. Euler biography
    • In 1727 he published another article on reciprocal trajectories and submitted an entry for the 1727 Grand Prize of the Paris Academy on the best arrangement of masts on a ship.
    • By 1740 Euler had a very high reputation, having won the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy in 1738 and 1740.
    • His most outstanding works, for which he won many prizes from the Paris Academie des Sciences, are concerned with celestial mechanics, which especially attracted scientists at that time.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  285. Bouvelles biography
    • De Bouvelles was educated in Paris.
    • Ordained a priest, Lefevre taught philosophy in Paris from about 1490 and it was about the time that de Bouvelles came to Paris.
    • In 1495 the plague hit Paris and de Bouvelles left without, it appears, taking a degree.
    • After being a canon at St Quentin, de Bouvelles became a canon at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Noyon, north-northeast of Paris and still in the Picardy region.

  286. Neyman biography
    • Disappointed at the lack of mathematics in the statistics being studied at University College, London, Neyman obtained an extension of his fellowship to allow him to spend a year in Paris.
    • He arrived in Paris in the summer of 1926 to visit Borel.
    • In Paris for session 1926-27 Neyman attended lectures by Borel, Lebesgue (whose lectures he particularly enjoyed) and Hadamard and his interests began to move back towards sets, measure and integration.
    • Neyman went on to produce fundamental results on hypothesis testing and, when Egon Pearson visited Paris in the spring of 1927, they collaborated in writing their first paper.
    • He contacted a Greek professor of international law who he knew to have been in Paris when he was there in 1926-27.

  287. Oresme biography
    • Nothing is known of his early life, and the first that is known is that he studied for an Arts Degree in Paris in the early 1340s where he was taught by Jean Buridan at the University of Paris.
    • Oresme's name appears on the list of scholarship holders in theology at the College of Navarre at the University of Paris in the year 1348.
    • The following year he took on the additional duties of canon at the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.
    • From 1370 he lived mainly in Paris, advising Charles on financial matters as well as translating from Latin into French Aristotle's Ethics, Politics and On the Heavens and the Aristotle style work Economics.

  288. Schooten biography
    • This contact with Descartes proved important for van Schooten since Descartes provided contacts for van Schooten to become acquainted with Marin Mersenne's circle in Paris on an extended period of travel.
    • Around 1641 he set out, travelling first to Paris where he met Mersenne and learnt about the mathematical advances made by Viete and Fermat as well as having the opportunity to further his studies of Descartes' works.
    • While in Paris he also obtained manuscripts of Viete's work and, after his travels were over, he published them in Leiden as Viete Opera mathematica Ⓣ in 1646.
    • Continuing his travels, van Schooten left Paris and went to London where he stayed until 1643 discussing mathematics with leading mathematicians there, finally visiting Ireland before returning to Leiden.
    • In a small way he was copying Mersenne's way of operating which he had experienced at first hand in Paris.

  289. Cosserat biography
    • At the age of 17 he took the competitive entrance examinations for the two major Paris Institutions, the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Normale Superieure, and was offered a place at both.
    • He submitted his thesis Sur le cercle considere comme element generateur de l'espace Ⓣ to the Faculty of Science in Paris and, on 14 March 1889, he was examined by a jury consisting of Paul Appell, Gaston Darboux, and Gabriel Koenigs.
    • In this latter role he replaced Edouard Benjamin Baillaud who had left Toulouse to become director of the Paris Observatory.
    • Although he was not living in Paris, Cosserat was elected to the Academie des Sciences as a corresponding member on 19 June 1911 and a full member on 31 March 1919.
    • Because he was in Toulouse rather than Paris, he was made a non-resident member of both these organisations.

  290. Chebyshev biography
    • Theory 96 (1) (1999), 111-138.','12] the authors suggest that Chebyshev may have visited Paris in 1842 accompanying the Russian geographer Chikhachev who certainly met Catalan (who assisted Liouville in producing his journal) in December of that year.
    • There is no conclusive evidence, but it must be highly likely that if Chebyshev did not personally visit Paris in 1842 then he sent his paper to Liouville via Chikhachev.
    • In a report which he wrote about a visit to Paris in 1852, Chebyshev described how he was asked to develop the ideas further (see for example [',' S N Bernstein, Chebyshev’s influence on the development of mathematics (translation of [9], with a foreword by O Sheynin), Math.
    • We do not have full information about his many Western European visits, but we do know that he spoke at sessions of the French Association for the Advancement of Science between 1873 and 1882, presenting sixteen reports, being at the meetings in Lyon in 1873, Clermont-Ferrand in 1876, Paris in 1878, and La Rochelle in 1882.
    • He wrote many papers on his mechanical inventions; Lucas exhibited models and drawings of some of these at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris.

  291. Geocze biography
    • On the basis of this Geocze was awarded a scholarship to study in Paris for a year.
    • He spent 1908 in Paris where he learnt of the effective theory of the measure of sets of points being developed by Borel, Baire and Lebesgue.
    • This work marks the beginning of the modern theory of functions of a real variable, but before arriving in Paris Geocze had not been familiar with this theory; in particular he had not known of Lebesgue's definition of surface area.
    • Again in Paris he had similar difficulties, for Lebesgue also found it hard to understand a paper which Geocze asked him to comment on, and returned it to Geocze saying that the style of the paper, together with the large amount of notation and definitions meant he had given up trying to understand it.
    • Geocze returned to Ungvar where he taught during 1909, but then returned to Paris in 1910 when he was awarded a doctorate from the Sorbonne.

  292. Serre biography
    • Serre was awarded his Bachelier es sciences et es lettres in 1944 but remained at the Lycee until 1945 preparing to take the entrance examination to enter the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • From 1948 to 1954 Serre held positions at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris, first as attache and then as charge de recherches.
    • Returning to Paris, he again attended the Henri Cartan seminar which, in that year, was discussing functions of several complex variables and Stein manifolds.
    • Marvellous because of the freedom of choice of subjects and the high level of the audience: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique researchers, visiting foreign academics, colleagues from Paris and Orsay - many regulars who have been coming for 5, 10 or even 20 years.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  293. Jacobi biography
    • In 1829 Jacobi met Legendre and other French mathematicians such as Fourier and Poisson when he made a visit to Paris in the summer vacation.
    • On the journey to Paris he had visited Gauss in Gottingen.
    • They returned to Konigsberg via Paris where Jacobi lectured at the Academie des Sciences.
    • The news that Louis-Philippe had been overthrown by an uprising in Paris in February 1848 led to revolutions in many states and fighting in Berlin.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  294. Sunyer biography
    • Discovering an error on the book, Sunyer found a correct proof and, in early 1934, sent a short paper to Emile Picard who was the secretary of the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • Paris.
    • He got a very positive and encouraging reply from Hadamard who arranged for one of his papers, Sur une classe de transformations des formules de sommabilite Ⓣ, to be published in the Comptes Rendus of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • However, Sunyer's cousin, Ferran Carbona, had fled to Paris so that he could continue to support the Republican forces using his chemical knowledge to manufacture ammunition.
    • Sunyer lost contact with him at this time and it was only after Hadamard had spent a year in England and returned to Paris as soon as the war ended that he was able to resume contact sending him a memoir on lacunary Taylor series.

  295. Sadosky biography
    • After post-doctoral studies at the Henri Poincare Institute in Paris, advised by Georges Darmois and Maurice Frechet, supported by a scholarship from the government of France, he spent a year in Italy working with Mauro Picone at the Istituto per l'Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome.
    • She travelled to Paris with her husband in 1945 and undertook research for a doctorate advised by Maurice Frechet.
    • However, she did not complete her doctorate at this time since the family left Paris and went to Italy.
    • Leaving from Buenos Aires they arrived in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on 14 November 1945 on their way to Paris in France.
    • Cora attended elementary school in Paris until January 1948 when the family moved to Rome in Italy.

  296. Montucla biography
    • After completing his studies at Toulouse, he decided to go to Paris which would be the most suitable place to gain further legal training.
    • His first work was Histoire des recherches sur la quadrature du cercle Ⓣ which was published by Jombert in Paris in 1754, and the high regard in which this work was held can be judged by the fact that on the strength of this work alone Montucla was elected a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy.
    • Montucla needed an income to allow him to pursue his research interests and around this time he worked at the Gazette de Paris.
    • These two volumes rightly led to Montucla gaining a high reputation in Paris and he began to work for the French government.
    • In August 1799 Montucla published new editions through Agasse in Paris of the two volumes originally published in 1758.

  297. Stoilow biography
    • He went to Paris where he studied at the Faculty of Sciences and was awarded his Licence des Sciences Mathematique in 1910.
    • He remained in Paris to undertake research for his doctorate.
    • In Paris Stoilow was able to benefit from being in a major centre for mathematical research.
    • His work was having a major international impact and he was invited to Paris where he gave a series of lectures on his work in February 1931.
    • His book Lecons sur les principes topologiques de la theorie des fonctions analytiques Ⓣ, published in the prestigious Collection Borel (Paris, 1937), became a classical reference in the 1940s.

  298. Dirichlet biography
    • However, the standards in German universities were not high at this time so Dirichlet decided to study in Paris.
    • In Paris by May 1822, Dirichlet soon contracted smallpox.
    • From the summer of 1823 Dirichlet was employed by General Maximilien Sebastien Foy, living in his house in Paris.
    • Dirichlet proved case 1 and presented his paper to the Paris Academy in July 1825.
    • From 1827 Dirichlet taught at Breslau but Dirichlet encountered the same problem which made him choose Paris for his own education, namely that the standards at the university were low.

  299. Ferrand biography
    • At this time women had to attend the Ecole Normale Superieure de Jeunes Filles at Sevres just outside Paris.
    • In 1954 Jacques Chapelon (1884-1973) retired from his positions in Paris which provided vacant positions for which Ferrand applied.
    • In 1956 [Jacqueline Ferrand] and her husband, Pierre Lelong, also professor at the University of Paris, were in residence at the Institute for Advanced Study, carrying on research on Riemann manifolds and functions of several complex variables, respectively.
    • On returning from Princeton, Ferrand took up her chair at the University of Paris, a position she continued to hold until she retired in 1984.
    • During these years when she taught in Paris, she published a number of textbooks aimed at undergraduate teaching based on courses she had delivered.

  300. Fresnel biography
    • He had the right interests, skills, and background for such a career and it was with this in mind that he entered the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1804.
    • By 20 March many troops had joined Napoleon and he had reached Paris.
    • He was transferred to an engineering post in Rennes but continually requested leave so that he could go to Paris to continue his scientific investigations.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  301. Cartier biography
    • In order to prepare for entry into the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, Cartier left Sedan and went to Paris where he attended the Lycee Saint-Louis [',' M Senechal, The continuing silence of Bourbaki - an interview with Pierre Cartier, June 18, 1997, Math.
    • He also learnt much from Samuel Eilenberg who was spending a year in Paris working with Henri Cartan on their book Homological algebra.
    • Weil was by this time on the faculty of the University of Chicago in the United States but he returned to Paris every summer when Cartier could discuss his progress.
    • Following his delivery of Drinfeld's lecture in 1986, he delivered the paper Sur le developpement des mathematiques de 1870 a 1970: quelques exemples d'interaction avec la physique Ⓣ at the Colloquium on Mathematics and Physics held in Paris from 17 to 19 October 1988.

  302. Auslander biography
    • After holding this post for a year, Auslander was awarded an NSF Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship which enabled him to spend the academic year 1961-62 at the University of Paris.
    • The academic year 1965-66 was spent on a second year-long visit to the University of Paris, and in 1970-71 he held two visiting positions, first at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne and then at Queen Mary College in London, England.
    • He was an NSF Senior Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Paris in 1961-62, a Fulbright Fellow at the University of Uruguay, Montevideo, in the summer of 1965, a Visiting Professor at the University of Paris in 1965-66, a Senior Research Fellow at Queen Mary College, University of London in the spring of 1971, Guggenheim Fellow at the University of Trondheim in the spring of 1979, Visiting Professor at the University of Bielefeld in the summer of 1984 and again in the summer of 1985, Visiting Professor at the University of Paderborn in the summer of 1988, Norwegian Research Council Guest researcher at the University of Trondheim in 1989-90, Visiting Professor at the University of Paderborn in the summer of 1990, Norwegian Research Council Guest researcher at the University of Trondheim in winter 1991, Adjunct Professor at the University of Trondheim in 1992-94, and awarded a Humboldt Senior Research Fellowship in 1994.
    • He enjoyed the company of old friends, wandered through the streets and gardens of Paris; appreciated for the last time his favourite painting, a self-portrait of Rembrandt, in London; and enjoyed the Munch museum in Oslo.

  303. Hurewicz biography
    • At that time my future was discussed, and it was agreed that I should visit Western Europe first (Paris, Zurich, Oxford, and Cambridge) before moving to America.
    • In the fall of 1936 I started implementing this plan and went to Paris for a six-month stay.
    • During the summer of 1953 he was in Paris, lecturing on 'Homotopy' at the College de France, then flying back from Paris to Boston on 7 August on Air France.
    • He also spent the summer of 1954 visiting Europe, attending the International Congress of Mathematicians in Amsterdam from 2 September to 9 September, then visiting Paris from where he flew back to Boston on 16 September on Air France.

  304. Quillen biography
    • He was a Sloan Fellow at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris during academic year 1968-69 when he was greatly influenced by Alexander Grothendieck.
    • During the year in Paris, Quillen presented his typical personal characteristics: a gentle good nature, modesty, a casual and boyish appearance unaltered by his prematurely graying hair, and his already ample family life.
    • Quillen was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton during 1969-70 when he was strongly influenced by Michael Atiyah, and a Guggenheim Fellow ,again at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris, during 1973-74.
    • Dennis Sullivan also spent the year 1973-74 at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris.
    • Clearly Quillen's year spent in Paris under Grothendieck's influence and at Princeton working with Atiyah were important factors in Quillen's development of algebraic K-theory.

  305. Padoa biography
    • He lectured at congresses in Paris (1900, 1935), Rome (1908), Cambridge (1912), Livorno, Parma, Padua, Bologna (1911, 1928) and Florence (1937).
    • He gave the important lecture Essay of an algebraic theory of whole numbers, preceded by a logical introduction to any deductive theory at the International Congress of Philosophy in Paris in 1900.
    • This result was first made public in his lecture at the Paris Congress referred to above.
    • Immediately following the Congress of Philosophy in Paris, the Second International Congress of Mathematicians took place in 1900.
    • M Padoa - previously my distinguished student and now my colleague and my friend - has given to this subject, since 1898, a series of well-attended conferences in the Universities of Brussels, Pavia, Rome, Padua, Cagliari and Geneva, and has presented highly regarded papers to the Congresses of philosophy and mathematics in Paris, Livorno, Parma, Padua and Bologna.

  306. Castelnuovo Emma biography
    • 35 (UNESCO Paris, 1989), 51-52.','13] that she found the answer to this wish in the treatise of geometry Elements de geometrie Ⓣ by Alexis-Claude Clairaut, published in Paris in 1741 and translated into Italian in 1751.
    • 35 (UNESCO Paris, 1989), 51-52.','13].
    • All these streams of reform related to modern, or new, mathematics met in 1959 at an international seminar held in Royaumont, near Paris, see [',' D De Bock and G Vanpaemel, Modern mathematics at the 1959 OEEC Seminar at Royaumont, in K Bjarnadottir, F Furinghetti, J Prytz and G Schubring (eds.), ’Dig where you stand’ 3 (Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, to appear).','16], [',' F Furinghetti, M Menghini, F Arzarello and L Giacardi, ICMI Renaissance: the emergence of new issues in mathematics education, in M Menghini, F Furinghetti, L Giacardi and F Arzarello (eds.), The first century of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (1908-2008).

  307. Davies biography
    • Now the person who influenced Davies most during these years was Paul Dienes, a Hungarian who had worked under Emile Borel and Jacques Hadamard in Paris.
    • Dienes had become interested in this topic after leaving Paris because of its applications to relativity theory.
    • He returned to Wales to recover, which took the best part of a year, before moving to his next European capital Paris in 1928.
    • In Paris he spent time at the Sorbonne and at the College de France where he was greatly influenced by Elie Cartan.

  308. Kummer biography
    • During the 22 to 24 February 1848 insurrection in Paris, king Louis-Philippe was overthrown.
    • The Paris Academy of Sciences awarded Kummer the Grand Prize in 1857 for this work.
    • Soon after Kummer was awarded the Grand Prix he was elected to membership of the Paris Academy of Sciences and then, in 1863, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  309. Mittag-Leffler biography
    • In October 1873 Mittag-Leffler set off for Paris.
    • Although Mittag-Leffler met many mathematicians in Paris, such as Bouquet, Briot, Chasles, Darboux, and Liouville, the main aim of the visit was to learn from Hermite.
    • His stay in Paris is described in detail in a diary he kept.
    • I got a vivid impression of the sharp tension between academic circles in Paris and Berlin during my visits to the two capitals.

  310. Drach biography
    • On 19 September the German army began to blockade Paris which surrendered on 28 January 1871.
    • After attending the College, he went to the Lycee in Nancy, which was to the north west of Saint Die, then to Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris at the age of 18.
    • After an appointment at Toulouse, Drach was appointed to the Chair of Analytical Mechanics and Higher Analysis at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1913.
    • The importance of his contributions were recognised when he was elected to the Academy of Sciences on 10 June 1929 but because of his health problems he could spend little time in Paris and spent most of the year in the warm south of France.

  311. De Rham biography
    • Encouraged by Dumas to undertake research in topology, he spent two periods, each of 7 months, in Paris between 1926 and 1928.
    • While in Paris, de Rham read all the topology books he could find and, importantly for the work he went on to do, he read James Alexander's paper Note on two three dimensional manifolds with the same group.
    • After his second visit to Paris, he returned to Lausanne in the autumn of 1928 and again taught at the College and the Gymnase.
    • He was awarded his doctorate in mathematical sciences from the Faculty of Science, University of Paris, in 1931 after defending his 87-page thesis Sur "l'Analysis situs" des varietes a "n" dimensions Ⓣ on 20 June before a committee consisting of Elie Cartan (who was the president), Paul Montel and Gaston Julia.

  312. Hirst biography
    • From Berlin Hirst made the journey to Paris where he spent two months attending lectures by Liouville and Lame.
    • Leaving the south of France they settled in Paris where Hirst continued with his mathematical researches, publishing two papers on which he had begun to work while at Gottingen.
    • Hirst began to attend lectures again in Paris and his own researches into geometry progressed well.
    • In August 1858 he left Paris to spend a year in Italy.

  313. Antoine biography
    • In Paris, Antoine was awarded a baccalaureate in Latin and Sciences in 1905 and, in the following year, a baccalaureate in mathematics.
    • Gaston Julia relates the events that followed ([',' G Julia, Notice necrologique sur Louis Antoine, Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences de Paris 272 (8 March 1971), 71-74.','13] or [',' G Julia, Notice necrologigue sur Louis Antoine, correspondant de l’Academie pour la section de geometrie, in Journee Louis Antoine (Univ.
    • He is evacuated to Paris to the hospital annex Val-de-Grace, where the wounded from the front are treated.
    • He took on several administrative roles at the university but refused the position of Dean of Science since that position would have involved him in making journeys to Paris and he disliked travelling.

  314. Ahlfors biography
    • After Zurich, Ahlfors went to Paris with Nevanlinna for three months before returning to Finland.
    • In Paris he met Arnaud Denjoy who told him that 21 had now become his favourite number since his conjecture was solved by a 21 year old mathematician 21 years after he made it.
    • In the year 1930-32 Ahlfors made a number of visits to Paris, supported by a fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation, and to other European centres.
    • From Glasgow they travelled by train to London, then they made the difficult journey across the Channel to Dieppe, across France via Paris to Switzerland.

  315. Titeica biography
    • Teachers at the school, and Țițeica's friends, all encouraged him to go to Paris and study further mathematics, and this he did in 1897 when he entered the Ecole Normale Superieure.
    • After Țițeica left Paris, his close friend Lebesgue wrote about Țițeica in a letter to one of his friends (see [',' F Nicolescu and L Nicolescu, Gheorghe Tzitzeica - Romanian scientist of recognition, Balkan J.
    • Țițeica flourished in Paris having teachers and friends with outstanding mathematical abilities who inspired him to produce excellent research.
    • He gave lecture courses at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1926, 1930 and 1937.

  316. Gergonne biography
    • After the King was returned to Paris, the Assembly reinforced the frontiers of France by calling for 100,000 volunteers from the National Guard.
    • The Assembly called for 100,000 military volunteers and Gergonne joined the French army being assembled to defend Paris against the Prussians.
    • Following this great French victory, Gergonne went to Paris where he became a secretary to his uncle.
    • His career was much influenced by Monge who, by this time, was Director of the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  317. Study biography
    • Klein then told both Study and Hilbert that they should visit Paris.
    • Klein had given them instructions as to which of the Paris mathematicians they should visit and they did as he told them, alternately writing to Klein about their experiences.
    • In Paris, Camille Jordan gave a dinner for Study and Hilbert to which George-Henri Halphen, Amedee Mannheim and Gaston Darboux were invited.
    • Study returned to Germany and reported in person to Klein about his Paris visit.

  318. Doeblin biography
    • The sojourn in Zurich lasted for the summer 1933 only; the family settled in Paris after that.
    • Doeblin immediately made a strong impression in Paris; Frechet was his adviser, but Doeblin also got in touch with Paul Levy, with whom he wrote his first note.
    • In February 1940, the Nazi invasion was expected to come in the spring to follow, and Doeblin decided to file his work on diffusions at the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • Paris, Serie I 331 (2000).','1], [',' B Bru, La vie et l’oeuvre de W Doeblin (1915-1940) d’apres les archives parisiennes, Math.

  319. Mocnik biography
    • In July 1830 there had been a revolution in Paris and the French royal family, who were members of the Bourbon dynasty, had fled from Paris and, after living first in Edinburgh, then in Prague, had moved to Gorizia in 1835.
    • Augustin-Louis Cauchy, who was an enthusiastic royalist, had left Paris in September 1830 for a self-imposed exile.
    • Cauchy left Gorizia and returned to Paris in 1838.

  320. Geary biography
    • in 1918 and won a Travelling Scholarship which enabled him to continue to study at the Sorbonne in Paris beginning in 1919.
    • This team, which contained 10 players from the north and one from the south, played France in Paris in that year.
    • Geary was studying in Paris at this time and, along with three fellow students, they stationed themselves one on each of the four sides of the pitch carrying a tri-colour, the flag symbolising Irish nationalism.
    • After returning from Paris, he was offered a lectureship in mathematics and mathematical physics at the University of Southampton.

  321. Leimanis biography
    • Immediately he was on his travels again, this time going to Paris where he spent a year at the Henri Poincare Institute undertaking research on differential equations and celestial mechanics.
    • He made the most of the very active mathematical scene in Paris for he also attended Hadamard's seminar, and attended courses at the College de France and the University of Paris.
    • Leaving Paris in the summer of 1936, he went to Oslo to attend the International Congress of Mathematicians.

  322. Zorawski biography
    • From her earnings as the Zorawski family governess she aimed to finance her sister Bronia's medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would in turn later help her to get an education.
    • It was in 1891 that Maria Sklodowska went to Paris to begin her education supported by her sister, and Kazimierz and Maria's hopes of being able to marry finally came to an end.
    • A government grant allowed Zorawski to visit both Leipzig and Paris during the winter semester 1901-02 to further his studies.
    • Of course, as is well known, Maria Sklodowska married Pierre Curie in Paris in 1895.

  323. Dechales biography
    • Dechales lectured at Jesuit colleges, first in Paris where for four years he taught at the College de Clermont, then at he taught at Colleges in Lyons and Chambery.
    • Other work by Dechales included L'art de fortifier, de defendre et d'attaquer les places, suivant les methodes francoises, hollandoises, italiennes et espagnoles Ⓣ (Paris, 1677), and L'art de naviger demontre par principes et confirme par plusieurs observations tirees de l'experience Ⓣ (Paris, 1677).
    • A second edition was published in 1683, then an edition revised by Ozanam was published in Paris in 1753.

  324. Sylow biography
    • Ole Jacob Broch had studied mathematics at Christiania University after which he travelled to Paris, Berlin and Konigsberg where he studied a range of mathematical topics, particularly optics and statistics.
    • In 1861 Sylow obtained a scholarship to travel and visited Berlin and Paris.
    • In Paris he attended lectures by Michel Chasles on the theory of conics, by Joseph Liouville on rational mechanics and by Jean-Marie Duhamel on the theory of limits.
    • It is interesting to note that no lectures in algebra or the theory of equations are mentioned from his stay either in Paris or in Berlin.

  325. Thomson biography
    • In fact Thomson also read Laplace's Mecanique celeste in session 1839-40 and visited Paris during this session.
    • His interest in the French approach, and advice from his father, meant that after taking his degree Thomson went to Paris.
    • Perhaps the most profitable discussions that Thomson had in Paris were with Liouville.
    • Thomson returned from Paris to Glasgow and, in 1846, was unanimously elected professor of natural philosophy at the University.

  326. Lefschetz biography
    • Shortly after Solomon was born his family set up home in Paris.
    • He trained to be an engineer at the Ecole Centrale in Paris from 1902 to 1905 and there attended lectures by Emile Picard and Paul Appell.
    • For his remarkable contributions during this period he was awarded the Prix Bordin by the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1919 and the Bocher Memorial Prize from the American Mathematical Society in 1923 for his 1921 paper we mentioned above.
    • He was awarded honorary degrees from the universities of Paris, Prague, Mexico, Clark, Brown, and Princeton.

  327. Oka biography
    • In fact 1929 was a very significant year for Oka for in that year he took sabbatical leave and went to the University of Paris.
    • He became interested in unsolved problems in the theory of functions of several complex variables while working in Paris.
    • The reason that his work took this direction was that in Paris he became acquainted with Julia.
    • Oka remained on the staff at the Imperial University of Kyoto while he was on leave in Paris but on his return to Japan in 1932 he accepted a position as assistant professor in the Faculty of Science of Hiroshima University.

  328. Nicollet biography
    • Wishing to further his education, he went to Paris and attended the Ecole Normale Superieur.
    • He taught in Paris for a brief period before, in 1817, becoming secretary and librarian at the Paris Observatory.
    • He continued teaching mathematics and, in 1818, he gives his posts as Astronomer attached to the Royal Observatory in Paris and Professor of Mathematics at the College of Louis-Le-Grand.

  329. Feldbau biography
    • Feldbau was eleven years old in 1925 and he spent the school year 1925-26 at the rabbinical school in Paris.
    • In July 1939 he became the French university champion at the 200 metres butterfly in the Tourelles swimming pool in Paris.
    • German forces entered Paris on 14 June and a couple of days later France requested armistice terms but fighting continued.
    • From there he was taken to the concentration camp at Drancy near Paris, a standard holding place for French Jews who were being sent to the extermination camps in Poland.

  330. Cramer biography
    • From England Cramer made his way to Leiden where he met 'sGravesande, then he moved on to Paris where he had discussions with Fontenelle, Maupertuis, Buffon, Clairaut, and others.
    • Back in Geneva in 1729, Cramer was at work on an entry for the prize set by the Paris Academy for 1730, which was "Quelle est la cause de la figure elliptique des planetes et de la mobilite de leurs aphelies?" Ⓣ Cramer's entry was judged as the second best of those received by the Academy, the prize being won by Johann Bernoulli.
    • He published articles in various places including the Memoirs of the Paris Academy in 1734, and of the Berlin Academy in 1748, 1750 and 1752.
    • He made a second trip abroad in 1747, this time only visiting Paris where he renewed his friendship with Fontenelle as well as meeting d'Alembert.

  331. Amsler biography
    • None of his other inventions came close to the polar planimeter in importance, but they were of sufficient quality to win him prizes at the world exhibition at Vienna in 1873, at Paris in 1881, and again in Paris in 1889.
    • His brilliance was recognised with election to the Paris Academie des Sciences in 1892.

  332. Le Cam biography
    • I shortly left for Paris.
    • Rather than wait to try again in the following June, Le Cam began to take courses at the University of Paris.
    • He continued to take University of Paris courses in calculus and rational mechanics but needed a third course to obtain a diploma.

  333. Tarry biography
    • He attended the Lycee Saint-Louis in Paris where he became interested in mathematics.
    • Tarry explained how he became involved with such magic squares (see [','G Tarry, Le carre trimagique de 128, Compte Rendu de la 34eme Session Cherbourg 1905 (AFAS-Masson, Paris, 1906), 34-45.','7] and [','C Boyer, Trimagic square 128th-order: http://www.multimagie.com/English/Trimagic128.htm','1]):- .
    • It had order 128 and was presented in [','G Tarry, Le carre trimagique de 128, Compte Rendu de la 34eme Session Cherbourg 1905 (AFAS-Masson, Paris, 1906), 34-45.','7] (See also [','C Boyer, Trimagic square 128th-order: http://www.multimagie.com/English/Trimagic128.htm','1]).

  334. Manfredi biography
    • From around 1700 Manfredi was also supported by Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsili (1658-1730), a soldier and naturalist who was engaged in military campaigns but, nevertheless, wished to create an academy in Bologna similar to the Royal Society in London and the Academy of Sciences in Paris.
    • Giovanni Cassini, who had been professor in Bologna for many years, was by this time head of the Paris Observatory but kept in close contact with developments in Bologna.
    • In 1715 Manfredi, assisted by his sisters and his students, completed his two-volume Ephemerides motuum coelestium Ⓣ for 1715-1725 which was based on the observations of Giovanni Cassini at the Paris Observatory.

  335. Heegaard biography
    • Following Zeuthen's advice, he went to Paris in August 1883.
    • It has often been assumed that Heegaard's interest in Poincare's work started in Paris.
    • 1-136 with several lacunae and inserts.','5], Heegaard indicates that he never met Poincare and he laments that his visit to Paris was mathematically very disappointing.

  336. Eilenberg biography
    • Eilenberg became a member of the Bourbaki team spending 1950-51 as a visiting professor in Paris and participating in the two week summer meetings until 1966.
    • He had been awarded Fulbright and Guggenheim scholarships to fund his year in Paris.
    • However as we mentioned above Eilenberg spent 1950-51 in Paris and it was during this time that they made remarkable progress.

  337. Bers biography
    • With little choice but to escape again, Bers fled to Paris where his daughter Ruth was born.
    • Just days before Paris surrendered to the advancing armies, Bers and his family moved from Paris to a part of France not yet under attack from the advancing German armies.

  338. Stormer biography
    • In 1899 he was awarded a five year fellowship which enabled him to continue his studies abroad for, by this time, he was in Paris.
    • Størmer was honoured in many ways: he was elected to several Scandinavian academies, the Royal Society of London and the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • The Paris Academy of Sciences awarded him their Janssen Medal in 1922.

  339. Lamy biography
    • At the age of eighteen he went to Paris and entered the Maison d'Institution as a novice of the Jesuit Order on 6 October 1658.
    • In 1686 Lamy obtained permission to live in Paris, spending a while at the seminary of Saint Magloire, but trouble over a theological work had him sent away from Paris in 1689.

  340. De Moivre biography
    • Abraham de Moivre was born in Vitry-le-Francois, which is about halfway between Paris and Nancy, where his father worked as a surgeon.
    • By this time de Moivre's parents had gone to live in Paris so it was natural for him to go there.
    • After sight and hearing had successively failed, he was still capable of rapturous delight at his election as a foreign associate of the Paris Academy of Sciences on 27 June 1754.

  341. May biography
    • Kenneth and Ruth May spent the winter of 1938-39 in Paris where May continued his studies of statistics and economics at the Sorbonne.
    • In the summer of 1939 they left Paris on a visit to the Soviet Union and May discussed his ideas with academics in Moscow, Kiev and Kharkov.
    • In 1968 May attended the International Congress on the History of Science in Paris and discussed with Rene Taton and Adolph Pavlovich Yushkevich the need for a specialist journal on the history of mathematics.

  342. Sullivan biography
    • Sullivan spent the academic year 1973-74 in France visiting the University of Paris-Orsay.
    • He was invited to become a permanent professor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique outside Paris and, he took up this position in 1974.
    • In 1996 Sullivan resigned from his professorship in Paris to take up a professorship in mathematics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, continuing to hold his part-time position at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

  343. Boruvka biography
    • An obvious choice, suggested Čech, was Paris where Boruvka could work with Elie Cartan.
    • He spent 1926-27 in Paris, where he lectured on his solution to the Minimal Spanning Tree problem, then returned to Masaryk University in Brno where he habilitated and was made a dozent in 1928.
    • He spent further years abroad, going back to Paris in 1929-30 where his visit was supported by the Rockefeller foundation.

  344. Lerch biography
    • In 1900 Lerch was awarded the Grand Prix from the Academy of Sciences in Paris for his paper Essais sur le calcul du nombre des classes de formes quadratiques binaires aux ceoffcients entiers Ⓣ and he used the prize money to repay the debt he had with Prague City Council.
    • Therefore, it is not surprising that thirty-six year old Matyaš Lerch, who it appears had directed his criticism and sharp wit against the mentioned dignities, despite being the author of about 120 scientific papers published in many international journals and having lectured on the results in these at the University of Paris, despite being an associate member of the Royal Czech Academy of Sciences and of the Czech Academy since 1893, was not able to find a reasonable position in his Czech homeland after ten years of being an instructor in Prague, and therefore had to move abroad.
    • As we mentioned above, Lerch won the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1900 with a work on number theory, a great honour for any mathematician and an even greater achievement for a mathematician from outside France.

  345. Leray biography
    • In Paris he worked on hydrodynamics.
    • In 1933 Juliusz Schauder arrived in Paris on a Rockefeller scholarship to work with Hadamard.
    • Leray continued to work on topological questions after his return to Paris where he became professor at the College de France in 1947.

  346. Agnesi biography
    • In [',' C de Brosses, Lettres historique et critiques sur l’Italie (Paris, 1799).','4] de Brosses describes one such evening which took place on 16 July 1739:- .
    • Again we quote [',' C de Brosses, Lettres historique et critiques sur l’Italie (Paris, 1799).','4] where de Brosses wrote:- .
    • A report on it made by a committee of the Academie des Sciences in Paris states:- .

  347. Al-Tusi Sharaf biography
    • (Paris, 1986).','4]):- .
    • 12 (1974), 244-290.','14] contribute to this discussion; see also [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2], [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3] and [',' R Rashed (ed.), Sharaf al-Din Al-Tusi.
    • (Paris, 1986).','4] for further insights.

  348. Pompeiu biography
    • After graduating from secondary school, he went to Bucharest where he studied at the Normal Teachers School which was modelled on the Ecole Normale in Paris.
    • After being given leave of absence from school teaching, Pompeiu went to Paris in 1898 to continue his mathematical studies.
    • The thesis was published in Paris in 1905 and, in the same year, was also published in the Annales de la faculte des sciences de Toulouse.

  349. Bocher biography
    • His final book was Lecons sur les methodes de Sturm dans la theorie des equations differentielles lineaires et leurs developpements modernes (1917) which was a record of lectures he gave in Paris in 1913-14 when he was Harvard Exchange Professor at the University of Paris.
    • Although he was only 46 years old when he spent the year in Paris there was already signs that his health, which had never been particularly strong, was failing.

  350. Halphen biography
    • Shortly after this his mother moved from Rouen to Paris where George-Henri was brought up.
    • Two weeks later the Germans besieged Paris which surrendered on 28 January 1871.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  351. Aubert biography
    • Although based at the University of Oslo where he held a fellowship, Aubert made several long-term study trips Paris.
    • In 1954, Karl Egil Aubert was in Paris, very much interested in valuation theory and participating in Krasner's seminar.
    • es sciences from the University of Paris for his thesis Contributions a la theorie des ideaux et a la theorie des valuations Ⓣ.

  352. Quetelet biography
    • Dandelin had then gone to Paris to study, had fought for Napoleon but returned to Belgium after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.
    • In December 1823, he went to Paris to study astronomy at the Observatory there.
    • Quetelet had been sent to Paris at the expense of the state in order that he could gain experience in practical astronomy.

  353. Klein biography
    • Clebsch had moved to Gottingen in 1868 and, during 1869, Klein made visits to Berlin and Paris and Gottingen.
    • In July 1870 Klein was in Paris when Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor, published a provocative message aimed at infuriating the French government.
    • France declared war on Prussia on the 19th of July and Klein felt he could no longer remain in Paris and returned.

  354. Al-Kashi biography
    • Rashed (see [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','5] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','6]) puts al-Kashi's important contribution into perspective.
    • Rashed also writes (see [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','5] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','6]):- .
    • In later work Rashed shows (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','5] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','6]) that Al-Kashi was again describing methods which were present in the work of mathematicians of al-Karaji's school, in particular al-Samawal.

  355. Galileo biography
    • A few days later the report was confirmed by a letter I received from a Frenchman in Paris, Jacques Badovere, which caused me to apply myself wholeheartedly to investigate means by which I might arrive at the invention of a similar instrument.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  356. Barbier biography
    • His reputation in Paris, however, was such that he had impressed his teachers there with his deep understanding.
    • He was offered a post at the Paris Observatory by Le Verrier and Barbier left Nice to begin work as an assistant astronomer.
    • He left the Paris Observatory in 1865 after only a few years of working there.

  357. Bidone biography
    • However, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, the French army invaded north Italy in March 1796 and the Peace of Paris on 15 May 1796, saw Piedmont annexed by France.
    • Benjamin Nadault de Buffon (1804-1880), after visiting northern Italy, claimed that the Piedmont legislation was the most modern and he proposed it as a model for France (see Des Canaux d'arrosage de l'Italie septentrionale dans leur rapports avec ceux du Midi de la France Ⓣ (Carilian-Goeury and V Dalmnt, Paris, 1843-1844)).
    • Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette was so impressed with these facilities that he described it with excitement, and proposed it as a model for a similar establishment to be constructed near to Paris, fed by the Ourc canal.

  358. Kaluznin biography
    • World War II and the occupation of Paris by German troops forced Kaluznin to terminate his mathematical studies.
    • On 22 June 1941 his life changed dramatically - as did the lives of many Soviet citizens, who, like Kaluznin, were interned and sent to a camp in Compiegne near Paris.
    • In the Spring of 1945 Kaluznin returned to Paris.

  359. Tate biography
    • National Academy of Sciences in 1969 and to the Academie de Sciences in Paris in 1992.
    • In the first semester of the academic year 1980-81 Tate gave a course of lectures on Stark's conjectures at Universite de Paris-Sud (Orsay).
    • On 24 May 2000, Atiyah and Tate presented the Clay Mathematics Institute Millennium Prize Problems in Paris.

  360. Rejewski biography
    • The three Polish mathematicians were evacuated to Paris which they reached before the end of September.
    • In October they joined a joint French-Polish-Spanish decoding unit at the Chateau de Vignolles north east of Paris and by the end of the year they were again managing to decode messages sent by the German Enigma machines.
    • In May 1940 Germany invaded France, and on 14 June German troops entered Paris.

  361. Weyr biography
    • In the summer of 1870, Weyr began preparing to go to Paris having been awarded a state scholarship to fund his visit.
    • In Paris he planned to attend lectures by Charles Hermite, Joseph Alfred Serret, Michel Chasles, and other leading mathematicians.
    • He made up for having had to cancel an earlier trip to Paris when he went there for a holiday in 1874.

  362. Bunyakovsky biography
    • Bunyakovskii was first educated at home and then went abroad, obtaining a doctorate from Paris in 1825 after working under Cauchy.
    • In 1826 Bunyakovskii left Paris and returned to St Petersburg.
    • Two years after his return to St Petersburg from Paris, Bunyakovskii became an adjunct in mathematics at the Academy, then he was named an extraordinary academician in 1830 (here extraordinary means the same as in the German system, the equivalent of an associate professor in the present American system).

  363. Popoviciu biography
    • He graduated from the University of Bucharest in 1927 and, despite having to compete against strong competition, he was admitted to the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris later that year.
    • During his time in Paris, he attended courses given by world-leading mathematicians such as: Emile Picard, Edouard Goursat, Jacques Hadamard, Elie Cartan, Paul Montel, Ernest Vessiot, Gaston Julia, and Jean Chazy.
    • Most of the results concerning the theory of convex functions of higher order are contained in his famous book Les fonctions convexes Ⓣ, Actualites Scientifique et Industrielles, Paris, 1944.

  364. Minkowski biography
    • In 1881 the Academy of Sciences (Paris) announced that the Grand Prix for mathematical science to be awarded in 1883 would be for a solution to the problem of the number of representations of an integer as the sum of five squares.
    • Less well known is the fact that Minkowski actually suggested to Hilbert what he should take as the theme for his famous 1900 lecture in Paris.
    • Minkowski acted as one of the secretaries at the 1900 ICM in Paris, and gave a talk in section I at the 1904 ICM in Heidelberg, entitled Zur Geometrie der Zahlen (On the Geometry of Numbers).

  365. Coolidge biography
    • After spending two years in Europe, Coolidge returned to Harvard where he taught for most of his career (the exception being 1927 when he returned to the Sorbonne in Paris as an exchange professor).
    • He was liaison officer to the French General Staff in Paris, where he had 2000 American men under his command, from 1918 to 1919.
    • In 1936 he returned to Paris to receive further honours from the French Government.

  366. Kurepa biography
    • He went to Paris in 1932 to undertake research at the Faculty of Science and the College de France.
    • In Paris Kurepa was advised by Maurice Frechet and he submitted his thesis Ensembles ordonnes et ramifies Ⓣ to the Sorbonne in 1935.
    • After the award of his doctorate Kurepa continued to undertake research, first at the University of Warsaw, then in 1937 back again in Paris.

  367. Lavrentev biography
    • He studied under Luzin from 1922 to 1926, then in 1927, after successfully defending his candidate's thesis on set theory, he was sent to France to study in Paris for six months.
    • This was due to the Paris school where variational methods in the theory of conformal mappings were being developed.
    • He was elected to the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1957), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1966), the International Academy of Astronautics (corresponding member 1966, full member 1970), the Berlin Academy of Science (1969), the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (1969), the Paris Academy of Sciences (1971), the German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina (1971), and the Polish Academy of Sciences (1971).

  368. Konig Denes biography
    • He obtained his doctorate in 1907 from the Technical University of Budapest for his thesis Elementary Discussion of Rotations and Finite Rotation Group of a Space of Many Dimensions (Hungarian) [',' M Wate Mizuno, The works of Konig Denes (1884-1944) in the domain of mathematical recreations and his treatment of the recreational problems in his works of graph theory (Thesis, University of Paris, Diderot (Paris 7), 3 December 2010).','2]:- .
    • In 1914 he attended the Congres de philosophie mathematique in Paris where he gave a lecture in which he presented a graph theory result known today as the 'Theorem of Konig'.

  369. Polya biography
    • He received an offer of an appointment at Frankfurt but, before taking up this appointment, he went to Paris for a short visit early in 1914, meeting Emile Picard and Hadamard but not enjoying his visit a great deal mainly due to dreadful accommodation.
    • Therefore when Polya learnt during his stay in Paris that Hurwitz had arranged an appointment as Privatdozent for him at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, where Hurwitz himself held the chair of mathematics, Polya decided to accept [',' D J Albers and G L Alexanderson (eds.), Mathematical People: Profiles and Interviews (Boston, 1985), 245-254.','4]:- .
    • he was a corresponding member of the Academie des Sciences in Paris.

  370. Pastur biography
    • He served as a part-time Professor at Kharkov State University from 1978 to 1994, and then as Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University Paris 7, Denis Diderot, from 1995 to 2004.
    • In Paris, Pastur had other appointments, namely as Head of Department of Theoretical Physics at the University Paris 7, Denis Diderot, from 2003.

  371. DAdhemar biography
    • He then studied at the Lycee Ampere at Lyon, which he entered on 1 October 1891, preparing for the entrance examination for the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris.
    • From 1898 he began teaching at the Saint Francois boarding school in Evreux, about 90 km to the west of Paris, in fact the letter we just quoted from was sent from Evreux.
    • He wrote several works on ballistics such as La balistique exterieure Ⓣ, Gauthier-Villars (Paris, 1934) and Theorie du mouvement gyroscopique des projectiles Ⓣ (1939).

  372. Wiles biography
    • He was appointed a professor at Princeton the following year and, also during 1982, he spent a while as a visiting professor in Paris.
    • Wiles was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship which enabled him to visit the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique in Paris and also the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris during 1985-86.

  373. Floquet biography
    • Gaston Floquet studied at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris and while there he won a place at the Ecole Normale Superieure which he entered in 1869.
    • Floquet submitted his doctoral thesis Sur la theorie des equations differentielles lineaires Ⓣ to the Faculty of Science in Paris on 8 April 1879.
    • He was a very successful head, creating a number of Institutes which helped to make Nancy the leading scientific research centre outside Paris.

  374. Calugareanu biography
    • In 1926 Calugăreănu went to Paris to study at the university there.
    • In Paris he met the leading mathematicians of the day.
    • Calugăreănu was awarded a "licence in science" from the University of Paris in 1926, then he was awarded his doctorate in 1928 after submitting his dissertation Sur les fonctions polygenes d'une variable complexe Ⓣ.

  375. Fejer biography
    • In this paper, submitted to the Paris Academy of Sciences on 10 December 1900, he proved: .
    • Henri Poincare, Paris, 1981), 67-84.','8], its discovery restored to Fourier series a fundamental role in analysis for at least fifty years.
    • Fejer spent the winter of 1902-3 on a visit to Gottingen, attending lectures by David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski, and the summer of 1903 in Paris where he attended lectures by Emile Picard and Jacques Hadamard.

  376. Yamabe biography
    • Of course most of Yamabe's time in secondary school and high school had been during the years of World War II [',' Biographical note, in R P Boas (ed.), Collected works of Hidehiko Yamabe (Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, New York-London-Paris, 1967), v-vi.','2]:- .
    • By this time, however, Yamabe had returned to Japan [',' Biographical note, in R P Boas (ed.), Collected works of Hidehiko Yamabe (Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, New York-London-Paris, 1967), v-vi.','2]:- .
    • Yamabe died of a stroke aged 37 not long after taking up the appointment at Northwestern University [',' Biographical note, in R P Boas (ed.), Collected works of Hidehiko Yamabe (Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, New York-London-Paris, 1967), v-vi.','2]:- .

  377. Ehresmann biography
    • In 1924 Ehresmann entered the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • Ehresmann's doctorate was awarded by Paris in 1934.
    • Ehresmann followed the moves of the university then, in 1955, a chair of topology was specially created for him in the University of Paris.

  378. Al-Karaji biography
    • The version al-Karkhi was proposed by Woepcke (see [',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’Algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi (Paris, 1853).','7] or [',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi, Reprint of the 1853 original (Hildesheim, 1982).','8]) but al-Karaji, the version which is most often used in texts today, was suggested as most likely by della Vida in 1933.
    • Woepcke in [',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’Algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi (Paris, 1853).','7] (see also the reprint [',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi, Reprint of the 1853 original (Hildesheim, 1982).','8]) was the first historian to realise the importance of al-Karaji's work and later historians mostly agree with his interpretation.
    • Woepcke in his introduction to Al-Fakhri ([',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’Algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi (Paris, 1853).','7] or [',' F Woepcke, Extrait du Fakhri, traite d’algebre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi, Reprint of the 1853 original (Hildesheim, 1982).','8]) writes that he found:- .

  379. Mellin biography
    • One of his teachers was the Swedish mathematician Gosta Mittag-Leffler who, after studies in Paris and Berlin, was appointed as a professor at the University of Helsinki in 1876.
    • To describe Mellin's mathematical contributions we take a paragraph directly from Richard Paris [',' Richard Paris, Hjalmar Mellin, Personal communication (December 1998).','2]:- .

  380. Lyra biography
    • In Paris, Lyra attended Henri Cartan's seminar on fibre spaces.
    • Carlos de Lyra and Leda Lacerda became partners and lived in the Hotel des Grands Hommes in Paris.
    • This paper contained results he had obtained while in Paris but also some further results.

  381. Kramp biography
    • In 1788, when he was twenty-eight years old, he went to Paris where he practised as a doctor.
    • They suffered defeats and soon the allies invaded French territory, advancing towards Paris.
    • He followed this with the mathematical textbooks Elements d'arithmetique Ⓣ (Cologne-Paris, 1801), where again on the title page the author is given as "citizen Kramp" and the date is given as the 9th year of the Republic, and Elements de geometrie Ⓣ (Cologne, 1806), where now the author is C Kramp and there is no dating by year of the Republic.

  382. Weinstein biography
    • He therefore had to give up the chance of working with Einstein and instead he went to the College de France in Paris where he worked with Hadamard.
    • He was awarded the degree of Docteur es Sciences Mathematiques by Paris in 1937.
    • By 1940 World War II caught up with Weinstein in Paris and he left for the United States.

  383. Deligne biography
    • Although Deligne was an undergraduate at the Free University of Brussels from 1962 to 1966, he spent the academic year 1965-66 at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • For example he was awarded the Francois Deruyts prize by the Royal Belgium Academy of Science in June 1974, the Henri Poincare medal by the Paris Academy of Sciences in December 1974, and the Doctor A De Leeuw-Damry-Bourlart Prize by the Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique in 1975.
    • He has been elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1978 and by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in the same year.

  384. Konig Samuel biography
    • Near the end of 1738 Konig went to Paris where he met Maupertuis.
    • This work was so highly thought of that Konig was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • Certainly Konig did not leave Paris after his disagreement but continued to live there for about 18 months.

  385. Norlund biography
    • He was elected to the Det kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskab (1916), the Societe des Sciences, Strasbourg (1920), the Accademia Pontaniana, Napoli (1925), the Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm (1925), the Societas scientiarum Fennica, Helsinki (1926), the Academie des Sciences, Paris (1926), the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Roma (1927), the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle (1927), the Royal Astronomical Society, London (1935), the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris (1937), the Royal Society, London (1938), the Akademiet for de tekniske Videnskaber, Kobenhavn (1939), the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Oslo (1946), the Vetenskapsakademien, Helsinki (1946), the Det kungliga vetenskapliga Sallskapet, Uppsala (1951), the Societas scientiarum Islandica, Reykjavik (1959), and the New York Academy of Sciences (1960).
    • He received the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences, Paris (1916), the Kungliga Fysiografiska Sallskapets Gold Medal (1916), the Ole Romer Medal (1954), and the Vitus Bering Medal (1958).

  386. Cesaro biography
    • Cesaro visited Paris during the period of his studies at Liege and there he attended lectures by Hermite, Darboux, Serret Briot, Bouquet and Chasles at the Sorbonne.
    • Back in Liege after the trip to Paris, Cesaro fell out with one of the professors there and left for Italy without completing his studies.
    • Influenced by Darboux while in Paris he formulated 'intrinsic geometry'.

  387. Brasseur biography
    • He then went to Paris where he spent a year attending mathematics lectures at the College de France delivered by Jacques Binet and at the Sorbonne by Jean Hachette and by Augustin-Louis Cauchy.
    • However, there was a revolution in Paris in July 1830, and it was following this that Brasseur left the city and returned to Liege.
    • However, following the Paris revolution of 1830, there was a movement, particularly strong in Liege, for an independent Belgium.

  388. Peano biography
    • In that year there were two congresses held in Paris.
    • The first was the International Congress of Philosophy which opened in Paris on 1 August.
    • Peano remained in Paris for this Congress and listened to Hilbert's talk setting out ten of the 23 problems which appeared in his paper aimed at giving the agenda for the next century.

  389. Cantor Moritz biography
    • Although Roth was the professor of philosophy and Sanskrit at Heidelberg, he had studied mathematics, physics and chemistry in Paris with teachers such as Francois Arago, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Pierre-Louis Dulong (1785-1838) and Jean-Baptiste-Andre Dumas (1800-1884).
    • He may well have encouraged Cantor to visit Paris which he did in the late 1850s.
    • Let us note at this point that Cantor was invited to give a plenary lecture at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

  390. Hobbes biography
    • In 1631 the Cavendish family requested his services again and he returned from Paris to become tutor to the third Earl of Devonshire, a position he held from 1631 to 1642.
    • He lived in Paris from 1640 where again he made contact with Mersenne's circle of scholars.
    • Hobbes had also attacked the Roman Catholic Church which made his position in Paris pretty untenable.

  391. Bourgain biography
    • In addition to the honours mentioned above, Bourgain was elected to the Academy of Sciences in Paris (2000), the Polish Academy of Sciences (2000) and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (2009).
    • He has been invited to give addresses at major conferences such as the International Congress of Mathematicians in Warsaw (1983), the International Congress of Mathematicians in Berkeley (1986), the European Mathematical Congress in Paris (1992), the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich (1994), and the European Mathematical Congress in Amsterdam (2008).
    • He has been on the editorial boards of many journals including: the Annals of Mathematics, the Journal de l'Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu, the Publications Mathematiques de l'IHES, the International Mathematical Research Notices, the Journal of Geometrical and Functional Analysis, the Journal d'Analyse de Jerusalem, the Journal of Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, the Journal of Functional Analysis, the Duke Mathematical Journal, the Journal of the European Mathematical Society, and Comptes Rendus of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  392. Bari biography
    • She undertook research on the theory of trigonometrical series and her major results were announced in her first paper Sur l'unicite du developpement trigonometrique Ⓣ published by the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1923.
    • During 1927-29 she spent time at the Sorbonne and the College de France in Paris, attending lectures by Jacques Hadamard.
    • Following this, she was awarded a Rockefeller fellowship which funded a second year-long visit to Paris.

  393. Vallee Poussin biography
    • Vallee Poussin also studied at the University of Paris and at the University of Berlin.
    • During the First World War he was invited to Harvard in 1915 and then to Paris in 1916.
    • More honours were to follow including election to the Madrid Academy of Sciences, the Naples Society of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Institute of France, the Accademia dei Lincei, the Paris Academy of Science, and the American National Academy of Sciences.

  394. Guarini biography
    • He then spent years teaching and building in Italy and Paris, all of his structures having now disappeared.
    • In 1666 he was called from Paris by the Duke of Savoy and Prince of Piedmont to his capital Turin, to take over the design of a great dynastic chapel to house the Holy Shroud, located within the Palace but opening into the choir of the adjoining Cathedral.
    • As can be seen from his Placita philosophica Ⓣ (Paris, 1665), the Modenese cleric was a reformer of Aristotelianism and a staunch supporter of the official Second Scholastic in common with both contemporary Catholic and Lutheran authorities, while at the same time open to well-considered innovations but within traditional limits.

  395. Brouwer biography
    • He continued his study of the logical foundations of mathematics and he also put a very large effort into studying various problems which he attacked because they appeared on Hilbert's list of problems proposed at the Paris International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900.
    • A couple of months later he made an important visit to Paris, around Christmas 1909, and there met Poincare, Hadamard and Borel.
    • Prompted by discussions in Paris, he began working on the problem of the invariance of dimension.

  396. Pearson Egon biography
    • He spent the first of these two years in University College, London, and the second of them in Paris.
    • Pearson and Neyman agreed to undertake a joint research project in June 1926, just before Neyman left for Paris.
    • Their joint research was carried on by letters, but there were meetings such as in the spring of 1927 when Pearson visited Neyman in Paris.

  397. Flugge-Lotz biography
    • Germany attacked Belgium (leading to Great Britain entering the War) and, after occupying the country, advanced towards Paris.
    • In 1947 Wilhelm Flugge and Irmgard Flugge-Lotz moved with many of their co-workers to Paris, to become part of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques.
    • Although Flugge-Lotz and her husband were happy living in Paris, the positions they held there gave them little hope of progressing in their careers.

  398. Montessus biography
    • Thus, he joined the French army but left in 1893 to take up a job at the Compagnie des Chemins de Fer de Paris a Lyon et a la Mediterranee.
    • In 1906, the subject proposed for the Grand Prix of the Paris Academy of 1906 was on the convergence of algebraic continued fractions.
    • In 1924, he was appointed as a researcher at the French National Office of Meteorology at Paris.

  399. Ghetaldi biography
    • Then he studied at Antwerp with Michel Coignet, being there in 1599, following which he went to Paris in 1600 where he was greatly influenced by Francois Viete.
    • Leaving Paris, Ghetaldi returned to Italy, spending some time in Padua where he came into contact with Galileo in 1600.
    • When Ghetaldi had been in Paris he had learnt that Viete was working on constructing Apollonius's lost works.

  400. Strassen biography
    • Strassen received the 2003 Association for Computing Machinery Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award (jointly with Gary Miller, Michael Rabin, Robert Solovay).
    • We give the following extract from the citation [',' Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award 2003, Association for Computing Machinery.','3]:- .
    • Let us also mention that Strassen was an invited speaker at the First European Congress of Mathematics held in Paris in 1992 when he gave the lecture Algebra and complexity.

  401. Faraday biography
    • Faraday met Ampere and other scientists in Paris.
    • In 1820 several scientists in Paris including Arago and Ampere made significant advances in establishing a relation between electricity and magnetism.

  402. Schauder biography
    • Still financed by the scholarship in May 1933 he moved to Paris to work with Hadamard.
    • While Schauder was in Paris he collaborated with J Leray and their joint work led to a paper Topologie et equations fonctionelles Ⓣ published in the Annales scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure.

  403. Weyr Eduard biography
    • In the following year he again won a state scholarship and in October 1873 he went to Paris where he studied at the Faculte des Sciences and the College de France.
    • He met personally these famous mathematicians, who were perhaps the main motive for his journey to Paris.

  404. Einstein biography
    • He had visited Paris earlier in 1922 and during 1923 he visited Palestine.
    • He received offers from Jerusalem, Leiden, Oxford, Madrid and Paris.

  405. Snell biography
    • In 1603 he went to Paris where his studies of law continued but he also had many contacts with mathematicians.
    • Like his father Rudolph he is, it is true, a follower of Ramus who was, especially in his youth, in sharp opposition to Aristotle or rather to the professors at Paris who taught Aristotelian logics; but there is no evidence of his having been much troubled with logics himself, so he shows nowhere any animosity against Aristotle.

  406. Stringham biography
    • For example he studied in Spain in 1887 and in Paris on several occasions between 1889 and 1900.
    • In 1900 he addressed the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris with the talk Orthogonal Transformations in Elliptic or Hyperbolic Space.

  407. Dini biography
    • He won the scholarship and went to Paris where he studied with Bertrand and Hermite.
    • This was a period of high mathematical activity for Dini and seven publications came out of the research he undertook during his time in Paris.

  408. Kirkman biography
    • On seeing that the Academie des Sciences of Paris were awarding a prize for the study of 'group theory' in 1860, Kirkman decided to enter.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  409. Righini biography
    • He wrote the first modern Italian work on solar physics and presented it to the Congress of the International Astronomical Union, which was held in Paris in 1935.
    • He travelled from Florence to Paris on a motorcycle to attend this Congress.

  410. Khayyam biography
    • Khayyam wrote (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','9] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','10]):- .
    • ','1], [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','9] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','10]):- .

  411. Cardan biography
    • It was published in Paris in 1643 and Amsterdam in 1654.
    • A German translation appeared in Jena in 1914, and a French translation in Paris in 1936.

  412. Wu Wen-Tsun biography
    • Following the award of his doctorate, Wu went to Paris where he studied with Henri Cartan.
    • While working in Paris during the early months of 1950, Thom discovered the topological invariance of Stiefel-Whitney classes, while Wu discovered a set of invariants and formulas, now called the Wu classes and Wu formulas, which have also proved important.

  413. Matiyasevich biography
    • In 1900 at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris, David Hilbert decided that he would try to set the agenda for mathematical research for the new century by giving a list of 23 problems.
    • Of the many honours given to Matiyasevich we mention that he was: awarded the A A Markov Prize of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1980); awarded an honorary doctorate by l'Universite d'Auvergne (1996); elected a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1997); received the Humboldt Research Award to Outstanding Scholars (1998); elected vice-president of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society (1998); awarded an honorary doctorate by l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris (2003); elected to the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (2007); and elected as a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2008).

  414. Atiyah biography
    • Atiyah and John Tate described the Clay Mathematics Institute Millennium Prize Problems in a lecture in Paris on 24 May 2000.
    • He has been elected a foreign member of many national academies including: the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1969), Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1972), German Academy of Scientist Leopoldina (1977), Academie des Sciences, Paris (1978), United States National Academy of Sciences (1978), Royal Irish Academy (1979), Third World Academy of Science (1983), Australian Academy of Sciences (1992), Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (1992), Indian National Science Academy (1993), Russian Academy of Sciences (1994), Georgian Academy of Sciences (1996), Academy of Physical, Mathematical and Natural Sciences of Venezuela (1997), American Philosophical Society (1998), Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome (1999), Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (2001), Czechoslovakia Union of Mathematics (2001), Moscow Mathematical Society (2001), Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences (2002), Lebanese Academy of Sciences (2008), Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (2009).

  415. Andreev biography
    • Towards the end of 1876 he was granted leave to study abroad, and he spent most of 1877 and the first half of 1878 visiting first Berlin but spending most of the eighteen months in Paris.
    • While in Paris he worked on his doctoral thesis (equivalent to a British D.Sc.) which he published in Moscow after his return.

  416. Dee biography
    • In the same year Dee went to Paris where he lectured on Euclid's Elements.
    • In 1551 Dee was offered an appointment as professor of mathematics in Paris but declined.

  417. Olivier biography
    • Olivier became a professor at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures when it opened in the Hotel de Juigne in the Marais district of Paris in 1829.
    • He also lectured on these topics at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris.

  418. Ramanujam biography
    • Back in the Tata Institute, Ramanujam received an invitation to spend six months at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique in Paris.
    • Again his illness forced him to return from Paris before the end of the six months.

  419. Da Silva biography
    • When da Silva saw that his priority had not been recognised, he was upset since he knew that the journal in which his paper had appeared was taken by the Paris Academy of Sciences.
    • He should have written directly to the Academy of Sciences in Paris, which would have had much more impact.

  420. Maclaurin biography
    • In 1740 he was awarded a second prize from the Academie des Sciences in Paris, this time for a study of the tides De Causa Physica Fluxus et Reflexus Maris Ⓣ.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  421. Severi biography
    • He was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1957 and was made an honorary member of the London Mathematical Society in 1959.
    • He was awarded the gold medal from the National Academy of Sciences of Italy, the Guccia gold medal and, as we mentioned above, the Bordin prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  422. De Giorgi biography
    • He was also awarded Honoris Causa degrees in Mathematics from the University of Paris in 1983 at a ceremony at the Sorbonne and in Philosophy from the University of Lecce in 1992.
    • He was elected to many academies including: the Accademia dei Lincei, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Sciences of Turin, the Lombard Institute of Science and Letters, the Academie des Sciences in Paris, and the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.

  423. Miranda biography
    • He visited Paris in the academic year 1934-35, supported by a scholarship, and attended lectures by Jacques Hadamard and Paul Montel.
    • During this time in Paris he became friendly with several mathematicians, including Jean Leray and Hans Lewy.

  424. Lindemann biography
    • In England he made visits to Oxford, Cambridge and London, while in France he spent time at Paris where he was influenced by Chasles, Bertrand, Jordan and Hermite.
    • Shortly after this Lindemann visited Hermite in Paris and discussed the methods which he had used in his proof.

  425. Herschel biography
    • These trips included visits to other scientist, for example while in Paris Herschel and Babbage had discussed topics of common interest with Arago, Laplace and Biot.
    • The Paris Academy awarded him its Lalande Prize in 1825 and the Astronomical Society awarded him its Gold Medal the following year.

  426. Li Shanlan biography
    • Both [5], [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','2] and [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
    • For example in [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  427. Rosenhain biography
    • In 1846 the Academy of Sciences in Paris announced that the topic for the next Grand Prix would be on the inverse problem for an abelian integral on a curve of genus two.
    • Adolph Gopel independently solved the same problem but he did not submit his solution for the Paris Academy prize so basically they only received one solution to the problem.

  428. Weisbach biography
    • This interest in hydraulics seems to have been as a result of Weisbach visiting the Paris Industrial Exposition in 1839.
    • In 1855 Weisbach was back in Paris, this time visiting the World Exposition which was held there.

  429. Thabit biography
    • However Thabit then states quite correctly that although Euclid and Nicomachus studied perfect numbers, and Euclid gave a rule for determining them ([',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','6] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','7]):- .
    • Thabit continues ([',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','6] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','7]):- .

  430. Black biography
    • Soon after Max was born his parents decided to try to make a better life for their family in a less hostile place and they left Azerbaijan moving first to Paris.
    • After a short stay in Paris they moved again, this time to London, where they set up home in 1912.

  431. Vranceanu biography
    • In Paris he worked with Elie Cartan and then he went to the United States where he studied at Harvard University and Princeton University.
    • He was much in demend as a lecturer, being invited to lecture at over 30 institutions world-wide, for example he lectured at universities in Paris, Rome, Princeton, Moscow, Peking, Berlin, London, Salamanca, Geneva and many others.

  432. Tarski biography
    • The Vienna Circle of Logical Positivists which flourished, particularly in the 1920s in Vienna, had led to the development of the Unity of Science group and this group met in Paris in 1935.
    • He was Sherman memorial lecturer at University College London in 1950, then a lecturer at the Henri Poincare Institute in Paris in 1955.

  433. Fabri biography
    • ','1] and [',' J Duhem, Histoire des Origines du Vol a Reaction (Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris, 1959).','6].
    • In fact Jules Duhem writes in [',' J Duhem, Histoire des Origines du Vol a Reaction (Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris, 1959).','6] that Fabri was born near the beautiful park where Honore d'Urfe wrote his novel Astree, which is consistent with his claim that Fabri was born in Virieu-le-Grand.

  434. Young Thomas biography
    • In the following year Young visited Paris and was welcomed by Arago to the Institute.
    • The one which pleased him most was election as a foreign member of the Institute in Paris in 1827.

  435. Ruan Yuan biography
    • Martzloff notes that a studies of the European mathematicians included in the work [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
    • However [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  436. Arbogast biography
    • Also in 1789 he submitted a major report on the differential and integral calculus to the Academie des Sciences in Paris which was never published.
    • This is an extremely important collection, part of which is now in Paris and part in Florence.

  437. Kontsevich biography
    • At the First European Congress of Mathematics in Paris in 1992 Kontsevich gave the invited address Feynman diagrams and low dimensional topology which was published in 1994 in the Proceeding of the conference.
    • In addition to the honours mentioned above, Kontsevich was awarded the Daniel Iagolnitzer Prize and elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  438. Moisil biography
    • Moisil then went to Paris to study for the year 1930-31 where he worked with a number of mathematicians including Elie Cartan and Jacques Hadamard.
    • After Rome he spent a short while back in Paris before returning to Iasi where he was appointed provisional associate professor on 1 November 1932.

  439. Baker Alan biography
    • 1 (Paris, 1971), 3-5.','11], who first gives the historical setting:- .
    • 1 (Paris, 1971), 3-5.','11] concludes with these remarks:- .

  440. De Beaune biography
    • De Beaune was educated in Paris where he went on to study law although his status meant that he had no need to take a degree.
    • Every trace of the work was lost until 1963, when it was rediscovered among manuscripts in the Roberval Archive at the Academie des Sciences in Paris, and thus it appears for the first time in the present critical edition (the book [',' R Schmidt and E Black (trans.), Francois Viete, Albert Girard, Florimond de Beaune, The early theory of equations: on their nature and constitution (Golden Hind Press, Fairfield, CT, 1986).','2]).

  441. Spottiswoode biography
    • were published principally in the Philosophical Transactions, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society and Crelle, and one or two in the Comptes rendus of the Paris Academy; a list of them, arranged according to the several journals in which they originally appeared, with short notes upon the less familiar memoirs, is given in [',' H Rix, Spottiswoode, William, Dictionary of National Biography LIII (London, 1898), 417-418.','4].
    • We should also mention his election to the Academy of Sciences in Paris and the award of honorary degrees by the universities of Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Oxford.

  442. Bose biography
    • He now had the chance of meeting European scientists and travelled first to Paris where he met Langevin and de Broglie.
    • In October 1925 Bose travelled from Paris to Berlin where he met Einstein.

  443. Duarte biography
    • Between 1920-1921 he undertook postgraduate studies at the Sorbonne in Paris.
    • His first work in mathematics was about which he presented to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1907.

  444. Nirenberg biography
    • He has received honorary degree from McGill University (1986), the University of Pisa (1990), and Universite de Paris IX Paris-Dauphine (1990).

  445. Bobillier biography
    • After his death Poncelet, who knew him personally wrote [',' J-V Poncelet, Etienne Bobillier, Applications d’analyse et de geometrie II (Paris, 1864), 486.','7]:- .
    • Chasles, who did not know Bobillier personally and in fact made a serious mistake in the date of his death and Bobillier's age (writing "he was snatched in 1832 at the age of thirty-five"), wrote [',' M Chasles, Etienne Bobillier, Rapport sur les progres de la geometrie (Paris, 1870), 65-68.','2]:- .

  446. Brink biography
    • Following the award of his doctorate Brink studied at the College de France and the Sorbonne in Paris spending the academic year 1916-17 financed by the prestigious Sheldon Travelling Fellowship.
    • Except for two further periods of study leave spent in Paris (1924-25 and 1932-33) Brink continued to teach at the University of Minnesota.

  447. Al-Samawal biography
    • Details of the work are also given in [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','3] and [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','4].
    • In fact al-Samawal was the first to give this development a precise description when he wrote that it was concerned (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','3] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','4]):- .

  448. Neumann Franz biography
    • By May 1814 the allies had taken Paris, the Treaty of Paris was signed and Napoleon was sent into exile.

  449. Garnir biography
    • In year following his marriage, Garnir spent four months undertaking research in Paris.
    • Garnir's research in this area had been strongly influenced by his visit to Laurent Schwartz in Paris.

  450. Birkhoff biography
    • He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academie des Sciences in Paris, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the Circolo Matematico di Palermo, the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, the Gottingen Academy, the Royal Institute of Bologna, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, the London Mathematical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences of Lima, Peru.
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  451. Somerville biography
    • In 1817 William and Mary visited Paris and were introduced to the leading scientists there by Biot and Arago (whom they had met in London).
    • Most of the time was spent in Paris where she renewed old friendships with the mathematicians there, and where she worked on her next book The connection of the physical sciences which was published in 1834.

  452. Al-Haytham biography
    • Rashed ([',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','7], [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','8] or [',' R Rashed, Ibn al-Haytham et les nombres parfaits, Historia Math.
    • Le livre d’Ibn al-Haytham, in Histoire des mathematiques arabes (Algiers, 1988), 37-50.','18] and [',' R Rashed, L’analyse et la synthese selon ibn al-Haytham, in Mathematiques et philosophie de l’antiquite a l’age classique (Paris, 1991), 131-162.','26] for more details.

  453. Vlacq biography
    • Vlacq decided that London was not a good place to sell books with the approaching unrest so he left for Paris in 1642.
    • In Paris Vlacq again set up a book business.

  454. Blumenthal biography
    • After this he went to Paris where he spent the winter of 1899-1900 studying under Borel and Jordan.
    • While he was in Paris he became interested in the theory of entire functions and he wrote a number of papers in the following years which made major contributions to this theory.

  455. Grosswald biography
    • He studied in studies in Paris and Montpelier, being in Paris in June 1940 when the city fell to the advancing German armies.

  456. Grinbergs biography
    • During 1935 and 1936 he studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • It was during his time in Paris that his first publication appeared; it was a work on geometry Uber die Bestimmung von zwei speziellen Klassen von Eilinien Ⓣ.

  457. Iacob biography
    • He then went to Paris to continue his studies and at the Faculty of Science his thesis was Henri Villat.
    • He was awarded the prestigious mechanics prize Henri de Parville in 1940 by the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  458. Carnot biography
    • A Walk Around Paris .

  459. Lambert biography
    • This paper by Lambert on the theory of heat appeared in Volume 2 of the journal published by the Societas Helvetica which had been founded in 1751 (see [',' R Jaquel, Introduction a l’etude des debuts scientifiques (1752-1755) du savant universel Jean-Henri Lambert (1728-1777) : le role de Daniel Bernoulli, in Proceedings of the 104th National Congress of Learned Societies (Paris, 1979), 27-38.','23] for details).
    • Before returning to Chur, Lambert took his pupils to Paris, where he met d'Alembert, and to Marseilles, Nice, Turin, and Milan.

  460. Brocard biography
    • After graduating from the Lycee he entered the Academy in Strasbourg where he was coached to take the entrance examinations of the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • He attended the International Congress of Mathematicians at Zurich in 1897, Paris in 1900, Heidelberg in 1904, Rome in 1908, Cambridge, England in 1912, and Strasbourg in 1920.

  461. Vitali biography
    • Viola recalled the moment when he was in Paris and he heard of Vitali's death (see [',' T Viola, Ricordo di Giuseppe Vitali a 50 anni dalla sua scomparsa, in Atti del Convegno La Storia delle Matematiche in Italia, Cagliari 1982 (Monograf, Bologna, 1984), 535-544.','14]):- .
    • The impression on my mind made by the announcement of his death can never be erased, an announcement that reached me in Paris, during a seminar I was taking part in.

  462. Bauer biography
    • Bauer spent 1956-57 as a Research Fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, working with Gustave Choquet and Marcel Brelot.
    • Bauer made a research visit to Paris in the spring of 1964.

  463. Koszul biography
    • He was educated at the Lycee Fustel-de-Coulanges in Strasbourg before studying at the Faculty of Science in Strasbourg and the Faculty of Science in Paris.
    • Koszul was honoured with election to the Academy of Sciences in Paris on 28 January 1980.

  464. Bilimovic biography
    • He spent the year 1905-06 in Paris working with Paul Emile Appell.
    • At this time Appell was Dean of the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris and had an outstanding reputation for solving some of the hardest problems in mathematics and mechanics.

  465. Flugge biography
    • In 1947 Wilhelm Flugge and Irmgard Flugge-Lotz moved with many of their co-workers to Paris, to become part of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques.
    • Although Flugge and his wife were happy living in Paris, the positions both of them held there in the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques gave them little hope of progressing in their careers.

  466. Korkin biography
    • Korkin attended lectures by Liouville, Lame and Bertrand in Paris, returned briefly to Russia in May 1863, then went to Germany where he attended lectures by Kummer, Weierstrass and others in Berlin.
    • On the Paris visit he was particularly interested in Bertrand's lectures on partial differential equations and in Germany Kummer's lectures on quadratic forms fascinated him.

  467. Weber Heinrich biography
    • 3 (Societe Mathematique de France, Paris, 1998), 243-273.','16]:- .
    • 3 (Societe Mathematique de France, Paris, 1998), 243-273.','16]:- .

  468. Perelman biography
    • Burago contacted Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov who had been a professor at Leningrad State University, but was at this time a permanent member of the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques outside Paris.
    • After visiting the IHES near Paris, Perelman returned to the Steklov Mathematics Institute in Leningrad but, thanks to Gromov, Perelman was invited to the United States to talk at the 1991 Geometry Festival held at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.

  469. Lindelof biography
    • Lindelof spent the year 1891 in Stockholm, and the years 1893-94 in Paris returning to Helsingfors where he graduated in 1895.
    • His work on analytic continuation is explained in a well-written book Le calcul des residus et ses applications a la theorie des fonctions Ⓣ (Paris, 1905).

  470. Linnik biography
    • Also in 1967 Linnik published Lecons sur les problemes de statistique analytique which came about as the result of a series of lectures he had given in the previous year at the Institut de Statistique of the University of Paris.
    • He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Paris.

  471. Turan biography
    • Hungary signed a new peace treaty in Paris on 10 February 1947, which restored the Trianon frontiers.
    • in July 1976, at the meeting on combinatorics at Orsay in Paris, V T Sos (Mrs Turan) gave me the terrible news (which she had known for six years) that Paul had leukaemia.

  472. Lorgna biography
    • Boscovich emphasised this in several letters when he wrote "Italian is unknown to mathematicians in Paris, England and Germany".
    • As for all his interests, Lorgna approached this topic by reading the latest works and he decided that he would enter for the Grand Prix of the Paris Academy of Sciences which had as its topic, "Find a cheaper and faster method of production of gunpowder".

  473. Egorov biography
    • He spent a year abroad, spending the summer of 1902 in Berlin, where he attended lectures by Frobenius before moving to Paris where he remained until the beginning of the following summer attending lectures by Darboux, Hadamard, Lebesgue, and Poincare.
    • This theorem appeared in his paper Sur les suites des fonctions measurables which was published by the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1911.

  474. Mikhlin biography
    • The book [',' S G Mikhlin, Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations, International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics 83 (Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-Edinburgh-New York-Paris-Frankfurt, 1965).','1] is dedicated to her memory.
    • A complete collection of his results in this field up to 1965, as well as contributions by Francesco Tricomi, Georges Giraud, Alberto Calderon and Antoni Zygmund, is contained in the monograph [',' S G Mikhlin, Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations, International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics 83 (Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-Edinburgh-New York-Paris-Frankfurt, 1965).','1].

  475. Bowditch biography
    • The present work is a reprint, in four volumes, of Bowditch's English translation of Volumes I-IV of Traite de mecanique celeste de mecanique celeste [Duprat, Paris, 1798-1805].
    • The present work is a textually unaltered reprint of Volume V of Traite de mecanique celeste, first published in 1825 [Duprat, Paris]..

  476. Franel biography
    • He then continued his studies in Berlin, where his teachers included Weierstrass, Kronecker and Kummer, and in Paris, where he attended Charles Hermite's lectures in particular.
    • He graduated with a degree in mathematics from the Paris Academy in 1883 and returned to Switzerland to teach at his old school in Lausanne for a couple of years.

  477. Kerekjarto biography
    • He left the United States, returning to Europe where he had an invitation to visit the Sorbonne in Paris.
    • The famous speech by Hilbert at the International Congress in Paris had been of great importance to the development of topology.

  478. Brun biography
    • Some items treated by him are not contained in the standard books: The Norwegian "Kongespeilet", perhaps composed by Archbishop Einar Gunnarsson, who may have been in personal contact with Sacrobosco at Paris; the "Algorismus" of Hauk Erlendsson [early 14th century], which is strongly influenced by Sacrobosco, too; and the Icelandic arithmetic "Rymbegla" [',' O Ore, Review: The Art of Calculating in Old Norway until the Time of Abel, by Viggo Brun; and All is Number, a History of Mathematics from Antiquity to the Renaissance, by Viggo Brun, Amer.
    • For example, he wrote the following in Norwegian: Quadrature of the circle (1941); The study of the prime numbers from antiquity to our time (1942); Wallis's and Brouncker's formulas for π (1951); Niels Henrik Abel (1953); The manuscript of Abel's Paris treatise found (1953); (with Borge Jessen) A letter by Niels Henrick Abel from his youth (1958).

  479. Cercignani biography
    • He was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences on 13 March 1995.
    • Great friend of France, he greatly appreciated his visits to universities in Paris, at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques.

  480. Stefan Peter biography
    • He spent one year in Paris during his tenure of the Bangor post, spending 1976/77 at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique.
    • Stefan had a love of freedom and he translated this into a love of climbing after his return from Paris.

  481. Wazewski biography
    • Under Zaremba, Ważewski became interested in set theory and topology and decided to study in Paris for his doctorate.
    • Ważewski studied in Paris between 1921 and 1923 continuing his interest in topology acquired during his studies at Krakow under Zaremba.

  482. Bernays biography
    • After a short time in London, during which Paul was born, his family moved to Paris.
    • From Paris the family moved to Berlin where Paul attended the Kollnisches Gymnasium from 1895 to 1907.

  483. Betti biography
    • Betti learnt about experimental physics from Matteucci who had studied in Paris under Francois Arago.
    • They visited Gottingen, Berlin and Paris making many important mathematical contacts.

  484. Bagnera biography
    • They won the Paris Academy of Sciences' Bordin prize in 1909 for their classification of hyperelliptic surfaces.
    • In addition to the Bordin prize awarded by the Paris Academie des Sciences, which we mentioned above, Bagnera was honoured with election to the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (which awarded him their mathematical sciences prize in 1901).

  485. Rudin Walter biography
    • Walter's father had a friend in Paris, an engineer named M Givelet, and he helped arrange work for Robert as well as visas for the whole family.
    • They lived in Paris and in Parame, Saint-Malo, but with the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the French were unhappy to have Germans in their country and Walter and his father Robert were sent to the Meslay-du-Maine internment camp.

  486. Matsushima biography
    • He left for France in the autumn of 1954, spending time at the University of Strasbourg, and then in Paris as a member of C.N.R.S.
    • Having arrived in Paris by the spring of 1955, he lectured on Lie pseudogroups at the Bourbaki seminar.

  487. Lax Peter biography
    • the Academy of Sciences (Paris) (1982), .
    • the University of Paris (1979), .

  488. Springer biography
    • University of Paris VII (1971); .
    • University of Paris VI (1984, 1987); .

  489. Al-Khazin biography
    • 32 (3) (1979), 193-222.','7] all look at this number theory work by al-Khazin (see also [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] and [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3]).
    • 32 (3) (1979), 193-222.','7] (also in [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] and [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3]).

  490. Kolmogorov biography
    • They visited Berlin, Gottingen, Munich, and Paris where Kolmogorov spent many hours in deep discussions with Paul Levy.
    • Many universities awarded him an honorary degree including Paris, Stockholm, and Warsaw.

  491. Hilton biography
    • what happened was that I had a long period of recuperation, much of which was spent in a hospital bed with plaster of Paris on my left leg, all the way up, in fact, to my navel.
    • It simply turned out that I spent a lot of my leisure time doing mathematical problems, writing them on the plaster of Paris, and erasing them each morning.

  492. Al-Banna biography
    • Perhaps the most interesting of all is the work on binomial coefficients which is described in detail in [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] and [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3].
    • He writes (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3]):- .

  493. McClintock biography
    • McClintock spent the latter part of 1860 studying chemistry at the University of Paris and then in the following year he studied at Gottingen.
    • He represented the US Consul in England from 1863 to 1866 when he became associated with a banking firm in Paris during 1867.

  494. Jacobson biography
    • For example he spent the summer of 1947 at Chicago, 1951-52 as a Guggenheim Fellow in Paris living in Andre Weil's apartment, the summer of 1956 as visiting professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and 1957-58 in Paris for a second visit.

  495. Sun Zi biography
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.','10] seems to have the most convincing argument:- .
    • What of the modern texts? Lam and Ang in [',' L Y Lam and T S Ang, Fleeting footsteps : Tracing the conception of arithmetic and algebra in ancient China (River Edge, NJ, 1992).','1] suggest it is a '3rd century AD treatise'; Martzloff in [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','2] (also [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).','3]) gives 'fifth century very approximately'; Bag and Shen [',' A K Bag and K S Shen, Kuttaka and qiuyishu, Indian J.

  496. Pell Alexander biography
    • Tikhomirov summoned Degaev to Paris in September 1883 to tell him he better get on with his task, which he did.
    • Narodnaia Volia carried out their part of the bargain and assisted him and his wife to escape to Paris where he was tried by them, expelled from their movement and forbidden from returning to Russia.

  497. Codazzi biography
    • His research led him into deep results in geometry and he began to think that submitting an entry for the Grand Prix of the Paris Academy of Sciences would let his research become known to the top mathematicians.
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  498. Riesz biography
    • He was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences and to the Royal Physiographic Society of Lund in Sweden.
    • He received honorary doctorates from the universities of Szeged, Budapest and Paris.

  499. Stephansen biography
    • Zurich and Paris were the only places that a woman could be accepted, we chose Zurich as the Polytechnikum there is highly recommended and we thought it would be cheaper than Paris.

  500. Bachelier biography
    • The Society held its first World Congress on 2000 in Paris on the hundredth anniversary of Bachelier's celebrated PhD Thesis Theorie de la Speculation Ⓣ [','L Bachelier (1900), Theorie de la speculation, Gauthier-Villars, 70 pp.(see Thesis below).','24].
    • At the age of 22, Bachelier arrived in Paris at the Sorbonne where he followed the lectures of Paul Appell.

  501. ORaifeartaigh biography
    • Edmond Arnous had undertaken research in Paris working under Louis de Broglie and had then undertaken postdoctoral work with Heitler in Zurich.
    • For example, he spent 1975-76 at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques at Bures-sur-Yyvette near Paris.

  502. Iyanaga biography
    • I met Takagi in Zurich and accompanied him when he visited Hamburg, Berlin, and Paris.
    • Iyanaga went to Paris in 1932 where he met up with Chevalley whom he had got to know well while in Hamburg.

  503. Haret biography
    • Haret won the competition which provided funds for him to study in Paris.

  504. Lansberge biography
    • In the solution of spherical triangles Van Lansberge employs a device similar to that of Maurice Bressieu in his 'Metrices astronomicae' (Paris, 1581), the marking of the given parts of a triangle by two strokes.

  505. Servois biography
    • Hardly had he arrived in Metz when a position as curator of the artillery museum in Paris fell vacant.

  506. Young Laurence biography
    • Among the honours he received was an honorary doctorate from the University of Paris-Dauphine in 1984; see [',' J-P Aubin, Eloge du Professeur L C Young : With a reply by Young, Gaz.

  507. Dixon Arthur biography
    • He was elected to a further fellowship when he became Tutorial Fellow in 1898, and four years later, in 1902, he married Catherine Rieder in Paris.

  508. Goldie Alfred biography
    • It led to invitations to work in other institutions, including Yale University, the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris and Tulane University in New Orleans.

  509. Boyle biography
    • From Dieppe they travelled to Paris, then on to Lyon before reaching Geneva.

  510. Menabrea biography
    • In 1882 he was appointed as ambassador in Paris, replacing General Cialdini, and he continued in this role until he retired from public life in 1892.

  511. McMullen biography
    • As he mentions in the above quote, McMullen spent the autumn of 1984 as a visitor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientiques, Bures-sur-Yvette near Paris.

  512. Fefferman biography
    • He has held Visiting Positions at many institutions including: Wilson Elkins Visiting Professorship, University of Maryland; California Institute of Technology; Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University; University of Paris, France; Mittag-Leffler Institute, Djursholm, Sweden; Weitzmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel; Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; and University of Madrid, Spain.

  513. Hermann biography
    • In 1708 Hermann was elected to the Academy at Bologna and, 1733, to the Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris.

  514. Bjerknes Vilhelm biography
    • He went to Paris in 1889 where he attended Poincare's lectures on electrodynamics, then he went to Bonn as Hertz's assistant.

  515. Jordanus biography
    • was renowned in Paris for his secular knowledge particularly in mathematics and, it is said, wrote two very useful books ..

  516. Campanus biography
    • Campanus later held a canonicate of Paris and served as papal chaplain to the two more popes, Nicholas IV (1288-92) and Boniface VIII (1294-1303).

  517. Spanier biography
    • During the time he held a post at Chicago, Spanier spent the year 1952-53 in Paris supported by a Guggenheim Fellowship, and the year 1958-59 as a member of the Institute for Advanced Study.

  518. Boole Mary biography
    • Being a strong believer in homeopathy, he went with his family to Poissy, near Paris, in France in 1837 to be treated by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of the homoeopathic system of medicine, leaving his curate in charge of the church at Wickwar.

  519. Bergman biography
    • He went to the Institut Henri Poincare in Paris where he wrote an important two-volume monograph on complex analysis.

  520. Wegner biography
    • From 1946 to 1949 he worked at the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautiques in Paris.

  521. Hollerith biography
    • He received the Gold Medal of the Paris Exposition and the Bronze Medal of the World's Fair in 1893.

  522. Kantorovich biography
    • He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the universities of Glasgow (1966), Warsaw (1966), Grenoble (1966), Nice (1968), Helsinki (1969), Munich (1970), Paris (Sorbonne) (1975), Cambridge (1976), Pennsylvania (1976), the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta (1978), and Martin-Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg (1984).

  523. Mouton biography
    • Leibniz had learned, during his stay in Paris, that the book was in preparation but did not know that it had been published.

  524. Rutishauser biography
    • The further course of development of ALGOL saw Heinz Rutishauser also taking part in the conference held January 11-16, 1960 with thirteen experts from the USA, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, England, Denmark, and France in Paris.

  525. Green Sandy biography
    • Frederick continued his education in Paris and Cologne and married Mary in 1916.

  526. Weber biography
    • He first visited Berlin before travelling on to London, where he enjoyed useful conversations many English scientists including John Herschel, and finally to Paris where he met most of the leading French scientists.

  527. Blackburn biography
    • After graduating the two friends set out for Paris where they studied mathematics together.

  528. Harnack biography
    • There he was taught physics by Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) who had studied physics and astronomy at Dorpat before studying further in Paris and Berlin.

  529. Janiszewski biography
    • Janiszewski next went to one of the other leading centres of mathematics in the world, namely Paris.

  530. Cusa biography
    • Let us end with the summary given in the publisher's description of [',' M-J Counet, Mathematiques et dialectique chez Nicolas de Cuse, Etudes de Philosophie Medievale 80 (Librairie Philosophique J Vrin, Paris, 2000).','5]:- .

  531. Lobachevsky biography
    • Weierstrass led a seminar on Lobachevsky's geometry in 1870 which was attended by Klein and, two years later, after Klein and Lie had discussed these new generalisations of geometry in Paris, Klein produced his general view of geometry as the properties invariant under the action of some group of transformations in the Erlanger Programm.

  532. Whitehead biography
    • In fact they had attended the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900 and there they had learnt about Peano's work on the foundations of mathematics.

  533. Green biography
    • Sixty years later Thomson recalled his excitement and that of Liouville and Sturm, to whom he showed the work in Paris in the summer of 1845.

  534. Rebstein biography
    • Rebstein graduated from the Polytechnic in 1860, and went to study at the College de France in Paris for a year.

  535. Wilson Edwin biography
    • Wilson was appointed an Instructor at Yale in 1900 and, after being awarded his doctorate, Wilson went to Paris where he studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, the Sorbonne and the College de France during 1902-3.

  536. Gentzen biography
    • In 1937 he addressed the Congress in Paris giving a talk with title Concept of infinity and the consistency of mathematics.

  537. Eisenstein biography
    • The news that Louis-Philippe had been overthrown by an uprising in Paris in February 1848 led to revolutions in many states and there was fighting in Berlin.

  538. Jitomirskaya biography
    • In that year she was an invited lecturer at the XI International Congress of Mathematical Physics in Paris where she gave the lecture Everything about the almost Mathieu operator.

  539. Le Paige biography
    • A great rarity is the French translation of the "Hortus sanitatis," which appeared in Paris in 1500.

  540. Ricci biography
    • He communicated this result, and other similar results, in 1643 to Jean-Francois Niceron in Paris although he gave no proofs.

  541. Dynkin biography
    • He has received honorary doctorates from the Pierre and Marie Curie University (Paris 6) (1997), the University of Warwick (2003) and the Independent Moscow University (2003).

  542. Marcolongo biography
    • In fact Marcolongo established a lengthy and fruitful collaboration with Cesare Burali-Forti and they were jokingly baptised by their colleagues as the "vector binomial." Their Elementi di calcolo vettoriale con numerose applicazioni alla geometria, alla meccanica e alla fisica matematica Ⓣ (Bologna 1909, French translation, Paris 1910, 2nd ed., Bologna 1921, 3rd ed., Milan 1925) presented the fundamentals and notation of a so-called minimum system and gave applications to the mechanics of continuous geometry and differential geometry on a surface.

  543. Kolchin biography
    • He was a National Science Fellow at the University of Paris in 1960-61.

  544. Molyneux William biography
    • On his journeys he met, among others, Huygens in The Hague, Leeuwenhoek in Delft, and Jean-Dominique Cassini at the Paris Observatory.

  545. Alexander biography
    • During this period abroad, Alexander studied at Paris and Bologna.

  546. Angelescu biography
    • Aurel Angelescu went to Paris for his university studies and graduated with a bachelor degree from the Sorbonne.

  547. La Roche biography
    • Nicolas Chuquet from Paris, Philippe Friscobaldi from Florence, and Luca Pacioli from Burgo.

  548. Halley biography
    • Halley observed a comet while near Calais and travelled to Paris where, together with Cassini, he made further observations in an attempt to determine its orbit.

  549. Harish-Chandra biography
    • He spent 1955-56 at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, 1957-58 as a Guggenheim Fellow in Paris where he was able to work with Weil and the two often went walking together.

  550. Kreisel biography
    • After returning to Reading for his last year on the staff there in 1959-60 he spent the two years 1960-62 in Paris.

  551. Dickson biography
    • Dickson then spent some time with Lie at Leipzig and later with Jordan in Paris.

  552. Richard Jules biography
    • He obtained a doctorate on the surface of Fresnel waves from the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1901.

  553. Banach biography
    • In 1924 Banach was promoted to full professor and he spent the academic year 1924-25 in Paris.

  554. Plemelj biography
    • With Austria allied with Germany against the Allies, the independence movement grew in strength with the Yugoslav Committee, consisting of exiles in Paris and London, founded in April 1915.

  555. Segre Beniamino biography
    • After studying in Paris with Elie Cartan for the year 1926-27, supported by a Rockefeller scholarship, Segre became Francesco Severi's assistant in Rome.

  556. Banneker biography
    • Jefferson promised Banneker in his reply to the 19 August 1791 letter that he would send his Almanac to Condorcet at the Academie des Sciences in Paris.

  557. Aaboe biography
    • This work would put research into Babylonian astronomy on a firm foundation through the publication and systematic analysis of more than three hundred texts found on cuneiform tablets held in the British Museum, the Oriental Institute at Chicago, the Louvre in Paris, the Staatliche Museen in Berlin, the Arkeoloji Muzeleri in Instanbul, and several smaller collections in Europe and the United States.

  558. Bott biography
    • He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (United States) (1964) and the Academy of Sciences (Paris) (1995).

  559. Takagi biography
    • Although Hilbert was not directly involved with Takagi's research, the topic he worked on was certainly one that Hilbert considered of the utmost importance for it was a special case of what became Hilbert's 12th problem in his Paris lecture of 1900.

  560. Raabe biography
    • Eschmann was Swiss, growing up as orphan in Winterthur, and had studied mathematics, astronomy and geodesy in Zurich, Paris and Vienna.

  561. Witten biography
    • He has been elected a Fellow of numerous academies and societies such as American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1984), the American Physical Society (1984), the National Academy of Sciences (1988), the American Philosophical Society (1994), the Royal Society of London (1998), the Academy of Sciences of Paris (2000), and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (2006).

  562. Browder Felix biography
    • He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959 and awarded an honorary degree by the University of Paris in 1990.

  563. Sylvester biography
    • He had also been elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1863 and had been a fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1839.

  564. Brianchon biography
    • At the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, Brianchon studied under Monge.

  565. Ockham biography
    • After this some students were sent to Paris for further training, the rest taught at a convent.

  566. Batchelor biography
    • Batchelor began to examine Kolmogorov's approach to turbulence and in 1946 he presented his interpretation of Kolmogorov's work to the Sixth International Congress for Applied Mechanics in Paris.

  567. Suslin biography
    • This work of his, which has attracted general attention, and which in my view has many interesting mathematical and philosophical consequences, was published in 'Comptes Rendus' of the Paris Academy on 8 January that year.

  568. Hopf biography
    • Over the next few years he enjoyed invitations to lecture at leading international conferences, and he visited many places including Paris, Brussels, Rome and Oxford.

  569. Ore biography
    • Before taking up the research assistant position at the University of Oslo in 1925, which we referred to above, he made another visit to Gottingen University as a fellow of the International Education Board, and also visited the Sorbonne in Paris.

  570. Euclid biography
    • The situation is best summed up by Itard [',' J Itard, Les livres arithmetique d’Euclide (Paris, 1962).','11] who gives three possible hypotheses.

  571. Mirzakhani biography
    • She was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 2015, the American Philosophical Society in 2015, the National Academy of Sciences in 2016, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2017.

  572. Lexis biography
    • Despite the fact that his training up to this point had been a broad one, in 1861 Lexis went to Paris to study social sciences.

  573. Lasker biography
    • In the following year in Paris he was equally impressive winning 14 of his 18 games, again with only one loss.

  574. Zermelo biography
    • The importance of this was seen by Hilbert who made the continuum hypothesis the first in the list of problems which he proposed in his Paris lecture of 1900.

  575. Cafaro biography
    • He made research visits to Princeton University in the USA, University of Maryland in the USA, Imperial College in London, and the Ecole normale superieure in Paris.

  576. Zolotarev biography
    • Then he made two trips abroad, visiting Berlin where he attended lectures by Kummer, Weierstrass and Paris where he had many mathematical discussions with Hermite.

  577. Smale biography
    • Smale has been awarded honorary degrees by the University of Warwick (1974), Queens University, Kingston, Ontario (1987), the University of Michigan (1996), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (1997), the City University of Hong Kong (1997), Rostov State University (1999), and the University of Genoa (2004).

  578. Karpinski biography
    • Karpinski was elected to the Comite International d'Histoire des Sciences in 1928 and, in 1937, he was the American representative at the Symposium held in Paris on the life and work of Rene Descartes which celebrated the tercentenary of the publication of his "La Geometrie".

  579. Morton biography
    • Hilbert is one of the most influential mathematicians of his time, and his famous address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900, where he announced a number of unsolved problems, was to Morton's mind 'crucial' in its plea that mathematics should always remain a single, undivided subject.

  580. Santalo biography
    • Given the political situation, Blaschke knew that Germany was no place to invite Santalo to come, so he wrote to Elie Cartan who invited Santalo to Paris where, in March 1939, he delivered three lectures at the Institut Henri Poincare on integral geometry and geometric probabilities.

  581. Cohen biography
    • The continuum hypothesis problem was the first of David Hilbert's famous 23 problems delivered to the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

  582. Dirac biography
    • The list of these is long but among them are USSR Academy of Sciences (1931), Indian Academy of Sciences (1939), Chinese Physical Society (1943), Royal Irish Academy (1944), Royal Society of Edinburgh (1946), Institut de France (1946), National Institute of Sciences of India (1947), American Physical Society (1948), National Academy of Sciences (1949), National Academy of Arts and Sciences (1950), Accademia delle Scienze di Torino (1951), Academia das Ciencias de Lisboa (1953), Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City (1958), Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome (1960), Royal Danish Academy of Sciences (1962), and Academie des Sciences Paris (1963).

  583. Luzin biography
    • In fact Luzin's crisis had hit him in the spring of 1905 and, on 1 May 1906, Luzin wrote to Florensky from Paris where Egorov had sent him five months earlier in an attempt to get him through the crisis (see [',' C E Ford, The influence of P A Florensky on N N Luzin, Historia Mathematica 25 (1998), 332-339.','9]):- .

  584. Bernoulli Nicolaus(I) biography
    • The most important part of his correspondence with Montmort (1710-1712) was published in the latter's "Essai d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard" (Paris, 1713).

  585. Segre Corrado biography
    • Faa di Bruno was particularly important as a teacher for he had studied in Paris under Cauchy and so brought a wider European breadth to his teaching.

  586. Meray biography
    • Charles Meray studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.

  587. Nijenhuis biography
    • By the end of August, Paris was liberated and by early September Brussels was also liberated.

  588. Fontaine des Bertins biography
    • In 1732 Fontaine went to live near Paris, where he had acquired a residence, and he began to study mathematics under Castel.

  589. Noether Emmy biography

  590. Merrill biography
    • It was a school recognised for its high scholastic standards, a branch of this school was opened in Paris in 1912.

  591. Castelnuovo biography
    • Among his many foreign honours was election to the Academie des Sciences of Paris.

  592. Leonardo biography

  593. Shafarevich biography
    • The University of Paris awarded him an honorary doctorate.

  594. Cohn biography
    • He was soon on his travels again, being a visiting professor at Rutgers University in 1967-68, at the University of Paris in 1969, and at Tulane University and the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi both in 1971.

  595. Borchardt biography
    • The year 1846-47 he spent in Paris where he met Chasles, Hermite and Liouville.

  596. Iwasawa biography
    • The ideas were taken up immediately by Serre who saw their great potential and gave lectures to the Seminaire Bourbaki in Paris on Iwasawa theory.

  597. Lewis John biography
    • In January 1975 Lewis was appointed as Director of the School when O'Raifeartaigh made an extended visit to the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques at Bures-sur-Yyvette near Paris.

  598. Hevelius Johannes biography
    • He then moved on, going to France in 1632 where he sought out leading astronomers such as Gassendi and Boulliau in Paris.

  599. Cunitz biography
    • Hevelius suggested that Cunitz correspond with Ismael Boulliau who was a librarian working with the brothers Pierre and Jacques Dupuy at the Bibliotheque du Roi in Paris.

  600. Golius biography
    • A list of about 300 titles of these Arabic, Turkish and Persian works were listed in 1630 in Paris in a catalogue compiled by Pierre Gassendi.

  601. Basso biography
    • However, in 1872 Gilberto Govi, the professor of experimental physics, was appointed to the International Commission of Weights and Measures, meaning that he had to spend long periods of time in Paris.

  602. Stokes biography
    • As the priest of the church in Cambridge which Stokes later attended wrote (see [',' R Paris, The mathematical work of G G Stokes, Math.

  603. Tits biography
    • Lie visited Paris in 1870 as a graduate student, and went on to create the theory of continuous transformation groups.

  604. Qin Jiushao biography
    • 13 (4) (1986), 421-434.','15]; see also [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','3] and [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  605. Hamburger biography
    • Hamburger then went to Paris to continue his studies at the College de France with Jacques Hadamard.

  606. Hirzebruch biography
    • He was elected to the the Orden pour le merite fur Wissenschaft und Kunste, the German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina, the Heidelberg Academy, the Mainz Academy, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Nordrheinwestfalen Academy, the National Academy of Sciences (United States), the Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Gottingen Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, the Sachsische Akademie, the Berlin Academy of Science, the Royal Society of London, the Royal Irish Academy, the Polish Academy of Sciences, Academia Europaea, the European Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

  607. Wrinch biography
    • In particular she spent time at the universities in Vienna, Paris, Prague and Leiden.

  608. Fischer biography
    • His two papers of 1907 were Sur la convergence en moyenne Ⓣ and Applications d'un theorem sur la convergence en moyenne Ⓣ both published in Comptes rendus of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  609. Steiner biography
    • He spent the winter of 1854-55 in Paris and during his stay there was elected to the Academie des Sciences.

  610. Khruslov biography
    • He has been invited to address a number of major conferences, for example the 'Composite media and homogenization theory' conference in Trieste in 1990, the 'International Conference on Mathematical Physics' in Paris in 1994 and the 'International Congress of Mathematicians' in Zurich in the same year.

  611. Nielsen biography
    • He turned to number theory and studied Bernoulli numbers in Traite elementaire des nombres de Bernoulli Ⓣ (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1923) and Fermat's equation writing good textbooks on these topics.

  612. Godel biography
    • However, Godel suffered a nervous breakdown as he arrived back in Europe and telephoned his brother Rudolf from Paris to say he was ill.

  613. Gibbs biography
    • He went with his sisters and spent the winter of 1866-67 in Paris, followed by a year in Berlin and, finally spending 1868-69 in Heidelberg.

  614. Daubechies biography
    • Daubechies was awarded an honorary degree by the Universite Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne, Switzerland (2001), the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France (2005), the Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa, Italy (2006), the Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium (2008) and Oxford University (2013).

  615. Plancherel biography
    • With a grant of the state of Fribourg, he continued his studies in Gottingen (1907-1909) and Paris (1909-1910).

  616. Saks biography
    • At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 Poland demanded the return of the former Prussian sector of Upper Silesia from Germany.

  617. Bachiller biography
    • He arrived in Paris in November 1923 and attended courses at the College de France and at the Sorbonne.

  618. Loyd biography
    • For example he visited Europe in 1867 and played in a tournament in Paris but performed poorly.

  619. Teixeira biography
    • He received the Binoux Prize for the History of Mathematics from the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1917.

  620. Stein biography
    • This book was based on a course Integrales singulieres et fonctions differentiables de plusieurs variables which he had given at Orsay, Paris, in 1966-67.

  621. Miller biography
    • Miller spent the years from 1895 to 1897 in Europe attending lectures on group theory by Lie in Leipzig and Jordan in Paris.

  622. Brioschi biography
    • In 1858, together with Betti from Pisa and his own student Casorati, Brioschi visited Gottingen, Berlin and Paris.

  623. Vidav biography
    • During his rapid academic ascent in the next few years he made several short visits to Paris, where he met Szolem Mandelbrojt, who influenced his later research in approximation theory.

  624. Sierpinski biography
    • He was elected to the Geographic Society of Lima (1931), the Royal Scientific Society of Liege (1934), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1936), the National Academy of Lima (1939), the Royal Society of Sciences of Naples (1939), the Accademia dei Lincei of Rome (1947), the German Academy of Science (1950), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1959), the Paris Academy (1960), the Royal Dutch Academy (1961), the Academy of Science of Brussels (1961), the London Mathematical Society (1964), the Romanian Academy of Sciences (1965) and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (1967).

  625. Nevanlinna biography
    • Later visits included one to Paris in 1926 where he met Hadamard, Montel and he also visited Andre Bloch in a mental hospital.

  626. Boggio biography
    • In 1906 the Paris Academy of Sciences proposed 'The theory of the equilibrium of supported elastic plates' as the topic for their competition for the Vaillant Prize.

  627. Ivory biography
    • He was also honoured by many foreign scientific societies such as the Gottingen Academy in 1814, the Prussian Academy in 1826, the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1828, the Academy of Modena in 1829, the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1935, and the Irish Academy in 1839.

  628. Arf biography
    • Arf won a scholarship to continued his education in Paris and he returned to France, graduating from the Ecole Normale Superieure after spending two years there.

  629. Lloyd Bartholomew biography
    • In 1811 Poisson had published a two volume treatise Traite de mecanique which gave an exceptionally clear treatment based on his course notes at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  630. Borelli biography
    • He fled to Paris in 1634 accompanied by Filippo Borelli, the brother of the subject of this biography.

  631. Delannoy biography
    • He then attended Sainte-Barbe College in Paris, in order to prepare for the difficult entrance exams to the prestigious Ecole Polytechnique.

  632. Holder biography
    • (Paris) 17 (1) (2013), 53-56.','16]:-:- .

  633. Rittenhouse biography
    • The fighting of the Revolution was over by 1782 and the Treaty of Paris of 1783 provided a formal peace treaty.

  634. Wren biography
    • A visit to Paris in 1665 was also influential, particularly the impression that the church of the Sorbonne and the church of Les Invalides made on him.

  635. Lewy biography
    • During the years when Lewy held a position at Gottingen he was awarded two Rockefeller Foundation Fellowships, the first allowing him to spend session 1929-30 at the University of Rome and second allowing him to spend session 1930-1931 at the University of Paris.

  636. Napier biography
    • Both these must have been acquired during his studies in Europe but no record exists to show where he studied, although the University of Paris is highly likely and it is also probable that he spent some time in Italy and the Netherlands.

  637. Panini biography
    • Let us end with an evaluation of Panini's contribution by Cardona in [',' G Cardona, Panini : a survey of research (Paris, 1976).','1]:- .

  638. Adelard biography
    • Laon lies northwest of Reims and northeast of Paris.

  639. Davis biography
    • The problem, as stated by David Hilbert at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900, is rather different from the way that it is usually stated today so let us look at both aspects.

  640. Landau biography
    • On 9 June 1900 he wrote a letter from Paris, where he was studying, to Hilbert giving an outline of his ideas for proving the prime ideal theorem for algebraic number fields.

  641. Langlands biography
    • He has received honorary doctorates from the University of British Columbia, McMaster University, The City University of New York, the University of Waterloo, the University of Paris VII, McGill University, and the University of Toronto.

  642. Benjamin biography
    • He received the L H Moody Award from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1966, the William Hopkins Prize from the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1970, a Fellowship of the Royal Society of Arts in 1992, and was elected to the Academie des Sciences of Paris in 1992.

  643. Newton biography

  644. Waller biography
    • He lectured at conferences in Rome, Amsterdam and Paris, and at the British Combinatorial Conferences held in Aberystwyth (1973), Aberdeen (1975) and Royal Holloway College (1977).

  645. Anaximander biography
    • Collection ’Algorithme’ (Francois Maspero, Paris, 1978).','6].

  646. Lah biography
    • As a representative of the Society of Actuaries of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Ivo Lah attended the International Congress of Actuaries in Rome (1934) and in Paris (1937).

  647. Bjerknes Carl biography
    • For two years, from 1852 to 1854, Bjerknes taught mathematics in a school but an award of a scholarship enabled him to study mathematics at Gottingen and Paris in 1856-57.

  648. Littlewood biography
    • In 1957 he was elected to the Paris Academie des Sciences to replace Frechet.

  649. Gromoll biography
    • Gromoll worked at the State University of New York at Stony Brook for the rest of his career, but held a number of visiting positions over the years such as at: Ecole Polytechnique and IHES, Paris (1975); University of Munster (1983); IMPA Rio de Janeiro (1984/1996/1997); and MSRI Berkeley (1993).

  650. Birnbaum biography
    • My journey took me to Vienna where I bade farewell to my relatives and acquaintances, and to Paris, where with my reporter's credentials I managed to see the World Exhibition a few days before its official opening.

  651. Bernoulli Johann(II) biography
    • He had the remarkable distinction of winning the Prize of the Paris Academy on no less than four separate occasions.

  652. Magenes biography
    • Let us end this biography with the opening sentences of Alberto Farina's tribute to Magenes, delivered at the first Lions-Magenes Day in Paris on 14 December 2011:- .

  653. Zygmund biography
    • He received honorary doctorates from Mount Holyoke College, Washington University, the University of Torun, the University of Paris, and the University of Uppsala.

  654. Magini biography
    • In February 1612, when Ferdinando was in Paris, Magini wrote of an even more exciting find, some rare books by the thirteenth-century hermeticist Ramon Llull; even Magini dropped an admission that the attribution to Llull might be false, nevertheless he confidently quoted a passage in his letter and asked Ferdinando to check whether an image of Christ and a cross allegedly made from alchemical gold were still in Notre-Dame.

  655. Reeb biography
    • Gustave Alfred Arthur Choquet had been, from 1950, a professor at the University of Paris.

  656. Babbage biography
    • I thus acquired a distaste for the routine of the studies of the place, and devoured the papers of Euler and other mathematicians scattered through innumerable volumes of the academies of St Petersburg, Berlin, and Paris, which the libraries I had recourse to contained.

  657. Freudenthal biography
    • Also in 1927, Freudenthal spent the summer semester at the University of Paris broadening his already broad interests.

  658. Burkhardt biography
    • During his time in Gottingen he also spent a few months in Paris (winter 1893/94) in order to attend lectures by Poincare, Picard and Felix Tisserand.

  659. Tibbon biography
    • Jacob ben Tibbon also wrote Luhot (Tables) a book of astronomical tables giving ascensions of certain stars at Paris.

  660. Bortolotti biography
    • From 1892 he undertook postgraduate studies at Paris then, in 1893, he was appointed to the University of Rome and taught in Rome until 1900 when he became professor of infinitesimal calculus at Modena.

  661. Sitter biography
    • Simon Newcomb had published values for these constants in 1895 and in a rather remarkable international agreement in Paris in 1896, it had been decided that the ephemerides of every country in the world should use Newcomb's values for these constants.

  662. Rocha biography
    • The following four astronomy papers by da Rocha, Calculo dos Eclipses Ⓣ (1803), Uso do reticulo Rhomboidal Ⓣ (1805), Uso do Instrumento de Passagens Ⓣ (1805), and Exposicao dos methodos particulares de que se faz uso no calculo destas Ephemerides Ⓣ (1807) were translated into French and appeared as Memoires sur l'Astronomie Pratique Ⓣ by M J Monteiro da Rocha (Paris, 1808).

  663. Vernier biography

  664. Whitney biography
    • He was honoured by being elected to the National Academy of Sciences (United States) in 1945, and he was also elected to the Academy of Sciences (Paris) and the Swiss Mathematical Society.

  665. Riccati Vincenzo biography
    • From the age of ten he studied at the Jesuit College of San Francesco Saverio in Bologna, being taught mathematics and philosophy there by Luigi Marchenti, a former pupil of Pierre Varignon at Paris.

  666. Ayrton biography
    • In 1900 she read her paper L'intensite lumineuse de l'arc a courants continus Ⓣ to the International Electrical Congress in Paris.

  667. Rudolph biography
    • He was a Visiting Professor: at the University of Paris VI, September 1988-March 1989; at the Mathematics Institute of the University of Warwick, May-June 1989; at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, July 1989; at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, January-June 1991; at the Universite d'Aix-Marseille, January-June 1993; and at the Universite de Francois Rabelais in Tours, June-July 1993.

  668. Bradistilov biography
    • In the 1931-32 he studied at the University of Paris, attending lectures by Jacques Hadamard and Elie Cartan.

  669. Vailati biography
    • Vailati was a member of the organising committee of the First International Congress of Philosophy which was held in Paris in 1900 immediately before the First International Congress of Mathematicians.

  670. Kuiper biography
    • In 1971 Kuiper was appointed Director of the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques at Bures-sur-Yvette near Paris.

  671. Pieri biography
    • Pieri had been invited to attend both the Congress of Philosophy and the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

  672. Frenet biography
    • Frenet was appointed as a professor at the University of Toulouse, then in 1848 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Lyon, the most important educational centre outside Paris.

  673. Kirchhoff biography
    • Unemployment and crop failures had led to discontent and disturbances, and trouble was sparked by the news that Louis-Philippe had been overthrown by an uprising in Paris in February 1848.

  674. Sonin biography
    • In the middle of this period Nicolai Vasilievich Bugaev, after studying for a period of two and a half years with Kummer and Weierstrass in Berlin and Liouville in Paris, was appointed as a professor at Moscow University.

  675. Abul-Wafa biography
    • In the introduction to this book Abu'l-Wafa writes that it ([',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','3] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','4]):- .

  676. Fueter biography
    • He spent some time in Paris, then in Vienna and finally went to London while pursuing his studies.

  677. Aristotle biography
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .

  678. Fields biography
    • From 1892 to 1900 Fields studied in Paris, Gottingen and Berlin with Fuchs, Frobenius, Hensel, Schwarz, Weierstrass, and Planck.

  679. Klein Oskar biography
    • Arrhenius wanted to send Klein to work with Jean-Baptiste Perrin in his laboratory at the University of Paris but the plan was foiled by the outbreak of World War I.

  680. Simson biography
    • The work ran through more than 70 different editions, revisions or translations published first in Glasgow in 1756, with others appearing in Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dublin, London, Cambridge, Paris and a number of other European and American cities.

  681. Kuperberg biography
    • While on the Faculty at Auburn she has held a number of visiting positions: Oklahoma State University (1982-83); the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (1987); the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley (1994-95); and the University of Paris at Orsay (summer 1995).

  682. Loday biography
    • Then he attended preparatory class at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris preparing to take the entrance examination for the Ecole Normale Superieure.

  683. Banachiewicz biography
    • In 1906 Banachiewicz had important papers published by the Paris Academy of Sciences after being presented to the Academy by Poincare: Sur un cas particulier du probleme des n corps Ⓣ; and Uber die Anwendbarkeit der Gylden-Brendelschen Storungstheorie auf die Jupiternahen Planetoiden Ⓣ.

  684. Walsh Joseph biography
    • A Sheldon Travelling Fellowship allowed Walsh to spend the academic year 1920-21 in Paris where he worked with Montel.

  685. Srinivasan biography
    • Our work has led to further work in this direction in Aachen, Kassel and Paris.

  686. Koopmans biography
    • In May 1940 German troops invaded the Netherlands and France and by the middle of June they occupied Paris.

  687. Bernoulli Jacob biography

  688. Friedrichs biography
    • He used a trick to escape, getting a visa to go to Paris to visit his sister who was living there.

  689. Iwanik biography
    • In the 90s he was a frequent guest at French universities (Aix-Marseille I, Aix-Marseille II, Brest, Paris XIII, Rouen).

  690. Los biography
    • He made long visits to several universities abroad including: the University of California at Berkeley (1959-60) when, in collaboration with Alfred Tarski, he ran a model theory seminar; again the University of California at Berkeley (1962-3) when, in collaboration with Bjarni Jonsson, he ran a universal algebra seminar; Aarhus University in Denmark (1967) when he lectured on mathematical methods in economics; the Poincare Institute in Paris (1969) when he lectured on the theory of economic models; Yale University (1973) when he lectured on applications of mathematics to economics; and the University of Wisconsin (1978-79) when again he lectured on applications of mathematics to economics.

  691. Yushkevich biography
    • And he also adored France, especially Paris, which he visited nearly every year during the last three decades of his life.

  692. Robinson biography
    • Robinson was a brilliant student and, after graduating in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to allow him to study at the Sorbonne in Paris.

  693. Schubert biography
    • Hilbert, in his famous Paris lecture of 1900, asked for a proof (it is Problem 15), which was given by Severi in 1912.

  694. Gregory Olinthus biography
    • The 'etc.' here includes honorary memberships of societies in Bristol and Paris.

  695. Franklin Fabian biography
    • and Charles Hermite presented the paper to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.

  696. Gentry biography
    • Gentry then went to Paris where she spent a semester attending mathematics lectures at the Sorbonne before returning to Bryn Mawr.

  697. Urysohn biography
    • The complete theory was presented in an article which Lebesgue accepted for publication in the Comptes rendus of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  698. Edmonds biography
    • While undertaking research she spent a year at Westfield College,London, and another year at the University of Paris.

  699. Poleni biography
    • He was elected to the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1739.

  700. Recorde biography
    • For many years Stifel was considered as Recorde's major source, but in [',' B Hughes, Robert Recorde and the first published equation, in Vestigia mathematica (Amsterdam, 1993), 163-171.','5] Hughes argues convincingly that Algebrae compendiosa by J Scheubel published in Paris in 1551 is Recorde's major source.

  701. Angheluta biography
    • From 1910, Theodor Angheluță was a student at the Sorbonne in Paris, working mainly on the guidance of Emile Picard.

  702. Houel biography
    • Le Verrier was impressed with Houel's work and tried to persuade him to accept a post at the Observatory in Paris.

  703. Arvesen biography
    • Erindringer Ⓣ published in 1976, Arvesen talks about his numerous stays in Paris, and how he could enjoy French culture and science.

  704. Price biography
    • Under the abuse with which some of them are accompanied, I have been comforted by finding myself joined to the City of Paris, and the National Assembly of France.

  705. Casorati biography
    • In 1858, together with Betti and Brioschi, he visited Gottingen, Berlin and Paris and this visit is often taken as the point where Italian mathematics joined the mainstream of European mathematics.

  706. Faedo biography
    • The Scuola Normale was originally founded in 1810 by a decree of Napoleon Bonaparte and intended to be a sister institute of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.

  707. Marchenko biography
    • In 1997 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Sorbonne in Paris.

  708. Motzkin biography
    • Among those he studied at were Gottingen, Paris and Berlin.

  709. Libri biography
    • The following year, being now in the fortunate position of having the title of Professor, being paid a professorial salary but having no commitments, he visited Paris and was well received by the top mathematicians of the day including Laplace, Poisson, Ampere, Fourier and Arago.

  710. Bollobas biography
    • He was also offered a scholarship to study in Paris, but again the authorities refused permission for him to leave the country.

  711. Manfredi Gabriele biography
    • Through contacts with members of this group, Manfredi was put in touch with Pierre Varignon who was working in Paris on applications of the differential and integral calculus.

  712. Al-Farisi biography
    • On the other hand his contributions to number theory are discussed the references [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2], [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3], [',' A G Agargun and C R Fletcher, al-Farisi and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Historia Math.

  713. Kodaira biography
    • Some have compared this quality text with the classic books by Joseph Serret and Heinrich Weber and it is worth mentioning that he had studied in Paris, Gottingen and Berlin.

  714. Shepherdson biography
    • The papers published in 2000 also have Jeff B Paris as a co-author.

  715. Kendall biography
    • For example he was elected an honorary member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences in 1992 and has received honorary degrees from the University of Paris Rene Descartes (1976) and the University of Bath (1986).

  716. Karman biography
    • He made a short visit to Paris in March 1908 where he watched some pioneering aviation flights which turned his interest to applying mathematics to aeronautics.

  717. Roomen biography
    • On his arrival in Paris, he was told that Viete was in Poitou and travelled there to talk with him.

  718. Kronecker biography
    • He did accept honours such as election to the Paris Academy in that year and for many years he enjoyed good relations with his colleagues in Berlin and elsewhere.

  719. Weingarten biography
    • The interest which Darboux showed in his work, encouraged Weingarten to push his results further and he wrote a long paper which won the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences in Paris in 1894.

  720. Veblen biography
    • He was elected to the Danish Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Sciences (Paris), the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society of Edinburgh and a number of other national academies in, for example, Ireland, Italy, and Peru.

  721. Zeeman biography
    • In the following year I spend a sabbatical with Thom at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris, where I learnt all about catastrophe theory.

  722. Aleksandrov biography
    • Aleksandrov and Urysohn then visited Brouwer in Holland and Paris in August 1924 before having a holiday in the fishing village of Bourg de Batz in Brittany.

  723. Schneider biography
    • David Hilbert's Seventh Problem, given in his address to the Paris International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900, asks: .

  724. Wylie biography
    • Francis Wylie had married Kathleen, the daughter of Edmond Kelly, an American lawyer living in Paris, on 18 August 1904.

  725. Thompson John biography
    • Brauer, in a personal comment at the end of [',' R Brauer, On the work of John Thompson, Actes du Congres International des Mathematiciens, Nice, 1970 1 (Paris, 1971), 15-16.','3] predicted this:- .

  726. Madwar biography
    • Mohammed Reda Madwar attended French School in both Egypt and Paris and received the "French baccalaureat".

  727. Speiser Andreas biography
    • After leaving Britain, Speiser spent time in Paris before going to Strasbourg where he habilitated in 1911.

  728. Bachet biography
    • It was to this estate he returned after the illness in Milan in 1602 and, except for spending 1619-20 in Paris and some time in Rome, he spent his life quietly there enjoying the considerable income generated by the estate.

  729. Stefan Josef biography
    • It was prompted by the Paris Revolution in February of the same year.

  730. Bass biography
    • During his period as professor, Bass was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Paris during the year 1968-69, then served as Chair of the Department of Mathematics at Columbia University from 1975 to 1979.

  731. Zeckendorf biography
    • Both were artists and, before her marriage, Elsa had made many fine drawings of Paris scenes, some in pencil and some in charcoal.

  732. Kovalevskaya biography
    • She took over the task of liaison with the mathematicians of Paris and Berlin and took part in the organisation of international conferences.

  733. Dumas biography
    • He returned to Paris, and in 1904 he was awarded a doctorate for his thesis Sur les fonctions a caractere algebrique dans le voisinage d'un point donne Ⓣ .

  734. Bottasso biography
    • He published his first paper Sopra le coniche bitangenti alle superficie algebriche Ⓣ in 1903 then, in 1904, he was awarded a scholarship from the Collegio Carlo Alberto to allow him to improve his knowledge of mathematics by attending courses by Henri Poincare and Emile Picard at the higher education institutes in Paris.

  735. Herschel William biography
    • In 1802 William visited Paris where he met and had discussions with Jerome Lalande, Pierre Mechain, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre, Pierre-Simon Laplace and Charles Messier.

  736. Savage biography
    • He was awarded the Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship and, in addition, was a Fulbright grantee allowing him to spend the academic year 1951-52 in Paris and in Cambridge, England.

  737. Abu Kamil biography
    • He described al-Khwarizmi as (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','4] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','5]):- .

  738. Fock biography
    • This led to the importance of his work being widely recognised and as a result he was awarded a Rockefeller grant to allow him to spend a year studying in Gottingen and Paris.

  739. Bezout biography

  740. Zhang Heng biography
    • His biography in The History of the Eastern Han Dynasty (see [',' Ngo van Xuyet, Divination, Magie et Politique dans la Chine Ancienne (Paris, 1976).','5]) suggests that he was not as successful an official as he might have been precisely because of a lack of ambition.

  741. Butzer biography
    • This European experience made him keen to spend research leave in Europe and he spent the year 1955-56 first spending a short time in Paris then spending most of the year in Mainz.

  742. Eisenbud biography
    • He made a research visit after this period as Chairman, spending the autumn term of 1994 at Harvard University and the spring term of 1995 at l'Institut Henri Poincare in Paris.

  743. Barrow biography
    • Barrow spent the first ten months in Paris where he reported that he was rather disappointed in that the University was not nearly as impressive as he had been expecting.

  744. Hedrick biography
    • Harvard awarded Hedrick a scholarship for a third year to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and there he spent part of 1901 in contact with Edouard Goursat, Emile Picard, Jacques Hadamard, Paul Appell and Jules Tannery.

  745. MacMillan Chrystal biography
    • She presented these views to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference but, as had happened so often in her life, again her views were ignored.

  746. Hutton James biography
    • Probably for that reason he left Edinburgh and went to Paris where he continued his studies at the University.

  747. Saint-Vincent biography
    • Tschirnhaus, friend and associate of Leibniz during his Paris years, found in the 'ductus in planum' a valuable foundation for the development of his own algebraic integration methods.

  748. Geiser biography
    • In his speech, he also explained that Zurich had been chosen as the venue for the first International Congress because it was "at the crossroad of the large railways from Paris to Vienna and from Berlin to Rome".

  749. Sundman biography
    • In 1913 the Academy of Sciences in Paris awarded Sundman their Pontecoulant prize for his outstanding work on this problem.

  750. Mihoc biography
    • Octav Onicescu (1892-1983) had studied geometry under Tullio Levi-Civita in Rome before spending some time on a visit to Paris.

  751. McDuff biography
    • During a sabbatical term at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique in Paris in 1985 she studied Gromov's work on elliptic methods which became the basis for much of her later work.

  752. Dvoretzky biography
    • In fact his thesis consisted of five chapters, the first three of which had been published as three separate papers in Comptes Rendus of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  753. Verhulst biography
    • An account of these events was given by Queen Hortense de Beauharnais who was, at this time, living in Rome [',' Memoires de la Reine Hortense, publies par le Prince Napoleon (Librairie Plon, Paris 1927), 210-212.','10]:- .

  754. Fredholm biography
    • In fact much of this work was accomplished during the months of 1899 which Fredholm spent in Paris studying the Dirichlet problem with Poincare, Emile Picard, and Hadamard.

  755. Maskelyne biography
    • He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Hanover Academy of Sciences and academies in Russia and Poland.

  756. Wiener Christian biography
    • At Clebsch's suggestion Wiener constructed plaster of Paris models of mathematical surfaces which were exhibited in London, Munich and Chicago.

  757. Douglas biography
    • Then he was awarded a National Research Fellowship and, from 1926 to 1930, he visited Princeton (1926-27), Harvard (1927), Chicago (1928), Paris (1928-30), and Gottingen (1930).

  758. Stieltjes biography
    • Stieltjes went with his family to Paris in April 1885 and in the same year he was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Amsterdam.

  759. Grauert biography
    • He spent the year 1957-58 at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, then the spring semester of 1959 at the Institut des Hautes etudes Scientifique in Paris.

  760. Dehn biography
    • In August 1900, Hilbert gave his famous address at the International Congresses of Mathematicians held in Paris.

  761. Loria biography
    • The International Commission on Mathematical Instruction, meeting in Paris in 1914, asked him to compile a report Rapporto generale sulla preparazione teorica e pratica dei professori di matematica dell'insegnamento secondario Ⓣ to be delivered at the planned international conference in Munich in 1915.

  762. Ricci-Curbastro biography
    • The initial contributions had been made by Gauss, then the ideas had been developed in Riemann's 1854 Probevorlesung Ⓣ and in an 1861 paper which he wrote for a prize contest of the Paris Academie des Sciences.

  763. Rhodes biography
    • At the time of her application her husband was living in Paris, France, and she was living with her parents at 101 Brightwater Court, Brooklyn, New York.

  764. Lloyd Humphrey biography
    • In the summer of 1841, Lloyd and his wife were touring again, this time visiting Paris to study the French contributions.

  765. Steinitz biography
    • He also proved a result on configurations which in fact is just Konig's theorem for regular bipartite graphs which Denes Konig presented to the Congres de philosophie mathematique in Paris in 1914 and proved in his paper Sur un probleme de la theorie generale des ensembles et la theorie des graphes Ⓣ (1923).

  766. Cholesky biography
    • In the first decade of the 20th century, following the revision of the Paris Meridian, a new triangulation of France was planned to take place.

  767. Mahavira biography
    • Filliozat writes [',' J Filliozat, La science indienne antique, in R Taton (ed.), Histoire generale des sciences (Paris, 1957-1964), 159-.','6]:- .

  768. Bateman biography
    • During the years 1905 and 1906 Bateman travelled on the continent, visiting Paris and Gottingen.

  769. Brashman biography
    • In 1861 he published the article On the application of the Principle of Minimum Action to the determination of water volume in a spillway and, in the same year he published Note concernant la pression des wagons sur les rails droits et des courants d'eau sur la rive droite du movement en vertu de la rotation de la terre Ⓣ in Comptes rendus of the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  770. Hironaka biography
    • He invited Hironaka to the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique in Paris in 1959-60 where he found himself the only visiting fellow.

  771. Tucker Albert biography
    • DeLury suggested Paris, Gottingen or Bologna as the best places, with Cambridge as the best option if he felt he had to have teaching in English.

  772. Zaremba biography
    • He was awarded his engineering diploma in 1886 and he then went to Paris where he studied mathematics for his doctorate at the Sorbonne.

  773. Doppelmayr biography
    • The French mathematics text Traite de la construction et des principaux usages des instrumens de mathematiques Ⓣ by Nicolas Bion, published in Paris in 1709, was translated in German by Doppelmayr in 1712 as Neu-eroffnete mathematische Werck-Schule Nicolai Bion Ⓣ.

  774. Abramescu biography
    • Maurice d'Ocagne, member of the Institute of France, professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  775. Vacca biography
    • The following year Vacca attended the First International Congress of Philosophy which was held in Paris in 1900.

  776. Andreotti biography
    • He spent the rest of his career at Pisa, although he spent much time abroad visiting the University of Nancy, the University of Paris, Gottingen University, the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, Strasbourg University, Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, Stanford University in Palo Alto, California and Oregon State University at Corvallis, Oregon.

  777. Furtwangler biography
    • This was a contribution to Hilbert's Ninth Problem, stated in his address at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

  778. Scot biography
    • His education allegedly begins at the cathedral school of Durham and includes Oxford and the University of Paris where he studied Mathematics, Astrology (which included Astronomy), Alchemy and Medicine.

  779. Krylov Nikolai biography
    • These are Sur une propriete des suites particulieres de nombres premiers impairs published by the Academy of Sciences in Paris, Sur les complexes de Galois and Sur les quaternions de W R Hamilton et la notion de la monogeneite both published by the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Russian Academy of Sciences).

  780. Barsotti biography
    • Iacopo Barsotti studied at the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, which was originally founded in 1810 by a decree of Napoleon Bonaparte and intended to be a sister institute of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.

  781. Upton biography
    • In August of that year the newly married Francis and Margaret Upton, along with Thomas and Mina Edison, were present at the Paris Universal Exposition.

  782. Delamain biography
    • However, he does seem to have travelled in France, in particular visiting Paris, and by the age of twenty he had reached a level which allowed him to become a master of a writing-school in Drury Lane.

  783. Siegel biography
    • Paris Vie Academique 296 (1983), (suppl.

  784. Hiebert biography
    • The conception of energy, for instance, played undoubtedly an important role in scientific thought long before John Bernoulli introduced the term 'energy' 1717 in his letter to Pierre Varignon of the Paris Academy of Science and long before Young, Thomson, and Rankine promulgated in their writings the word as a 'terminus technicus' in its modern sense.

  785. Ortega biography
    • Ortega also published Cursus quattuor mathematicarum artium liberalium published in Paris in 1516.

  786. Al-Mahani biography
    • Omar Khayyam writes (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3]):- .

  787. De Franchis biography
    • For their outstanding work on the theory of hyperelliptic surfaces de Franchis and Bagnera won the Paris Academy of sciences' Bordin prize in 1909 for their classification of hyperelliptic surfaces.

  788. Jackson Dunham biography
    • During these two years abroad he also visited Bonn, where he spent two months attending lectures by Felix Hausdorff and Eduard Study, and Paris where he spent a few weeks attending lectures by Emile Picard, Edouard Goursat and Jacques Hadamard.

  789. Torricelli biography

  790. Grattan-Guinness biography
    • Relevant Fourier manuscripts were available in Paris and he was advised by Tom Whiteside about working with manuscripts and given other useful advice on how to undertake research on the history of mathematics.

  791. David Lajos biography
    • Between 1905 and 1906 David studied in Gottingen, attending courses by David Hilbert and Felix Klein, and then in Paris.

  792. Pacioli biography
    • In [',' P Speziali, Luca Pacioli et son oeuvre, in Sciences of the Renaissance (Paris, 1973), 93-106.','10] the importance of Pacioli's work is discussed, in particular his computation of approximate values of a square root (using a special case of Newton's method), his incorrect analysis of certain games of chance (similar to those studied by Pascal which gave rise to the theory of probability), his problems involving number theory (similar problems appeared in Bachet's compilation), and his collection of many magic squares.

  793. Ruffini biography
    • Ruffini asked the Institute in Paris to pronounce on the correctness of his proof and Lagrange, Legendre and Lacroix were appointed to examine it.

  794. Laguerre biography
    • However he was able to enter the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris in 1852 but he suffered from tiredness every day.

  795. Fagnano Giulio biography
    • In addition he was elected to the Berlin Academy of Sciences and was proposed for the Paris Academie des Sciences in 1766 but died before he could be elected.

  796. Smith biography
    • The Academy of Sciences in Paris set the question for the 1882 Grand Prix in Mathematics to be precisely the problem on the number of ways that an integer can be expressed as the sum of k squares that Smith had solved in his 1867 paper The orders and genera of quadratic forms containing more than three indeterminates.

  797. Lissajous biography
    • The experiments were exhibited at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1867.

  798. Floer biography
    • He accepted invitations to speak in Moscow, Oxford, Paris, and Zurich.

  799. Knorr biography
    • He had hoped to show by the illuminations that a large family of twelfth-century astronomical manuscripts came from the same school in Paris.

  800. Dyson biography
    • He has also been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (United States) (1964) and the Paris Academy of Sciences (1989).

  801. Cheng Dawei biography
    • Tokyo 29 (1954), 8-18.','7] and also [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','1] and [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  802. Carleson biography
    • He has been awarded honorary doctorates by the University of Helsinki (1982), the University of Paris (1988), and the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (1989).

  803. Rychlik biography
    • He spent the session 1907-08 in Paris.

  804. Dantzig George biography
    • Tobias was born in Russia, but went to France where he studied mathematics in Paris being taught there by Poincare.

  805. Truesdell biography
    • He was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Modena (1960), the Academie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences, Paris (1961), the Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere (1968), the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (1969), the Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (1971), the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Rome (1972), the Academie Internationale de Philosophie des Sciences, Bruxelles (1974), the Accademia delle Scienze, Torino (1978), the Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1981), the Polish Society for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (1985), the Regia societas scientiarum Upsaliensis (1987), and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1991).

  806. Wolfowitz biography
    • In 1967 he was visiting professor at both Technion and the University of Paris, and he spent a period at the University of Heidelberg in 1969.

  807. Schoenberg biography
    • Simion Sanielevici (1870-1963) studied at the University of Bucharest and then undertook research in Paris.

  808. Smoluchowski biography
    • From November 1895 to July 1896 he undertook research on heat radiation in Paris at the laboratory of Gabriel Lippman at the Sorbonne.

  809. Al-Baghdadi biography
    • Al-Baghdadi wrote (see for example [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','2] or [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','3]):- .

  810. Zu Chongzhi biography
    • Martzloff, in [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','3] or [',' J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).','4], presents another possible way that Zu might have found 355/113 by luck rather than mathematical skill.

  811. Dedekind biography
    • He was elected to the Gottingen Academy (1862), the Berlin Academy (1880), the Academy of Rome, the Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum Academia, and the Academie des Sciences in Paris (1900).

  812. Stancu biography
    • These include meetings in Germany at Stuttgart, Hannover, Hamburg, Gottingen, Dortmund, Munster, Siegen, Wurzburg, Berlin and Oberwolfach, in Italy at Rome, Naples, Potenza and L'Aquila, in England at Lancaster (where he gave the lecture 'Probabilistic methods in the theory of approximation of functions of several variables by linear positive operators') and Durham (where he gave the lecture 'Approximation of bivariate functions by means of some Bernstein-type operators'), in Hungary at Budapest, in France at Paris, in Bulgaria at Sofia and Varna, in Poland at Warsaw and in the Czech Republic at Brno.

  813. Gemma Frisius biography
    • He was joined by a medical student Andreas Vesalius, who came from Paris to Louvain in the autumn of 1536, and together they found a human corpse outside Louvain.

  814. Beale biography
    • At the age of 16, Beale and her two older sisters were sent to a school for English girls in Paris which was run by Mlle Bray.

  815. Petzval biography
    • This Petzval highly luminous early form of photo lens was used by the enterprising Viennese optician Voigtlander, who launched its mass production and won a silver medal at the World's Exhibition Fair in Paris.

  816. Guccia biography
    • The completed volume was presented by Bertrand to the Academie des Sciences in Paris on 7 November 1887, stating that it was a publication of remarkably high quality.

  817. Nicomachus biography
    • Nicomachus writes of these numbers in Introduction to Arithmetic (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','6], or [',' M L D’Ooge (trs.), Nicomachus of Gerasa, Introduction to Arithmetic (New York, 1926).','3] for a different translation):- .

  818. Bugaev biography
    • Over a period of two and a half years he studied under Kummer and Weierstrass in Berlin and Liouville in Paris.

  819. Nightingale biography
    • Nightingale returned to Kaiserswerth, in 1851, to undertake 3 months of nursing training at the Institute for Protestant Deaconesses and from Germany she moved to a hospital in St Germain, near Paris, run by the Sisters of Mercy.

  820. Barnes biography
    • Article by: R Paris, University of Abertay, ScotlandClick on this link to see a list of the Glossary entries for this page .

  821. Szasz biography
    • Otto Szasz studied at the University of Budapest but he went from there to Gottingen, Munich and Paris where he greatly broadened his education.

  822. Shields biography
    • At that time, Salem spent half the year in Paris and half at M.I.T.

  823. Mazur biography
    • From 1923 to 1926 he studied at the Jan Kazimierz University, Lvov and in Paris.

  824. Murray biography
    • These include: the National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; the University of Florence; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the University of Iowa; the University of Utah, Salt Lake City; the California Institute of Technology; the University of British Columbia, Vancouver; the University of Heidelberg; the University of Guelph; the Southern Methodist University, Dallas; the Los Alamos National Laboratory; the Neurosciences Institute, Rockefeller University, New York; the Institut de Biologie Theorique, Universite d'Angers; and the University of Paris (IX-Dauphine).

  825. Zeuthen biography
    • He decided to visit Paris and there he studied geometry with Chasles.

  826. Borcherds biography
    • Also in 1992 he received a prize from the European Mathematical Society at the European Congress of Mathematicians in Paris.


History Topics

  1. Longitude1
    • In 1651 Cardinal Mazarin, who was then the chief political figure in France, was forced to leave Paris during the struggle between the King and the parliament.
    • Jean-Baptiste Colbert became Mazarin's agent in Paris and Colbert was rewarded by Mazarin who, on his deathbed in 1661, recommended Colbert to the King, Louis XIV.
    • After beginning work for the Academie Royale in Paris, Huygens tried to perfect the operation of his pendulum clocks.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • These sites were far from ideal for research purposes and Colbert was able to obtain a grant from the King to set up the Observatory of Paris in Faubourg, St Jacques, far enough from Paris to avoid lights and other problems.
    • The meridian line through the Observatory became the official meridian line of Paris.
    • In November 1668 Colbert invited Graindorge to come to Paris and explain his methods.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • The data was now better than when Galileo first proposed the method and so observations began at the Paris Observatory and Colbert set about bringing Cassini to Paris.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • With offers of large amounts of money Cassini came to Paris on 4 April 1669, although the Senate of Bologna, the Pope and Cassini himself believed it to be only for a short visit.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Picard used a triangulation method, the method first proposed by Gemma Frisius, choosing as base points the Pavilion at Malvoisine near Paris and the clock tower in Sourdon near Amiens.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Soon Cassini was in charge of the Paris Observatory and he began a project to use the moons of Jupiter method in conjunction with the new data available for the size of the Earth to map the World.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • On the third floor of the Paris Observatory Cassini had laid out a planisphere, a map of the World using an azimuthal projection with the North Pole at the centre.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • However Picard took with him a pendulum clock which had been carefully calibrated in the Paris Observatory before he left.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Other expeditions which set out from Paris on longitude measurements were all told to watch out for any unexpected variations in the performance of their pendulum clocks.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Varin and des Hayes were chosen to lead it and they were trained by Cassini in Paris before leaving so that they might perfect their skills in obtaining precise longitude measurements.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  2. Weil family
    • It is a cold winter day and two children are riding on a Paris bus.
    • Her mother was a gifted pianist who lived with Bernard and Selma Weil in their Paris home after their marriage.
    • Although she did not live with Bernard and Selma Weil after their marriage, she did live in Paris until her death in the 1930s.
    • Bernard and Selma Weil lived in a Paris apartment on the Rue de Strasbourg, south of the Gare de l'Est when the children were very young.
    • Bernard was posted to Neufchatel in the Normandy region of northern France, then to Mayenne in the Loire region of northwest France south of Normandy, next to Laval not far from Mayenne and also on the Mayenne river, and from there to Chartres southwest of Paris.
    • After the war ended the family returned to their home on the Boulevard Saint-Michel in Paris in January 1919.
    • In May of the following year her parents moved to a new home in Paris, to an apartment on the Rue Auguste Comte.
    • Bernard and Selma Weil returned to their apartment on the Rue Auguste Comte in Paris at the end of the war.

  3. Forgery 1
    • Lewis writes in the introduction to [',' H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L’Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).','1]:- .
    • Using old paper purloined from Paris' numerous libraries, and special, handmade inks, Lucas wrote his masterpieces ..
    • Using his prodigious memory for historical details and the public reading rooms of the august libraries of Paris, Lucas penned thousands of letters supposedly autographed by Pascal, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Rabelais, Louis XIV, and other luminaries of science, philosophy, royalty, and literature.
    • Remarkably all these people wrote in French [',' H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L’Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).','1]:- .
    • It was not easy money, for he spend most of every day working on his forgeries [',' H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L’Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).','1]:- .
    • The witness replied [',' H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L’Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).','1]:- .
    • In February 1870, the Correctional Tribunal of Paris sentenced Vrain-Lucas to two years in jail, a fine of 500 francs and the payment of all the costs.

  4. Perfect numbers
    • Nicomachus divides numbers into three classes: the superabundant numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is greater than the number; deficient numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is less than the number; and perfect numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is equal to the number (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1] for a different translation):- .
    • However Nicomachus has more than number theory in mind for he goes on to show that he is thinking in moral terms in a way that might seem extraordinary to mathematicians today (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1] for a different translation):- .
    • Now satisfied with the moral considerations of numbers, Nicomachus goes on to provide biological analogies in which he describes superabundant numbers as being like an animal with (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1]):- .
    • Let us look in more detail at Nicomachus's description of the algorithm to generate perfect numbers which is assertion (4) above (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1]):- .
    • For example Descartes, in a letter to Mersenne in 1638, wrote [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8]:- .

  5. Measurement
    • Lalande, in April 1789, proposed that the measures used in Paris should become national ones, an attempt at standardisation but not rationalisation.
    • By June of the following year the Commission had produced a platinum bar which became the official definition of the metre, and in September 1799 the metre was required by law to be used in the Paris region.
    • In 1870 an International Conference was convened by the French in Paris.
    • The outcome was the setting up of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, to be situated in Paris, and the Convention of the Metre of 1875 which was signed by seventeen nations.
    • In 1889 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures replaced the original metre bar in Paris by a new one and at the same time had copies of the bar sent to every country which had signed up to the Convention of the Metre.

  6. Gregory's observatory
    • He wrote to someone (not specified) at the Paris observatory on 31 December 1673: .
    • James Frazer worked at the Paris Observatory.
    • I remember I wrote to you several months ago, and some time after my arrival here in Paris; but have never since heard, either of, or from you.
    • I received, some days ago, your very obliging letter, and, not long after your arrival in Paris, I had a letter from you; to which, the truth is, I was ashamed to answer, the affairs of the Observatory in St Andrews were in such a bad condition; the reason of which was a prejudice which the masters of the University did take against mathematics because some of their scholars, finding their courses and dictats opposed by what they had studied in mathematics, did mock their masters, and deride some of them publicly.

  7. Arabic mathematics
    • Many leading historians of mathematics have contributed to the perception by either omitting any mention of Arabic/Islamic mathematics in the historical development of the subject or with statements such as that made by Duhem in [',' P Duhem, Le systeme du monde (Paris, 1965).','3]:- .
    • Other authors try the description "Arabic mathematics", see for example [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','10] and [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','11].
    • As Rashed writes in [',' R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).','11] (see also [',' R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l’histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).','10]):- .

  8. function concept references
    • J H Manheim, The genesis of point set topology (Pergamon Press, Oxford-Paris-Frankfurt; The Macmillan Co., New York, 1964).
    • Paris VI, Paris, 1988), 23-97.

  9. Neptune and Pluto
    • Bouvard (1767-1843), a French astronomer who was director of the Paris Observatory, had already published accurate tables of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn in 1808 and he now undertook to produce a corrected version of Delambre's tables for Uranus.
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    • In June 1845 Arago, the director of the Paris observatory, persuaded Le Verrier to start work on the problem of Uranus's orbit.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Le Verrier approached the Paris Observatory to search for the planet but after a very brief search they lost interest.
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  10. function concept references
    • J H Manheim, The genesis of point set topology (Pergamon Press, Oxford-Paris-Frankfurt; The Macmillan Co., New York, 1964).
    • Paris VI, Paris, 1988), 23-97.

  11. Set theory references
    • G Heinzmann (ed.), Poincare, Russell, Zermelo et Peano : textes de la discussion (1906-1912) sur les fondements des mathematiques : des antinomies a la predicativite (Paris, 1986).
    • G Heinzmann (ed.), Poincare, Russell, Zermelo et Peano : textes de la discussion (1906-1912) sur les fondements des mathematiques : des antinomies a la predicativite (Paris, 1986).

  12. Arabic mathematics references
    • P Duhem, Le systeme du monde (Paris, 1965).
    • R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l'histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).

  13. Ten classics references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.

  14. Bolzano's manuscripts references
    • J Sebestik, Logique et mathematique chez Bernard Bolzano (Librairie Philosophique J Vrin, Paris, 1992).
    • H Sinaceur, Bolzano et les mathematiques, in Les philosophes et les mathematiques (Ellipses, Paris, 1996), 150-173.

  15. Pell's equation references
    • C Houzel, Introduction a l'histoire de l'analyse diophantienne, in Analyse diophantienne et geometrie algebrique (Paris, 1993), 1-12.
    • G Lachaud, Exactitude et approximation en analyse diophantienne, in L'a-peu-pres, Urbino, 1986 (Paris, 1988), 27-45.

  16. Classical light references
    • V Ronchi, Histoire de la lumiere (Paris, 1996).
    • G Rodis-Lewis, Quelques remarques sur la question de la vitesse de la lumiere chez Descartes, in "Pour Descartes": mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.

  17. Mathematical classics references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.

  18. Mathematical games references
    • E Lucas, Recreations mathematiques (Paris, 1960).
    • Buquet (Paris, 1952).

  19. Mathematics and Art references
    • R Bkouche, La naissance du projectif : de la perspective a la geometrie projective, in Mathematiques et philosophie de l'antiquite a l'age classique (Paris, 1991), 239-285.
    • A Flocon, Wentzel Jamnitzer : Perspectiva corporum regularium, in Sciences of the Renaissance, Tours, 1965 (Paris, 1973), 143-151.

  20. Infinity references
    • F Monnoyeur, Infini des mathematiciens, infini des philosophes, (Paris, 1997).
    • M Guillemot and D Daumas, En route for infinity, History of mathematics : History of problems (Paris,1997), 7-32.

  21. Set theory references
    • G Heinzmann (ed.), Poincare, Russell, Zermelo et Peano : textes de la discussion (1906-1912) sur les fondements des mathematiques : des antinomies a la predicativite (Paris, 1986).
    • G Heinzmann (ed.), Poincare, Russell, Zermelo et Peano : textes de la discussion (1906-1912) sur les fondements des mathematiques : des antinomies a la predicativite (Paris, 1986).

  22. Arabic mathematics references
    • P Duhem, Le systeme du monde (Paris, 1965).
    • R Rashed, Entre arithmetique et algebre: Recherches sur l'histoire des mathematiques arabes (Paris, 1984).

  23. Ten classics references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.

  24. Bolzano's manuscripts references
    • J Sebestik, Logique et mathematique chez Bernard Bolzano (Librairie Philosophique J Vrin, Paris, 1992).
    • H Sinaceur, Bolzano et les mathematiques, in Les philosophes et les mathematiques (Ellipses, Paris, 1996), 150-173.

  25. Pell's equation references
    • C Houzel, Introduction a l'histoire de l'analyse diophantienne, in Analyse diophantienne et geometrie algebrique (Paris, 1993), 1-12.
    • G Lachaud, Exactitude et approximation en analyse diophantienne, in L'a-peu-pres, Urbino, 1986 (Paris, 1988), 27-45.

  26. Classical light references
    • V Ronchi, Histoire de la lumiere (Paris, 1996).
    • G Rodis-Lewis, Quelques remarques sur la question de la vitesse de la lumiere chez Descartes, in "Pour Descartes": mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.

  27. Mathematical games references
    • E Lucas, Recreations mathematiques (Paris, 1960).
    • Buquet (Paris, 1952).

  28. Mathematics and Art references
    • R Bkouche, La naissance du projectif : de la perspective a la geometrie projective, in Mathematiques et philosophie de l'antiquite a l'age classique (Paris, 1991), 239-285.
    • A Flocon, Wentzel Jamnitzer : Perspectiva corporum regularium, in Sciences of the Renaissance, Tours, 1965 (Paris, 1973), 143-151.

  29. Calculus history

  30. function concept
    • The notion of a function first occurred in more general form in the 14th century in the schools of natural philosophy at Oxford and Paris.
    • In 1778 the first two parts of Condorcet intended five part work Traite du calcul integral was sent to the Paris Academy.

  31. Orbits

  32. Fermat's last theorem

  33. Doubling the cube
    • We shall use some coordinate geometry in a moment to see that Archytas is correct, but first let us give the construction in the words of Eutocius, unchanged except for the names of the point which I have changed to fit the notation of our diagram and that described above (see for example [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7]):- .
    • Plutarch wrote (see for example [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7]):- .

  34. Mayan mathematics
    • The most important are: the Dresden Codex now kept in the Sachsische Landesbibliothek Dresden; the Madrid Codex now kept in the American Museum in Madrid; and the Paris Codex now in the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris.

  35. Bourbaki 1
    • "Lets talk to our friends when we next go up to Paris", Weil suggests, "about writing a new analysis textbook." .
    • Henri Cartan and Andre Weil are regularly in Paris.

  36. Forgery 2
    • He was a man interested and knowledgeable about philosophy and aimed to create an Academy in Berlin to rival that in Paris.
    • On 18 September an anonymous pamphlet A reply from an Academician of Berlin to an Academician of Paris defending Konig appeared.

  37. Size of the Universe
    • The expedition was to go to Cayenne and observations of Mars made from there and from Paris would provide an accurate value for its distance.
    • Richer made the observations from Cayenne and, after his return to Paris, Cassini reduced the data obtained to give the distance from the Earth to the Sun to be 87 million miles.

  38. Real numbers 3
    • In his list of problems which he proposed to the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in August 1900, Hilbert stated that one of the most pressing issues for the foundations of mathematics was a proof of the consistency of arithmetic.
    • Borel devotes a whole book [',' E Borel, Les nombre inaccessible (Gauthier-Villiars, Paris, 1952).','1], which he published in 1952, to discuss another idea, namely that of an "inaccessible number".

  39. Squaring the circle
    • Now Archimedes is famed for his introduction of the spiral curve, but why did he introduced this curve? The authors of [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7] suggest three reasons:- .
    • It only led to a greater flood of amateur solutions to the problem of squaring the circle and in 1775 the Paris Academie des Sciences passed a resolution which meant that no further attempted solutions submitted to them would be examined.

  40. U of St Andrews History
    • Prior to this bishops in St Andrews had provided funds to send their students to the universities of Bologna, Paris and Oxford but the political situation at the time made it increasingly difficult to continue this practice.
    • In 1674 Gregory cooperated with colleagues in Paris to make simultaneous observations of an eclipse of the moon and he was able to work out the longitude for the first time.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  41. Infinity references
    • F Monnoyeur, Infini des mathematiciens, infini des philosophes, (Paris, 1997).
    • M Guillemot and D Daumas, En route for infinity, History of mathematics : History of problems (Paris,1997), 7-32.

  42. Christianity and Mathematics references
    • G Simon, Kepler-astronome, astrologue (Paris, 1979).

  43. Babylonian numerals
    • Here is an example from a cuneiform tablet (actually AO 17264 in the Louvre collection in Paris) in which the calculation to square 147 is carried out.

  44. Trisecting an angle references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  45. Nine chapters references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  46. 20th century time
    • In the early 1980s Alain Aspect successfully carried out the experiment at Orsay in Paris.

  47. Real numbers 3 references
    • E Borel, Les nombre inaccessible (Gauthier-Villiars, Paris, 1952).

  48. Squaring the circle references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  49. Forgery 1 references
    • H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L'Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).

  50. Ptolemy Source
    • 119 (Paris).

  51. Egyptian mathematics references
    • S Couchoud, Mathematiques egyptiennes: Recherches sur les connaissances mathematiques de l'egypte pharaonique (Paris, 1993).

  52. test2.html
    • 119 (Paris).

  53. Chinese numerals references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  54. Longitude2
    • Moore also arranged for Flamsteed to visit the King and tell him of Jean Picard's work in the Paris Observatory and the French attack on the longitude problem.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  55. Cartography
    • At first, as is to be expected, several different places were chosen as the zero such as Paris, Cadiz, Naples, Pulkova, Stockholm and London.

  56. Egyptian numerals
    • Note that the examples of 276 and 4622 in hieroglyphs are seen on a stone carving from Karnak, dating from around 1500 BC, and now displayed in the Louvre in Paris.

  57. Doubling the cube references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  58. Perfect numbers references
    • M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.

  59. Science in the 17th century
    • Paris: Chez A.-A.

  60. Egyptian Papyri references
    • S Couchoud, Mathematiques egyptiennes: Recherches sur les connaissances mathematiques de l'egypte pharaonique (Paris, 1993).

  61. Decimal time
    • The French, realising that any proposal giving Paris as the zero never stood a chance of being accepted, argued strongly that the zero of longitude should be a line which did not cross any country, and so would be neutral.

  62. Chinese overview references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  63. Ten classics
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.','4] seems to have the most convincing argument:- .

  64. Trisecting an angle references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  65. Nine chapters references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  66. The four colour theorem references
    • J Mayer, Le theoreme des quatre couleurs : notice historique et apercu technique, in Proceedings of the Seminar on the History of Mathematics 3 (Paris, 1982), 43-62.

  67. Real numbers 3 references
    • E Borel, Les nombre inaccessible (Gauthier-Villiars, Paris, 1952).

  68. Squaring the circle references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  69. Forgery 1 references
    • H Bordier and E Mabille, Une Fabrique de Faux Autographes, Ou Recit de L'Affaire Vrain Lucas (Paris 1870).

  70. Measurement references
    • A Favre, Les origines du systeme metrique (Paris, 1931).

  71. Measurement references
    • A Favre, Les origines du systeme metrique (Paris, 1931).

  72. Special relativity
    • Poincare, in his opening address to the Paris Congress in 1900, asked Does the ether really exist? In 1904 Poincare came very close to the theory of special relativity in an address to the International Congress of Arts and Science in St Louis.

  73. Fractal Geometry
    • After the war had ended, Mandelbrot took the entrance exams for the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, despite having no preparation.

  74. The four colour theorem references
    • J Mayer, Le theoreme des quatre couleurs : notice historique et apercu technique, in Proceedings of the Seminar on the History of Mathematics 3 (Paris, 1982), 43-62.

  75. Egyptian Papyri references
    • S Couchoud, Mathematiques egyptiennes: Recherches sur les connaissances mathematiques de l'egypte pharaonique (Paris, 1993).

  76. Perfect numbers references
    • M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.

  77. Cubic surfaces
    • In 1869, at Clebsch's suggestion, Christian Wiener constructed plaster of Paris models of cubic surfaces which, together with other models of surfaces he had constructed, were exhibited in London in 1876, Munich in 1893, and Chicago also in 1893.

  78. Christianity and Mathematics references
    • G Simon, Kepler-astronome, astrologue (Paris, 1979).

  79. Abstract groups
    • The first version of Galois' important paper on the algebraic solution of equations was submitted to the Paris Academie des Sciences in 1829.

  80. ETH history
    • The idea of a federal university had been around since 1798, when the Swiss Minister for Culture, Philipp Albert Stapfer, called for a Swiss polytechnic based on the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  81. EMS History
    • Two lectures by M d'Ocagne (Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, and Past President of the Societe Mathematique de France), on Nomography.

  82. Doubling the cube references
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  83. Chinese numerals references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).

  84. Egyptian mathematics references
    • S Couchoud, Mathematiques egyptiennes: Recherches sur les connaissances mathematiques de l'egypte pharaonique (Paris, 1993).

  85. Chinese overview references
    • J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathematiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).


Societies etc

  1. References for Paris Statistical
    • References for Paris Statistical Society .
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 1.
    • Sa creation en 1860, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 128 (1987), 239-242.
    • P Damiani, (1988), Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 2.
    • De 1860 a 1885, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 193-201.
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 3.
    • De 1886 a 1910, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 277-285.
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 4.
    • De 1911 a 1935, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 130 (1989), 103-111.
    • P Depoid, Contribution a l'histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 102 (1961), 81-191.
    • La societe de Statistique de Paris au XIXe siecle (1860-1910), These de doctorat, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989).

  2. Statistical Society of Paris
    • The Statistical Society of Paris .
    • The Societe de Statistique de Paris (Statistical Society of Paris) was founded in 1860.
    • It had its first meeting at the Hotel de Ville in Paris on 5 June 1860, under the chairmanship of Michel Chevalier.
    • Beginning in 1860, the Society published the Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris (Journal of the Statistical Society of Paris) which has transferred to the French Statistical Society and is the main publication of the present Society.
    • For an English version of the article Les Racines de la Societe Francaise de Statistique (The roots of the French Statistical Society) by Jean-Jacques Droesbeke giving the full story of French Statistical Society and the societies which amalgamated in its formation, including the Statistical Society of Paris, see THIS LINK.
    • For the Section of Jacques Droesbeke's article specifically looking at the history of the Statistical Society of Paris, see THIS LINK.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Paris_Statistical.html .

  3. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • The Academy was founded in Paris in 1666 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Paris.html .

  4. French Statistical Society
    • However, this date gives a totally wrong impression of the history of the Society since it really dates back to 1860 when the 'Societe de Statistique de Paris' (Statistical Society of Paris) was founded.
    • The 'French Statistical Society' is not simply a renaming of the 'Statistical Society of Paris', since the story is considerably more complicated.
    • We have a separate article on the Statistical Society of Paris.
    • The first Forum was held at the 'Institut Oceanographique de Paris' on the 26 January 2012.
    • The first Symposium was held at the University of Dauphine in Paris 1-3 April 2009.

  5. European Women in Mathematics
    • The European Women in Mathematics was first proposed in August 1986 and came into existence with its first meeting held in Paris in December 1986.
    • We decided to try to form a network in Europe similar to the Association for Women in Mathematics and to meet again in Paris, already in December the same year.
    • 1986 Paris, France .
    • A small group of us set up a first meeting in Paris.

  6. Alphabetical List of Mathematical Societies
    • Paris Academy of Sciences .
    • Paris Statistical Society .

  7. Royal Astronomical Society (London)
    • They include Bouvard from Paris, Delambre from Paris, Gauss from Gottingen, and Olbers from Bremen.

  8. List of societies by date of foundation
    • 1666 Paris Academy of Sciences .
    • 1860 Paris Statistical Society .

  9. National Academy of Sciences of Italy
    • Boscovich emphasised this in several letters when he wrote, "Italian is unknown to mathematicians in Paris, England and Germany".
    • An astronomer, mathematician and diplomat, he worked in Paris and Verona.

  10. Vietnamese Mathematical Society
    • Graduating in 1939 he was given a scholarship to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • His thesis Sur un probleme d'inversion dans la theorie des fonctions meromorphes was presented to the Faculty of Science in Paris on 2 May 1949.

  11. European Mathematical Society
    • It sponsored the First European Congress of Mathematics held at the Sorbonne in Paris in July 1992.
    • The second Diderot Mathematical Forum was 'Mathematics and the Environment' held in Amsterdam, Madrid and Venice in December 1997, the third was 'Mathematics as a Cultural Force of Evolution' held in Berlin, Florence and Krakow in June 1998, and the fourth was 'Mathematics and Music' held in Lisbon, Paris and Vienna in December 1999.

  12. Mathematical Circle of Palermo
    • The completed volume was presented by Bertrand to the Academie des Sciences in Paris on 7 November 1887, stating that it was a publication of remarkably high quality.

  13. Swedish Academy of Sciences
    • Triewald had attended public lectures organised by the Royal Society in London and it was this Society, as well as the Academy of Sciences in Paris, which inspired the foundation of the Swedish Academy.

  14. Mathematical Society of Philippines
    • The most important of these early efforts was the Southeast Asian Summer Institute in Graph Theory held in Manila in May 1975 led by Claude Berge of the University of Paris.

  15. German Mathematical Society
    • Hilbert served as President in 1900, so he held this role at the time that he gave his famous talk on the mathematical challenges for the 20th century at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris.

  16. Allahabad Mathematical Society
    • He then went to Paris where he worked under Arnaud Denjoy and was awarded a Docteur es Science in 1932 for his thesis Contribution a l'etude de la series conjuguee d'une serie de Fourier.

  17. Tokyo Mathematical Society
    • In the first place, it was private, and was not so well organized as the Paris Academy of Sciences, which accommodated scientific experts by providing them with pensions.

  18. Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia
    • He spent 1925 in Paris before returning to the University of Belgrade.

  19. Kosovar Mathematical Society
    • He studied at the University of Prishtina, making a study visit to Paris in 2001 funded by the World University Service, Austria.

  20. Irish Mathematical Society
    • His visit was arranged by the Society but most of the financing was obtained through the National Science Council - CNRS (Paris) agreement.

  21. Colombian Mathematical Society
    • He then spent time at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris before going to Colombia.

  22. Luxembourg Mathematical Society
    • He studied mathematics in Luxembourg, Paris and Nancy.

  23. London Royal Society
    • In an October 1646 letter written to his former tutor Isaac Marcombe in Paris he says (see for example [',' R Lomas, The Invisible College (London, 2002).','6]):- .

  24. References for French
    • Nouvelle Serie 34, Societe Mathematique de France (Paris, 1991).

  25. References for Lincei
    • R Ladous, Des Nobel au Vatican : La fondation de l'academie pontificale des sciences (Paris, 1994).

  26. Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • It is one of three major scientific societies founded at roughly the same time which have continued in existence until the present day, the other two being the Royal Society (London) and the Academy of Sciences (Paris), but it has the honour of being the oldest of the three.

  27. Israel Mathematical Union
    • Following the advice of her employer, who predicted the coming disaster, she decided to leave for Paris and then emigrated to Palestine.

  28. Royal Society of Canada
    • It was modelled on the Royal Society in London and the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

  29. G÷ttingen Academy of Sciences
    • 32 (4) (1975), 379-391.','2]) says, "For it is readily apparent how far removed a paper read before the Paris Academy is from lectures in a professor's classroom." .

  30. Hellenic Mathematical Society
    • He had studied under Darboux, Emile Picard, and Poincare in Paris; under Hilbert, Klein and Schonflies in Gottingen; and under Fuchs, Knoblauch and Schwarz in Berlin.

  31. Indian Academy of Science
    • Raman, who had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930, was also a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, the Paris Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  32. Austrian Academy of Sciences
    • This was not the first attempt to found an Academy in Austria, for in fact the idea goes back to 1713 when Gottfried Leibniz suggested establishing an Academy of Sciences in Vienna, quoting the Royal Society in London and the Academy of Sciences in Paris as models to use.

  33. Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences
    • Several times Spain tried to follow such praiseworthy examples, and our nation even went ahead of all the rest, since from the year 1580, that is to say, long before the famous Societies of Paris and London were established, already in Madrid there existed a Royal Academy of Sciences ..

  34. Columbian Mathematical Society
    • He then spent time at Centre national de la recherche scientifique in Paris before going to Columbia.

  35. Association for Statistics and its Uses
    • The 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' deposited its Statutes with the National Pedagogical Institute, rue Ulm, Paris in February 1971.

  36. Berlin Academy of Science
    • Frederick II was a man interested and knowledgeable about philosophy and aimed to reorganise the Berlin-Brandenburg Society of Scientists in Berlin to rival the Academy in Paris.


Honours

  1. Paris street names
    • Mathematicians with Paris streets named after them .
    • Perhaps the most surprising fact is that there is no Paris street named after Fourier.
    • A Walk around the the Latin Quarter of Paris is available at THIS LINK.
    • The Mairie de Paris have a website giving the history of all Parisian street names and if you click on the M next to the street you can see these details.
    • Thanks to Pierre Charles Pradier, Frederic Grosshans, Evelyn Lamb and Knut Hegna for telling me about some I missed, to Francis Clarke for telling me of some I had wrong, to Joe Lestrange for telling me about the Wikipedia links and to Karen McVicar and Michael Angelasto for telling me where the Mairie of Paris had moved their files to.

  2. Eiffel scientists
    • Face Paris .

  3. Groups St Andrews.html
    • Jacques Tits (Paris) .
    • Michel Broue (Paris) .
    • Emmanuel Breuillard (Paris-Sud 11) .

  4. Abel Prize
    • 2003 Jean-Pierre Serre, College de France, Paris:- .
    • 2008 John Thompson, University of Florida and Jacques Tits, College de France, Paris:- .

  5. Galway Group Theory.html
    • Nicolas Bergeron (Paris 7) Torsion homology and Bianchi modular forms .
    • Bob Oliver (Universite Paris 13) Automorphisms and extensions of fusion systems .

  6. Microsoft Research Prize in Algebra and Number Theory
    • Professor Morel received her doctorate in 2005 from l'Universite Paris-Sud.

  7. Levitzky Prize in Algebra
    • Following the advice of her employer, who predicted the coming disaster, she decided to leave for Paris and then emigrated to Palestine.

  8. International Congress Speaker
    • PARIS 1900 .

  9. Picard Emile
    • Birth place: Paris, France .

  10. Biot
    • Birth place: Paris, France .

  11. Cauchy
    • Birth place: Paris, France .

  12. Picard
    • Birth place: Paris, France .

  13. LMS Whitehead Prize
    • 1983 J B Paris .

  14. European Mathematical Society Prize
    • The first was awarded at the first congress in Paris in 1992.

  15. Levitzki Prize.html
    • Following the advice of her employer, who predicted the coming disaster, she decided to leave for Paris and then emigrated to Palestine.


References

  1. References for Leibniz
    • F Duchesneau, La dynamique de Leibniz, Mathesis (Paris, 1994).
    • E A Fellmann, G W Leibniz : Marginalia in Newtoni Principia Mathematica (Paris, 1973).
    • J E Hofmann, Leibniz in Paris, 1672-1676 (Cambridge, 1974).
    • J-P Flad, Les trois premieres machines a calculer : Schickard (1623), Pascal (1642), Leibniz (1673) (Paris, 1963).
    • Tome I : Etoiles (Paris, 1968).
    • Tome II : Schemas-point (Paris, 1968).
    • H J M Bos, The influence of Huygens on the formation of Leibniz' ideas, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • H Breger, Le continu chez Leibniz, in Le labyrinthe du continu (Paris, 1992), 76-84.
    • P Costabel, Leibniz et les series numeriques, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • P Costabel, Les memoires de Leibniz sur l'arithmetique binaire a l'Academie Royale des Sciences de Paris, in 1969 Studia Leibnitiana.
    • M Fichant, Les concepts fondamentaux de la mecanique selon Leibniz, en 1676, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • D Fouke, Leibniz's opposition to Cartesian bodies during the Paris period (1672-1676), Studia Leibnitiana 23 (2) (1991), 195-206.
    • R Hall, Leibniz and the British mathematicians (1673-1676), in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • J E Hofmann, Tschirnhaus und Leibniz in Paris, in Akten des II.
    • d'Histoire des Sciences III (Paris, 1971), 67-70.
    • A Lamarra, The development of the theme of the 'Logica inventiva' during the stay of Leibniz in Paris, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • D Lanier, Leibniz, la nouvelle analyse et la geometrie ou Enquete sur la fenetre de Viviani, in Cahiers du seminaire d'histoire des mathematiques 8 (Paris, 1987), 203-224.
    • J Mesnard, Leibniz et les papiers de Pascal, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • K Moll, Von Erhard Weigel zu Christiaan Huygens : Feststellungen zu Leibnizens Bildungsweg zwischen Nurnberg, Mainz und Paris, Studia Leibnitiana 14 (1) (1982), 56-72.
    • N Rescher, The contributions of the Paris period (1672-1676) to Leibniz's metaphysics, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • R Taton, L'initiation de Leibniz a la geometrie (1672-1676), in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.
    • J-P Wurtz, La naissance du calcul differentiel et le probleme du statut des infiniment petits : Leibniz et Guillaume de L'Hospital, in La mathematique non standard (Paris, 1989), 13-41.
    • A P Yushkevich, Comparaison des conceptions de Leibniz et de Newton sur le calcul infinitesimal, in Leibniz in Paris (1672-1676) Sympos.

  2. References for Poincare
    • P Appell, Henri Poincare (Paris, 1925).
    • Vocations, IV (Paris, 1956).
    • J-L Greffe, G Heinzmann and K Lorenz (eds.), Henri Poincare : science et philosophie (Paris, 1996).
    • G Heinzmann, Poincare, Russell, Zermelo et Peano (Paris, 1986).
    • J-C Pont, La topologie algebrique des origines a Poincare (Paris, 1974).
    • A Rey, La theorie de la physique chez les physiciens contemporains (Paris, 1907).
    • L A P Rougier, La philosophie geometrique de Henri Poincare (Paris, 1920).
    • E Toulouse, Henri Poincare (Paris, 1910).
    • M Brelot, Le balayage de Poincare et l'epine de Lebesgue, in Proceedings of the 110th national congress of learned societies, Montpellier, 1985 (Paris, 1985), 141-151.
    • P G Cath, Jules Henri Poincare (Nancy 1854-Paris 1912) (Dutch), Euclides, Groningen 30 (1954/55), 265-275.
    • A Chatelet, G Valiron, E LeRoy and E Borel, Hommage a Henri Poincare, Congres International de Philosophie des Sciences, Paris, 1949 Vol I (Paris, 1951), 37-64.
    • J-C Chirollet, Le continu mathematique 'du troisieme ordre' chez Henri Poincare, in La mathematique non standard (Paris, 1989), 83-116.
    • J J Gray, Poincare and Klein - groups and geometries, in 1830-1930 : a century of geometry, Paris, 1989 (Berlin, 1992), 35-44.
    • Paris Vie Academique 293 (8-12) (1981), suppl., 87-90.
    • G Heinzmann, Helmholtz and Poincare's considerations on the genesis of geometry, in 1830-1930 : a century of geometry, Paris, 1989 (Berlin, 1992), 245-249.
    • Henri Poincare, La correspondance d'Henri Poincare avec des mathematiciens de A a H, in Proceedings of the seminar on the history of mathematics 7 (Paris, 1986), 59-219.

  3. References for Descartes
    • Y Belaval, Leibniz critique de Descartes (Paris, 1960).
    • R Dugas, De Descartes a Newton par l'ecole anglaise (Paris, 1953).
    • Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1996).
    • H Montias, Descartes (French) (Paris, 1969).
    • J Vuillemin, Mathematiques et metaphysique chez Descartes (Paris, 1960).
    • E Barbin, Descartes et les mathematiques, in Les philosophes et les mathematiques (Ellipses, Paris, 1996), 43-65.
    • H J M Bos, La structure de la Geometrie de Descartes, in 'Pour Descartes': mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.
    • de l'Homme, Paris, 1996), 183-204.
    • M Gregoire, La correspondance entre Descartes et Fermat, in 'Pour Descartes': mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.
    • E Grosholz, Descartes and Galileo : the quantification of time and force, in Mathematiques et philosophie de l'antiquite a l'age classique (Paris, 1991), 197-215.
    • V Jullien, Descartes-Roberval, une relation tumultueuse, in 'Pour Descartes': mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.
    • Albert Blanchard, Paris, 2005), 239-252.
    • G Rodis-Lewis, Quelques remarques sur la question de la vitesse de la lumiere chez Descartes, in 'Pour Descartes': mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.
    • M Serfati, Descartes et la constitution de l'ecriture symbolique mathematique, in 'Pour Descartes': mathematiques et physique cartesiennes, Paris, 1996, Rev.
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Additional material

  1. Peres publications
    • Sci., Paris 156 (1913), 378-381.
    • Joseph Peres, Sur les fonctions permutables de premiere espece de M Vito Volterra (Gauthiers-Villars, Paris, 1936).
    • Sci., Paris 161 (1915), 168-170.
    • Sci., Paris 166 (1918), 723-726.
    • Sci., Paris 166 (1918), 806-808.
    • Sci., Paris 166 (1918), 939-941.
    • Vito Volterra and Joseph Peres, Lecons sur la composition et los fonctions permutables (Collection E Borel) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1924).
    • Sci., Paris 182 (1926), 680-682.
    • Sci., Paris 188 (1929), 310-312.
    • Sci., Paris 188 (1929), 440-441.
    • Sci., Paris 189 (1929), 898-900.
    • Sci., Paris 189 (1929), 1246-1248.
    • Sci., Paris 189 (1929), 680-682.
    • Joseph Peres, Les sciences exactes (E de Boccard, Paris, 1930).
    • Sci., Paris 192 (1931), 210-212.
    • Sci., Paris 194 (1932), 1314-1316.
    • Sci., Paris 194 (1932), 1560-1562.
    • Sci., Paris 195 (1932), 599-601.
    • Preface de Vito Volterra (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1936).
    • Preface de H Villat (Gauthiers-Villars, Paris, 1936).
    • Sci., Paris 204 (1937), 740-742.
    • Sci., Paris 204 (1937), 1400-1401.
    • Sci., Paris 206 (1938), 418-420.
    • Sci., Paris 217 (1943), 124-126.
    • Sci., Paris 217 (1943), 517-520.
    • Sci., Paris 217 (1943), 585-588.
    • Sci., Paris 218 (1944), 629-632.
    • Sci., Paris 219 (1944), 501-504.
    • Joseph Peres, Methode et calcul analogique, Congres International de Philosophie des Sciences, Paris, 1949, Vol.
    • III, Philosophie Mathematique, Mecanique (Hermann & Cie., Paris, 1951), 109-120.
    • Joseph Peres, Mecanique generale (Masson et Cie, Paris, 1953).
    • Sci., Paris 237 (1953), 1394-1395.
    • Joseph Peres, Mecanique generale (Reprint of 1953 edition) (Masson et Cie, Paris, 1962).

  2. Cartan's books
    • Sur la structure des groupes de transformations finis et continus (Thesis, Nony, Paris, 1894).
    • Lecons sur les invariants integraux (Hermann, Paris, 1922).
    • La geometrie des espaces de Riemann (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1925).
    • Lecons sur la geometrie des espaces de Riemann (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1928).
    • La theorie des groupes finis et continus et l'analysis situs (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1930).
    • Lecons sur la geometrie projective complexe (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1931).
    • La parallelisme absolu et la theorie unitaire du champ (Hermann, Paris, 1932).
    • Les espaces metriques fondes sur la notion d'aire (Hermann, Paris, 1933).
    • Sur la structure des groupes de transformations finis et continus (2nd ed.) (Thesis, Vuibert, Paris, 1933).
    • Les espaces de Finsler (Hermann, Paris, 1934).
    • La methode du repere mobile, la theorie des groupes continus et les espaces generalises (Hermann, Paris, 1935).
    • La topologie des espaces representatives des groupes de Lie (Hermann, Paris, 1936).
    • Lecons sur la theorie des espaces a connexion projective (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1937).
    • La theorie des groupes finis et continus et la geometrie differentielle traitees par la methode du repere mobile (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1937).
    • I, II (Hermann, Paris, 1938).
    • Selecta (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1939).
    • Les systemes differentiels exterieurs et leurs applications geometriques (Hermann, Paris, 1945).
    • Lecons sur la geometrie des espaces de Riemann (2nd ed.) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1946).
    • Lecons sur la geometrie projective complexe (2nd ed.) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1950).
    • of 1946) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1951).
    • Groupes de Lie (2 Vols.) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1952).
    • Algebre, formes differentielles, systemes differentiels (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1953).
    • Groupes finis, Systemes differentiels, theories d'equivalence (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1953).
    • Divers, geometrie differentielle (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1955).
    • Geometrie differentielle (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1955).
    • Lecons sur les invariants integraux (2nd ed.) (Hermann, Paris, 1958).
    • Lecons sur les invariants integraux (3rd ed.) (Hermann, Paris, 1971).
    • Notice sur les travaux scientifiques (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1974).
    • Groupes de Lie (2 Vols.) (reprint of 1952 ed.) (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1952).
    • Algebre, systemes differentiels et problemes d'equivalence (2 Vols.) (reprint of 1953 ed.) (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1953).
    • Divers (reprint of 1955 ed.) (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1955).
    • Divers (reprint of 1955 ed.) (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1955).

  3. Statistical Society of Paris
    • The Statistical Society of Paris .
    • The Statistical Society of Paris .
    • In order to give a foundation to its projects, the SSP publishes, from the year of its creation, the Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris (Journal of the Statistical Society of Paris) which will be published regularly for nearly 140 years and which will become the Journal de la Societe Francaise de Statistique (Journal of the French Statistical Society) in the context of the merger mentioned above.
    • During the first half of the 19th century, several statistics associations were created in France, and more particularly in Paris.
    • In this context, we note the foundation, in the first months of 1803, of a 'Statistical Society' in Paris, under the auspices of the Institut de France and the government of the time, an association of which we have, in fact, few traces.
    • This new association has an ambitious program, as evidenced by its first objective: "To form in Paris, in France, in Europe, in the world, a centre of unity for the studies of Statistics".
    • The first members gathered at the Hotel de Ville in Paris, where the first session of the association was held on 5 June 1860, under the chairmanship of Michel Chevalier.
    • It is also the Journal of this association, the Directory of Political Economy, created in 1844 by Joseph Garnier and Maurice Block, which will serve as a model for the future Journal of the Statistical Society of Paris.
    • The International Statistical Institute will organise its second session in Paris in 1889, thus contributing to the events set up for the centenary of the Revolution French.
    • It will also contribute to the creation in 1922 of an 'Institute of Statistics attached to the University of Paris' (ISUP), an essential step in the process of dissemination of this discipline.
    • To confront them, five of its members - Alfred Barriol, Clement Colson, Michel Huber, Lucien March and Henri Truchy - propose, in 1927, the creation of a foundation, "The Statistical Science", in order to "contribute to the development and the prosperity of the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris".
    • Created with the intention of extending to the national level what was, on paper, hitherto reserved for Paris and in order to protect this denomination, it will not really have its own activities.

  4. Mersenne's Publications
    • L'usage de la raison (Paris 1623).
    • L'analyse de la vie spirituelle (Paris 1623) (still undiscovered).
    • Quaestiones celeberrimae in Genesim (Paris 1623) -- defended orthodox theology against deists and atheists.
    • (Paris 1623) - .
    • L'impiete des Deistes (Paris 1624) .
    • De Gaferello judicium (Paris 1625).
    • La verite des Sciences (Paris 1625) -- an account against Science Sceptics.
    • Synopsis mathematica (Paris 1626).
    • Traite de l'Harmonie Universelle (Paris 1627) -- a work on music, acoustics and instruments which he continued to improve throughout his life.
    • Petri Gassendi theology epistolica exercitatio (Paris 1630).
    • Questions inouyes (Paris 1634).
    • Questions Harmoniques (Paris 1634) -- includes many remarkable findings in Physics, Ethics and other Sciences.
    • Les questions theologiques (Paris 1634) -- physics, ethics and mathematics.
    • Les mechaniques de Galilee (Paris 1634) (a translation into French of Galileo's Dialogo).
    • Les preludes de l'Harmonie Universelle (Paris 1634) -- useful questions for astrologers, theologians, doctors, philosophers and preachers.
    • Harmonicorum libri (Paris, 1635).
    • Harmonie universelle (Paris 1636) -- the theory and practice of music including the nature of sound, movement, key, voice, mood and harmonic instruments.
    • Les nouvelles pensees de Galilee (Paris 1639) -- a work on natural and violent movement and the more subtle ideas of mechanics and physics (a translation into French of Galileo's Discorsi).
    • Lettre a Naude sur l'aimant (Paris 1639).
    • Universe Geometiae synopsis (Paris 1644).
    • Cogitata Physico-Mathematica (Paris 1644).
    • Novarum observationum physicomathematicorum (Paris 1647).
    • Liber Novus Praelusorius (Paris 1648).
    • Harmonicorum libri XII (Paris 1648).
    • L'optique et la catoptrique (Paris 1651).

  5. Mannheim publications
    • A Mannheim, Transformation de proprietes metriques des figures a l'aide de la theorie des polaires reciproques (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1857).
    • A Mannheim, Sur la theorie des roulettes, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (V) 1858 (1858), 10.
    • A Mannheim, Transformation par rayons vecteurs reciproques, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (V) 1860 (1860), 104-106.
    • A Mannheim, Theoreme de Geometrie, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (V) 1860 (1860), 54.
    • A Mannheim, Application de la transformation par rayons vecteurs reciproques a l'etude des anticaustiques, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (V) 1860 (1860), 107-108.
    • A Mannheim, Theoremes de Geometrie, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (V) 1861 (1861), 21.
    • A Mannheim, Construction des tangentes a la courbe d'ombre de la surface de la vis a filets triangulaire, in J-V Poncelet, Applications d'Analyse et de Geometrie I (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1862), 508.
    • A Mannheim, Sur les polygones plans inscrit et circonscrits aux courbes et remarques concernant le trace des tangentes, in J-V Poncelet, Applications d'Analyse et de Geometrie I (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1862), 499-507.
    • A Mannheim, Determiner l'expression du rapport des rayons de courbure en deux points quelconques d'une courbe du 3eordre, in J-V Poncelet, Applications d'Analyse et de Geometrie II (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1863), 161-166.
    • A Mannheim, Sur la construction du centre de courbure des anallagmatiques, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1864 (1864), 120.
    • A Mannheim, Sur la surface gauche lieu des normales principales d'une courbe gauche, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1864 (1864), 58.
    • A Mannheim, Sur la surface gauche lieu des normales a une surface, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1864 (1864), 42-43.
    • A Mannheim, Sur les surfaces gauches, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1864 (1864), 33-34.
    • A Mannheim and Janin, Sur ce probleme: "Par un point donne mener des droites doublement tangentes a un tore", Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1865 (1865), 54-55.
    • A Mannheim, Construction de la tangente en un point de la ligne d'ombre d'une surface de revolution, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1865 (1865), 9-10.
    • A Mannheim, Sur une nouvelle methode des normales aux lignes ou surfaces decrites pendant le deplacement continu d'un corps solide, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1866 (1866), 79-81.
    • A Mannheim, Remarques sur un theoreme de M Haag, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1866 (1866), 27-28.
    • Nouvelle methode de normales; applications diverses, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1868 (1868), 52-61.
    • A Mannheim, Sur un theoreme qui presente de l'analogie avec celui de Meusnier, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1870 (1870), 138-139.
    • A Mannheim, Demonstration geometrique d'un theoreme de M O Bonnet, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1871 (1871), 228-229.
    • A Mannheim, Theoreme sur les courbes, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1872 (1872), 99.
    • A Mannheim, Sur quelque problemes relatifs a la theorie des surfaces, Bulletin de la Societe Philomathique de Paris (VI) 1874 (1874), 57.
    • A Mannheim, Cours de geometrie descriptive de l'Ecole polytechnique, comprenant les elements de la geometrie cinematique (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1880).
    • A Mannheim, Cours de geometrie descriptive de l'Ecole Polytechnique, comprenant les elements de la geometrie cinematique (2nd edition) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1886).
    • Ouvrage contenant de nombreuses applications a la theorie des surfaces (Gauthier-Villars et Fils, Paris, 1894).

  6. Walk Around Paris
    • Walk Around Paris .
    • A Walk Around Paris .
    • Paris is a very mathematically rich city.
    • In addition, on the symbol of Paris, the Eiffel Tower, 72 scholars were celebrated by having their names written on the sides.
    • We decided to take a walk in Paris and more specifically around the Latin Quarter, as it is home to many illustrious institutions in France and is rich in history and culture.
    • Being tolerated by the Universite de Paris, but without its agreement and authorisation, it received letters from the King, allowing the opening of the establishment in 1563.
    • Because of cases of attempted murder on the King Henri IV by an alumni from the school and the differences with the Universite de Paris, the school was forbidden from teaching or closed until 1618, when it finally reopened.
    • In 1762, after the bankruptcy of father Antoine Lavalette, the high school received the immediate order to dismiss its teachers and pupils, also expelling the Jesuits at the same time, allowing the competing high schools (28 in Paris) to take over the building.
    • It therefore created new laboratories and decided to accept more students per year group, which motivated the board to move the location of the school from the Latin Quarter (in the middle of Paris), to Palaiseau, which was inaugurated in 1976.
    • In 1903, the Ecole Normale Superieure was united with the Universite de Paris, until in 1953 it gained financial autonomy and personality.
    • Many more mathematical places can be discovered in other areas of Paris, on another walk, on a sunny summer day ..
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Paris_walk.html .

  7. Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin
    • DUBREIL (Mme PAUL, nee Marie-Louise JACOTIN), born at Paris 7 July 1905, died at Paris 19 October 1972; admitted to the Ecole Normal Superieure in 1926.
    • She only obtained a Bourse de licence [which would only have allowed her to study outside Paris] and she decided not to accept it.
    • Herriot transformed Marie-Louise's Bourse de licence which would have only enabled her to study in the provinces into a Bourse pres de L'Universite de Paris.
    • Thirty-four came after Marie-Louise of whom three became professors in provincial universities, four in Paris and one at the College de France.
    • Their example proved that male and female students could study together in Paris.
    • On her return to Paris she married Paul Dubreil (1923) on June 28, 1930.
    • Their child Edith was raised in Paris.
    • The defeat, the occupation and the liberation made these never-ending trips to and from Paris slower and more difficult and dangerous.
    • During the winter of 1944-45 the trip from Poitiers to Paris meant crossing the Loire river by foot bridge that rising water was on the verge of washing away.
    • At Poitiers she collected an excellent team of algebraists including Lesieur (1936) and Arbault (1936) who later became professor at Paris XI and at Dijon.
    • Family life for Paul and Marie-Louise became easier and more agreeable since he was at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris.
    • However, the weekly travel between Poitiers and Paris along with her mother's increasing ill-health caused Marie-Louise excessive strain.
    • Finally in 1956 she, along with Mme Jacqueline Lelong-Ferrand (1936), became the first female mathematicians to be co-opted by the Science Faculty of Paris.
    • At the Faculty of Sciences in Paris, the quality of her lecturing, which always went straight to the essentials, attracted many students.
    • Article by L Lesieur (Professor at the University of Paris VI) in Semigroup Forum 6 (1973) 1-2.
    • She was a professor at the University of Paris VI and a member of the editorial board of Semigroup Forum.
    • Born in Paris in 1905, Marie-Louise was one of the first French women mathematicians to gain the professional qualifications and status that used to be reserved for men only.
    • She graduated in 1929 and received her doctorate in Paris in 1934.
    • Marie-Louise was appointed to Paris in 1955.
    • Sciences Paris 236 (1952/1953) 1136-38 and 1950-51; Colloque d'Algebre Superieure, C.

  8. de Montessus publications
    • 19 (1905), 185-257; These, Paris: A.
    • (Statistics giving monthly calculated and observed values of the frequency of storms and of temperature (at Paris) are tabulated to aid in the study of the influence of storms on atmospherics.) .
    • Lecons elementaires sur le Calcul des Probabilites (Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1908), vi + 191 pp.
    • Lecons sur les fonctions elliptiques en vue de leurs applications (Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1907 et 1910), in- 8, X, 268pp.
    • (Cet ouvrage reunit les lecons qui ont fait l'objet d'un cours libre a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris au cours de l'annee 1915-1916) .
    • Lecons sur les fonctions elliptiques en vue de leurs applications (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1917), X u.
    • Calcul numerique: avec figures dans le texte, R de Montessus et Robert Adhemar, vicomte d', (O Doin et fils, Paris, 1911).
    • Les fonctions elliptiques dans le domaine reel (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1915), VI u.
    • et un formulaire concernant les fonctions elliptiques; par R de Montessus de Ballore (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1917), VI-556 p.: fig.; In-8.
    • Cours de mathematique tome 2, 2e partie (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1917), 225x140mm, 283 pages, reliure demi-chagrin.
    • (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1919).
    • Notions sur la theorie des quaternions: Cours libre professe a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris / R de Montessus de Ballore, Editeur(s): (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1930), 16 p.
    • Lecons professees a l'Office national meteorologique de France, Preface de M Alliaume (Hermann Cie, Paris, 1931), IX + 211 p.
    • La methode de correlation [Texte imprime]: suivie de la table des carres des nombres entiers de 1 a 1000 / par R de Montessus de Ballore, Editeur(s): (Gauthier-Villars et cie, Paris, 1932), 77 p.: tabl., diagr.; 20 cm .
    • - Paris: G.
    • Auteur, Editeur(s) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1949), VII-600 p.; In-8 (225 x 140).

  9. References
    • The second part of the article is the Statistical Society of Paris.
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 1.
    • Sa creation en 1860, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 128 (1987), 239-242.
    • P Damiani, (1988), Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 2.
    • De 1860 a 1885, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 193-201.
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 3.
    • De 1886 a 1910, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 277-285.
    • P Damiani, Histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris: 4.
    • De 1911 a 1935, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 130 (1989), 103-111.
    • P Depoid, Contribution a l'histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 102 (1961), 81-191.
    • Paris, La Decouverte (1993).
    • La societe de Statistique de Paris au XIXe siecle (1860-1910), These de doctorat, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989).

  10. De Coste on Mersenne
    • The full reference is H de Coste, La vie du R P Marin Mersenne, theologien, philosophe et mathematicien, de l'Ordre der Peres Minim (Paris, 1649).
    • printed in Paris by Sebastian and Gabriel Cramoisy in 1649 by ecclesiastical authority with a dedication to Louis de Valois, Comte d'Alais.
    • In the past there were the Cardinals De la Forest, Philastre, du Bellay and Cointereau or Cointerel; Messieurs Guillaume, Seigneur de Langeay, and Martin, Prince d'Yvetot of the House of Bellay, Monsieur de St Francois, Master of the Requests, later Bishop of Bayeux, Geofroy Boussard, Chancellor of the University of Paris, Pierre de Ronsard, Jean and Jacques Pelletier, Pierre Belon, Robert Garnier, Felix de la Mote le Vayer, Abel Foulon, Sieur Denisot, Germain Pilon, and in our time Monsieur Coeffeteau, Bishop of Marseille, and a great many others.
    • After he left the College of La Fleche, he came to Paris to continue his studies in that famous University and in the Royal College heard the illustrious Professors Marius Ambosius, George Criton and Theodore Marsile, and in the Sorbonne (where reside the strength and support of the Faith) the three celebrated doctors Andre du Val, Philippe de Gamaches and Nicolas Ysambert, whose names will be immortal amongst the pious and the learned.
    • It was by means of this holy occupation, and through the good example set by the Minim Fathers of the Convent at Plessis, near Tours (through which he happened to pass on his way to Paris from his native district), that he resolved to join this Order.
    • He applied for the habit at the Convent of Paris, near the Place Royale, from the Rev Father Olivier Chaillou, who was Vicar-General at the time.
    • This good Father saw that he was received at the Convent of Notre-Dame de Toutes Graces, also called Nigeon, near Paris, by the Reverend Father Pierre Hebert, who was then the Provincial of the Province of France, a man whose memory is blessed among our people, as much for his piety and for his humility as for the exemplary way in which he governed the Order of which he was the thirty-second General.
    • Two and a half months after his Profession, he went to live in the Convent of Paris, where he took Orders as Sub-Deacon, Deacon and Priest at the hands of Monseigneur Henry de Gondy, Bishop of Paris, who has since become Cardinal of Raiz; he celebrated his first Mass on the 28th of October in 1613, the Feast of the Apostles St Simon and St Jude.
    • He dedicated it to Monseigneur Jean Francois de Gondy, First Archbishop of Paris.
    • Most authors who have written on experiments which question whether Nature suffers a vacuum, have quoted Father Mersenne; amongst others the Reverend Father Estienne Noel, Rector of the Jesuit College of Clermont in Paris, on p.
    • Guillaume Colletet, Advocate to the Parlement de Paris and to the Conseil d'Etat and Prive du Roi, extolled the Reverend Father Mersenne's rare sufficiency in several places in his History of the French poets; but particularly in the life of Jacques Pelletier of Le Mans, a learned doctor, excellent poet and very accomplished in Mathematics.
    • Jean Cecile Frey, physician and eminent Professor of Philosophy in the University of Paris, in his new and easy methods for studying the divine sciences, the arts and the knowledge of languages, wrote:- .

  11. Eulogy to Euler by Fuss
    • Leonhard Euler, Professor of Mathematics, member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg, former Director of the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences of Prussia, Foreign associate of the Royal Academy of Science of Paris, of the Royal Society of London, etc, was born in Basel on 4/15 April 1707 of Paul Euler, then the pastor of Reihen and of Marguerite Brucker, who was of a distinguished family whose name was well recognized in the republic of letters of which there were several scientists who shared the same name.
    • These studies far from tightening all the springs of his active yet vast mind, left him sufficiently free to compose a dissertation concerning the nature and propagation of sound as well the most efficient way in which to mast ships which the Paris Academy judged worthy of an accessit in 1727.
    • Euler had a new occasion to deploy all of the force of his genius, when the academy of Paris which had already crowned his 1738 memoire in physics on the nature and the properties of fire; in 1740 he proposed the question of sea tides which was an extremely important question but one which demanded frightening calculations and an understanding of the entire system of the world.
    • The theory of magnetism which took the Paris Academy prize in 1744 is too well known to have to say a great deal about it.
    • In a paper on floating bodies published in the Memoires of the Paris Academy of Sciences and Beaux-Arts of April 1735 and forwarded to the Academie of Saint Petersburg through its author Mr.
    • Which have been included in to the collections of the Saint Petersburg, Paris and Berlin Academies as well as principally in the two memoires in the way in which to compensate for the wind and the effects of pitching and rolling of which the latter was awarded the prize of the Paris Academy in 1759.
    • Firstly a new edition was issued in Paris and if it was introduced into the naval academies [See footnote 2] and the King rewarded Mr.
    • Euler with a payment of 6000 pounds as which many discoveries have served France well as well as all the other enlightened nations as told by the Paris editors.
    • A new edition came out in Paris and a German translation in Leipzig.
    • Furthermore, the Academy of Paris which, since it provided Mr.
    • The eldest who has for a very long time followed in the footsteps of his illustrious father, is equally famous due to the prizes that he was awarded by the Academies of Saint Petersburg, Paris, Munich and GÜttingen.

  12. The Association for Statistics and its Uses
    • The second part of the article is the Statistical Society of Paris.
    • They were mainly university professors, essentially oriented towards applied statistics, practicing their profession mainly outside Paris (apart from Daniel Dugue), and who wanted to establish a more structured relationship between them.
    • Its statutes will be deposited in Paris in February 1971, the registered office is the National Pedagogical Institute, located rue Ulm, in the fifth arrondissement of Paris.
    • In 1973, its members meet twice: in May in Pau and in November in Paris-Dauphine - this will be the only time that there will be two meetings in a single year.
    • After Nice (1978), one finds oneself in Paris, more precisely in the ENSAE (1979), then in Toulouse (1980) and Nancy (1981).
    • It is also in 1981 that the head office of the Institution leaves the rue d'Ulm to settle in the premises of ISUP, the place Jussieu in Paris, still in the fifth arrondissement.
    • One of its main achievements is the establishment every four years, starting in 1989, of an international congress 'Statistical Methods in Biopharmacy', organised in Paris, the papers of which are published in a special issue of the journal Statistics in Medicine.
    • The year 1989 also saw the SSP and the ASU participate in an important action: the organisation of the 47th session of the IIS in Paris, from 29 August to 6 September.
    • Two other members of the ASU will be involved in the organisation of scientific events focused on this theme: Jean-Jacques Droesbeke in Brussels, in 1988, with the symposium entitled "Au Royaume des Sondages" and Ludovic Lebart in Paris, in 1991, with that dedicated to the quality of information in surveys, joining on this occasion with the ASU, CNRS and ENST.

  13. Galois family
    • Evariste Galois' father was Nicolas-Gabriel Galois who was born on 3 December 1775 in Ris-Orangis, Paris, and died on 2 July 1829 in Paris.
    • The Demante family also owned a house on the rue Jean de Beauvais in Paris.
    • On 26 February 1815, Napoleon escaped from exile on the island of Elba and began his journey to Paris to begin the famous 100 days.
    • One of the results of Napoleon's return to power in France was the election of Nicolas-Gabriel Galois as mayor of Bourg La Reine, Paris.
    • She married Benoit Chantelot in two ceremonies, the first on 28 January 1829 in Paris, and the second on 5 February at Bourg La Reine.
    • In fact he only began his schooling in 1823 when his parents decided that he really had to leave home and he was admitted as a boarder at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand in Paris.
    • He went to the house on the rue Jean de Beauvais in Paris and on 2 July 1829 he committed suicide by asphyxiation by gas.
    • After Nicolas-Gabriel's suicide, in October 1829 Evariste's mother moved from Bourg La Reine to take up residence in the house on at No 16 rue Jean de Beauvais in Paris.

  14. De Montmort: 'Essai d'Analyse
    • He was born in Paris on October 27th, 1678, the second of three sons of Francois and Marguerite Rallu Remond who were of the nobility.
    • His conversion stood him in good stead and he continued to occupy his time with "pious exercises" and with studying philosophy and mathematics with Father Nicolaus de Malebranche who was then in the House of the Oratory of Saint-Honore de Paris.
    • This visit gave further impetus to his study of mathematics, and he came back to Paris to pursue his studies in algebra, geometry and the new calculus, which he found "thorny".
    • The results of his researches were published in the Essai d'Analyse sur les Jeux de Hasard printed in Paris in 1708.
    • When he went to Paris he met and became friendly with Montmort, staying with him on his country estate for some three months and afterwards keeping up a long correspondence with him.
    • In Paris in 1716 he was made a member of the Academie des Sciences.
    • He frequently visited Paris for business reasons and on the last of these trips he caught smallpox and died of it on October 7th, 1719.
    • They begin after Nicolaus had left Paris and returned to Basel.

  15. Smith's History Papers
    • Two Mathematical Shrines of Paris.
    • In a city like Paris, that has for centuries been one of the intellectual foci of the world, there are many spots where the devotee to mathematics may well stand with bared head.
    • The houses in which great savants were born, or lived, or died are often known or can be ascertained by the searcher after historical spots, and their tombs may be found in Pere la Chaise or in the few churches that escaped in the period of vandalism which swept away so many Gothic temples in the making of modern Paris.
    • Historical-Mathematical Paris.
    • The World War has naturally turned the steps of many of our advanced students to the paths their intellectual ancestors trod soon after the American and French revolutions, namely, to Paris.
    • There will still be large numbers who go to Germany and England, and many who go to Italy, but for some years to come it is probable that Paris will attract American students more than it ever has in the past and more than any other single city of Europe.
    • Historical-Mathematical Paris.

  16. Hille publications
    • Paris 188 (1929), 1142.
    • Paris 192 (1931), 30-52.
    • Paris 209 (1939), 714-716.
    • Paris 225 (1947), 445-447.
    • Paris 228 (1949), 35-37.
    • Paris 230 (1950), 34-35.
    • Paris 236 (1953), 1466-1467.

  17. Who was who 1852
    • The big name in Paris in 1850 was Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857).
    • He returned to Paris in 1838 and taught at a Jesuit college.
    • At the College de France in Paris we would have found Joseph Liouville (1809-1882), the man who started the mathematical theory of boundary value problems for linear second order differential equations, who produced the first integral equation and the first resolvent, but also the founder of the theory of transcendental numbers.
    • Paris, that is, the Sorbonne, College de France, Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Normale Superieure, and the many technical schools, has most of the desirable positions while the provincial universities vary in importance, but cannot hold their own against Paris.
    • Notes could be published quickly in the Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences at Paris which has appeared weekly since August 1835.
    • He spent the years 1822-27 as teacher in a private family in Paris where he came under the influence of the great French analysts of the period.

  18. Galois Sainte Pelagie preface
    • (ii) Andre Dalmas, Evariste Galois, revolutionnaire et geometre (Fasquelle, Paris, 1956), .
    • (iii) Andre Dalmas, Evariste Galois, revolutionnaire et geometre (Second edition) (Fasquelle, Paris, 1982), .
    • Edition critique et integrale des manuscrits et des publications d'Evariste Galois (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1962), .
    • Edition critique et integrale des manuscrits et des publications d'Evariste Galois (Second Edition) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1976), .
    • Edition critique et integrale des manuscrits et des publications d'Evariste Galois (Reprint) (Jacques Gabay, Paris, 1997), .
    • (vii) Gilbert Walusinski, Rene Taton, Jean Dieudonne, Amy Dahan-Dalmedico, Dominique Guy, et al., Presence d'Evariste Galois: 1811-1832 (A.P.M.E.P., Paris, 1982), .

  19. The Tercentenary of the birth of James Gregory
    • Gregory spent the next three years in Italy, visiting Flanders and Rome in his tour and returning by Paris, but settling for most of the time at Padua, where Galileo had taught.
    • It is a reminder too that Gregory and Huygens were once more good friends and that Huygens had recommended Gregory to Louis XIV of France for a pension and a call to Paris in token of his genius.
    • How carefully he awaited the eclipse of 9th April 1670, which had been foretold by another young enthusiast, Flamsteed of Derby, and what was his disappointment when that very day a mighty snowstorm swept all Scotland! We can share his joy one night four years later when he and his friends in Paris made simultaneous observations of a lunar eclipse which enabled him to work out the longitude of St Andrews, a difficult feat in days before the invention of the chronometer.
    • He tells us why he left in a letter to a friend at Paris : "I was ashamed to answer, the affairs of the Observatory of St Andrews were in such a bad condition; the reason of which was, a prejudice the masters of the University did take at the mathematics, because some of their scholars, finding their courses and dictats opposed by what they had studied in the mathematics, did mock at their masters, and deride some of them publicly.
    • Today, in this room where Gregory worked so long, we have their mathematical descendants, distinguished guests from the world of science, from the Cambridge of Newton, the Paris of Cassini, the Germany of Leibniz and the Flanders of Huygens, assembled in a Scotland where mathematics is still pursued for its beauty and its truth.

  20. U N Singh
    • However, he was not content to rest with such a fine piece of work and he proceeded to the Sorbonne (University of Paris) in October 1951 to work under the renowned French Mathematician, the late Professor S Mandelbrojt.
    • We shall discuss later in detail, the important theory of Generalized Fourier Transforms developed by U N Singh in his Paris thesis.
    • Upon his return from Paris, Allahabad could not retain U N Singh for long and in 1954 he shifted to the Aligarh Muslim University as Reader.
    • His work can be roughly put under four periods: His pre-Paris phase which includes his, now famous, doctoral dissertation at the University of Allahabad and extends up to 1951: his work at Paris which includes his highly praised D.Sc.

  21. Indroduction
    • The second part of the article is the Statistical Society of Paris.
    • The purpose of this article is to briefly present the history of the Societe Francaise de Statistique (French Statistical Society) and to discuss the history of the learned associations that have united to form it: the Societe de Statistique de Paris (Statistical Society of Paris) and the Association pour la Statistique et ses Utilisations (Association for Statistics and its Uses).
    • The French Statistical Society was founded in 1997 from the merger of two associations of statisticians: the 'Statistical Society of Paris' (SSP) and the 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' (ASU).
    • The second part of this article is the Statistical Society of Paris.

  22. Collins and Gregory discuss Tschirnhaus
    • this Gent is going to Paris to reside there for a year where he intends to publish a treatise of 'Algebra et de Locis' in Latin, the rough draft of which he showed me, wherein he had explained all Hudde's reductions etc, amplified the doctrine of tangents both as to geometrical and mechanical curves, affirming that Hudde never thoroughly understood the doctrine of maxima and minima.
    • He is a very worthy affable person, and I hope will prove a good correspondent at Paris ..
    • By mine of the 3rd instant I gave you some account of a new method for finding the roots of equations etc invented by Mr Tschirnhaus, a gent of Saxony, who I told you was just upon departing for Paris; and, presuming you have that letter, I proceed.
    • I further objected that it seemed to serve only biquadratics that had two pairs of equal though different roots; in answer he affirmed it served for other cases (according to an example taken out of Descartes) wherein all the roots were unequal, and gave another rule for another easy case as follows, showing the variety thereof, affirming that he imparted only some of the rules for easy cases, reserving the universal rule to himself, but might possibly impart that when at Paris ..
    • Mr Tschirnhaus whilst here, which was 13 or 14 weeks, spent most of his time in calculating the canons for the first 8 dimensions complaining much of the excessive tedium thereof, and being gone to Paris may perchance be induced to print some brief account thereof before his intended bigger book comes out ..

  23. V Lebesgue books
    • Extraits, Commentaires et Recherches relatifs a l'Analyse indeterminee et a la Theorie des Nombres (Libraire Centrale des Sciences, Paris, 1859), Introduction a la Theorie des Nombres (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1862), and Tables diverses pour la Decomposition des Nombres en leurs Facteurs premiers (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1864).
    • Eugene Prouhet (1817-1867) was a student of Charles-Francois Sturm at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

  24. Bompiani publications
    • Enrico Bompiani, Topologie des elements differentiels et quelques applications, Colloque de Geometrie differentielle de Louvain (Masson, Paris, 1951), 1-36.
    • Enrico Bompiani, Geometries Riemanniens d'espece superieur, Colloque de Geometrie differentielle de Louvain, Masson (Masson, Paris, 1951, 123-156.
    • Enrico Bompiani, Sur les theories unitaires de la gravitation, Colloque Henry Poincare (Paris, 1954).
    • Enrico Bompiani, Sur l'instabilite de certains transformations, Colloque Henry Poincare (Paris (1954).

  25. Mandelbrojt becomes a French citizen
    • In 1923 when I did my thesis, Sergi Bernstein was in Paris.
    • There isn't one Jewish professor there." After that, Zaremba, who was a good Polish mathematician, quite a lot more liberal than the others, and a Professor at Krakow, came to Paris.
    • At that time there was a prefect in Paris called Langeron.
    • Lovett didn't know my address in Paris, but he knew Hadamard's address, because Hadamard had been there several times.

  26. V Lebesgue publications
    • Paris, 1854, in-8 de 520 pages, Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques (1) XIII (1854), 441-448.
    • Victor Amedee Lebesgue, Exercices d'Analyse numerique, extraits, commentaires et recherches relatifs a l'Analyse indeterminee et a la Theorie des nombres (Libraire Centrale des Sciences, Paris, 1859).
    • Victor Amedee Lebesgue, Introduction a la Theorie des nombres (Mallet-Bachelier, Paris, 1862).
    • Victor Amedee Lebesgue, Tables diverses pour la Decomposition des Nombres en leurs Facteurs premiers (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1864).

  27. Godement's reviews
    • This book, based on the author's course at the University of Paris, covers the basic subjects of modern algebra which, according to the author, everybody considers indispensable for future mathematicians or physicists.
    • This book, in two volumes, is based on a course of lectures given by the author at the University of Paris in 1973-74 and provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory of Lie groups.
    • This is the first of the two volumes (for a review of the second volume see the following review) of a course of mathematical analysis taught by Roger Godement during thirty-five years at the University of Paris.
    • This is the third volume of the course of mathematical analysis taught by Roger Godement at the University of Paris.

  28. Smith Autograph Papers
    • A Paris." .
    • And yet there was no man living in France in his time who did so much to make the philosophy of Newton known to the literati of Paris as this same Voltaire.
    • This meridian was extended by Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I) in 1701 and his work was continued by his son, Jacques, the results being published in Paris in 1720 and serving to set on foot the elaborate surveys which finally determined the spheroidal shape of the earth.
    • In 1840 he was in Paris, and M.

  29. Cotlar publications
    • Paris Ser.
    • Paris Ser.
    • Paris Ser.
    • Paris Ser.

  30. Berge books
    • The original book, written in French and published in 1958 by Dunod in Paris, was not reviewed in Biometrika.
    • This is the English translation of "Theorie des graphes et ses applications," Dunod, Paris, 1958.
    • This translation of 'Programmes, jeux et reseaux de transport', Dunod, Paris, 1962 (reviewed in Mathematical Reviews 33 (1967), No 1137) is a valuable addition to the literature of mathematical programming.

  31. David Hilbert: 'Mathematical Problems
    • David Hilbert's famous 23 Paris problems challenged (and still today challenge) mathematicians to solve fundamental questions.
    • Hilbert's famous address Mathematical Problems was delivered to the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.
    • M L Laugel translated the address into French for the Proceeding of the Congress and it appeared under the title Sur les problemes futurs des mathematiques in Compte Rendu du Deuxieme Congres International des Mathematiciens published by Gauthier-Villars, Paris, in 1902.

  32. Newton by his contemporaries
    • In Paris the universe is seen composed of vortices of subtle matter; but nothing like it is seen in London.
    • In Paris you imagine that the earth is shaped like a melon, or of an oblique figure; in London it has an oblate sphere.
    • The English read with the highest satisfaction, and translated into their own language, the Elogium of Sir Isaac Newton, which M de Fontenelle delivered at the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  33. Green speech
    • He obtained a second doctorate, from the University of Paris in 1924, but did so at a distance.
    • Each year the family took the long steamer trip across the Atlantic to France, to enable Frederick's studies in the libraries of Paris: one of the earliest photographs we have of Dad is with his two sisters (probably taken in summer 1928) in a house in Yerres, a small town on a suburban rail line close to Paris, and to an old royal forest.

  34. Napier Tercentenary
    • Lord Napier, owing to indisposition, was unable to be present, but Colonel Napier and Sir Alexander Napier were both in the company, which included, among others, Professor H Andoyer, Paris; Professor D Arany, Budapest; Professor Bauschinger, Strassburg; Mr G T Bennett, Cambridge; Sir William and Lady Bilsland, Glasgow; Professor and Mrs Cajori, Colorado; Professor James Geikie, Dr Glaister, Cambridge; Professor and Mm.
    • Professor Andoyer, of Paris, gave the history and method of construction of his recently published trigonometrical and logarithmic tables (1911.) These tables contain the logarithms of the trigonometrical functions to 17 significant figures for every hundredth of the quadrant, and to 14 figures for every 10 seconds.
    • Professor M d'Ocagne, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, will deliver two lectures on Nomography.

  35. Groups St Andrews proceedings
    • The initial planning for the conference began in August 1981 and in May 1983 invitations were given to Professor Seymour Bachmuth (Santa Barbara, California), Professor Gilbert Baumslag (City University, New York), Dr Peter Neumann (Queen's College, Oxford), Dr James Roseblade (Jesus College, Cambridge) and Professor Jacques Tits (College de France, Paris).
    • Serious planning got under way when the five organisers met at a Warwick conference in March 1991, and decided to invite as principal speakers Professor J L Alperin (Chicago), Professor M Broue (Paris), Professor P H Kropholler (London), Professor A Lubotzky (Jerusalem) and Professor E I Zelmanov (Madison).
    • Four main speakers delivered four talks each, surveying areas of contemporary development in group theory and related areas; Emmanuel Breuillard (Universite Paris Sud 11), Martin Liebeck (Imperial College), Alan Reid (University of Texas), and Karen Vogtmann (Cornell University).

  36. Comments by Charlotte Angas Scott
    • We present four extracts from reviews by Scott and one extract from a report she wrote on the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in 1900.
    • Scott attended the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in from 6 August to 12 August 1900.
    • Report: On the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in 1900.

  37. Gibson History 5 - James Gregory
    • Though Scotsmen on the Continent, such as Alexander Anderson, who had settled in Paris, were active workers, Napier had no distinguished successor in Scotland until the second half of the 17th century, when we find the names of two men who made substantial contributions to pure and applied mathematics, James Gregory and his nephew David.
    • His mother was the daughter of David Anderson of Finzeach in Aberdeenshire, and related to the Alexander Anderson, just mentioned as a teacher in Paris.
    • In 1669 he was appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at St Andrews; in that position be had a busy and, as the years passed, a rather troubled life so that he was glad to accept a call in 1674 to be Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh where, as he says in a letter to a friend in Paris, "my salary is double and my encouragements much greater." (Acad.

  38. Herivel's books
    • Herivel has done a great deal of extremely thorough background and biographical research and has un earthed important details concerning the major events in Fourier's life: his early education, various activities (including two arrests, one by the Left and one by the Right) during the Revolution, his secretaryship of the Cairo Institute during and after Napoleon's Egyptian campaign, his prefecture at Is re for eleven years under the Emperor, his return to Paris in 1815, and his election as secretary to the Academy of Sciences in 1822.
    • When the name Joseph Fourier is mentioned, one is more likely to think of series, of transforms or of equations describing the propagation of heat in solids, than of a young man caught up in the complexities of a revolution, of a companion to Napoleon on an ill-fated excursion to Egypt, or of an excellent administrator serving the Emperor in a rural setting away from Paris.
    • The author documents Fourier's reaction to the criticism by some members of the Parisian scientific community of his first memoir on heat propagation, presented to the Paris Academy of Science in 1807, and his later memoir of 1812.

  39. What do mathematicians do?
    • In October 1982 George W Mackey gave a talk entitled What do mathematicians do? It was delivered during a visit to Paris.
    • Moreover, if the pure mathematicians of Paris, Moscow, greater Boston, Princeton and New York City were to be eliminated, the mathematical strength of the world would probably be reduced by at least two thirds.
    • Actually there are all too few of the latter, and I would like to close by saying a few words about the two which I myself have visited - one of which is just a few miles outside of Paris in Bures sur Yvette.

  40. Babbage Laplace Fourier Biot
    • In my occasional visits to Paris I never omitted an opportunity of paying my respects to him: when deprived of those supports and advanced in life, he still earnestly occupied himself in carrying out the investigations of his earlier years.
    • At a later period I took with me to Paris the complete drawings of Difference Engine No 2.
    • The last time during M Biot's life that I visited Paris I went, as usual, to the College de France.

  41. Rios publications
    • Sixto Rios Garcia, Sur l'ensemble singulier d'une classe des series potentielles de Taylor qui presentent des lacunes, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris 197 (1933), 1170-1173.
    • Paris 222 (1946), 168-169.
    • Paris 258 (1964), 5342-5344.

  42. Hilbert quotes
    • "He who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind seeks for the most part in vain," Hilbert told his Paris audience.
    • Source: D E Rowe, Mathematics made in Germany: on the background to Hilbert's Paris lecture, Math.
    • No single event contributed more to these than his Paris lecture with its famous list of unsolved problems.

  43. Charlotte Angas Scott publications
    • Report on the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris, Bull.
    • Book Review: Compte rendu du deuxieme Congres international des Mathematiciens tenu a Paris du 6 au 12 aout 1900, Bull.
    • Report on the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris (Excerpts), Mathematical Intelligencer 7 (4) (1985), 75-78.

  44. Dubreil-Jacotin on Sophie Germain
    • First, Sophie Germain, born in Paris in 1776, the daughter of a rich middle- class silk merchant.
    • She had the great honour in 1816 of receiving from the Paris Academy of Sciences the Grand Prize of the Mathematical Sciences, for a paper on the vibrations of thin elastic plates, a question put up for competition since 1811.

  45. Duhem onfashion
    • In this country where centralization is carried to an extreme, nothing is accepted unless it receive the sanction of Paris, or rather of certain constituted bodies, of certain official persons residing in Paris.

  46. Ahrens book of quotes
    • Paris 1900.
    • Paris 1900.

  47. Catalan retirement
    • Hermite, President d'honneur, et le plus eminent des Geometres francais, aurait voulu assister a cette ceremonie : des devoirs imperieux le retiennent a Paris.
    • Encore gamin de Paris (bon gamin !), j'ai vu Legendre et j'ai connu Bouvart parfois, je fus aide (benevole) de Hachette et d'Ampere.

  48. Eddington on the Expanding Universe
    • He is anything but a traveller; I think he has never been away from Paris.
    • Practically it is more convenient to employ the metre, but in pursuing the theory we must go direct to the world radius; for obviously a particular bar of metal at Paris can have no fundamental status in physics and is altogether irrelevant to equations describing the mechanism of the atom.

  49. Smith Overview
    • History of modern mathematics (1906); (with Charles Goldziher) Bibliography of the teaching of mathematics, 1900-1912 (1912); (with Caroline Eustis Seely) Union list of mathematical periodicals (1918); Historical-mathematical Paris (1924); and Mathematica Gothica (1925).
    • The papers 9, 11 and 12 tell us about Smith's love of Paris.

  50. Weil reviews
    • H Cartan and A Weil were most often geographically far away from each other; Cartan was almost permanently in France, while Weil was involved in the itinerary Paris-Rome-Gottingen-Berlin-Stockholm-India (1930-1932), Marseille-Strasbourg-Finland-Sweden-France (partly in prison in the three countries), then in the USA, 1940-1945, in Sao Paulo (Brazil), 1945-1947, after which he moved again to the USA: Chicago, 1947-1958, and Princeton, 1958-1998.
    • Having the same scientific start, at the Ecole Normale Superieure (Paris), they became friends, sharing similar research interests.

  51. Scotland in 1883 and the EMS
    • was popular since by 1885 the centres were Aberdeen, Barbados, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cheltenham, Edinburgh, Eisenach, Halifax, Hildesheim, Leicester, Lerwick, Liverpool, London, Paris, Pietermaritzburg, and St Andrews.
    • The Senatus Academicus has authorised the use of an Academic Badge, in the form of a Sash, of the colours of the Universities of Paris and St Andrews, with a St Andrews University cross in silver, to be worn by all who take the title and receive the Diploma of L.L.A.

  52. Turnbull lectures on Colin Maclaurin
    • After a short stay in Paris, which would have brought him into contact with leading men of science, the tutor and pupil settled in Lorraine.
    • It was there that Maclaurin wrote a thesis On the Percussion of Bodies which gained for him one of the three prizes of the Academy of Sciences at Paris for the year 1724, other recipients being Leonard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli.

  53. Twenty-Five Years of Groups St Andrews Conferences
    • With this aim in mind we invited Seymour Bachmuth (Santa Barbara), Gilbert Baumslag (CUNY), Peter Neumann (Oxford), Jim Roseblade (Cambridge) and Jacques Tits (Paris) to be the main speakers.
    • The five organisers met at a Warwick conference in March 1991, and decided to invite as principal speakers Jon Alperin (Chicago), Michel Broue (Paris), Peter Kropholler (Queen Mary College, London), Alex Lubotzky (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and Efim Zelmanov (Wisconsin-Madison).

  54. Dixmier reviews
    • The original French version is the fruitful outcome of many of the author's seminars in Paris-VI.
    • This book is designed to be an introduction to general topology, and is based on a one-semester course of lectures given in 1979-80 to third-year students at the University of Paris VI.

  55. Sergescu works
    • Rumanische Mathematikstudenten in Paris zwischen 1870 und 1877 (Romanian) (1939).
    • Les mathematiques a Paris au Moyen-Age (1939).

  56. A N Whitehead: 'Autobiographical Notes
    • They all served in the First World War: our eldest son throughout its whole extent, in France, in East Africa, and in England; our daughter in the Foreign Office in England and Paris; our youngest boy served in the Air Force: his plane was shot down in France with fatal results, in March, 1918.
    • The other experience is that of a Congress on Mathematical Logic held in Paris in March, 1914.

  57. Leonard J Savage: 'Foundations of Statistics
    • 739 (Hermann et Cie., Paris, 1938), 25-57.','8], coining the expression 'inductive behaviour' in contrast to 'inductive inference'.
    • 739 (Hermann et Cie., Paris, 1938), 25-57.

  58. Duran-Loriga's biography of Hermite
    • So far as we know, Hermite leaves two didactic works: his "Cours de la faculte des sciences de Paris" (1891), and his "Note sur la theorie des fonctions elliptiques" (168 pages) which serves as appendix to the 'Cours de calcul differentiel et integral' of Joseph Alfred Serret (4th ed.
    • High testimony of admiration and sympathy was offered the great geometer more recently upon the occasion of the meeting at Paris, last August, of the international congress of mathematicians.

  59. ELOGIUM OF EULER
    • History of the Royal Academy of Sciences 1783, Paris 1786, Pages 37-68 .
    • Euler wrote a paper when he was nineteen years of age on the masting of ships proposed by the Paris Academy of Sciences for which he obtained an accessit in 1727, more than a great accomplishment since the young alpine native could not have taken advantage of any practical knowledge.

  60. Borali-Forti publications
    • C Burali-Forti, Introduction a la geometrie differentielle suivant la methode de H Grassman (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1897).
    • C Burali-Forti and R Marcolongo, Elements de calcul vectoriel avec de nombreuses applications a la geometrie, a la mecanique et a la physique-mathematique (Hermann, Paris, 1910).

  61. Shepherdson Tribute
    • The authors look ahead to a time when a more compelling such result for Q will be obtained (as was done by Paris and Wilkie in the 1980's, by a highly nontrivial proof).
    • The extensive work on logic programming is further from my expertise, as is the late work with Hajek and Paris, but the style and the informal rigour are deeply appealing.

  62. Puiseux Lecons Cinematique
    • This was the kinematics course that Pierre Puiseux was giving at the Faculty of Science in Paris where, at that time, he was an assistant lecturer.
    • Paris, May 1890 .

  63. Catalan retirement
    • Hermite, Honorary President, and the most prominent French geometer, wanted to attend the ceremony but his duties oblige him to stay in Paris.
    • Still a child of Paris (a good child!), I saw Legendre and I knew Bouvart: sometimes I was helped (kindly) by Hachette and Ampere.

  64. Maclaurin life
    • After a short stay at Paris, and visiting other towns in France, they fixed in Lorrain; where he wrote his piece, On the Percussion of Bodies, which gained him the prize of the Royal Academy of Sciences for the year 1724.
    • He had only ten days to draw up this paper in, and could not find leisure to transcribe a fair copy; so that the Paris edition of it is incorrect.

  65. Vivanti publications
    • Traduites par A Boulanger (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1904).
    • Ouvrage traduit par Cahen (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1910).

  66. Charles Bossut on Leibniz and Newton Part 2
    • Nicholas Bernoulli, the nephew, came to Paris in 1711.
    • It has been observed that the Royal Society of London and the Academy of Sciences at Paris arose nearly at the same time, or about the year 1660.

  67. Science at St Andrews
    • His commentary on the Physics was in use throughout the universities of Central Europe until the time of Copernicus, and served to introduce the new philosophy of its founder William of Ockham and of his disciple Jean Buridan, who became Rector of the University of Paris in 1327.
    • A man of exceptional ability and charm he had already travelled widely and had studied at Paris under Ramus.

  68. 21st Century mathematics
    • The techniques now available have changed enormously since 1900 when the German mathematician Hilbert addressed a mathematical congress in Paris.
    • Following on from the successful session on women in mathematics held at the European Congress of Mathematics in Paris in 1992, there will be a mini-symposium of presentations by postdoctoral women mathematicians, organised by the Association for Women in Mathematics and European Women in Mathematics.

  69. PoincarÚ on non-Euclidean geometry
    • Henri Poincare published La science et l'hypothese in Paris in 1902.

  70. Grattan-Guinness books
    • Grattan-Guinness bases this critical edition on study of over 6,000 pages of Fourier manuscripts in Paris archives.

  71. Teixeira on da Silva
    • Twenty-five years after the publication of this Memoir by our Mathematician, Gaston Darboux, without knowing this Memoir, dealt with the same question in a communication made in 1876 to the Academy of Sciences of Paris and in a work published in 1877 in Memoirs of the Society of Physical and Natural Sciences of Bordeaux, but the propositions he gave are almost all contained in the Memoir of our Portuguese geometer, which contains still other interesting results that are given neither in the work of Mobius nor in the work of Darboux.

  72. Mathematicians and Music
    • The famous concerts of chamber music held at the home of Emile Lemoine during half a century exerted a great influence on the musical life of Paris.

  73. John Couch Adams' account of the discovery of Neptune
    • In November 1845, M Le Verrier presented to the Royal Academy of Sciences, at Paris, a very complete and elaborate investigation of the theory of Uranus, as disturbed by the action of Jupiter and Saturn, in which he pointed out several small inequalities which had previously been neglected; and in June, of the present year, he followed up this investigation by a memoir, in which he attributed the residual disturbances to the action of another planet at a distance from the sun equal to twice that of Uranus, and found a longitude for the new planet agreeing very nearly with the result which I had obtained on the same hypothesis.

  74. Howie Thanksgiving Service
    • Barely a couple of hours after John's passing away, emails started crossing the world - Lisbon, Paris, Azores, Oman, Porto, York, and New York.

  75. Mathematicians and Music 3
    • They were professors at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, which Monge was largely instrumental in founding.

  76. Collins writes about himself
    • I can give you an account of many books, printed lately at Paris, and some of them for private persons, which I wish I could have for my money, and perchance you will desire to meet with some of them in your return.

  77. Hardy on the Tripos
    • We are therefore entitled to judge Cambridge mathematics by the standards that would be appropriate in Paris or Gottingen or Berlin.

  78. Edward Routh's family history
    • He married firstly in 1815 Adelaide Marie Josephine Limy, of Fontainebleau, Paris, who bore him a daughter Adele (died aged 10) and five sons, Randolph, Leonce, Charles Henry Felix, Jules Isham, and Edward John (died in infancy); and secondly Marie Louise Tascherau of Quebec, by whom he had four sons and five daughters, the Sons being brought up as Protestants, and the daughters as Roman Catholics.

  79. Bartlett reviews
    • This situation has improved greatly thanks to the comprehensive treatises by Doob (Stochastic Processes, New York 1955) and by Blanc-Lapierre and Fortet (Theorie des fonctions aleatoires, Paris 1953), and now Bartlett's book comes as a valuable complement.

  80. Jacques Herbrand's accident
    • he was M Jacques Herbrand, residing at 10 rue Viollet-le-duc, Paris.

  81. Bertrand's work on probability' Introduction
    • A member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, he was its permanent secretary from 1874 until his death.

  82. Dr W O Lonie by Thomas Brown
    • Another distinguished Fifer - Thomas Barclay, Sheriff Clerk of the county, grandfather of Sir Thomas Barclay - the eminent international lawyer of Paris and Vice President of the Franco-Scottish Society, belonged to the same town and interested himself in young Lonie's career.

  83. Schur doctoral students
    • Lev Kaluznin: 1948 Paris.

  84. Rudio's talk
    • His notebooks are located in Milan and Paris.

  85. John Walsh's delusions
    • When the Royal Society of London, and the Academy of Sciences of Paris, shall have read this memorandum, how will they appear? Like two cur dogs in the paws of the noblest beast of the forest.

  86. Fuchs publications
    • Paris 141 (1905), 555-558.

  87. Catalan manifesto
    • Paris, 25 Mars 1848 .

  88. Bolzano publications
    • Bernard Bolzano, Les paradoxes de l'infini (French) [Paradoxes of the infinite], Translated from the 1975 German edition and with an introduction and notes by Hourya Sinaceur (editions du Seuil, Paris, 1993).

  89. Rouche and de Comberousse
    • Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1900.

  90. Hungary teaching
    • Laszlo Ratz participated in congresses organised in Milan, Cambridge and Paris, and in 1910 was named "Officer d'Academie", a noteworthy French honour.

  91. Jacques Hadamard's mathematician's mind
    • These analogies appeared when, in 1937, at the Centre de Synthese in Paris, a series of lectures was delivered on invention of various kinds, with the help of the great Genevese psychologist, Claparede.

  92. Brinkley Copley Medal
    • While such men as Brinkley observe at Dublin, Bessel at Konigsberg, Arago at Paris, Olbers at Bremen, Schumacher at Altona, and Gauss and Harding at Gottingen, astronomy must be progressive, her results cannot but become more refined.

  93. Gibson History 3 - Founding of the Universities
    • Scotsmen were to be found both as students and teachers in almost every important University, but Paris was their favourite place of resort.

  94. Mathematics at Aberdeen 1
    • The University, based on those at Paris and Bologna, was to be under the control of the Roman Catholic Church with Bishop Elphinstone and his successors in the office of Chancellor.

  95. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture II
    • As a final and instructive case study in the distinction of the classic and romantic, let me quote from Henri Poincare's lectures on 'electricite et Optique', [Paris, Carre et Naud, 1901] in which the great French mathematician gives us his full, free, and frank opinion of the writings of Clerk Maxwell, whom we in Great Britain regard as the creator of electromagnetic theory.

  96. Pandrosion man woman
    • For example, according to Ver Eecke's French translation (P Ver Eeche, La collection mathematique: ouvres traduites pour la premiere fois du Grec en Francais avec une introduction et des notes (Desclee, Paris, 1982), 21), Pandrosion is 'excellent Pandrosius' and therefore male.

  97. Biography of Mathematics
    • Now, what are the important problems? This question was asked by HiIbert in his communication to the International Congress of Mathematicians held in 1900 in Paris.

  98. Finkel's Solution Book
    • Within the last twenty-five years there has set in, in America, a reaction against the spirit and the method of previous generations, so that C A Laisant, in his 'La Mathematique Philosophie Enseignement', Paris, 1898, says, "No country has made greater progress in mathematics during the past twenty-five years than the United States.

  99. Hardy Inaugural Lecture
    • His most remarkable contributions to the theory are contained in his memoirs on the arithmetical theory of forms, and in particular in the famous memoir on the representation of numbers by sums of five squares, crowned by the Paris Academy and published only after his death.

  100. Yung-Chow Wong
    • From there we took a train to Paris, then the boat-train to Dover, England, and finally a train from Dover to London.

  101. Pierre Laurent Papers
    • Some were only published by title, others were extracts from letters, and some were memoirs presented to the Paris Academy of Sciences.

  102. Krejci's book
    • The author is indebted to Professor Otto Vejvoda, Vladimir Lovicar and Ivan Straskraba from Prague, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman from Paris, Martin Brokate from Kiel and Augusto Visintin from Trento for stimulating discussions and encouragement.

  103. Prandtl's publications
    • 1936 (Paul Dupont Imprimerie, Paris, 1939).

  104. Arvesen publications
    • Sci., Paris 203 (1936), 704-706.

  105. A de Lapparent: 'Wantzel
    • At the age of 12, he entered the School of Arts and Trades (l'Ecole des Arts et Metiers de Chalons), where he demonstrated such a disposition for Mathematics that his instructors sent him to Paris in 1828.

  106. De Thou on Franšois ViŔte
    • When he arrived in Paris he found that Viete had gone to Poitou for the sake of his health.

  107. Dubreil-Jacotin on Mary Somerville
    • Raised far from all paternal influence, Ada Byron was early attracted to mathematics, and distinguished herself therein; she left original works which she signed A L L, a pseudonym whose true meaning was disclosed only thirty years later by General Menabrea, a correspondent of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and Italian ambassador to France.

  108. More Smith History books
    • At the second International Congress of Mathematicians, held at Paris in 1900, Professor Fujisawa of the Imperial University of Tokyo gave a brief address upon 'Mathematics of the old Japanese School', and this may be taken as the first contribution to the history of mathematics made by a native of that country in a European language.

  109. Petit thesis
    • We give below a translation of the Programme which Petit submitted to the Faculty of Science in Paris on 18 December 1811: .

  110. Publications of Giacinto Morera
    • G Morera, Lezioni di Meccanica Razionale (Litografia Paris, Torino 1902).

  111. Percy MacMahon addresses the British Association in 1901
    • It was determined, at a conference held in Paris in July 1900, that combined work should be undertaken by no fewer than fifty observatories in all parts of the world.

  112. Herivel's French Theoretical Physics
    • The research on which this paper is based was carried out in Paris in 1964 with the aid of a Bourse de Marque awarded by the French Government through their Embassy in London, and with a grant from the Research Committee of the Academic Council of the Queen's University, Belfast.

  113. Hermite's works
    • His works were published by Gauthier-Villars, Paris, under the auspices of the Academie des Sciences.

  114. Peres books
    • Etude Structurale d'une Aile D'avion Leger Essai en Flexion Statique d'un Longeron de Luciole Mc30, Universite Paris-Sud 11.

  115. Christiaan Huygens' article on Saturn's Ring
    • For while I was sojourning at Paris, I told Capellanus, as well as Gassendi and others, of the satellite of Saturn which I had seen, and Capellanus gave me many reasons for believing that I ought not to withhold an announcement that would be so pleasing to all men until I should finish the work on the complete System of Saturn, which I was then engaged upon.

  116. Joseph Fourier on his teachers
    • Joseph Fourier was a student at the Ecole Normale in Paris from the time the school opened in January 1795.

  117. Pack wartime papers
    • An abbreviated account was given before the Sixth International Congress of Applied Mechanics in Paris, September 1946.

  118. Hilbert reviews
    • The lectures form, on the one hand, a sequel to Hilbert's address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

  119. Smith's Teaching Books
    • Though he praises the scholarly and professional spirit of the Ecole Normale Superieure at Paris, with its great emphasis on command of subject and its slight attention to Education, he would not have our teachers colleges neglect either subject matter or Education, but emphasise both, offering substantial and dignified instruction in each, and adding a third feature, the broad cultural formation of the prospective teacher.

  120. The French Statistical Society
    • The second part of the article is the Statistical Society of Paris.

  121. Gordon Preston on semigroups
    • One paper that I read about this time was by J Riguet: Travaux recents de Malcev, Vagner, Liapin sur la representation des demi-groupes, of 18 January 1954, in the Seminaire d'Algebre of the Faculte des Sciences de Paris.

  122. H F Baker: 'A locus with 25920 linear self-transformations' Introduction
    • In his monumental volume on the theory of substitutions (Traite des substitutions, Paris, 1870), Jordan considers the group of the lines of a cubic surface in ordinary space, which he regards primarily as the group of the substitutions of the tritangent planes of the surface.

  123. Herzberger Ives Medal
    • He and Dr Mary Warga were the American delegates to the first International Congress in Optics, in Paris, in 1947.

  124. Hardy and Veblen on Max Newman
    • you will be able to consult with Tisdale [of the IEB's office in Paris] while he is in this country.

  125. Atlas de la Lune
    • The plates are being reproduced on an enlarged scale by photogravure from negatives taken with the large equatorial, which is the most powerful instrument of the Paris Observatory.

  126. Brusotti publications
    • Luigi Brusotti, Su talune questioni di realita nei loro metodi, risultati e problemi, Colloque sur le question de realite en geometrie, Liege 1995 (Masson & Cie, Paris, 1956), 105-129.

  127. Catalan manifesto
    • Paris, 25 March 1848 .

  128. Dubreil-Jacotin on Maria Gaetana Agnesi
    • She left behind, under the name of Instituzioni analitiche, a "remarkable account of ordinary algebra, with the solution of several solved and unsolved geometric problems"; a second volume, entirely devoted to infinitesimal analysis, a science then quite new, was declared "the most complete and the best done in this field" by the commissioners of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, who were assigned to examine this work at their meeting of 6 December 1749.

  129. ╔lie Cartan reviews
    • Just as Freud was influenced by the mechanistic world view of 19th century science, but used this background to create something new and revolutionary which has profoundly influenced 20th century thought, so Cartan built, on a foundation of the mathematics which was fashionable in the 1890's in Paris, Berlin and Gottingen, a mathematical edifice whose implications we are still investigating.

  130. Mordell reminiscences
    • But talking about crime reminds me that in a visit to Professor Jacques Hadamard in Paris while I was Professor at Manchester, I said I had once given a lecture at Strangeways Prison, Manchester.

  131. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture I
    • The supreme example of the sublime is the inaugural lecture delivered by St Thomas Aquinas in the University of Paris in 1256.

  132. History in mathematical education
    • The establishment of the Ecole Polytechnique and the reforming of the Ecole Normale in Paris in 1795 were particularly important 'pace-setters' in educational practice for science throughout Europe, and the writing of textbooks based on courses at such institutions became a standard procedure.

  133. Puig Adam publications
    • Paris-Neuchatel, 1957).

  134. Teixeira on Rocha
    • This problem can only be solved approximately, and among the solutions that were given before Monteiro da Rocha considered it, the best is one that the Jesuit astronomer Esprit Pezenas published in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences of Paris.

  135. Gibson History 9 - Colin Maclaurin
    • Not unnaturally the College authorities felt aggrieved at his conduct, but possibly the fact that Maclaurin had while in France been awarded a prize by the Academie Royale des Sciences of Paris for his thesis on the Percussion of Bodies (1724) helped to effect a reconciliation.

  136. Donald C Spencer's publications
    • 2, (Nice, France, 1970) (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1971), 251-256.

  137. Gregory-Collins correspondence
    • not long after your arrival in Paris, I had a letter from you; to which, the truth is, I was ashamed to answer, the affairs of the Observatory in St Andrews were in such a bad condition; the reason of which was a prejudice which the masters of the University did take against mathematics because some of their scholars, finding their courses and dictats opposed by what they had studied in mathematics, did mock their masters, and deride some of them publicly.

  138. Knorr's papers
    • The pattern of their circulation suggests connections between the masters of geometry at Oxford and Paris in the 13th century.

  139. De Valera's escape
    • When the copied key, delivered in a cake made of plaster Paris, came it was found to be too small.

  140. Charles Bossut on Leibniz and Newton
    • After staying some months in London, Leibniz returned to Paris where he formed an acquaintance with Huygens, who laid open to him the sanctuary of the profoundest geometry.

  141. Marcolongo publications
    • Traduit de l'italien par S Lattes (A Hermann, Paris, 1910).

  142. Rudio's Euler talk
    • After Euler had gained all common academic qualifications, he competed for a prize that the Paris Academy awarded for the best paper on the rigging of ships at the young age of nineteen.

  143. Ahrens: Mathematical entertainment and games
    • This is strongly evinced not only by his numerous published works in a variety of Journals and many sections of his "Theorie des nombres", but also by his works "Arithmetique amusante" (Paris, 1895) and above all "Recreations mathematiques" (v.

  144. Hilbert's Problems
    • David Hilbert gave a talk at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris on 8 August 1900 in which he described 10 from a list of 23 problems.

  145. Royaumont seminar
    • This list is taken from New thinking in school mathematics (OECE, Paris, 1961), 213-219: .

  146. PoincarÚ on the future of mathematics
    • Henri Poincare published Science and methode in Paris in 1908.

  147. McBride equal bisectors
    • Meanwhile in 1842 the Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques of Paris proposed it for solution.

  148. Cariolaro's papers
    • (with Arrigo Bonisoli ) Excessive factorizations of regular graphs, in Graph theory in Paris (Trends Math., Birkhauser, Basel, 2007), 73-84.

  149. Footnote 10
    • (10) It is known that the numbers of foreign memberships of the Paris academy if set at eight.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Einstein
    • Address at the Sorbonne, Paris.

  2. Quotations by Hilbert
    • Opening of his speech to the 1900 Congress in Paris.

  3. Quotations by Albertus
    • Very striking evidence of this kind is found in the stones of Paris, in which one very often meets round shells the shape of the moon.


Famous Curves

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Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Mathematics becomes a compulsory subject for a degree at the University of Paris.
    • He gives an extremely accurate measurement of the latitude of Paris.
    • The Academie des Sciences in Paris is founded.
    • Lagrange wins the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences in Paris for his work on perturbations of the orbits of comets by the planets.
    • Fourier discovers his method of representing continuous functions by the sum of a series of trigonometric functions and uses the method in his paper On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies which he submits to the Paris Academy.
    • Galois submits his first work on the algebraic solution of equations to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.
    • Liouville announces to the Academie des Sciences in Paris that he had found deep results in Galois's unpublished work and promises to publish Galois's papers together with his own commentary.
    • Hilbert poses 23 problems at the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris as a challenge for the 20th century.

  2. Chronology for 1900 to 1910
    • Hilbert poses 23 problems at the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris as a challenge for the 20th century.

  3. Chronology for 1300 to 1500
    • Mathematics becomes a compulsory subject for a degree at the University of Paris.

  4. Chronology for 1760 to 1780
    • Lagrange wins the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences in Paris for his work on perturbations of the orbits of comets by the planets.

  5. Chronology for 1780 to 1800
    • Lagrange wins the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences in Paris for his work on perturbations of the orbits of comets by the planets.

  6. Chronology for 1890 to 1900
    • Hilbert poses 23 problems at the Second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris as a challenge for the 20th century.

  7. Chronology for 1820 to 1830
    • Galois submits his first work on the algebraic solution of equations to the Academie des Sciences in Paris.

  8. Chronology for 1800 to 1810
    • Fourier discovers his method of representing continuous functions by the sum of a series of trigonometric functions and uses the method in his paper On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies which he submits to the Paris Academy.

  9. Chronology for 1840 to 1850
    • Liouville announces to the Academie des Sciences in Paris that he had found deep results in Galois's unpublished work and promises to publish Galois's papers together with his own commentary.

  10. Chronology for 1650 to 1675
    • The Academie des Sciences in Paris is founded.

  11. Chronology for 1625 to 1650
    • He gives an extremely accurate measurement of the latitude of Paris.


EMS Archive

  1. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Composition de Mathematiques elementaires proposee au concours d'Agregation de 1886 .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Solution d'une question de geometrie .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Sur un systeme de cercles tangents a une circonference et orthogonaux a une autre circonference .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) On the circle which is tangential to one circle and orthogonal to another .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Sur une propriete projective des sections coniques .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Sur un lieu geomerique .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) On a geometrical locus .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Tangential Coordinates .
    • (Paris) Solutions of Volterra's Equations with logarithmic kernels .
    • (College de France, Paris) (Hardy lecturer) The Leech lattice .
    • (Paris) Dirichlet forms on Lie groups .
    • (Paris-Dauphine) Recent mathematical results on the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation and related kinetic models .
    • (Paris VI, LITP and CRNS) Automata, finite semigroups and the Hall topology for the free group .
    • (Paris) Deterministic approach to the limit of a large reversible system .
    • (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI) New thoughts on Sobolev spaces: connections to topology .
    • (Paris VII) Quiver mutation and quantum dilogarithm identities .
    • (Paris) Mathematical aspects of tumour growth .
    • (Paris Sud) Heights in Diophantine geometry, entropy and growth of groups .
    • (ENS Paris / Harvard) Linear fluid models as scaling limits of interacting systems of particles .
    • (Ecole des Ponts and Inria, Paris) Modern materials science: mathematical theory and computational approaches .
    • Dundee Pironneau, O (Paris VI) .

  2. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Raymond Brink was an American mathematician who studied at Kansas State University, Harvard and Paris.
    • E T Davies graduated from the University of Wales at Aberystwyth and then studied in Rome and Paris.
    • Born 1891 at Paris, France; Died 1953 .
    • Pierre Humbert graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and then moved to Edinburgh to do research under Whittaker.

  3. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Born 1891 at Paris, France; Died 1953 .
    • Pierre Humbert graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and then moved to Edinburgh to do research under Whittaker.
    • Raymond Brink was an American mathematician who studied at Kansas State University, Harvard and Paris.
    • E T Davies graduated from the University of Wales at Aberystwyth and then studied in Rome and Paris.

  4. Napier Tercentenary
    • Lord Napier, owing to indisposition, was unable to be present, but Colonel Napier and Sir Alexander Napier were both in the company, which included, among others, Professor H Andoyer, Paris; Professor D Arany, Budapest; Professor Bauschinger, Strassburg; Mr G T Bennett, Cambridge; Sir William and Lady Bilsland, Glasgow; Professor and Mrs Cajori, Colorado; Professor James Geikie, Dr Glaister, Cambridge; Professor and Mm.
    • Professor Andoyer, of Paris, gave the history and method of construction of his recently published trigonometrical and logarithmic tables (1911.) These tables contain the logarithms of the trigonometrical functions to 17 significant figures for every hundredth of the quadrant, and to 14 figures for every 10 seconds.
    • Professor M d'Ocagne, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, will deliver two lectures on Nomography.

  5. EMS 1914 Colloquium
    • Two lectures by M d'Ocagne (Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, and Past President of the Societe Mathematique de France), on NOMOGRAPHY.
    • Professor d'Ocage, Paris, speaking in French, introduced his audience to the principles of nomography, of which be himself is practically the originator.
    • At the second day's proceedings of the colloquium yesterday under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, Professor d'Ocagne, Paris, continued his exposition of the nomographic principle, and discussed its application to spherical trigonometry.

  6. Scotland in 1883 and the EMS
    • was popular since by 1885 the centres were Aberdeen, Barbados, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cheltenham, Edinburgh, Eisenach, Halifax, Hildesheim, Leicester, Lerwick, Liverpool, London, Paris, Pietermaritzburg, and St Andrews.
    • The Senatus Academicus has authorised the use of an Academic Badge, in the form of a Sash, of the colours of the Universities of Paris and St Andrews, with a St Andrews University cross in silver, to be worn by all who take the title and receive the Diploma of L.L.A.

  7. EMS 2003 Colloquium
    • (c) Professor Wendelin Werner (Universite Paris-Sud) - "Conformal restriction and related Questions." .
    • Professor Wendelin Werner (Universite Paris-Sud) .

  8. 1883-84 Jan meeting
    • Professor George Chrystal was exhibiting a large number of models in thread, cardboard and plaster of Paris.

  9. 1923-24 Mar meeting
    • The Societe Mathematique de France was to hold their fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the society in Paris from May 22nd to 24th, and had sent a letter requesting representatives from the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.

  10. EMS 1938 Colloquium
    • Professor M Frechet, of the university of Paris, who recently published a book on "The Definition of Probability" in two lectures expounded the diverse definitions which have been given of the probability of an event and has compared their respective values.

  11. EMS/SCM
    • Strickland-Constable, Charles (University of Edinburgh/Universite Paris-Saclay) Generalised geometry and supersymmetric solutions .


BMC Archive

  1. Minutes for 1997
    • In addition, Prof Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (Paris-Sud) had been invited, but had not replied to letters or emails.
    • The following were proposed as main speakers for the 1999 BMC at Southampton University: B Mazur (Harvard),J Birman (Columbia), V Arnol'd (Paris).

  2. Minutes for 1999
    • Berestycki (Paris, PDEs), and C.
    • A reply from Michel BrouÄ (Paris, representation theory) is pending.

  3. Minutes for 1999
    • Other names mentioned were V Kac (MIT), D Knuth (Stanford), Y Manin (Bonn), B Kahn (Paris VII), E Witten (Princeton), M Hopkins (MIT), R E Borcherds (Cambridge), M Broue (Paris VII).

  4. Gminutes2016.html
    • Plenary lectures will be given by Eva Bayer-Fluckiger (Lausanne), Kenji Fukaya (Stonybrook), Isabelle Gallagher (Paris 7), Laurent Lafforgue (IHES), George Lusztig (MIT) and Jacob Lurie (Harvard).

  5. BMC speakers
    • Paris, J B : 1977, 1995 .

  6. SCminutes2015b.html
    • plenary speakers: Eva Bayer-Fluckiger, Lausanne; Isabelle Gallagher, Paris; George Lusztig, MIT; and Jacob Lurie, Harvard.

  7. BMC 1995
    • Paris, J B Non-monotone reasoning .

  8. Minutes for 1995
    • J B Paris for the 50th BMC in 1998 to be held at Manchester University .

  9. Report2015.html
    • Sylvia Serfaty (Courant & Paris 6, Crystallization questions for systems ( with Coulomb and Riesz interactions) .

  10. Minutes for 2012
    • A public lecture will be given by John Baez and plenary speakers will include Guy Henniart (Paris), Mikhail Kapranov (Yale) and Laurent Saloffe-Coste (Cornell).

  11. Minutes for 2011
    • Invitations have been sent to Michele Vergne, Maxim Kontsevich (both Paris) and Andrew Wiles (Subsequent to the meeting, Wiles emailed to decline.).

  12. Gminutes2017.html
    • It was announced that plenary speakers confirmed so far are Michel Broue (Universit Paris Diderot, France; Representation theory), Nicolas Monod (EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ergodic theory and geometric group theory) and Yuval Peres (Microsoft Research, Redmond, USA; Probability) and that there will be Workshops on Algebra, Geometry, Analysis, Probability, Combinatorics and Mathematics Education.

  13. Minutes for 1982
    • Executive Committee was currently meeting in Paris to consider the matter.

  14. BMC Morning speakers
    • Paris, J B : 1995, 1977 .

  15. Report2013.html
    • Plenary lectures were given by Ragni Piene (Oslo, Polytopes, discriminants and toric geometry, Mikhail Kapranov (Yale, Higher Segal spaces ), Guy Henniart (Paris 11, From modular forms to automorphic representations: a tale of Hecke operators, continued ), Laurent Saloff-Coste (Cornell, Random walks and the geometry of groups ) and Thomas Schick (Gottingen, Coarse geometry and index theory ).

  16. BMC speakers
    • Paris, J B : 1995, 1977 .

  17. SCminutes2016a.html
    • Andrew Lobb reported that plenary lectures will be given by Eva Bayer-Fluckiger (Lausanne), Kenji Fukaya (Stonybrook), Isabelle Gallagher (Paris 7), Laurent Lafforgue (IHES), George Lusztig (MIT) and Jacob Lurie (Harvard).

  18. Minutes for 1996
    • Others names proposed: I Daubechies (Princeton), A Shalev (Hebrew Univ, Jerusalem), Friedmann(?), A Connes (IHES Paris), Haager-up (Odense, Denmark).

  19. BMC 1977
    • Paris, J BAn application of logic to number theory .

  20. Scientific Committee 2002
    • State); John Conway (Princeton); Tim Gowers (Cambridge); Michael Harris (Paris VII).

  21. SCminutes2017a.html
    • Jan Grabowski reported that Michel Broue (Universit Paris Diderot, France; Representation theory), Nicolas Monod (EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ergodic theory and geometric group theory), Yuval Peres ( Microsoft Research, Redmond, USA; Probability) and Gil Kalai (Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Combinatorics) had been confirmed as plenary speakers.


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. References
    • The Companion Guide to Paris.
    • An Illustrated Guide to the Cemeteries of Paris.
    • Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et de sites / Editions du patrimonie / Musee du Conservatoire national des arts et metiers, Paris, (1995), 2nd ptg, 1997.
    • Musee National des Techniques, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Paris, 1990.
    • Paris.
    • Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1895; reprinted by Blanchard, Paris, 1974.
    • The Story of Paris.
    • Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1897 (and reprinted several times).
    • Two mathematical shrines of Paris.

  2. London individuals N-R
    • Sir William Petty (1623-1687), born in Romsey (see Section 6-A), variously studied medicine and chemistry at Caen, Paris and Oxford.
    • In the same year, Cassini de Thury, then Director of the Paris Observatory, suggested to George III the triangulation of southeast England which could be connected to the completed triangulation of northeast France to determine the disputed relative positions of the Paris and Greenwich Observatories.
    • Roy's work should have led to finding the displacement between Greenwich and Paris, but I don't find his value given.

  3. Teddington, Middlesex
    • When it became apparent that William might succeed to the kingdom, he dumped Mrs Jordan in c1812, who had supported him for twenty years - she had to flee her creditors and died in poverty near Paris in 1816.
    • Essen's booklet, see below, describes how observations of time signals over three years (1955-1958 ?) determined atomic time in terms of Universal Time at the US Naval Observatory in Washington which was then related to Ephemeris Time, leading to the definition of the second by the 1967 General Conference of Weights and Measures in Paris as "9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom." By 1973, time standards accurate to about 1 part in 1012 were readily available.
    • As of early 1998, 240 atomic clocks were involved in UTC, in 35 laboratories in 24 countries, coordinated by the International Earth Rotation Service at the Observatory in Paris.

  4. Oxford individuals
    • After some time at Paris, he returned to Oxford in 1250-c1267, but retired from an active part in university life in 1257.
    • After a period in Paris, apparently including 14 years in confinement, he returned to Oxford in 1292 and died there.
    • In 1661-1673, he was Savilian Professor of Astronomy, but he spent most of a year in Paris during 1665-1666 and I suspect he didn't reside much in Oxford after the Great Fire of London in 1666 and even less after being appointed Surveyor of the King's Works in 1669.

  5. Glasgow
    • After a period at Cambridge and Paris, he was elected Professor of Natural Philosophy on 11 Sep 1846, holding this chair for 53 years and creating the first British (or world?) laboratory for physical science and it evolved into a research laboratory with strong industrial applications.

  6. London Scientific Institutions
    • However, the idea was first used in 1463 on the Pont Notre-Dame in Paris.

  7. London individuals H-M
    • After returning from America, he settled in Paris.

  8. Other London Institutions outside the centre
    • (The first speaking clock was started in Paris on 14 Feb 1933.) .

  9. Oxford
    • The University existed in some form from 1096, with a major growth in 1167 when English students were expelled from the University of Paris.

  10. Cambridge Individuals
    • In 1845, just after his degree and on his way to Paris, his tutor gave him three copies of Green's 1828 Essay, which Thomson had been unable to find.


Astronomy section

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