References for Inca mathematics


  1. M Ascher, Ethnomathematics : A multicultural view of mathematical ideas (Pacific Grove, CA, 1991).
  2. M Ascher and R Ascher, Code of the quipu : A study in media, mathematics, and culture (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1981).
  3. M Ascher and R Ascher, Mathematics of the Incas: code of the Quipu (Mineola, NY, 1997).
  4. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  5. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  6. G Urton, The social life of numbers : A Quechua ontology of numbers and philosophy of arithmetic (Austin, TX, 1997).


  7. M Ascher, Mathematical ideas of the Incas, in Native American mathematics (Austin, TX, 1986), 261-289.
  8. M Ascher, The logical-numerical system of Inca quipus, Ann. Hist. Comput. 5 (3) (1983), 268-278.
  9. W Burns Glynn, Calculation table of the Incas (Spanish), Bol. Lima No. 11 (1981), 1-15.
  10. A Christensen, The Peruvian quipu, in History and science of knots (River Edge, NJ, 1996), 71-88.
  11. D Pareja, Pre-Hispanic tools of computation : the quipu and the yupana (Spanish), Rev. Integr. Temas Mat. 4 (1) (1986), 37-56.
  12. W S Sizer, Mathematical notions in preliterate societies, Math. Intelligencer 13 (4) (1991), 53-60.