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Ξ = A supposed manuscript, the progenitor of manuscript X, the only surviving manuscript to be completely free of influence from Ω.
U = Urbinas gr. 82 (Vatican), a large parchment codex, c. A.D. 1300. The world map (employing Ptolemy's first projection in 1.24) follows the end of Book 7, while the twenty-six regional maps alternate with their respective captions in Book 8. A facsimile of this manuscript has been published. (Quoted directly from .)
K = Seragliensis gr. 57 (Istanbul), a large parchment codex in the same format as U, c. A.D. 1300. (Quoted directly from .)
F = Fabricianus gr. 23 (Copenhagen), a single parchment sheet containing maps and text from Book 8, c. A.D. 1300. The manuscript to which this originally belonged was very like K. (Quoted directly from .)
N = Bodl. 3376, formerly Selden. 41 (Oxford), a paper manuscript containing the text of the Geography without maps, c. A.D. 1300. (Quoted directly from .)
R = Marc. gr. 516 (Venice), V = Vat. gr. 177 (Vatican), W = Vat. gr. 178, C = Par. suppl. gr. 119 (Paris). These fourteenth-century paper manuscripts are copies of a lost sister manuscript to UKFN. R contains a somewhat defective set of regional maps; VWC have none. (Quoted directly from .)
X = Vat. gr. 191 (Vatican), a paper codex containing a large corpus of mathematical and scientific writings, copied by numerous hands and assembled about 1296. The text of the Geography was originally copied by three hands, and some missing pages in the beginning have been replace by a fourth; there are no maps. For some unknown reason the second and third scribes omitted all the numerical coordinates in the geographical catalogue from Book 5.13 on. In spite of this serious defect, X is a manuscript of the greatest importance for the text of the Geography, because it is the only copy that is uninfluenced by the Byzantine revision. (Quoted directly from .)
Z = Pal. gr. 314 (Vatican), a paper manuscript copied in about 1470. The text of this manuscript appears to derive from a text originally like that of X but extensively corrected against a manuscript related to RVWC. (Quoted directly from .)
2. Ptolemy, Ptolemy's geography : an annotated translation of the theoretical chapters, ed. J.L. Berggren and A. Jones. 2000, Princeton, NJ ; Oxford :: Princeton University Press. xii, 192 p.,  p. of col. plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.).
Article by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
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