References for John Arbuthnot

  1. H Freudenthal, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    See THIS LINK.
  2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.


  3. G A Aitken, The life and works of John Arbuthnot M.D., fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (Oxford, 1892).
  4. L M Beattie, John Arbuthnot : mathematician and satirist (Cambridge, Mass., 1935).
  5. A W Bower and R A Erickson (eds.), John Arbuthnot : the history of John Bull (1976).
  6. H A David and A W F Edwards, Annotated readings in the history of statistics (New York, 2001).


  7. John Arbuthnot, Dictionary of National Biography II (London, 1887), 62-65.
    See THIS LINK.
  8. H Breny, Les origines de la théorie des probabilités, Rev. Questions Sci. 159 (1988), 453-477.
  9. R Ineichen, Aus der Vorgeschichte der mathematischen Statistik, Elem. Math. 47 (3) (1992), 93-107.
  10. M T Peres Larin'o, On the history of the notion of geometric probability (Russian), Voprosy Istor. Estestvoznan. i Tekhn. (1985), 100-103.
  11. E Shoesmith, The continental controversy over Arbuthnot's argument for divine providence, Historia Math. 14 (2) (1987), 133-146.
  12. D E Shuttleton, A modest examination : John Arbuthnot and the Scottish Newtonians, British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 18 (1995), 47-62.