Search Results for Astronomy


Biographies

  1. Agnes Mary Clerke (1842-1907)
    • John William Clerke (born 1814) was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, where he had studied classics but had also taken courses in mathematics and astronomy.
    • Even at an early stage she showed great interest in the history of astronomy and mathematics and by the age of eleven she had read Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy.
    • When she was fifteen years old she began to write her own history of astronomy.
    • At this time Agnes made university level studies of advanced mathematics, physics and astronomy being tutored by her brother Aubrey who was studying mathematics and physics at Dublin University.
    • Clerke wrote articles for other encyclopaedias such as the article Astronomy for the Catholic Encyclopaedia.
    • However she is perhaps best known for A Popular History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century (1885).
    • In the Preface she explains that since the publication of a history of astronomy in 1852 by Robert Grant:- .
    • a so-called "new astronomy" has grown up by the side of the old.
    • Weitzenhoffer writes [',' B Lightman, Constructing Victorian heavens: Agnes Clerke and the ’new astronomy’, in Natural eloquence: women reinscribe science (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997), 61-75.','13] :- .
    • Her 'Astronomy' was fluently written, had biographies and lively anecdotes, and was as valuable to professional astronomers as to the public.
    • The authoress (for this learned volume is indeed the product of a lady's pen) has modestly described her 'History of Astronomy' as a 'popular' work.
    • It might be more correctly described as a masterly exposition of the results of modern astronomy in those departments now usually characterised as physical.
    • However, some research scientists criticised her work believing that only someone who was actively engaged in observational astronomy was entitled to explain the topic to others.
    • A Popular History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century was only one of many books that Clerke wrote.
    • She was still tempted to accept but realised that there would be (see [',' M T Bruck, Agnes Mary Clerke, chronicler of astronomy, Quart.
    • Just after this, without her knowledge, she was put forward for the position of professor of astronomy at Vassar College in the United States.
    • Further books followed such as The Herschels and Modern Astronomy (1895), The Concise Knowledge Astronomy (written jointly with J E Gore and A Fowler) (1898), Problems in Astrophysics (1903), and Modern Cosmogonies (1906).
    • The famous eleventh edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica was published in 1910 and Clerke had been asked to contribute articles on both astronomy and its history.
    • She wrote the main article on the history of astronomy and many biographies of astronomers which appeared in the eleventh edition.
    • Astronomy to the last was her chief intellectual interest.

  2. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
    • There he studied Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
    • He learnt his astronomy from Tractatus de Sphaera by Johannes de Sacrobosco written in 1220.
    • One should not think, however, that the astronomy courses which Copernicus studied were scientific courses in the modern sense.
    • Also taught as a major part of astronomy was what today we would call astrology, teaching students to calculate horoscopes of people from the exact time of their birth.
    • While a student in Krakow, Copernicus purchased a copy of the Latin translation of Euclid's Elements published in Venice in 1482, a copy of the second edition of the Alfonsine Tables (which gives planetary theory and eclipses) printed in Venice in 1492, and Regiomontanus's Tables of Directions (a work on spherical astronomy) published in Augsburg in 1490.
    • At Bologna University Copernicus studied Greek, mathematics and astronomy in addition to his official course of canon law.
    • He rented rooms at the house of the astronomy professor Domenico Maria de Novara and began to undertake research with him, assisting him in making observations.
    • In 1500 Copernicus visited Rome, as all Christians were strongly encouraged to do to celebrate the great jubilee, and he stayed there for a year lecturing to scholars on mathematics and astronomy.
    • Copernicus had another reason to return to Italy, which he almost certainly did not disclose, and that was to continue his studies of astronomy.
    • Padua was famous for its medical school and while he was there Copernicus studied both medicine and astronomy.
    • At that time astronomy was essentially astrology and, as such, considered relevant to medicine since physicians made use of astrology.
    • He now had more time than before to devote to his study of astronomy, having an observatory in the rooms in which he lived in one of the towers in the town's fortifications.
    • In fact had it not been for Georg Joachim Rheticus, a young professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus's masterpiece might never have been published.
    • Copernicus could not have asked for a more erudite, elegant, and enthusiastic introduction of his new astronomy to the world of good letters; indeed to this day the "Narratio Prima" remains the best introduction to Copernicus's work.
    • my teacher always had before his eyes the observations of all ages together with his own, assembled in order as in catalogues; then when some conclusion must be drawn or contribution made to the science and its principles, he proceeds from the earliest observations to his own, seeking the mutual relationship which harmonizes them all; the results thus obtained by correct inference under the guidance of Urania he then compares with the hypothesis of Ptolemy and the ancients; and having made a most careful examination of these hypotheses, he finds that astronomical proof requires their rejection; he assumes new hypotheses, not indeed without divine inspiration and the favour of the gods; by applying mathematics, he geometrically establishes the conclusions which can be drawn from them by correct inference; he then harmonizes the ancient observations and his own with the hypotheses which he has adopted; and after performing all these operations he finally writes down the laws of astronomy ..
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  3. Hermann Brück (1905-2000)
    • He was taught astronomy by Alexander Wilkens who used as texts Felix Tisserand's Mechanique Celeste and Henri Poincare's Methodes Nouvelles.
    • My attitude to astronomy changed dramatically, however, in my second semester (summer 1926) when I experienced the lectures of Professor Arnold Sommerfeld.
    • Sommerfeld himself - and the subject matter of his lectures - aroused my immense enthusiasm and the wish to make theoretical physics rather than astronomy my main field of study.
    • Mathematics and astronomy would then be my secondary subjects.
    • After his thesis was published and accepted, he was examined orally in theoretical physics, experimental physics, mathematics and astronomy.
    • Sommerfeld was fascinated by Arthur Eddington's book The Internal Constitution of Stars (1926) and, knowing that Bruck loved astronomy, suggested that he should work on astrophysics.
    • In the following year Eamon de Valera invited him to become director of the Dunsink Observatory and Professor of Astronomy at the new Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies [',' Astronomer who united the study of astronomy in a divided Ireland, The Irish Times (18 March 2000).','1]:- .
    • Professor Bruck had a major impact on astronomy [in Ireland], as indicated by Sir Francis Graham-Smith, Astronomer Royal in Britain from 1982-1990, who recounts: "The unification of astronomy in Ireland which has survived the Troubles was a triumph for Bruck.
    • After ten years in Dublin, Bruck was offered the position of Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Director of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, and Regius Professor of Astronomy at Edinburgh University [',' C Davenhall, Dr Mary Bruck, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12 (1) (2009), 81-83.','7]:- .
    • He thereby prepared the way for instruments which greatly boosted the UK's international standing in astronomy - especially the 40-inch UK Schmidt telescope in Australia, which produced a photographic survey of the southern sky, and the pioneering Cosmos machine which could automatically scan the resulting photographic plates at high speed.
    • As a mathematics student at the University of Edinburgh from 1960-64 I took an Astronomy course in 1961 with Professor Bruck being one of the two lecturers.
    • Such was his enthusiasm for astronomy that I was pleased to be a member of Astrosoc, the student astronomical society, throughout my time at Edinburgh.
    • After retiring, Bruck's interests turned to the history of astronomy and he wrote two important books, The Story of Astronomy in Edinburgh (1983), and, jointly with his wife Mary Bruck, The Peripatetic Astronomer: a biography of Charles Piazzi Smyth (1988).

  4. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1979)
    • She loved the physics taught by Ivy Pendlebury which included mechanics, dynamics, electricity and magnetism, light, thermodynamics and a little astronomy.
    • The event which turned Payne-Gaposchkin to astronomy was a lecture by Arthur Eddington.
    • She was allowed to attend all the astronomy lectures although she could not transfer to that subject since it was part of the Mathematical Tripos and she was on the Natural Sciences Tripos.
    • However, she made physics her main subject and took all the astronomy courses she could.
    • degree in 1923 performing well despite spending most of her time on astronomy, a subject on which she was not examined.
    • Eddington wrote a reference in which he said (see for example [',' P A Wayman, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: astronomer extraordinaire, Astronomy & Geophysics 43 (1) (2002), 1.27-1.29.','43]):- .
    • She has attained a wide knowledge of physical science including astronomy, and possesses the valuable qualities of energy and enthusiasm in her work ..
    • I believe that she is the type of person who, given the opportunity, would devote her whole life to astronomy and she would not want to run away after a few years' training to get married.
    • after the award of her doctorate, she lectured in the astronomy department, but her lectures were not listed in the course catalogue.
    • We became close friends, sharing our common interests in astronomy and music (including composition), and many evenings were spent together, either in concert halls or at her home which she shared with Miss Frances Wright and where I played the piano - Beethoven, Musorgsky, and also my own creations.
    • In 1943 she published The Scholar and the World which gives a fascinating account of the way that Payne-Gaposchkin saw the world and how astronomy fitted into it.
    • One of the more important textbooks was Introduction to astronomy (1954).
    • She held this position until 1956 when she was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Harvard University, the first woman to become a professor at Harvard.
    • She served as Chair of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard University from 1956 to 1960 becoming the first woman to serve as a department chair.
    • Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Introduction to Astronomy .

  5. Simon Newcomb (1835-1909)
    • In his spare time he studied a variety of subjects such as political economy and religion, but his deepest studies were made in mathematics and astronomy.
    • He declined, however, since despite his achievements in observational astronomy his real love was in computation and developing mathematical theories to explain the observational data.
    • a systematic determination of the constants of astronomy from the best existing data, a reinvestigation of the theories of the celestial motions, and the preparation of tables, formulae, and precepts for the construction of ephemerides, and for other applications of the same results.
    • confusion which pervaded the whole system of exact astronomy, arising from the diversity of the fundamental data made use of by the astronomers of foreign countries and various institutions in their work.
    • One might almost say it involved repeating, in a space of ten or fifteen years, an important part of the world's work in astronomy for more than a century past.
    • Newcomb was appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University in 1884, holding this position until 1893.
    • Although most of Newcomb's work was in mathematical astronomy, some of his papers were purely theoretical.
    • It was not only in mathematics and astronomy, however, that Newcomb made major contributions.
    • We should add to this that he was a writer of popular astronomy books such as Popular astronomy (1878), Astronomy for schools and colleges (1880), Elements of astronomy (1890), The stars (1901), Astronomy for everyone (1903), and Spherical astronomy (1906).
    • The Astronomy Society of the Pacific awarded him the Bruce Medal in 1898 (the first time the Medal was awarded).

  6. Anders Celsius (1701-1744)
    • In his youth, Spole travelled through Europe, meeting many important astronomers, and later became Professor of Astronomy at the University of Lund.
    • He chose to participate in the war and, possibly as a reward, in 1679 he was offered the position of professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala.
    • Under Spole, Nils wrote the dissertation De Principiis Astronomicis Propiis Ⓣ (1679), in which he stated that only empirical observations, and not theological doctrine, were the pillars of astronomy.
    • After Spole's death in 1699, the university disregarded his suggestion of having Nils Celsius succeed him and, instead, they appointed Per Elvius (1660-1718) (who was married to another of Spole's daughters) as professor of astronomy.
    • Only when Elvius died in 1718 did Nils Celsius become professor of astronomy.
    • His academic teaching in mathematics and astronomy was poor in the beginning, but by the age of twelve he managed to solve all of the mathematical problems in a university textbook.
    • After graduating from secondary school, Celsius studied astronomy, mathematics, and experimental physics at the University of Uppsala and gained a deep appreciation for mathematics mainly thanks to Anders Gabriel Duhre (about 1680-1739), who visited Uppsala in 1724-25 and gave a lecture course.
    • Celsius had, from the early 1720s, carried out observations for Erik Burman (1692-1729), Nils Celsius's successor as professor of astronomy in Uppsala, and, having been taught about meteorology and experimental physics by Burman, Celsius published his first two papers in 1724 both relating to barometers.
    • On 12 December 1727 he was examined on his astronomy thesis Disputatio astronomy ca de motu vertiginis lunae Ⓣ by Burman.
    • When Erik Burman died in 1729, Celsius took over his lectures in astronomy in addition to substituting for the professor of mathematics.
    • This experience allowed him to be appointed Professor of Astronomy in Uppsala in 1730.
    • The University of Uppsala was now a very strong centre for mathematics and astronomy with Klingenstierna and Celsius both world-class scholars.
    • When he returned to Uppsala, Celsius worked to improve the standing of astronomy in Uppsala and Sweden, which had been in decline.

  7. Tadeusz Banachiewicz (1882-1954)
    • In the same year he entered the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Warsaw where his major subject was astronomy.
    • While he was still an undergraduate, studying astronomy, Banachiewicz published his first paper in Astronomische Nachrichten in 1903.
    • In July Banachiewicz was invited to become the Professor of Astronomy at Voronezh, but a few months earlier, in May, he had been invited to take the chair of astronomy at Krakow University.
    • In March 1919 he went to Krakow to take up the position of Professor of Astronomy at the Jagiellonian University.
    • As well as his position at the Jagiellonian University, Banachiewicz also accepted the position of professor of higher geodesy and astronomy at the Krakow University of Mining and Metallurgy.
    • The areas of Banachiewicz's scientific interest were wide, so one finds his contributions in astronomy, geodesy, geophysics, mathematics, and mechanics.
    • One of Banachiewicz's great achievements in theoretical astronomy was the simplification [using the Krakowian calculus] of Olbers' method of determining parabolic orbits.
    • Banachiewicz made so many contributions to both theoretical and observational astronomy that one cannot give here more than a quick overview.
    • As the professor lectured only twice a week, it was not possible for him to cover all the necessary examinations material on astronomy in lectures.
    • In the first years after the war the subject of Banachiewicz's lectures were: geodesy, practical and spherical astronomy, determination of orbits and celestial mechanics.
    • Banachiewicz received many honours for his contributions to astronomy and to Polish science.
    • In the years immediately preceding World War II a student Tadeusz Boleslaw Slebarski studied mathematics and astronomy at Krakow under Banachiewicz.
    • from the University of St Andrews with honours in mathematics and astronomy (1947), Banachiewicz tried to persuade him to return to Krakow, offering him a position there.

  8. Tadeusz Boleslaw lebarski (1914-2003)
    • Tadeusz then entered the Jagiellonian University in Krakow where he began his studies in mathematics and astronomy.
    • The professor of astronomy at the Jagiellonian University was Tadeusz Banachiewicz (1882-1954) who had been appointed to the chair in 1919.
    • He continued to take honours courses in mathematics (namely Geometry, Algebra, Analysis and Special Functions) and astronomy.
    • Tadeusz was taught astronomy by Finlay Freundlich, a German with a Jewish wife who had also fled from the Nazis.
    • Tadeusz graduated with an honours degree in 1947 after an outstanding performance in astronomy.
    • At the beginning of the academic year 1947-48 Tadeusz began his studies as a research student in astronomy but six months later, in April 1948, he was appointed as an Assistant in Astronomy after the first assistant, Ian Campbell, resigned to take a position with the Admiralty.
    • In October 1950 he was promoted to Lecturer in Astronomy and in 1951 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Finlay Freundlich, by now Napier Professor of Astronomy, was forced to retire due to his age in 1955 but continued as Directory of the Observatory and an assistant lecturer for two further years.
    • Walter Stibbs (1919-2010) was appointed as the next Napier Professor of Astronomy.
    • Stibbs, worrying that Freundlich was still exerting an influence on the Department of Astronomy, insisted that Tadeusz had no further contact with Freundlich.
    • This was a course on mathematical astronomy where I learnt spherical trigonometry for the first time.
    • Tadeusz was an extremely clear lecturer with an obvious love for mathematics and its applications to astronomy.
    • In the same class with me was Fred Watson who became a well-known astronomer and the author of a number of popular astronomy books.

  9. Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941)
    • Mary Jump had a childhood interest in star-gazing and is credited with having initially inspired daughter Annie to pursue an interest in astronomy.
    • Mary had also studied astronomy in a Quaker finishing school near Philadelphia.
    • It was with Mary's encouragement of the subject that Annie would, in the attic of their house using an old astronomy textbook, learn the constellations and identify stars.
    • Annie returned to Wellesley for graduate study in mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • She became the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate from a European university: in 1922, Groningen University in the Netherlands awarded her a doctor's degree in mathematics and astronomy.
    • For hundreds of years, Oxford University has been giving honorary degrees to leading men in the fields of science and art, but for the first time, a woman was so honoured when the degree of Doctor of Science was conferred on Miss Annie Jump Cannon, of Harvard College Observatory, in recognition of a long series of valuable contributions to astronomy, chief of which is the completion of a catalogue of 225,300 stars - "The Henry Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra." ..
    • She turned over this money to the American Astronomical Society allowing the establishment of the Annie Jump Cannon Award, a prize given to a female astronomer, within five years of her receiving her doctorate, for her distinguished contribution to astronomy.
    • She became a member of the faculty at Harvard in 1938, appointed as William Cranch Bond, Professor of Astronomy.
    • Other than her work in the observatory, Cannon played a major role in the development, and the gain in popularity, of astronomy.
    • She helped broker partnerships and exchanges of equipment between men in the international community, assuming an ambassador-like role for astronomy.
    • Her contribution to astronomy is seen as invaluable, impacting on many other problems and areas of research.
    • It helped progress the science of astronomy from one of simply observation to one of great theoretical and philosophical content.
    • Over a career of more than 40 years, Annie not only boosted the reputation of astronomy, but also helped women gain acceptance and respect within the scientific community.
    • She died of heart failure following a month-long illness on 13 April 1941 in Cambridge, Massachusetts aged 77, having continued to work on astronomy until only a few weeks prior.

  10. Jérôme Lalande (1732-1807)
    • Lalande was fascinated by astronomy and, although he continued to study law, he also attended Delisle's astronomy lectures at the College Royale as well as Pierre Lemonnier's lectures on mathematical physics.
    • Despite his interest in astronomy, Lalande completed his law studies and in 1751, still only aged nineteen, he qualified and prepared to return to his home town of Bourg-en-Bresse to practise law.
    • In the year he took over as editor, Lalande was offered another prestigious position namely to follow his teacher Delisle as professor of astronomy at the College Royale.
    • He wrote on many topics, not just astronomy, but his most famous text was an astronomy one, Traite d'astronomie Ⓣ.
    • As well as being an excellent astronomy text, Traite d'astronomie Ⓣ was a practical manual for anyone wishing to observe and reduce their own calculations since it contained much information on instruments, their use, and how to compute.
    • She was the chief investigator on Lalande's large-scale study of lunar astronomy, which was undertaken at the Paris Observatory, and she became the first woman in Paris to teach astronomy.
    • The importance in which Lalande held women's contributions to astronomy, particularly as mathematicians and calculators, is seen in his Astronomie des dames first published in 1785, with new editions in 1795 and 1806.
    • Volume three covered 18th century pure mathematics, optics and mechanics in 832 pages, while the fourth volume covered 18th century astronomy, mathematical geography and navigation in 688 pages.
    • It was to be awarded annually for the most important contribution to astronomy made in that year.
    • Rather his importance lies as a teacher, particularly in supporting his students like Delambre and Mechain, through his organisation of science, by his superbly accurate observations which helped to provide evidence to support Newton's theory of gravitation and later results on the 3-body problem, and his successful popularising astronomy.

  11. James Bradley (1693-1762)
    • He resigned as a clergyman on 31 October 1721 when he was appointed Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford.
    • He was later offered the chance to return to the church and take over at the parish of Greenwich, but he rejected the offer, opting instead to devote himself to astronomy and continue at the Greenwich observatory, where he was located at the time.
    • The most significant of Bradley's early years, when considering his later career in astronomy, were those spent in contact with his maternal uncle, the Reverend James Pound, a leading astronomical observer in England, who had worked with Edmond Halley and Sir Isaac Newton.
    • Pound provided Bradley with occasional financial assistance, and is credited with influencing Bradley's interests towards astronomy.
    • Appointed Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford in 1721, giving his inaugural lecture on 26 April 1722, he showed a great interest in the motions of Jupiter's satellites.
    • Bradley was best known for two important discoveries in astronomy: the aberration of light and the nutation of the Earth's axis.
    • It took 10 years of Bessel's work, which began with Bradley's observations, resulting in his Fundamenta astronomia Ⓣ (1818), lauded as one of the most significant works on positional astronomy.
    • Though not alone in taking positional astronomy so seriously, he was certainly a leading authority as Astronomer Royal.
    • Though he published relatively little during his lifetime, his papers on aberration and nutation were key for their discoveries and also for the development of the notion of precision in astronomy.
    • According to the historian of astronomy, mathematical astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory Jean Baptist Joseph Delambre, in his 1821 history of astronomy in the 18th century:- .
    • that we owe the exactness of modern astronomy.

  12. Henri Andoyer (1862-1929)
    • Ten years later, in 1902, he was appointed assistant professor on 25 January and as Professor of Astronomy on 28 July.
    • In 1912 he succeeded Henri Poincare as Professor of General Astronomy and Celestial Mechanics following Poincare's death.
    • This first part on theoretical astronomy is reviewed in [',' K Laves, Review: Cours d’Astronomie.
    • needs of a mathematician who tries to inform himself about the application made in astronomy of a certain mathematical theorem he is interested in.
    • In the ninth chapter a short discussion is found concerning the convergence of series used in astronomy.
    • The second part, on practical astronomy, was published in 1909.W R Longley writes [',' W R Longley, Review: Cours d’Astronomie.
    • This volume completes the course, of which the first part deals with theoretical astronomy.
    • As a text-book for a first course in practical astronomy, the subject matter of the second part is well chosen.
    • In addition to the subject matter of observational astronomy the book contains an introductory chapter on numerical calculation, including the theory of interpolation and the method of least squares.
    • Several of his important works on the history of mathematical astronomy should be mentioned.
    • His aim is to give as simply and fully as possible to computers and practical astronomers the practical solutions afforded by Astronomy to the real problems of Celestial Mechanics.
    • This connection to Andoyer supposedly increased Humbert's interest in the history of astronomy.
    • To his knowledge and ability as a mathematician and his acquaintance with the technical side of practical astronomy he joined a skill and a passion for numerical calculation which recalls the kindred taste of J C Adams in England.

  13. Willem de Sitter (1872-1934)
    • In the Laboratory Jacobus Kapteyn, the Professor of Astronomy and Theoretical Mechanics, was measuring photographic plates which had been taken by the astronomer David Gill as part of a photographic survey of the southern sky taken at the Cape Town Observatory.
    • Although Kapteyn was the Groningen Professor of Astronomy, he had volunteered to assist in the Astronomical Laboratory since he had no observatory in which to conduct his own observations.
    • Gill invited de Sitter to come to the Cape as a computer and, as de Sitter afterwards stated in a letter to Gill, "thereby complete my astronomical education - or rather begin it, for up to that time I had never made a speciality of astronomy and intended to become a mathematician." .
    • Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen had been Professor of Astronomy and Director of the University Observatory at the University of Leiden from his appointment in 1872.
    • He retired in 1908 and his duties were split into two, with the chair of astronomy being separated from the directorship of the Observatory.
    • De Sitter was appointed to the chair of astronomy while Ernest-Frederich van de Sande Bakhuyzen, H G van de Sande Bakhuyzen's brother, was appointed as Director of the Observatory.
    • He undertook a complete reorganisation of astronomy at Leiden dividing it into three divisions: Fundamental Astronomy of position or astrometry; Astrophysics; and Celestial Mechanics or theoretical astronomy.
    • Another study which de Sitter undertook was to refine the data for the fundamental constants of astronomy.
    • The Medal was presented to him in Washington, USA, by Armin Otto Leuschner, Professor of Astronomy of the University of California and Chairman of the Trustees of the Watson Fund.
    • His intellectual abilities cover so wide a range and penetrate so deeply and so minutely into practical astronomy and the mathematical theories to explain what is observed, that only an intensive study of his brilliant work could do justice to the greatness of the man.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  14. John Brinkley (1766-1835)
    • Henry Ussher (1741-1790) was the first Andrews Professor of Astronomy at Trinity College, Dublin.
    • The reason that Hely Hutchinson was strongly opposed to Stack was that he had corresponded with Maskelyne who had replied that Stack's knowledge of astronomy was not (see for example [',' F E Dixon, Dunsink Observatory and Its Astronomers, Dublin Historical Record 11 (2) (1950), 33-50.','9]):- .
    • In 1791 Brinkley took up his appointment as the second Andrews Professor of Astronomy at Trinity College, Dublin.
    • As well as lecturing in astronomy he wrote a text book on the subject which went through at least six editions, with three more incorporating other authors' revisions, the most recent being as late as 1886.
    • At the time that Brinkley was appointed as Andrews professor of astronomy, Richard Murray was Professor of Mathematics, a post he held until 1795 when he became Provost.
    • In 1813 Brinkley published his textbook The Elements of Astronomy.
    • In 1871 John William Stubbs and Francis Brunnow published Brinkley's Astronomy which was a revised and partly rewritten version of Brinkley's original work.
    • In the Preface to the second edition to his book Elements of Astronomy (1819) Brinkley writes:- .
    • Throughout this period he continued to hold his Professorship of Astronomy at Trinity College and his position as Royal Astronomer for Ireland.
    • However, in 1826 he resigned his astronomy positions when he was appointed Bishop of Cloyne.
    • We see a little of this from a letter Brinkley sent to Stephen Peter Rigand (1774-1839), a mathematical historian and Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • Brinkley received many honours both for his mathematical work and for his contributions to astronomy.
    • John Brinkley's 'Elements of Astronomy' .

  15. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    • Moreover, he calculated the most exact astronomical tables hitherto known, whose continued accuracy did much to establish the truth of heliocentric astronomy (Rudolphine Tables, Ulm, 1627).
    • In principle this included the four mathematical sciences: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music.
    • At Tubingen Kepler was taught astronomy by one of the leading astronomers of the day, Michael Mastlin (1550 - 1631).
    • The astronomy of the curriculum was, of course, geocentric astronomy, that is the current version of the Ptolemaic system, in which all seven planets - Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - moved round the Earth, their positions against the fixed stars being calculated by combining circular motions.
    • Probably Mastlin was trying to tell him he could do better, because Kepler was in fact one of the select pupils to whom he chose to teach more advanced astronomy by introducing them to the new, heliocentric cosmological system of Copernicus.
    • This ties up with Kepler's astronomy to the extent that he apparently found somewhat similar intellectual difficulties in explaining how 'force' [See the History Topic on Kepler's planetary laws] from the Sun could affect the planets.
    • Instead of the seven planets in standard geocentric astronomy the Copernican system had only six, the Moon having become a body of kind previously unknown to astronomy, which Kepler was later to call a 'satellite' (a name he coined in 1610 to describe the moons that Galileo had discovered were orbiting Jupiter, literally meaning 'attendant').
    • Moreover, in geocentric astronomy there was no way of using observations to find the relative sizes of the planetary orbs; they were simply assumed to be in contact.
    • And as the years mounted up, the continued accuracy of the tables was, naturally, seen as an argument for the correctness of Kepler's laws, and thus for the correctness of the heliocentric astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  16. Geminus (about 10 BC-about 60)
    • Certainly his astronomy text uses mountains on Rhodes to make specific points but, as Dicks points out in [',' D R Dicks, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • Some favour dates of 130 BC - 60 BC which are based largely on a calendar which appears in his Introduction to Astronomy called the Isagoge Ⓣ and seems to suggest a date of around 70 BC for the date when the text was written.
    • Neugebauer in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','4] believes that the selection which give the date of 70 BC is incorrect and he favours a date for the Isis festival which leads to a date of 50 AD for Geminus's text:- .
    • Neugebauer comments in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','4]:- .
    • Geminus wrote a number of astronomy texts, including the elementary text Isagoge or Introduction to Astronomy based on the work of Hipparchus which we referred to above.
    • The main part of the work contains little mathematical astronomy.
    • The last chapter of Introduction to Astronomy (Chapter 18) seems rather different from the rest of the text being of a much more advanced nature.
    • The recent article [',' A C Bowen and B R Goldstein, Geminus and the concept of mean motion in Greco-Latin astronomy, Arch.
    • The authors claim this to be an important contribution to Greek astronomy introducing the use of mean motion.
    • astronomy and optics.
    • Simplicius on astronomy and physics .

  17. Ernst Öpik (1893-1985)
    • Ernst's interest in astronomy might well have begun when he was very young as his brother Oskar suggested [',' Ch Villmann, 350 years (amateur) astronomy in Estonia, Star Trek Calendar 67 (1990), 70-77.','16]:- .
    • Ernst's sister Anna was the one who opened his eyes to the beauty of heaven and stars in the courtyard of the port on one night - it was probably a small comet in Lyra that brother Ernst observed and he has since become a world-renowned astronomy scholar.
    • He wished to study astronomy at the University of Moscow but, as he explained some 25 years later, he could not begin immediately [',' Ernst Opik - the last major scientist, Mihkel Joeveer Academy 5 (1993), 2051-2061.','5]:- .
    • Although a student, he seems largely self-taught for he claimed he had nothing to learn from the astronomy professors at the University of Moscow, Vitold Czerask (1849-1925) and Pavel Sternberg (1865-1920).
    • He graduated with an astronomy degree in 1916 and continued to work to qualify as a university professor.
    • He must have been convincing for he was released and able to return to astronomy in Moscow.
    • We quote from Opik's own description of the events of 1919 [',' E J Opik, About dogma in science, and other recollections of a astronomer, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 15 (1977), 1-17.','13]:- .
    • As the only astronomer in the group, I was to be Chairman of Astronomy and put new life into Tashkent Observatory.
    • After this a Baltic University was set up in Hamburg in March 1946 to provide education for displaced students and Opik became Professor of Astronomy and the Rector for Estonian students.
    • Other than astronomy, the other passion in Opik's life was music.
    • Opik received many honours for his outstanding contributions to astronomy.

  18. Georg Sidler (1831-1907)
    • Sidler senior also had a great interest in astronomy and mathematics, having attended lectures in both subjects during his law studies.
    • Sidler senior did not publish any scientific papers, but it is likely that he helped spark his son's interest in mathematics and astronomy.
    • He attended lectures by J Bertrand (analysis), M Chasles (geometry), H Faye (astronomy), G Lame (mathematical physics), U J Le Verrier (popular astronomy), J Liouville (differential equations) and V Puiseux (celestial mechanics).
    • There he attended lectures on a range of mathematical topics by Dirichlet, on theoretical astronomy by Encke, on geodesy by Bremiker, on mathematical physics by Clausius and on geometry by Steiner.
    • Despite this, Sidler retained an interest in astronomy for the rest of his life.
    • He taught arithmetic, trigonometry and theoretical astronomy as a Privatdozent.
    • He started as a Privatdozent in 1857 and was promoted to Honorarprofessor for mathematics and astronomy in 1866.
    • The promotion was proposed by his colleagues, who recognised Sidler's contribution to mathematics and astronomy both at the university and in Switzerland; in particular they highlighted his commitment to the university's observatory.
    • Throughout the years he lectured on a wide variety of topics, including algebra, analysis, arithmetic, astronomy, various areas of geometry, and mathematical physics.
    • Whilst he mainly lectured on analytic geometry, infinitesimal calculus, theory of functions and number theory, Sidler primarily gave lectures on theoretical astronomy and synthetic geometry.
    • His main passions were mathematics and astronomy, but he also took great interest in botany, literature and arts.

  19. Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)
    • The mathematics teacher, Peter Kruger, was inspirational and, having an interest in astronomy, he soon transmitted this interest to the young Hevelius.
    • Not only did Kruger teach Hevelius theoretical astronomy, but he also taught him to construct astronomical instruments both from wood and from metal.
    • He was off to study law at the University of Leyden, but his fascination with astronomy was enhanced when an eclipse of the sun occurred while he was on board the ship.
    • Astronomy, which he had loved so much, was now a thing of the past and his life had fully moved into this new phase.
    • He encouraged the best pupil he had ever had not to give up astronomy but rather to get back his interests.
    • His interest had been awoken sufficiently by Kruger that Hevelius observed the eclipse and the old love of astronomy came flooding back.
    • He was again totally hooked and from that time on spent every bit of his leisure time working on astronomy.
    • In 1641 he was elected an alderman of Danzig, an event which meant that despite his wife's efforts running the brewery, Hevelius was again busy with duties which kept him away from astronomy.
    • He also became a magistrate but the added pressure on his time did nothing but make him more determined that his work on astronomy would not suffer.
    • His determination to devote himself to astronomy meant that, remarkably, he had by now the finest observatory in the world installed at his home in Danzig.
    • Unlike his first wife, Elisabetha was deeply interested in astronomy and details of her contributions are included in our biography of Elisabetha in this archive.
    • Of course Hooke was right, in that the future of astronomy was to use instruments with telescopic sights, which led to considerably more accurate coordinates.

  20. Arthur Eddington (1882-1944)
    • He began research in mathematics, also in 1905, but this was no more successful than his work in physics although he was to make use of the ideas many years later when he applied these early research ideas in mathematics to an astronomy problem.
    • Before the end of 1905 Eddington had made the move to astronomy with his appointment to a post at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich.
    • Astronomy had been a topic of interest to him from an early age and he had been given a loan of a 3 inch telescope when less than 10 years old which had heightened his interest.
    • He had introduced his method of analysis of two star-drifts, and his prevailing interest in statistical stellar astronomy was concentrated on the systematic motions and distribution of the stars throughout his Greenwich years.
    • George Darwin, a son of Charles Darwin and Plumian professor of astronomy at Cambridge, died in December 1912.
    • In 1913 Eddington was appointed to fill the vacant position of Plumian Professor of Astronomy.
    • There were in fact two chairs of astronomy at Cambridge, the other being the Lowndean chair.
    • Although this distinction had become somewhat blurred over the years the appointment of Eddington was certainly seen as an appointment in experimental astronomy.
    • In doing so he effectively took over responsibility for both theoretical and experimental astronomy at Cambridge.
    • Shortly after taking up his role of leading astronomy research at Cambridge, World War I broke out.
    • He was a gifted astronomer whose original theories and powers of mathematical analysis took his science a long way forward; he was a brilliant expositor of physics and astronomy, able to communicate the most difficult conceptions in the simplest and most fascinating language; and he was an able interpreter to philosophers of the significance of the latest scientific discoveries.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  21. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • There, following the wishes of his uncle, he studied law but also studied a variety of other subjects and became interested in astronomy.
    • It was, however, the eclipse which occurred on 21 August 1560, particularly the fact that it had been predicted, that so impressed him that he began to make his own studies of astronomy helped by some of the professors.
    • Astronomy was not officially part of his studies, these were classical languages and culture, but he had bought his astronomy books with him together with Durer's constellation maps.
    • Tycho now studied astronomy with Bartholomew Schultz at Leipzig who taught him some tricks to obtain more accurate observations.
    • It turned Tycho's interest back to astronomy.
    • Beginning in September 1574 Tycho lectured on astronomy at the University of Copenhagen but gave up in the following spring when he received an annual income from his father's estate.
    • Wesley, in [',' W G Wesley, Tycho Brache’s solar observations, Journal for the history of astronomy 10 (1979), 96-101.','38] and [',' W G Wesley, The accuracy of Tycho Brahe’s instruments, J.
    • Tycho's observations of planetary positions, which were made using instruments with open sights (a telescope was not used for astronomy until about 1609), were much more accurate than any made by his predecessors.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  22. George Airy (1801-1892)
    • He wrote in his autobiography that (see [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]):- .
    • Woodhouse, who had left the Lucasian chair in 1822 to become Plumian Professor of Astronomy, was one of Airy's examiners for the Smith's prize, the other being Thomas Turton who had succeeded Woodhouse to the Lucasian chair.
    • He maintained this routine throughout his life and this record, almost of his every thought, still exists to provide remarkable evidence of the period [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]:- .
    • He explained his actions (see [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]):- .
    • In 1828 Peacock informed Airy that Woodhouse, the Plumian Professor of Astronomy, had not long to live and advised him to seek this chair.
    • He wrote [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]:- .
    • Airy was appointed Plumian Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge and Director of the Cambridge Observatory.
    • His son writes in [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]:- .
    • Airy did, however, make many major contributions to mathematics and astronomy.
    • in those parts of astronomy which ..
    • our principal progress has been made in the lower branches of astronomy while to the higher branches of science we have not added anything.
    • His son summed up Airy's life as follows [',' A Chapman, Britain’s first professional astronomer : George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Yearbook of astronomy (1991), 185-205.','4]:- .

  23. Thabit (836-901)
    • Of course being worshipers of the stars meant that there was strong motivation for the study of astronomy and the sect produced many quality astronomers and mathematicians.
    • In astronomy Thabit was one of the first reformers of the Ptolemaic system, and in mechanics he was a founder of statics.
    • Thabit also wrote on astronomy, writing Concerning the Motion of the Eighth Sphere.
    • In fact eight complete treatises by Thabit on astronomy have survived and the article [',' R Morelon, Tabit b.
    • Qurra and Arab astronomy in the 9th century, Arabic Sci.
    • Qurra and Arab astronomy in the 9th century, Arabic Sci.
    • When we consider this body of work in the context of the beginnings of the scientific movement in ninth-century Baghdad, we see that Thabit played a very important role in the establishment of astronomy as an exact science (method, topics and program), which developed along three lines: the theorisation of the relation between observation and theory, the 'mathematisation' of astronomy, and the focus on the conflicting relationship between 'mathematical' astronomy and 'physical' astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  24. Poul Heegaard (1871-1948)
    • Sophus, who had an interest in astronomy and mathematics, strongly influenced his young son.
    • I feel so particularly, when I compare with my interest in astronomy..
    • [The interest in] astronomy grew during the dark, starry nights.
    • He also took courses in astronomy taught by Thorvald Thiele.
    • Heegaard had been interested in astronomy since he was a child and in 1901 he began publishing a series of popular article on the topic.
    • In fact throughout his university years he had from time to time thought of changing to make astronomy his main topic.
    • After his dissertation of 1898 he went as far as to give lectures on astronomy at the University of Copenhagen, but having never had the opportunity to learn observational skills, his interest in astronomy never took him to seek employment in this area.
    • His friends encouraged him to apply for Thiele's chair of astronomy following his retiral in 1906 but Heegaard knew he lacked the necessary experience as an astronomer so did not apply.
    • Although he claimed that he did not have time for mathematical research, nevertheless he did find time to write popular astronomy articles and also articles on high school teaching of mathematics.
    • He also published another popular astronomy book Stjerneverdenen.

  25. Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671)
    • Biancani was interested in astronomy and made observations of the sun and moon with a telescope.
    • Riccioli became fascinated with astronomy and devoted his research activities to this topic although he also engaged in work on related topics.
    • Riccioli enjoyed great prestige and great opposition, both in Italy and abroad, not only as a man of encyclopaedic knowledge but also as someone who could understand and discuss all the relevant issues of the day in cosmology, observational astronomy, and geography.
    • I could never extinguish the enthusiasm for astronomy once it arose in me.
    • The treatise is really an encyclopaedia of astronomy containing nearly 1500 pages in two volumes.
    • nnI Spherical Astronomy; .
    • If the liberty taken by the Copernicans to interpret scriptural texts and to elude ecclesiastic decrees is tolerated, then one would have to fear that it would not be limited to astronomy and natural philosophy, and that it could extend to the most holy dogmas; thus it is important to maintain the rule of interpreting all sacred texts in their literal sense.
    • Although a theologian, Riccioli had always felt that his main work and publications should be on astronomy.
    • When he was young he had argued that there were many Jesuits publishing on theology but very few on astronomy so he should concentrate on astronomy publications.
    • Riccioli published another astronomy book, Astronomia reformata (1665) dedicated to Ferdinand, Duke of Bavaria.

  26. Daniel O'Connell (1896-1982)
    • This was a beginning of his observing although he had already an interest in astronomy.
    • He was taught mathematics by Arthur Conway, the Professor of Mathematical Physics, who also lectured to him on relativity and on mathematical astronomy.
    • O'Connell worked as an assistant to Pigot until 1926, primarily working on seismology but also undertaking work in astronomy.
    • Then, in 1931, he went to the Harvard College Observatory, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, where he studied astronomy with Harlow Shapley.
    • He approached astronomy from the mathematical side.
    • O'Connell organised two Study Weeks at the Pontifical Academy on astronomy.
    • Pope Pius XII delivered an address on 'Astronomy' on 20 May 1957 when inaugurating the Study Week on 'Stellar Populations' supported by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the Vatican Observatory.
    • When the Pope was criticised for trying to teach astronomy to astronomers with addresses such as the one he gave on 20 May 1957, O'Connell explained the Pope's position:- .
    • Pope Pius XII was indeed an ardent student all his life (he had, for instance, a life-long interest in astronomy), but he was far too conscientious and too intelligent to attempt to pose as an authority 'de omni re scibili', He was fully conscious of the obligation, imposed on him by his high position, of weighing his every word.
    • Although he did no further observing, after this he continued his deep interest in astronomy and attended international conferences such as the International Astronomical Union meeting in Grenoble, France, in August 1976 when he gave the interview [',' S Weart, Interview of Daniel J K O’Connell by Spencer Weart on 1976 August 31, Niels Bohr Library & Archives (American Institute of Physics).','3].
    • The reason for the exceptional standing of Father O'Connell in the annals of astronomy is the fact that he was not only an astronomer of high repute, but also a remarkably charming and good man with a genuine interest in others rather than himself which made him one of the best known and most like members of the international astronomical community of his time.

  27. William McCrea (1904-1999)
    • His talents were quickly appreciated at Cambridge and in 1927 he was awarded the Cambridge University Rayleigh Prize in Mathematics, a Trinity College Rouse Ball Senior Studentship, a Sheepshanks Exhibition in Astronomy, and an Isaac Newton Studentship.
    • In Edinburgh his professor was Edmund Whittaker who had himself a major interest in astronomy having spent six years as Royal Astronomer in Dublin before his appointment to the chair in Edinburgh.
    • In 1966 he was appointed professor of theoretical astronomy at the newly founded University of Sussex.
    • From the 1950s, he pressed for the establishment of a national institute for theoretical astronomy and this led to the formation of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy in Cambridge, the first Director being Fred Hoyle.
    • The somewhat smaller Astronomy Centre at Sussex, where he became the first Research Professor of Astronomy in 1966, was founded at the same time.
    • Bill was central to maintaining active links between the Astronomy Centre and the Royal Greenwich Observatory, then located at Herstmonceux.
    • Jointly, an outstandingly successful Masters Course in Astronomy was run for many years which gave students the opportunity of converting themselves into potential astronomy research students from a variety of diverse backgrounds.

  28. Ptolemy (about 85-about 165)
    • From its conception in the second century up to the late Renaissance, this work determined astronomy as a science.
    • During this time the "Almagest" was not only a work on astronomy; the subject was defined as what is described in the "Almagest".
    • This occupies the first two of the 13 books of the Almagest and then, quoting again from the introduction, we give Ptolemy's own description of how he intended to develop the rest of the mathematical astronomy in the work (see for example [',' G J Toomer (trs.), Ptolemy’s Almagest (London, 1984).','15]):- .
    • Far from being a mere 'systemisation' of earlier Greek astronomy, as it is sometimes described, it is in many respects an original work.
    • I mean a crime committed by a scientist against fellow scientists and scholars, a betrayal of the ethics and integrity of his profession that has forever deprived mankind of fundamental information about an important area of astronomy and history.
    • As a final comment we quote the epigram which is accepted by many scholars to have been written by Ptolemy himself, and it appears in Book 1 of the Almagest, following the list of contents (see for example [',' O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).','11]):- .
    • Ptolemy's hypotheses of astronomy .
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  29. Asger Aaboe (1922-2007)
    • However Aaboe was able to study mathematics, astronomy, physics, and chemistry at the University, being particularly influenced by his mathematics lecturer Harald Bohr.
    • When Aaboe first came to Brown, Neugebauer was in the final stages of preparing his groundbreaking study of Babylonian mathematical astronomy, Astronomical Cuneiform Texts (1955).
    • This work would put research into Babylonian astronomy on a firm foundation through the publication and systematic analysis of more than three hundred texts found on cuneiform tablets held in the British Museum, the Oriental Institute at Chicago, the Louvre in Paris, the Staatliche Museen in Berlin, the Arkeoloji Muzeleri in Instanbul, and several smaller collections in Europe and the United States.
    • It was natural, therefore, that Aaboe would work on Babylonian astronomy for his PhD.
    • Sachs had become interested in Babylonian astronomy and had gained access to hundreds of astronomical cuneiform tablets kept in the British Museum in London [',' J Steele, In memoriam Asger Aaboe (1922-2007).
    • In the same year he published On period relations in Babylonian astronomy which made new conjectures based on texts that Abraham Sachs had found.
    • In 2001 Aaboe published Episodes from the early history of astronomy, a companion volume to his 1964 Episodes from the early history of mathematics.
    • Despite his retirement in 1992, Aaboe maintained his interest in Babylonian astronomy, continuing to publish important studies, and encouraging younger scholars in their work.
    • I was fortunate to be one of the beneficiaries of Asger's encouragement, and spent several happy days staying with him in North Haven, discussing Babylonian astronomy, eating his fine home made bread, sailing on his boat, and listening to his stories of Sachs, Neugebauer and the other great scholars of Babylonian astronomy.

  30. Karl Mollweide (1774-1825)
    • Both had, in addition to a deep love of mathematics, an interest in applying it to astronomy.
    • By this time his health improved sufficiently for him to consider accepting an offer of a professorship of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Halle.
    • In 1811 Mollweide left Halle when he was named Professor of Astronomy at the University of Leipzig.
    • At this time Mobius was intending to make a career as an astronomer but after being taught by Mollweide he became, like his teacher, equally interested in both mathematics and astronomy.
    • As well as being Professor of Astronomy at Leipzig, Mollweide was also director of the university observatory.
    • Mollweide, always more enthusiastic towards mathematics than astronomy, decided in 1814 to move from being Professor of Astronomy to Professor of Mathematics, still at the University of Leipzig.
    • Certainly the problems in carrying out his duties as Professor of Astronomy had been a big factor in his decision.
    • The chair of astronomy at Leipzig which he vacated was filled by Mobius two years later.
    • The year of 1814 not only marked Mollweide's move from astronomy to mathematics, but it was also the year he married.

  31. Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (1908-1996)
    • He [',' R A McCutcheon, The Early Career of Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian: An Interview (2 October 1987), Astronomy Quarterly 7 (3) (1990), 143-176.','28]:- .
    • Ambartsumian loved mathematics and became interested in astronomy at the age of twelve after reading a Russian translation of The Planetary and Stellar Worlds (1848) by Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-1862).
    • Popular exposition of the great discoveries and theories of modern astronomy (Russian).
    • His teacher at the Gymnasium wrote on one of his reports, "this boy can become in future the founder of an astronomical observatory in Armenia." Ambartsumian gave lectures on astronomy while at the Gymnasium and, discovering that a Moscow trained astronomer Nikolai Ignatevich Sudakov was teaching at another Tiflis school he transferred there.
    • During my studies at the University of Leningrad I paid chief attention to astronomy and mathematical courses.
    • Chandrasekhar writes in [',' S Chandrasekhar, To Victor Ambartsumian on His 80th Birthday, Astronomy and Astrophysics 18 (1997), 3-4.','12]:- .
    • Adriaan Blaauw writes [',' A Blaauw, V A Ambartsumian (18 September 1908 - 12 August 1996), Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy.
    • On Ambartsumian's 80th birthday, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar wrote [',' S Chandrasekhar, To Victor Ambartsumian on His 80th Birthday, Astronomy and Astrophysics 18 (1997), 3-4.','12]:- .
    • The only other astronomer of this century who compares with Academician Ambartsumian in his consistency and devotion to astronomy is Professor Jan Oort.
    • There can be no more than two or three astronomers in this century who can look back on a life so worthily devoted to the progress of astronomy.

  32. Philip van Lansberge (1561-1632)
    • Although he was now a minister with all the duties that entailed, nevertheless he spent much of his efforts working on mathematics and astronomy.
    • Before we describe the contents of Lansberge's treatise, we note that his interest in astronomy, probably stimulated during his short stay in Leiden, led him to be dissatisfied with both Ptolemy and Copernicus.
    • The Leiden theologian Johannes Kuchlinus wrote to the burgomaster of Amsterdam warning him that Lansberge was more dedicated to astronomy than to his ministry:- .
    • For the nature of astronomy is such that it induces the whole man to love it and indulge in deep speculation.
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2002).','5]:- .
    • In Middelburg, Lansberge used his skill in medicine as well as publishing books on astronomy and continuing to make astronomical observations.
    • Lansberge's work on astronomy followed Copernicus's heliocentric theory although he did not seem satisfied with what Copernicus had presented.
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2002).','5]):- .
    • it is not intended for instruction in geometry and astronomy.
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2002).','5]:- .

  33. August Möbius (1790-1868)
    • He therefore took up the study of mathematics, astronomy and physics.
    • The teacher who influenced Mobius most during his time at Leipzig was his astronomy teacher Karl Mollweide.
    • In 1813 Mobius travelled to Gottingen where he studied astronomy under Gauss.
    • Under Pfaff he studied mathematics rather than astronomy so by this stage Mobius was very firmly working in both fields.
    • Mollweide's interest in mathematics was such that he had moved from astronomy to the chair of mathematics at Leipzig so Mobius had high hopes that he might be appointed to a professorship in astronomy at Leipzig.
    • Indeed he was appointed to the chair of astronomy and higher mechanics at the University of Leipzig in 1816.
    • By 1844 Mobius's reputation as a researcher led to an invitation from the University of Jena and at this stage the University of Leipzig gave him the Full Professorship in astronomy which he clearly deserved.
    • Although his most famous work is in mathematics, Mobius did publish important work on astronomy.
    • He also wrote on the principles of astronomy, Die Hauptsatze der Astronomie Ⓣ (1836) and on celestial mechanics Die Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels Ⓣ (1843).

  34. Lyman Spitzer (1914-1997)
    • Henry Norris Russell, who had supervised Spitzer's doctoral studies at Princeton, was retiring and Princeton was seeking to fill the Chair of Astronomy.
    • The most important aspect of the Princeton opening, from my point of view, is the general policy of the University administration towards the Astronomy Department.
    • My own respect for the astronomy at Princeton in general and for Professor Russell in particular, is so profound that it would be a great personal pleasure for me to come to Princeton under almost any conditions.
    • In the second half of the 1940s Spitzer became interested in space astronomy.
    • He explained in [L Spitzer, Dreams, stars, and electrons, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics 27 (1989), 1-.]:- .
    • "Would you be interested," he asked me, "in writing a chapter on how such a satellite might be useful in astronomy?" With my long and ardent background in science fiction, I found this invitation an exciting one and accepted with great enthusiasm.
    • His involvement in space astronomy has made Spitzer well known by the general public, but he made many other highly significant advances.
    • In 1952, Spitzer was named the Charles A Young Professor of Astronomy at Princeton.
    • In 1979 he received the National Medal of Science, then in 1985 the Crafoord Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for [',' G Gaham, The Crafoord Prize 1985 in Astronomy to Professor Lyman','2]:- .
    • Dr Spitzer's revolutionary paper, written in the 1940s, was the first to propose the idea of putting telescopes into space, and thus above the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere, which not only revolutionised the science of astronomy, but it also pulled back the atmospherically induced blinders we had lived with for so long and revealed the true wonder and beauty of the universe.

  35. Eustachio Manfredi (1674-1739)
    • It was a remarkable family for, in addition to Eustachio, his brothers Gabriele Manfredi (1681-1761) (who also has a biography in the archive) and Eraclito (1682-1759) became professors of mathematics and of astronomy respectively.
    • However, they learnt from their brothers and became very knowledgeable in astronomy, mathematics and Latin.
    • Guglielmini taught Manfredi the differential calculus and he soon became interested in hydraulics, but also taught himself astronomy.
    • Manfredi was fascinated by astronomy and led much of the groups' activities in that direction.
    • In 1711 Manfredi was appointed to the chair of astronomy at the Institute of Sciences which had been founded by Count Marsili.
    • In the following year he began the building of the observatory which became the Department of Astronomy.
    • Only in 1733 did he return to his work in astronomy having been too busy with the various problems in hydraulics that had concerned him over a period of many years.
    • His final work on astronomy included Defectus Lunae observatus Ⓣ (1736), Congressus Mercurij cum Sole Ⓣ (1736) and Defectus Solis observatus Ⓣ (1738).
    • Over these final years of his life, Manfredi taught astronomy at the Institute where he was visited by several foreign scholars.

  36. Theon of Smyrna (about 70-about 135)
    • This work is a handbook for philosophy students to show how prime numbers, geometrical numbers such as squares, progressions, music and astronomy are interrelated.
    • It is, rather, a handbook for philosophy students, written to illustrate how arithmetic, geometry, stereometry, music, and astronomy are interrelated.
    • One who had become skilled in all geometry and all music and astronomy would be reckoned most happy on making acquaintance with the writings of Plato, but this cannot be come by easily or readily, for it calls for a very great deal of application from youth upwards.
    • The work begins with a collection of theorems which Theon says will be useful for the study of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy in Plato.
    • The best section of Expositio rerum mathematicarum is the astronomy section which teaches that the Earth is spherical, that mountains are negligible in height compared with the Earth etc.
    • However, Neugebauer writes in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]:- .
    • It is clear that Theon's treatise does not pretend to make original contributions to astronomy.
    • Theon also wrote commentaries on the main authorities of mathematics and astronomy.
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  37. Monteiro da Rocha (1734-1819)
    • Philosophy involved the study of mathematics, physics and astronomy while Theology involved the study of sacred scriptures, theology and Hebrew.
    • We do not know how he learnt mathematics; probably he studied Arithmetic, Elementary Geometry and the principles of Astronomy at the College of Baia, where he was educated, and then continued progress without a teacher in the study of the other branches of those sciences and in the improvement of the knowledge that he had received in that College.
    • Da Rocha held the Chair of Applied Mathematics at the University of Coimbra from 1772 until 1783 when he was appointed to the Chair of Astronomy.
    • However we must explain a little about his contributions to mathematics and astronomy.
    • However Monteiro da Rocha's main scientific work was in the field of astronomy.
    • This work spans from theoretical to practical astronomy, the most significant elements being the following: a work on the determination of comets' orbits; several papers on the calculation of eclipses; a work on longitudes; astronomical tables of the Sun, Moon, and planets and charts of Jupiter's satellites; a work on the use of the small rhomboidal net; and a work on the use and calibration of the transit instrument.
    • Monteiro da Rocha and Olbers must therefore figure together in the history of astronomy, as the first inventors of a practical method for the determination of parabolic orbits of comets.
    • The following four astronomy papers by da Rocha, Calculo dos Eclipses Ⓣ (1803), Uso do reticulo Rhomboidal Ⓣ (1805), Uso do Instrumento de Passagens Ⓣ (1805), and Exposicao dos methodos particulares de que se faz uso no calculo destas Ephemerides Ⓣ (1807) were translated into French and appeared as Memoires sur l'Astronomie Pratique Ⓣ by M J Monteiro da Rocha (Paris, 1808).
    • The contributions we have just mentioned are in the area of astronomy but da Rocha also made contributions to mathematics.

  38. Georg Peurbach (1423-1461)
    • It is likely that he would have studied some mathematics but the expertise which he gained in astronomy must have been self taught.
    • He lectured in Germany, France and Italy on astronomy and after giving lectures in Bologna and Padua he was offered appointments in these universities but turned them down.
    • Before continuing it is worth spending a moment reviewing the connection between astronomy and astrology in Peurbach's time.
    • Astronomy and astrology are separate to our minds today but were intimately connected in the 15th century.
    • The desire for predictions based on astrological considerations did, however, drive the science of astronomy to make more accurate tables.
    • His teaching seems to be mostly in the humanities, however, and not in astronomy.
    • The astronomy Peurbach teaches is that of planetary spheres, the motion of each planet being shown by circles (standing for spheres) rolling one inside the other.
    • In fact the interesting paper [',' J Dobrzycki and R L Kremer, Peurbach and Maragha astronomy? The ’Ephemerides’ of Johannes Angelus and their implications, J.
    • Peurbach's early death was a serious loss to the progress of astronomy, if for no other reason than that the collaboration with his even more capable and industrious pupil Regiomontanus promised a greater quantity of valuable work than either could accomplish separately.

  39. Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974)
    • Zwicky is known today for his remarkable contributions to theoretical astronomy but there is no evidence of him being involved in any work related to astronomy during his studies in Switzerland.
    • It was, surprisingly, the Swiss mountains that influenced his move to astronomy in an unexpected way.
    • Once he had arrived he found that there are certainly mountains nearby, with the San Rafael Hills and the San Gabriel Mountains, but he was unimpressed with them saying that Pasadena only had "foothills." The San Gabriel Mountains, however, was the location of the Mount Wilson Observatory where Edwin Hubble was working and Zwicky began to become interested in astronomy.
    • At this stage the basic interest of Aerojet was to produce rockets which could be used for spaceflight which would greatly advance astronomy and, in addition, other sciences.
    • After pursuing a dozen or so various activities ranging from mountain climbing and professional shorthand to physics, astronomy, engineering, languages, higher education, national and international politics, and mutual aid with fair success, I still did not feel satisfied.
    • In 1948 Zwicky delivered the Halley lecture for 1948, Morphological astronomy, at the University of Oxford.
    • In 1957 Fritz Zwicky published the book Morphological astronomy.
    • Fritz Zwicky: Morphological astronomy .

  40. Ernest Esclangon (1876-1954)
    • He became professor of astronomy at the Faculty of Sciences at Strasbourg in 1919, having been appointed director of the Observatory there in the previous year.
    • After the armistice, I was sent to Strasbourg as director of the Observatory and professor of astronomy.
    • Of course, one of the major topics arousing attention in astronomy during his years in Strasbourg was attempts to verify Einstein's general theory of relativity by making observations of the deviation of light passing close to the sun.
    • Then, from 1929 to 1946 he was director of the Observatory at Paris, again holding the position of professor of astronomy from 1930 to 1946.
    • pure mathematics, applied celestial mechanics, relativity, observational astronomy, instrumental astronomy, astronomical chronometry, aerodynamics, interior and exterior ballistics, and aerial and underwater acoustic detection.
    • In astronomy he worked on making observations more precise by improving astronomical instruments.
    • Esclangon retired as Director of the Paris Observatory and as Professor of Astronomy at the Sorbonne in 1946.
    • At this time, he was made Honorary Director of the Paris Observatory and Honorary Professor of Astronomy at the Sorbonne.

  41. Édouard Benjamin Baillaud (1848-1934)
    • Letters he wrote show his personality; for example writing to Edmond Bouty on 22 June 1872 (see [',' L Baillaud, The Chalon Astronomer Benjamin Baillaud, and a Short History of His Bust in the Public Garden of Chalon-sur-Saone, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma University.','2]):- .
    • By 1877, he was lecturing on dynamical astronomy at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), substituting for Le Verrier who was ill.
    • Baillaud, who had succeeded Le Verrier as Professor of Astronomy at the University of Paris, was a candidate for the vacant post in Toulouse.
    • He had been proposed for this role by the President of the University who wrote (see [',' L Baillaud, The Chalon Astronomer Benjamin Baillaud, and a Short History of His Bust in the Public Garden of Chalon-sur-Saone, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma University.','2]):- .
    • In the School of Sciences, he taught astronomy.
    • He also managed to improve the status of astronomy by re-launching the journal Annales de l'Observatoire de Toulouse in 1880, producing an initial volume of a new series, published in Paris.
    • One of Baillaud's most impressive contributions to astronomy came after 1903, when the Toulouse Observatory took over the facility on the Pic du Midi, a mountain in the French Pyrenees.
    • A letter he wrote to his wife on 12 October 1891 reveals much about him and his desires for his children (see for example [',' L Baillaud, The Chalon Astronomer Benjamin Baillaud, and a Short History of His Bust in the Public Garden of Chalon-sur-Saone, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma University.','2]):- .
    • Baillaud's lifetime of work in astronomy did not go unrecognised: in 1923, he won the Bruce Medal from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific; he was awarded the honorary degree of Sc.D.

  42. John Couch Adams (1819-1892)
    • It is particularly fitting that this should be the case since John Couch provided some education for Tabitha who inherited his library which included several astronomy books.
    • It was this library, particularly the astronomy books in it, which fired John's interest as he grew up.
    • It was during this period that he first became interested in astronomy and in 1835, while at Landulph, he observed Halley's comet.
    • He would go to the Devonport Mechanics' Institute where he looked up articles on mathematics and astronomy.
    • We should note that of his three brothers, Thomas Adams became a missionary, George Adams became a farmer, while William Grylls Adams became professor of natural philosophy and astronomy at King's College, London, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
    • It was a short tenure of the chair for, in March 1859, he succeeded Peacock as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge and held the post for over 32 years.
    • Adams's made many other contributions to astronomy, notably his studies of the Leonid meteor shower.
    • For forty-five years his [powerful] mind was constantly directed to mathematical research relating principally to astronomy [but because of his] innate craving for perfection [he published little].
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  43. Caroline Herschel (1750-1848)
    • His interests in music, philosophy and astronomy led to lively conversations in their home but Caroline's mother disapproved of learning in general and although she reluctantly accepted that her four sons should have some education, she strongly opposed her daughters doing anything other than the household chores.
    • He had studied mathematics and astronomy in his spare time at the end of a long day after many hours teaching music, reading works such as Maclaurin's Fluxions.
    • Now he began to teach Caroline English and mathematics while he himself became more and more involved with astronomy.
    • Astronomy changed from a hobby for William in 1781 when he achieved fame by discovering the planet now named Uranus.
    • It was certainly not without many regrets that Caroline abandoned music and began to take an active part in astronomy.
    • She saw him educated at Cambridge, make a name for himself as a mathematician, become elected to the Royal Society, join his father in research in astronomy and be awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his achievements.
    • His Majesty the King of Prussia, in recognition of the valuable service rendered to astronomy by you, as the fellow worker of your immortal brother, wishes to convey to you in his name the Large Gold Medal for science.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  44. Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344)
    • We now look at some of Levi's contributions to astronomy.
    • In [',' B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson : On instrumental errors and the transversal scale, Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1977), 102-112.','23] Bernard Goldstein looks at Levi's various innovations in instrument design.
    • Goldstein also, in an appendix to [',' B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson : On instrumental errors and the transversal scale, Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1977), 102-112.','23], examines Levi's transversal scale for the Jacob staff.
    • The work is divided into six books, with the fifth of these dealing with astronomy.
    • The astronomy part was translated into Latin at the request of Pope Clement VI in 1340 but this translation includes later revisions of the work by Levi.
    • The Hebrew text, with translation and commentary, of the first 20 sections is published in [',' B R Goldstein, The astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344).
    • Jose Luis Mancha, reviewing [',' B R Goldstein, The physical astronomy of Levi ben Gerson, Perspect.
    • Faced with the conflict between physical and mathematical accounts of celestial phenomena, [Levi] rejected (against Aristotelian tradition) the confinement of astronomy within the limits of a merely predictive theory, and intended (against most of the Ptolemaic tradition) to construct a true mathematical representation - not only a possible one - of the heavens and the motions of the heavenly bodies, being able to satisfy at the same time the requirements of observation and natural philosophy.

  45. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626)
    • Gresham College had been established in 1597 and there was also a Professor of Astronomy from the founding of the College.
    • The first Professor of Astronomy was Edward Brerewood (about 1565-1613), educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, who had a broad range of expertise from mathematics, to antiquities, to logic and to languages.
    • He died on 4 November 1613 and Briggs supported Gunter to be appointed as the second Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College.
    • He had been educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and was appointed as Professor of Astronomy on 11 November, just a week after Brerewood died.
    • The second Gresham College professor of astronomy Thomas Williams resigned in a letter of 4 March 1619.
    • I Thomas Williams of the University of Oxford, Master of Arts, Reader of the astronomy lecture at Gresham house London, do fully and absolutely resign all the right and interest which I have to the place and office of astronomy lecturer in the same house ..
    • It opened the whole subject of mathematical application to navigation and nautical astronomy to every mariner who was sufficiently interested in devoting time to the perfecting of his art.

  46. Aristarchus (about 310 BC-about 230 BC)
    • However the fact that he was known as an astronomer rather than a mathematician is rather countered by Neugebauer's claim that his work [',' O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).','6]:- .
    • little to do with practical astronomy ..
    • Let us try in this article to do more than 'mention one or two facts' and to indicate both the magnitude and originality of Aristarchus's achievements and also his role in the development of mathematical astronomy.
    • Neugebauer argues in [',' O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).','6] that Aristarchus was not interested in accurate astronomical data (since he could have easily done very much better had he been interested).
    • As Neugebauer writes in [',' O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).','6]:- .
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  47. Avicenna (980-1037)
    • The first is a scientific encyclopaedia covering logic, natural sciences, psychology, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music.
    • He also wrote on psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
    • One of the four parts of this work is devoted to mathematics and ibn Sina includes astronomy and music as branches of mathematics within the encyclopaedia.
    • In fact he divided mathematics into four branches, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and music, and he then subdivided each of these topics.
    • Geometry he subdivided into geodesy, statics, kinematics, hydrostatics, and optics; astronomy he subdivided into astronomical and geographical tables, and the calendar; arithmetic he subdivided into algebra, and Indian addition and subtraction; music he subdivided into musical instruments.
    • This observation, and other related work by ibn Sina, is discussed in [',' A U Usmanov, Ibn Sina and his contributions in the history of the development of the mathematical sciences (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 55-58; 156.','53].
    • Another of ibn Sina's contributions to astronomy was his attempt to calculate the difference in longitude between Baghdad and Gurgan by observing a meridian transit of the moon at Gurgan.
    • These letters cover topics such as philosophy, astronomy and physics.

  48. John Herschel (1792-1871)
    • He seems to have decided during this holiday to turn to astronomy, almost certainly influenced by the fact that at 78 years of age his father's health was failing and there was nobody else to continue his father's work.
    • Indeed John Herschel began to undertake work in astronomy from this time although he also studied other topics.
    • Even before his first astronomy paper was published, Herschel published details of his chemical and photography experiments in 1819 which, 20 years later, would prove of fundamental importance in the development of photography.
    • Herschel's great versatility is shown by the fact that in 1821, having recently become involved in astronomy and chemistry, he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London for his work on mathematical analysis.
    • In fact 1822 was the year in which John Herschel published his first paper on astronomy, a relatively minor work on a new method to calculate eclipses of the moon.
    • His first major publication in astronomy was a catalogue of double stars which he published in the Transactions of the Royal Society in 1824 and for which he received honours.
    • As Tait wrote (see for example [',' A Chapman, An occupation for an independent gentleman : astronomy in the life of John Herschel, Vistas Astronom.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  49. Elizabeth Scott (1917-1988)
    • As the only girl enrolled in the advanced mathematics courses, Scott quickly stood out as exceptional among the student body and, even at such a young age, was already considering a career in astronomy.
    • She enrolled in Berkeley's astronomy programme and soon work became her top priority.
    • Scott continued to write about a range of topics in astronomy throughout the rest of her lifetime.
    • There was a noticeably greater number of women in astronomy but even there they faced harsh discrimination.
    • They had argued that it would make her wildly overqualified for any position she could expect to attain in astronomy.
    • During her graduate career she had decided to give up the astronomy assistantship in order to work on a war related project with the then head of statistics Jerzy Neyman.
    • Scott decided to combine her two interests and use statistical tools in order to answer questions in astronomy.
    • Scott's first contact with this topic had been as early as 1951 and her involvement ran concurrently with her studies in astronomy through the 1950's and early 60's.

  50. Mei Wending (1633-1721)
    • Mei tried to situate the new European knowledge properly within the historical framework of Chinese astronomy and mathematics.
    • In his historical studies, Mei stressed that Chinese astronomy had improved from generation to generation, progressing from coarseness to accuracy.
    • He gave precisely the same description for the development of Western astronomy.
    • Mei's first work was on astronomy and its relation to making calendars.
    • Errors in the astronomical texts, he argued, jeopardized the development of the discipline; he then developed an evidential method to analyse traditional Chinese mathematics and astronomy.
    • This emphasis on the great importance of astronomy led Mei to reject the claims of Confucian scholars such as Yang Guangxian who were satisfied with understanding the 'li' of astronomy without bothering with detailed calendrical calculations.
    • Around 1701 he wrote Lixue yiwen (Inquiry on Mathematical Astronomy) which greatly interested the Emperor Kangxi who then summoned Mei to an audience in 1703.

  51. Giovanni Cassini (1625-1712)
    • He showed great intellectual curiosity and was especially interested in poetry, mathematics and astronomy.
    • His first interest, however, was in astrology rather than astronomy.
    • In 1650, Cassini became professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Bologna, filling the chair which had been vacant since the death of Cavalieri at the end of November 1647.
    • One of Cassini's predecessor's as professor of mathematics and astronomy at Bologna had been Egnatio Danti who had been appointed in 1576.
    • His expertise, however, covered many areas other than astronomy.
    • However, Cassini preferred to keep his post as professor of mathematics and astronomy at Bologna where he taught when not undertaking Papal duties.
    • He continued with his research in astronomy, proposing a model for atmospheric refraction which turned out to be incorrect, making an intensive study of the sun, publishing tables in 1662, and continuing to search for comets.
    • While many historians, following Delambre, accuse him of having found his best ideas in the writings of his predecessors and of having oriented French astronomy in an authoritarian and retrograde direction, others insist on the importance of his work as observer and organiser of the research at the Observatory.

  52. Finlay Freundlich (1885-1964)
    • His aim at this stage was not related to mathematics or astronomy for he aimed to make a career in naval studies.
    • The health problem was a heart condition and, when he had recovered, Freundlich decided not to continue his course on naval architecture but rather to enter the University of Gottingen to study mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • This meant that he moved rather less around different universities than was the custom in Germany at this time, but the fact that he had changed course from naval architecture to mathematics, physics and astronomy almost certainly was a factor in this.
    • He returned to Europe in 1937 when he was appointed professor of astronomy at the Charles University of Prague.
    • While there he received an offer from the University of St Andrews to set up a department of astronomy at the university.
    • Eddington had advised the Principal of the University of St Andrews that Freundlich was an outstanding person to both create the department of astronomy and to organise the construction of an observatory.
    • Freundlich became the Napier Professor of Astronomy in St Andrews on 1 January 1951, a post he held until 1955 when the university regulations forced him to retire.
    • He delivered his inaugural lecture in 1952 and the text of that lecture is given in [',' E F Freundlich, The educational value of the study of astronomy, The Alumnus Chronicle (University of St Andrews) 40 (1953), 2-14.','3].

  53. Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (1749-1822)
    • Given his poor eyesight it is even more remarkable that he took up astronomy, but it has to be said that his eyesight continued to improve during the thirty years following the smallpox.
    • Soon his interest in Greek astronomy led him to find out about modern astronomy and in about 1780 he read Lalande's Traite d'astronomie Ⓣ.
    • He began attending Lalande's astronomy lectures at the College de France and soon impressed Lalande with his knowledge.
    • Delambre attained further achievements in his career, however, including his appointment to the chair of astronomy at the College de France in Paris in 1807.
    • In the last part of his career Delambre became interested in the history of mathematics and astronomy.
    • He published a two volume work Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne Ⓣ in 1817, then Histoire de l'astronomie du moyen age Ⓣ in 1819, two volumes of Histoire de l'astronomie moderne Ⓣ in 1821, and his work on the history of astronomy in the eighteenth century was published by Claude Mathieu after Delambre's death.
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  54. Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921)
    • Before being accepted, she was tested on her knowledge of classic literature, she had to write a short composition, was tested on her language skills in Latin, Greek and German, was tested on her knowledge of history and of mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • This course covered analytic geometry and differential calculus and she was awarded an A for this but for an astronomy course that she took in her final year she was awarded A-.
    • Her final year astronomy course had been taken at the Harvard Observatory and, after graduating, she offered to work at the Observatory for free.
    • However, she longed to return to her work on astronomy but, as she explained in a letter to Pickering dated 13 May 1902, she had various difficulties.
    • It is evident that I cannot teach astronomy in any school or college where I should have to be out with classes on cold winter nights.
    • In any case, I should doubt if astronomy had anything to do with the condition of your hearing, unless you have been assured that this is the case by a good aurist.
    • Her discovery of the relation of period to brightness is destined to be one of the most significant results of stellar astronomy, I believe.

  55. Hipparchus (190 BC-120 BC)
    • It is certainly unfortunate that of all of the writings of Hipparchus this was the one to survive since the three books on which Hipparchus was writing a commentary contained no mathematical astronomy.
    • Far from being a "work of his youth", as it is frequently described, the commentary on Aratus reveals Hipparchus as one who had already compiled a large number of observations, invented methods for solving problems in spherical astronomy, and developed the highly significant idea of mathematically fixing the positions of the stars..
    • However, Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','7] points out that:- .
    • If this is so, Hipparchus was not only the founder of trigonometry but also the man who transformed Greek astronomy from a purely theoretical into a practical predictive science.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  56. Autolycus (about 360 BC-about 290 BC)
    • However, before we accept Heath's 'clear' argument, it is reasonable to put a counter argument from Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','4]:- .
    • ','1], agrees with Heath, and the paper [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','4] even has the title Autolycus of Pitane, predecessor of Euclid.
    • Of these books, On the Moving Sphere is a work on the geometry of the sphere which is the same as being a mathematical astronomy text.
    • The second work On Risings and Settings is a book more on observational astronomy.
    • Theodosius, 200 years later, wrote Sphaerics, a similar book on the geometry of the sphere, also written to provide a mathematical background for astronomy.
    • That Autolycus relys heavily on Eudoxus for his view of astronomy is not in doubt.
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  57. Jacob Lüroth (1844-1910)
    • However, at high school he also enjoyed mathematics and astronomy, studying these with the help of his mathematics teacher Carl Rapp.
    • In the autumn of 1862, Luroth passed the matriculation examination for the University of Bonn and he began to study astronomy with Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875).
    • He had worked on a star catalogue in collaboration with Eduard Schonfeld who had advised Luroth that Bonn was an excellent place to study astronomy.
    • He had already published a number of works in astronomy in addition to the paper mentioned above, namely Ephemeride der Calypso Ⓣ (1862) Drei Ringmikrometer-Beobachtungen der Urania am 5-fussigen Fraunhofer Ⓣ (1862) and Funf ebensolche Beobachtungen der Astraa Ⓣ (1863).
    • Having to give up his ambition to study astronomy was certainly not an easy one for the young man and in later life he described this as one of the most painful disappointments of his life.
    • Because he had a remarkable memory, Luroth was effortlessly at home in almost all areas of mathematics, including applied mathematics, many branches of astronomy, geodesy and even more remote areas of knowledge.
    • From out of this capacity, which he maintained throughout his life, his actual productive activity has been developed, which stretches, with rare versatility, to geometry and mechanics, to astronomy and geodesy, to probability theory, set theory and the logical foundations of mathematics, on function theory and algebra.

  58. Robert Ball (1840-1913)
    • In 1874 the positions of Royal Astronomer of Ireland and Professor of Astronomy in Trinity College Dublin became vacant.
    • Ball was appointed Royal Astronomer of Ireland and to the Andrews Chair of Astronomy of Trinity College Dublin after successfully submitting a seven-page printed application for these positions.
    • His main fame, however, was as a popular lecturer rather than for research in astronomy.
    • He wrote a number of popular books on astronomy including A Story of the Heavens (1886) and The Story of the Sun (1893).
    • In 1892 John Couch Adams, the Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge and the director of the Cambridge Observatory, died.
    • Ball applied for the vacant position and was appointed as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry but disputes with the university meant that he had to wait a year before he was appointed director of the Cambridge Observatory.
    • In Cambridge Ball continued to give popular lectures on astronomy, and continued to work on his mathematics.

  59. Karl Sundman (1873-1949)
    • He had two papers published on mathematical astronomy in 1896 before he graduated from Helsinki in the following year.
    • After graduating Sundman went to Pulkovo Observatory to continue his research on astronomy.
    • Sundman, however, was interested in the theoretical aspects of astronomy.
    • In 1902 Sundman was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Helsinki, being promoted to extraordinary professor of astronomy there in 1907.
    • In 1918 he was named as Professor of Astronomy at Helsinki and also director of the Observatory.
    • He occupied both the chair of astronomy and the directorship of the Observatory until he retired in 1941.
    • Such a machine will necessarily be very complicated and Sundman describes the project in detail using well-known techniques and construction capabilities in a field unrelated to astronomy.

  60. Maria Cunitz (about 1607-1664)
    • Certainly she learnt these latter topics from Elias von Lowen, a medical doctor in Pitschen who also had an amateur interest in astronomy.
    • He continued to encourage his wife's interest in astronomy and Maria needed little encouragement to throw herself into this topic with enthusiasm.
    • However, she had little chance to excel as an observational astronomer through lack of good quality instruments, so to make a worthwhile contribution she had to apply her mathematical skills to astronomy.
    • The book examines the theory and art of astronomy, as well as presents her calculations, and a guide to astronomy for nonscientists.
    • According to Cunitz, there were four components to astronomy: carefully recorded observations, the construction of astronomical instruments, theory, and the calculations or tables of predictions.
    • The book is very rare - one of nine copies in existence - and is an important addition to the libraries because it celebrates the university's commitments to women's studies, history of science, astronomy, and the printed word as the prime means of communication for more than five hundred years.

  61. Fred Hoyle (1915-2001)
    • Although his research was in applied mathematics, it was through the problem of accretion of gas by a large gravitating body which Ray Lyttleton discussed with him that Hoyle's interests turned towards mathematical problems in astronomy.
    • He had little time for research in astronomy but continued collaboration with Lyttleton when it proved possible (one occasion being when he had leave in 1942 for the birth of his first child Geoffrey).
    • During his time with the Admiralty Hoyle worked with Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold and he discussed astronomy with them in spare moments.
    • He broadcast five astronomy lectures on the Third Programme (now called Radio 3).
    • In 1966 Hoyle founded the renowned Institute of Theoretical Astronomy at Cambridge and was its Director until 1972.
    • The Universe does not respect the differences between physics, chemistry and biology, he would say, and his career in astronomy progressively embraced all these disciplines.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  62. Carl Schoy (1877-1925)
    • He began to make his own maps and, from gazing at the clear starry sky, he developed an interest in geography and in astronomy that would remain throughout his life.
    • Schoy had a remarkable desire to study the widest range of subjects but his main effort was put into courses in mathematics and astronomy.
    • Hugo von Seeliger (1849-1924) was the Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory at the University of Munich and he had an outstanding reputation both as an astronomer and as a teacher.
    • Seeliger saw that Schoy was a bright young man and gave him excellent advice as well as teaching him the methods of modern astronomy.
    • In 1919 he left Essen and habilitated in the History of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Bonn.
    • His first study on Arabic astronomy appeared in 1911 and during the following fifteen years he had produced a good many valuable papers.
    • We all felt that Schoy, if he had been granted to live ten or twenty years longer, would have increased considerably our understanding of oriental mathematics and astronomy.

  63. Gerbert of Aurillac (946-1003)
    • What he learnt at this time included the latest developments from the Islamic world in mathematics and astronomy.
    • And because music and astronomy were completely ignored in Italy at that time, the pope through a legate promptly informed Otto, king of Germany and Italy, that a young man of such quality had arrived, one who perfectly mastered mathematics and who was capable of teaching it effectively to his men.
    • It is noteworthy that arithmetic and music are only very briefly mentioned at the beginning and that geometry is described in a short paragraph at the end, while the rest of the account is devoted to a description of astronomical tools fabricated by Gerbert in order to introduce his disciples to astronomy.
    • These tools portray an ingenious and original method of familiarizing students with the names and positions of the zodiacal constellations and with planetary astronomy and also of providing a basic knowledge of how to tackle problems of positional astronomy.
    • With their minds well trained in these exercises his pupils advanced to the higher arts of the quadrivium - arithmetic, music, astronomy, and geometry.
    • It is to be noticed that Gerbert was the first to introduce into the schools instruments as an assistance to the study of arithmetic, astronomy, and geometry.

  64. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274)
    • However, al-Tusi did some of his best work while moving round the different strongholds, and during this period he wrote important works on logic, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy.
    • Al-Tusi also designed other instruments for the Observatory which was far more than a centre for astronomy.
    • This was not the only important work which al-Tusi produced in astronomy.
    • In al-Tusi's major astronomical treatise, al-Tadhkira fi'ilm al-hay'a (Memoir on astronomy) he [',' W Hartner, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi ’s lunar theory, Physis - Riv.
    • In his model Nasir, for the first time in the history of astronomy, employed a theorem invented by himself which, 250 years later, occurred again in Copernicus, "De Revolutionibus", III 4.
    • Among numerous other contributions to astronomy, al-Tusi calculated the value of 51' for the precession of the equinoxes.
    • His bringing together so many competent scholars and scientists at Maragheh resulted not only in the revival of mathematics and astronomy but also in the renewal of Islamic philosophy and even theology.

  65. Henri Mineur (1899-1954)
    • This very young Henri is interested in astronomy.
    • We have already noted that Mineur had been interested in astronomy from a young age and in 1925 he left teaching to take up the post of "astronomer adjoint" in the Paris Observatory.
    • Mineur contributed to many areas of astronomy and mathematics including celestial mechanics, analytic mechanics, statistics and numerical analysis.
    • In astronomy Mineur made many significant discoveries.
    • This 57 page pamphlet looked at topics such as: The ancient world and medieval astronomy; Galileo and his successors; Birth of stellar astronomy; William Herschel; The first half of the XIXth century; The late nineteenth century and the early modern period; Large modern instruments; and Photograph of the sky.
    • I helped him with his work, I had a Bachelor of Science, I was doing mathematics and I started to study astronomy.

  66. Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916)
    • It was at this stage that he became interested in astronomy and saved his pocket money to buy himself materials such as lens from which he could construct a telescope.
    • They shared an interest in astronomy, and Karl learnt how to use a telescope and also learnt some advanced mathematics from his friend Paul Epstein.
    • Schwarzschild studied at the University of Strasbourg during the two years 1891-93 where he learnt a great deal of practical astronomy, then at the University of Munich where he obtained his doctorate.
    • They had three children, Agathe, Martin who was born on 31 May 1912 and went on to became a professor of astronomy at Princeton, and Alfred.
    • Mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, march in one front.
    • The closest solidarity between astronomy and the whole circle of exact science.
    • There the motto runs that mathematics, physics, and astronomy constitute one knowledge, which, like the Greek culture, is only comprehended as a perfect whole.

  67. Urbain Le Verrier (1811-1877)
    • Le Verrier then decided to apply for the second position of repetiteur to Felix Savary, which was an astronomy appointment.
    • Although it might seem strange for someone who was undertaking research in chemistry to apply for an astronomy position, Le Verrier's mathematical expertise meant that he was qualified.
    • Le Verrier was appointed to teach astronomy as Felix Savary's repetiteur at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1837.
    • Le Verrier's first contribution to astronomy was the paper Sur les variations seculaires des orbites des planetes Ⓣ which he presented to the Academy of Sciences in September 1839.
    • In the eyes of all impartial men, this discovery will remain one of the most magnificent triumphs of theoretical astronomy, one of the glories of the Academie and one of the most beautiful distinctions of our country.
    • It is not only for his theoretical contributions to astronomy that Le Verrier deserves praise.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  68. Nevil Maskelyne (1732-1811)
    • Just before the death of his mother his interest in astronomy had begun after seeing the eclipse of 25 July 1748.
    • Great mathematicians have become astronomers from the facility mathematics gave them in the attainment of astronomy; but here the love of astronomy was the motive of application to mathematics without which our astronomer soon found he could not make the progress he wished in his favourite science; in a few months, without any assistance he made himself master of the elements of geometry and algebra.
    • With these helps he soon read the principal books in astronomy and optics and also in ..
    • By this time he was in close contact with James Bradley who was the Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford and the Astronomer Royal.
    • If he know something of Astronomy and had a mechanical turn so much the better.

  69. Matthew O'Brien (1814-1855)
    • At this time William Rowan Hamilton was Andrews' Professor of Astronomy in Trinity College Dublin while Franc Sadleir (1775-1851) was Erasmus Smith professor of mathematics.
    • On 8 March 1854 O'Brien was appointed as Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in King's College, London.
    • He describes himself as 'Rev M O'Brien, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in King's College, London, and Late Fellow of Caius College' on the title page.
    • O'Brien retained his professorship of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in King's College, London until 1854 although he took on an additional appointment as lecturer in practical astronomy at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1849.
    • Discussing O'Brien's 1846 paper On a new notation for expressing various conditions and equations in geometry, mechanics, and astronomy, Gordon Charles Smith writes [',' G C Smith, M O’Brien and vectorial mathematics, Historia Mathematica 9 (1982), 172-190.','6]:- .

  70. Christopher Wren (1632-1723)
    • Holder essentially took on the role of mathematics tutor to Wren and also encouraged him to experiment with astronomy.
    • In 1657 he became Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, London.
    • Wren became Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford in 1661 and held this post until 1673.
    • This problem had a basis in astronomy for it had arisen in Kepler's work on elliptical orbits.
    • It is worth noting that despite the remarkable number of designs Wren was working on at this time, he still held the Savilian Chair of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • 1.nSavilian Astronomy Professorn1661 .

  71. Seth Ward (1617-1689)
    • He showed considerable promise in mathematics and he impressed John Bainbridge, the first Savilian professor of astronomy.
    • He was appointed to the Savilian Chair of Astronomy at Oxford in 1649, a post which he held until 1661.
    • In addition to his work in astronomy, Ward wrote several mathematical works, in particular Idea trigonometriae demonstratae (1654), but he is perhaps best known for his defence of the teaching at Oxford.
    • On the astronomy side Ward disputed with Ismael Boulliau in what has become known as the Boulliau-Ward controversy over Kepler's laws.
    • Already Dean of Exeter, he resigned the Savilian Chair of Astronomy at Oxford in 1661 in order to became Bishop of Exeter in the following year.

  72. John Jackson (1887-1958)
    • from Glasgow in 1908 with special distinction in mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy and chemistry.
    • It was astronomy which become his main passion, through outstanding teaching by Ludwig Becker, during his final years at Glasgow and Jackson decided that he wanted to make a career in the subject.
    • There was little chance to progress further in astronomy in Glasgow, so he decided to continue his studies at Cambridge.
    • He went to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1909 and there he was able to take courses on a wide range of subjects within astronomy, pure mathematics and applied mathematics.
    • His main interests at Greenwich were in double stars (collaborating on this investigation with Herbert Hall Turner, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University), meridian observations and the time service.
    • The authors of [',' P Moore and P Collins, Astronomy in Southern Africa.','1] write that:- .

  73. Niels Norlund (1885-1981)
    • At school Norlund had loved mathematics and astronomy.
    • Norlund had a number of lecturers with international reputations: for example he was taught mathematics by Hieronymus Georg Zeuthen, Julius Petersen, and Niels Nielsen; and astronomy by Thorvald Thiele.
    • Norlund was most attracted by the vigorous Niels Nielsen, who lectured on the theory of functions, and by Thorvald Thiele whose interests in astronomy were mainly on orbits and the three-body problem.
    • In the summer of 1910 he earned a Master's degree in astronomy and in October of that year he successfully defended his doctoral thesis in mathematics Bidrag til de lineaere differentialligningers Theori Ⓣ.
    • He held the chair at Lund for ten years and during this time he left his interest in astronomy and concentrated entirely on research in mathematics.
    • Here he could wholly use his capacity for organizing work, exacting a combination on a high level of mathematics, astronomy, physics and mechanics.

  74. William Herschel (1738-1822)
    • In addition to mathematics, William started to become interested in astronomy and purchased astronomy books and tables.
    • For example he purchased James Ferguson's Astronomy on 10 May 1773.
    • By the end of 1773 the passion for astronomy had firmly gripped him and had taken over the lives of the Herschels.
    • Three astronomy papers were communicated by William Watson to The Royal Society.
    • For extracts from the three astronomy papers published by the Royal Society, see THIS LINK.

  75. Varahamihira (505-587)
    • Dhavale in [',' D G Dhavale, The Kapitthaka of Varahamihira, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Copernicus and Astronomy, New Delhi, 1973, Indian J.
    • The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya, Romaka, Paulisa, Vasistha and Paitamaha siddhantas.
    • I, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Copernicus and Astronomy, New Delhi, 1973, Indian J.
    • The Pancasiddhantika of Varahamihira is one of the most important sources for the history of Hindu astronomy before the time of Aryabhata I I.
    • It should be emphasised that accuracy was very important for these Indian mathematicians since they were computing sine tables for applications to astronomy and astrology.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  76. Al-Biruni (973-1048)
    • The book also examines Indian astronomy, astrology and the calendar.
    • He also wrote several treatises devoted to certain aspects of Indian astronomy and mathematics which were of particular interest to him.
    • Al-Biruni was amazingly well read, having knowledge of Sanskrit literature on topics such as astrology, astronomy, chronology, geography, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, religion, and weights and measures.
    • Shadows is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics.
    • The author of [',' P G Bulgakov, al-Biruni and al-Khwarizmi (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 117-122; 140.','27] remarks that al-Biruni seemed to realise that for places given by both al-Khwarizmi and Ptolemy, the value obtained by al-Khwarizmi is the more accurate.
    • These letters cover topics such as philosophy, astronomy and physics.

  77. Mohammed Reda Madwar (1893-1973)
    • After three years undertaking research in astronomy, Madwar was awarded his Ph.D.
    • Two years later, in 1936, in addition to his directorship of the Observatory, he was appointed as Professor of Astronomy at Cairo University.
    • In 1953 he retired from his position at the Royal Helwan Observatory and at the same time became Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Faculty of Science, Cairo University.
    • He installed the Transit Telescope at Helwan Observatory for the determination of Astronomical times, he participated on behalf of Helwan Observatory in the Discovery of Pluto in 1930, he established the Astronomy Department in the Faculty of Science at Cairo University in 1936, and he headed the Egyptian mission of the Total Solar Eclipse at Khartoum in 1952:- .
    • The king agreed immediately and Cairo University gave about half a million Egyptian pounds for this project (at that time the Astronomy Department and Helwan Observatory belonged to Cairo University as a single entity, the "Institute of Astronomy").

  78. Annie Scott Dill Maunder (1868-1947)
    • We note that William Russell's eldest son by his first marriage, Samuel Russell, became a professor of mathematics and astronomy at Peking, China.
    • This did not stop her from pursuing her interest in astronomy.
    • With this, and in her role as the Association's vice-president, she was heavily involved in the promotion of astronomy to a general audience.
    • Dr Sue Bowler, editor of the Royal Astronomical Society magazine, Astronomy and Geophysics writes:- .
    • Let us end with a quote from Marilyn Ogilvie [',' M B Ogilvie, Obligatory Amateurs: Annie Maunder (1868-1947) and British Women Astronomers at the Dawn of Professional Astronomy, British Journal for the History of Science 33 (2000), 67-84.','16]:- .
    • Possessing all the requisites for professionalism except the correct gender, she was not just an adjunct to Walter but an important contributor to astronomy in her own right.

  79. Mansur (970-1036)
    • Of Abu Nasr Mansur's works seven are on mathematics, the rest are on astronomy.
    • Abu Nasr Mansur's main achievements are his commentry on the Spherics of Menelaus, his role in the development of trigonometry from Ptolemy's calculation with chords towards the trigonometric functions used today, and his development of a set of tables which give easy numerical solutions to typical problems of spherical astronomy.
    • Menelaus's work formed the basis for Ptolemy's numerical solutions of spherical astronomy problems in the Almagest Ⓣ.
    • The article [',' C Jensen, Abu Nasr Mansur’s approach to spherical astronomy as developed in his treatise ’The table of minutes’, Centaurus 16 (1) (1971/72), 1-19.','4] is a description and study of The table of minutes of Abu Nasr Mansur.
    • The author of [',' C Jensen, Abu Nasr Mansur’s approach to spherical astronomy as developed in his treatise ’The table of minutes’, Centaurus 16 (1) (1971/72), 1-19.','4] traces the origins of the work to the 10th century Damascene tables by Habash.
    • Abu Nasr Mansur's treatise discusses the five trigonometric functions which are used to solve problems in spherical astronomy.

  80. Pythagoras (about 569 BC-about 475 BC)
    • However he did contribute to Pythagoras's interest in mathematics and astronomy, and advised him to travel to Egypt to learn more of these subjects.
    • This generalisation stemmed from Pythagoras's observations in music, mathematics and astronomy.
    • (vi) In astronomy Pythagoras taught that the Earth was a sphere at the centre of the Universe.
    • In addition to his beliefs about numbers, geometry and astronomy described above, he held [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.','2]:- .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  81. Brahmagupta (598-670)
    • Brahmagupta, whose father was Jisnugupta, wrote important works on mathematics and astronomy.
    • Outstanding mathematicians such as Varahamihira had worked there and built up a strong school of mathematical astronomy.
    • In addition to the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Ⓣ Brahmagupta wrote a second work on mathematics and astronomy which is the Khandakhadyaka Ⓣ written in 665 when he was 67 years old.
    • These ten chapters are arranged in topics which are typical of Indian mathematical astronomy texts of the period.
    • The chapters are: examination of previous treatises on astronomy; on mathematics; additions to chapter 1; additions to chapter 2; additions to chapter 3; additions to chapter 4 and 5; additions to chapter 7; on algebra; on the gnomon; on meters; on the sphere; on instruments; summary of contents; versified tables.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  82. Eudoxus (408 BC-355 BC)
    • After leaving Athens, he spent over a year in Egypt where he studied astronomy with the priests at Heliopolis.
    • However he continued his scholarly work, writing books and lecturing on theology, astronomy and meteorology.
    • The question of whether Eudoxus thought of his spheres as geometry or a physical reality is studied in the interesting paper [',' L Wright, The astronomy of Eudoxus : geometry or physics?, Studies in Hist.
    • As to the question of how much Eudoxus relied on observational data in verifying his hypothesis, Neugebauer writes in [',' O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).','7]:- .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  83. Oronce Fine (1494-1555)
    • Before being awarded his medical degree, Fine had edited mathematics and astronomy books for a Paris printer.
    • Among the texts which he edited were Peurbach's Theoricae Novae Planetarum, which presented Ptolemy's epicycle theory of the planets, and Sacrobosco's Tractatus de Sphaera, a book on astronomy in four chapters.
    • This latter topic was important for the later astronomy parts of the Protomathesis.
    • The third and fourth parts of the Protomathesis are on astronomy and astronomical instruments.
    • The third part is an elementary introduction to astronomy and is clearly intended as a fairly low level teaching text rather than a research monograph.
    • It appears that the goal of his publications, which range in subject from astronomy to instrumental music, was to popularise the university science that he himself had been taught.

  84. Maria Winckelmann (1670-1720)
    • Astronomy was always the subject that fascinated Winckelmann most so she took the opportunity of studying with Christopher Arnold.
    • Hevelius's wife Elisabetha collaborated with him in making astronomical observations, and this must certainly have helped Gottfried Kirch accept that women could make substantial contributions to astronomy.
    • Kirch had then instructed his own three sisters in astronomy and they acted as his assistants.
    • Gottfried Kirch, having trained his own three sisters in astronomy, now was able to work with his wife who was already a trained astronomer.
    • Building the observatory, which was officially founded on 11 July 1700 (the King's birthday), would take eleven years and there was no way that they could stop doing astronomy while waiting for the new building.
    • During this time astrology and astronomy were closely linked and much of the interest and funding for astronomical observations and calculations was though a widespread interest in astrology.

  85. Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
    • This in turn led him to study astronomy and mathematics and he began to make observations to determine longitude.
    • From that time on Bessel concentrated on astronomy, celestial mechanics and mathematics.
    • In 1809, at the age of 26, Bessel was appointed director of Frederick William III of Prussia's new Konigsberg Observatory and professor of astronomy.
    • the greatest and most glorious triumph which practical astronomy has ever witnessed.
    • This remarkable man who left formal education at the age of 14 made contributions beyond astronomy and mathematics.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  86. Michael Mästlin (1550-1631)
    • At Tubingen University he studied mathematics and astronomy for a Master's degree under Philipp Apian who was Peter Apian's son.
    • In 1570, while a student, he purchased a copy of Copernicus's De revolutionibus from the widow of Victorin Strigel, who had been professor of theology at Leipzig and the author of an astronomy text.
    • There he published the first edition of his famous astronomy textbook Epitome astronomiae (1582) - he published six further editions of this popular work during his lifetime.
    • Despite his commitment to the views of Copernicus (which we state below in his own words) this teaching textbook was written purely as a description of astronomy based on the geocentric model of Ptolemy.
    • Although clearly believing in the system as proposed by Copernicus, he taught astronomy using his own textbook which was based on Ptolemy's system.
    • His elementary teaching was certainly based on traditional astronomy, but Methuen concludes that he taught newer material to his more advanced students.

  87. Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827)
    • This paper contained equations which Laplace stated were important in mechanics and physical astronomy.
    • Not only had he made major contributions to difference equations and differential equations but he had examined applications to mathematical astronomy and to the theory of probability, two major topics which he would work on throughout his life.
    • His work on mathematical astronomy before his election to the Academy included work on the inclination of planetary orbits, a study of how planets were perturbed by their moons, and in a paper read to the Academie on 27 November 1771 he made a study of the motions of the planets which would be the first step towards his later masterpiece on the stability of the solar system.
    • Although Laplace soon returned to his study of mathematical astronomy, this work with Lavoisier marked the beginning of a third important area of research for Laplace, namely his work in physics particularly on the theory of heat which he worked on towards the end of his career.
    • The Exposition consisted of five books: the first was on the apparent motions of the celestial bodies, the motion of the sea, and also atmospheric refraction; the second was on the actual motion of the celestial bodies; the third was on force and momentum; the fourth was on the theory of universal gravitation and included an account of the motion of the sea and the shape of the Earth; the final book gave an historical account of astronomy and included his famous nebular hypothesis.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  88. Regiomontanus (1436-1476)
    • What attracted Regiomontanus to Vienna was principally the 85-year old University and especially its activity in mathematical astronomy and cosmology.
    • He worked on mathematics, astronomy, and constructed instruments such as astrolabes.
    • This provided an ideal position for Regiomontanus since it enabled him to both work with Martin Bylica on astronomy and also to enjoy his passion for old books.
    • Regiomontanus made important contributions to trigonometry and astronomy.
    • In the Epitome Regiomontanus, realising the need for a systematic account of trigonometry to support astronomy, promised to write such a treatise.
    • Books III, IV and V treat spherical trigonometry which, of course, is of major importance in astronomy.

  89. Henry Savile (1549-1622)
    • The second chair was the Savilian Chair of Astronomy, first occupied by John Bainbridge.
    • The professor of astronomy had to meet similar requirements, but in this case the text was to be Ptolemy's Almagest Ⓣ but full details of the newer theories had also to be presented such as those of Jabir ibn Aflah in his Correction of the Almagest and Copernicus's heliocentric point of view.
    • Other requirements for the astronomy professor was to teach spherics, calculation with sexagesimal numbers, optics, geography and navigation.
    • In fact he required the professor of astronomy to carry out research and, although this may not sound unusual by today's standards, at that time many professors did no more than teach.
    • These conditions were given to ensure that astronomy was be a subject that would develop and not be simply that fixed by the classical writers.
    • Savilian Chairs of Geometry and Astronomy .

  90. Platon Sergeevich Poretsky (1846-1907)
    • These include: various documents related to Poretsky's lectures on mathematical logic for mathematics department students at Kazan University which were intended to be given for three semesters in the autumn of 1887 and all of 1888 but were delivered only during the 1888 Spring semester, a complete mathematical logic program compiled by Poretsky, materials related to Poretsky's father and family, Poretsky's Magister's (master's) dissertation and the decision of the physics-mathematics faculty council to award him the doctorate in astronomy rather than the Magister, a complete list of the sources he used (including Boole, Jevons, Schroder, and Peano), biographical data and materials regarding his illness and subsequent dismissal from Kazan University.
    • He graduated in 1870 with a Candidates Degree and, at the suggestion of Ivan Ivanovich Fedorenko (1827-1888) the Professor of Astronomy, he worked as an astronomer and observer at Kharkov Observatory from 1871 to 1874.
    • On 25 May 1886 Poretsky defended his thesis for a master's degree in astronomy, entitled "On the solution of some of the normal systems occurring in spherical astronomy, with an application to identify errors in the division of the Kazan Observatory meridian circle" which he had submitted to the Physical-Mathematical Faculty of Kazan University [',' A P Youschkevitch, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).','1]:- .
    • the theoretical portion of [Poretsky's thesis] dealt with reducing the number of unknowns and equations for certain systems of cyclic equations that occur in practical astronomy.
    • As a consequence, the Board of the Faculty "because of its outstanding merit" decided to recommend the award of the degree of Doctor of Astronomy instead of the Master's Degree for which the thesis had been submitted.

  91. Shen Kua (1031-1095)
    • While Shen had worked as an official in the provinces he had undertaken a large number of highly successful projects but this had not fully occupied him and he had spent his spare time studying astronomy, calendar science, and the mathematics behind these.
    • In 1072 Shen was made Director of the Astronomy Bureau.
    • He made ambitious plans to reorganise the Astronomy Bureau and to collect the necessary astronomical data.
    • However, many of the staff at the Astronomy Bureau were incompetent and Shen had to dismiss six who he found were falsifying data.
    • It is a remarkable scientific document which contains his work on mathematics, music, astronomy, calendars, cartography, geology, optics and medicine.
    • Shen's work in astronomy is remarkable in many ways.

  92. Constantin Le Paige (1852-1929)
    • Le Paige undertook research for his doctorate in mathematics advised by Francois Folie, whose interests were mainly in descriptive geometry but also in astronomy, and he was also influenced by Catalan.
    • During the 1890s he began teaching courses on 'Celestial mechanics and analytical mechanics', the 'Elements of astronomy and geodesy', the 'History of mathematical and physical science', and 'Physical astronomy'.
    • Other topics in this area which interested him were the history of mathematical notation, and the history of astronomy, particularly Belgium astronomy.

  93. Al-Battani (about 868-929)
    • Being worshipers of the stars meant that the Sabians had a strong motivation for the study of astronomy and they produced many outstanding astronomers and mathematicians such as Thabit ibn Qurra.
    • one of the famous observers and a leader in geometry, theoretical and practical astronomy, and astrology.
    • He composed a work on astronomy, with tables, containing his own observations of the sun and moon and a more accurate description of their motions than that given in Ptolemy's "Almagest" Ⓣ.
    • There is his Kitab al-Zij which is his major work on astronomy with tables, referred to above.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  94. Mei Juecheng (1681-1763)
    • He asked Li Guangdi to find the best mathematics books and in 1703 Li gave the Emperor Kangxi a copy of Lixue yiwen (Inquiry on Mathematical Astronomy) written by Mei Wending in 1701.
    • In addition to those in the Academy of Mathematics, who studied mathematics, astronomy, and music, a large number of instrument makers were hired for the technical needs of the new academy.
    • In fact the Treasury of Mathematics was part of a larger project, the Luli yuanyuan (Sources of Musical Harmonics and Mathematical Astronomy).
    • Also included in the Sources was the Compendium of Observational and Computational Astronomy.
    • The first part was a general introduction to mathematical astronomy but then Mei Juecheng was able to make use of his grandfather Mei Wending's study of the motion of the moon to provide improved predictions of eclipses of the moon.

  95. Max Born (1882-1970)
    • The list of courses he took in session 1901-02 was certainly impressive, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, logic, philosophy, and zoology.
    • Max's favourite subjects from the ones he studied were mathematics and astronomy and he thought of specialising in astronomy.
    • However he annoyed Klein by only making irregular attendances at his lectures, so Born decided to substitute astronomy for geometry as one of his doctoral subjects.
    • He attended Schwarzschild's astronomy lectures and successfully obtained his doctorate in 1907 for a thesis on elastic stability.

  96. Gemma Frisius (1508-1555)
    • He studied for a medical degree but remained at Louvain to study mathematics and astronomy.
    • Gemma Frisius applied his mathematical expertise to geography, astronomy and map making.
    • Cosmographia provided a layman's introduction to such subjects as astronomy, geography, cartography, surveying, navigation and mathematical instruments.
    • The full Latin title of this work translates to On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography, with Instruction for the Use of Globes, and Information on the World and on Islands and Other Places Recently Discovered.
    • Some of these comet observations are described in works by his son, Cornelius Gemma Frisius, who was born in 1533 and went on to become professor of medicine and astronomy at Louvain.

  97. Heinrich Scherk (1798-1885)
    • It was at the High School that he became interested in mathematics and astronomy, topics which he worked on throughout his life.
    • Despite his interest in mathematics and astronomy at school, he first studied philology, philosophy and history when he entered university.
    • It was H W Brandes who taught him mathematics and astronomy at the University of Breslau, and quickly realised that Scherk had an outstanding pupil.
    • On 13 September 1833 Scherk was appointed as a successor to N T Reimer as the ordinary professor for mathematics and astronomy at the University of Kiel.
    • These included talks on astronomy on topics such as: meteors and comets; the movements of the nebulas; the distance between the sun and earth; sunspots; the determination of the parallax of the sun with the transit of the Venus on 16 March 1874; and one to commemorate the 400th birthday of Nikolaus Copernicus in February 1873.

  98. al-Kashi (1390-1450)
    • al-Kashi lived in poverty, like so many others at this time, and devoted himself to astronomy and mathematics while moving from town to town.
    • His Compendium of the Science of Astronomy written during 1410-11 was dedicated to one of the descendants of the ruling Timurid dynasty.
    • Ulugh Beg led scientific meetings where problems in astronomy were freely discussed.
    • The work is a major text intended to be used in teaching students in Samarkand, in particular al-Kashi tries to give the necessary mathematics for those studying astronomy, surveying, architecture, accounting and trading.
    • Let us end with one final comment on the al-Kashi's work in astronomy.

  99. Qadi Zada (1364-1436)
    • He completed his standard education in Basra and then studied geometry and astronomy with al-Fanari.
    • His teacher al-Fanari realised that Qadi Zada was a young man with great abilities in mathematics and astronomy and he advised him to visit the cultural centres of the empire, Khorasan or Transoxania, where he could benefit from coming in contact with the top mathematicians of his time.
    • Qadi Zada wrote a number of commentaries on works on mathematics and astronomy during his first years in Samarkand.
    • Scientific meetings were led by Ulugh Beg and in these sessions problems in astronomy were freely discussed.
    • The contents of this surviving work are described in [',' U Ataev, The commentary of Kazi-zade ar-Rumi on the astronomical treatise of Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I.

  100. Theodosius (about 160 BC-about 90 BC)
    • So Theodosius was the author of Sphaerics, a book on the geometry of the sphere, written to provide a mathematical background for astronomy.
    • It then goes on to consider geometry results which are relevant to astronomy and these continue to be studied through Book III.
    • Neugebauer, in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3], is highly critical of the Sphaerics calling it dull and pedantic only surviving because it was used as a textbook.
    • Theodosius comes nowhere near recognising the fundamental importance of the great-circle triangle and his theorems rarely go beyond the geometrically obvious in the relations between a few special great circles and their parallels, without ever mentioning that one is dealing with configurations of interest to astronomy.
    • Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3] makes some interesting comments on the diagrams in ancient texts and how they may have been totally changed by both early editors and even by modern editors.

  101. Charles Eugène Delaunay (1816-1872)
    • He published his first paper on astronomy submitting Note sur la precession des equinoxes Ⓣ to the Academy of Sciences in the same year.
    • Biot chose him, later in 1841, to substitute for him at the Sorbonne in giving the course in physical astronomy.
    • Delaunay published further papers on astronomy, publishing several papers on perturbations of Uranus in 1842 and 1843 and after this his first work on the theory of tides.
    • We mention also his report on the progress of astronomy Rapport sur les progres de l'astronomie Ⓣ (1867).
    • In 1855 Delaunay was elected to the Astronomy Section of the Academy of Sciences.

  102. William Chauvenet (1820-1870)
    • He also worked on astronomy at Philadelphia High School.
    • Chauvenet, who is considered to be one of the founders, moved to Annapolis when the Naval School opened in 1845 being appointed as professor of mathematics and astronomy and also as head of department.
    • Chauvenet held his mathematics position at the Academy until 1853 when he became professor of astronomy, navigation and surveying there.
    • Yale offered him a professorship in mathematics in 1855 but he declined, then again in 1859 they offered him the chair of astronomy and natural philosophy and again he declined.
    • As a textbook writer we mention Chauvenet's A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry (1850), Spherical astronomy (1863), Theory and use of astronomical instruments : Method of least squares (1863), and A treatise of elementary geometry (1870).

  103. Nilakantha (1444-1544)
    • Nilakantha studied astronomy and Vedanta, one of the six orthodox systems of Indian Hindu philosophy, under the teacher Ravi.
    • A number of texts on mathematical astronomy written by Nilakantha have survived.
    • In all he wrote about ten treatises on astronomy.
    • The Tantrasamgraha is his major astronomy treatise written in 1501.
    • It consists of 432 Sanskrit verses divided into 8 chapters, and it covers various aspects of Indian astronomy.

  104. Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1787)
    • He learnt science in a way characteristic of his later career, through independent study of mathematics, physics, astronomy, and geodesy.
    • He was one of the first in continental Europe to accept Newton's gravitational theories and he wrote 70 papers on optics, astronomy, gravitation, meteorology and trigonometry.
    • Boscovich, who attended meetings of the Academy of Sciences during his stay in Paris, was known in France for his studies on astronomy, the aurora borealis, and the measurement of the arch of the meridian through Rome and Rimini which he had carried out in 1739.
    • In November of 1769, Boscovich was called from Pavia to teach astronomy and optics at the Palatine Schools in Milan.
    • In the period between 1769 and 1771, he intensified his research activities in the fields of astronomy and optics at the Brera Observatory, which he himself had designed.

  105. Mahendra Suri (about 1340-about 1410)
    • It had been influenced by Islam and in particular Islamic astronomy came to form a part of the background.
    • However, Pingree in [',' D Pingree, Islamic astronomy in Sanskrit, J.
    • 2 (2) (1978), 315-330; 425.','4] writes that this filtering of Islamic astronomy into Indian culture was:- .
    • The ideas of Islamic astronomy began to appear in works in the Sanskrit language and it is the Islamic ideas on the astrolabe which Mahendra Suri wrote on in his famous text.
    • that his work is based on Islamic rather than traditional Indian astronomy works.

  106. Thomas Clausen (1801-1885)
    • He performed so well in his final school examinations that Holst recommended him to Heinrich Christian Schumacher, the professor as astronomy at the University of Copenhagen.
    • He had got to know Holst since his surveying work had taken him to the district where Holst, the local astronomy expert, lived.
    • He did not carry out any observational duties in this post and was left on his own to undertake research into mathematics and astronomy.
    • In February 1842 he was appointed to the observatory in Tartu as Professor of Astronomy and began work there in the October of that year [',' T Viik, Thomas Clausen - from shepherd boy to professor (2004).','17]:- .
    • Clausen wrote over 150 papers on pure mathematics, applied mathematics, astronomy and geophysics.

  107. James Jeans (1877-1946)
    • Jeans was awarded an Isaac Newton Studentship in astronomy and optics, then in 1901 he was elected a Fellow of Trinity.
    • He was very active in research publishing work on a variety of topics in applied mathematics, physics and astronomy from 1901 onwards.
    • As we have noted Jeans worked on thermodynamics, heat and other aspects of radiation, publishing major works on these topics and on applications to astronomy.
    • His technical books, other than those mentioned above, are Astronomy and Cosmogony (1928), and Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases (1940).
    • Really despite his work in astronomy and physics, Jeans always thought as a mathematician and always considered himself a mathematician.

  108. Edmund Whittaker (1873-1956)
    • His interests at this time were on the applied side of mathematics which is certainly illustrated by the fact that, in 1894, he was awarded the Sheepshanks Exhibition in Astronomy.
    • Other courses Whittaker taught at Cambridge included astronomy, geometrical optics, and electricity and magnetism.
    • Whittaker's interest in astronomy is illustrated by the courses he taught, but he also joined the Royal Astronomical Society serving as its secretary from 1901 to 1906.
    • He was at the same time appointed as Professor of Astronomy at the University of Dublin.
    • The Observatory was not well equipped and his appointment as Royal Astronomer was more to teach mathematical physics at the University than to undertake observational astronomy.

  109. Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874)
    • Quetelet's time at the College of Ghent was not all spent on literary pursuits, however, for he came under the influence of Garnier, the professor of astronomy and higher mathematics.
    • In December 1823, he went to Paris to study astronomy at the Observatory there.
    • He learnt astronomy from Arago and Bouvard and the theory of probability under Joseph Fourier and Pierre Laplace.
    • He also began to give public lectures at the Museum in Brussels on topics such as geometry, probability, physics, and astronomy.
    • Quetelet had been sent to Paris at the expense of the state in order that he could gain experience in practical astronomy.

  110. Henry Briggs (1561-1630)
    • This letter shows that at this time Briggs was greatly interested in astronomy, in particular he was studying eclipses.
    • This was a topic which involved many heavy calculations so Briggs was greatly struck when he read Napier's work on logarithms by the great help that they would provide to those involved in astronomy.
    • At last Mr Briggs began, -"My Lord, I have undertaken this long journey purposely to see your person, and to know by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came first to think of this most excellent help unto astronomy, viz.
    • Gellibrand was professor of astronomy at Gresham College and was particularly interested in applications of logarithms to trigonometry.
    • His interest in astronomy continued throughout his years at Gresham College and six letters still exist which were written to him between 1603 and 1619 by Sir Christopher Heydon on comets and other astronomical and mathematical topics.

  111. Al-Khalili (about 1320-about 1380)
    • Note that the articles [',' D A King, Al-Khalili’s auxiliary tables for solving problems of spherical astronomy, J.
    • 34 (2) (1975), 81-122.','4] and [',' D A King, The astronomy of the Mamluks, Isis 74 (274) (1983), 531-555.','5] are reprinted in [',' D A King, Islamic mathematical astronomy (London, 1986).','2].
    • tables for reckoning time by the sun, for the latitude of Damascus; tables for regulating the time of Muslim prayer, for the latitude of Damascus; tables of auxiliary mathematical functions for timekeeping by the sun for all latitudes; tables of auxiliary mathematical functions for solving the problems of spherical astronomy for all latitudes; a table for displaying ..
    • Al-Khalili's tables for solving the problems of spherical astronomy can be seen to be tables which solve spherical triangles using a method similar to the modern cosine rule.

  112. Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC)
    • According to a tradition which arose about two hundred and fifty years after his death, which then became dominant and even today is hardly disputed, Aristotle in these same years lectured - not once, but two or three times, in almost every subject - on logic, physics, astronomy, meteorology, zoology, metaphysics, theology, psychology, politics, economics, ethics, rhetoric, poetics; and that he wrote down these lectures, expanding them and amending them several times, until they reached the stage in which we read them.
    • He also made contributions to the study of astronomy where in particular he studied comets, geography with an examination of features such as rivers), chemistry where he was interested in processes such as burning, as well as meteorology and the study of rainbows.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  113. Conon (about 280 BC-about 220 BC)
    • However, Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','5] claims that:- .
    • Also lost is Conon's major work on astronomy, the seven books of De astrologia, which included solar eclipse observations.
    • As to Conon's skills as an observer, Seneca, writing in the first century AD, says [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','5]:- .
    • But Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','5] adds that this is:- .
    • a story difficult to take seriously in view of what we know of Egyptian astronomy.

  114. Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635)
    • While studying at Tubingen, he was taught mathematics and astronomy by Michael Mastlin.
    • However, his research was broad and, in addition to Hebrew, included astronomy, mathematics and surveying.
    • In astronomy he invented a conic projection for star maps in the Astroscopium.
    • In 1631 Schickard had rather a change of subject, being appointed to the chair of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Tubingen left vacant by the death of his teacher Michael Mastlin.
    • As professor of astronomy Schickard lectured on the topic and undertook research into the motion of the moon.

  115. Philippe de la Hire (1640-1718)
    • Rather surprisingly, his election was to the astronomy section.
    • He had, at that time, made no contributions to astronomy but Fontenelle [',' B de Fontenelle, Oeuvres Completes de Fontenelle 1 (Paris, 1818), 257-266.','3] suggests that his election was on the strength of his excellent publications in geometry.
    • Courses he lectured included astronomy, mechanics, hydrostatics, dioptrics, and navigation.
    • Other topics to which he made important contributions included astronomy, physics and geodesy.
    • In astronomy he installed the first transit instrument in the Paris Observatory.

  116. Forest Ray Moulton (1872-1952)
    • In 1898 he became an associate professor and Director of the Department of Astronomy.
    • Moulton's main interests were in the application of mathematics to problems in astronomy.
    • His books include An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics (1902), An introduction to astronomy (1906), Descriptive astronomy (1912), Periodic orbits (1920) The Nature of the World and Man (1926), Differential equations (1930), Astronomy (1931), and Consider the Heavens (1935).

  117. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
    • The mechanics of the Copernican astronomy of Galileo attracted him and he also studied Kepler's Optics.
    • There, in a period of less than two years, while Newton was still under 25 years old, he began revolutionary advances in mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy.
    • Halley persuaded Newton to write a full treatment of his new physics and its application to astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  118. Gustav Elfving (1908-1984)
    • Elfving graduated from the Gymnasium in the spring of 1926 and, later that year, entered the University of Helsinki with the intention of studying astronomy.
    • Of course, aiming at an astronomy degree meant that he took mathematics courses and he quickly fell in love with the subject.
    • Elfving changed from majoring in astronomy to majoring in mathematics and graduated in 1930 with astronomy and physics as minor subjects.
    • (Anders Donner (1854-1938) was the professor of astronomy at the University of Helsinki observatory between 1883 and 1915.) Elfving had worked as an computational assistant at the Helsinki Observatory during the years 1927-29 while studying for his first degree.

  119. Mikhail Fedorovich Subbotin (1893-1966)
    • Although mainly interested in mathematics at this stage, he did begin to find an interest in astronomy when he worked as a calculator for the university observatory.
    • From 1930 he worked in astronomy and celestial mechanics at Leningrad (St Petersburg) University being appointed as head of the astronomy department there.
    • Subbotin recommended that the Institute become the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1943 and his recommendation was followed.
    • His astronomy work used his mathematical skills and [',' P G Kulikovsky, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).','1]:- .

  120. Jason J Nassau (1893-1965)
    • He became an assistant professor of astronomy at Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1921.
    • In 1924 he became the first chair of astronomy at Case.
    • In 1932 Nassau's A Textbook of Practical Astronomy was published by the McGraw-Hill Book Company.
    • It is awarded annually to an outstanding senior student in the Case Western Reserve University Department of Astronomy.
    • J J Nassau - Practical Astronomy .

  121. Nicholas Kryffs (1401-1464)
    • It was in Padua that Nicholas learnt about the latest developments in mathematics and astronomy and, twenty years later, Nicholas dedicated two of his mathematical works to Toscanelli.
    • In 1444 he became interested in astronomy and purchased sixteen books on astronomy, a wooden celestial globe, a copper celestial globe and various astronomical instruments including an astrolabe.
    • (His astronomical instruments are today preserved in the library at Kues.) His interest in astronomy certainly led him to certain theories which were true and others which may still prove to be true.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  122. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    • At Padua his duties were mainly to teach Euclid's geometry and standard (geocentric) astronomy to medical students, who would need to know some astronomy in order to make use of astrology in their medical practice.
    • However, Galileo argued against Aristotle's view of astronomy and natural philosophy in three public lectures he gave in connection with the appearance of a New Star (now known as 'Kepler's supernova') in 1604.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  123. Eratosthenes (276 BC-194 BC)
    • 11 (4) (1984), 411-416.','10], [',' D Rawlins, Eratosthenes’ geodest unraveled : was there a high-accuracy Hellenistic astronomy, Isis 73 (1982), 259-265.','15] and [',' D Rawlins, The Eratosthenes - Strabo Nile map.
    • The paper [',' D Rawlins, Eratosthenes’ geodest unraveled : was there a high-accuracy Hellenistic astronomy, Isis 73 (1982), 259-265.','15] is particularly interesting.
    • However Rawlins [',' D Rawlins, Eratosthenes’ geodest unraveled : was there a high-accuracy Hellenistic astronomy, Isis 73 (1982), 259-265.','15] believes that a continued fraction method was used to calculate the value 11/83 while Fowler [',' D H Fowler, Eratosthenes’ ratio for the obliquity of the ecliptic, Isis 74 (274) (1983), 556-562.','9] proposes that the anthyphairesis (or Euclidean algorithm) method was used (see also [',' D H Fowler, The mathematics of Plato’s academy : a new reconstruction (Oxford, 1987).','3]).
    • Eratosthenes writings include the poem Hermes, inspired by astronomy, as well as literary works on the theatre and on ethics which was a favourite topic of the Greeks.
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  124. Harlow Shapley (1885-1972)
    • Shapley recalls in his autobiography that he decided to study the first subject in the alphabetically ordered list, but, not knowing how to pronounce archaeology, he ended up studying astronomy.
    • A result of this was his first paper Astronomy in Horace (1909), published in "Popular Astronomy" where, as he indicates rather surprisingly at the beginning of the paper, he is not concerned with scholarly views of astronomy:- .
    • Aside from astronomy, he developed the hobby of studying the ants around the Observatory.

  125. Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
    • In 1691 he applied for the vacant Savilian Chair of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • Given his outstanding research in astronomy, one would have expected him to be appointed to this chair but Flamsteed was strongly against the appointment.
    • most notable achievement in stellar astronomy ..
    • Halley's other activities included studying archaeology, geophysics, the history of astronomy, and the solution of polynomial equations.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  126. Petrus Apianus (1495-1552)
    • He entered the University of Leipzig where he studied mathematics, astronomy and cosmography.
    • As such it required someone who specialised in the topic to be an expert in astronomy, geography, mapmaking, navigation, surveying, architecture, mathematical instruments, and sundials.
    • Cosmographia provided an introduction to astronomy, geography, cartography, surveying, navigation, weather and climate, the shape of the earth, map projections, and mathematical instruments.
    • Like all other works by Apian this book contained a host of applications of mathematics, and the sine tables are applied to problems of astronomy, navigation and architecture.

  127. Egnatio Danti (1536-1586)
    • His father, made little gold statues and also constructed astronomical and surveying instruments, while his grandfather had translated Johannes de Sacrobosco's astronomy text of 1220, Tractatus de Sphaera, into Italian.
    • As he grew up Egnatio was taught the fundamentals of painting, architecture, and astronomy by his father and his aunt.
    • As a Dominicans he continued to study philosophy and theology but he became increasingly interested in the study of mathematics, astronomy, and cartography.
    • During his time in Tuscany Danti had continued his interest in astronomy and in particular he had designed a number of astronomical instruments.

  128. Bhaskara II (1114-1185)
    • Outstanding mathematicians such as Varahamihira and Brahmagupta had worked there and built up a strong school of mathematical astronomy.
    • The six works are: Lilavati (The Beautiful) which is on mathematics; Bijaganita (Seed Counting or Root Extraction) which is on algebra; the Siddhantasiromani which is in two parts, the first on mathematical astronomy with the second part on the sphere; the Vasanabhasya of Mitaksara which is Bhaskaracharya's own commentary on the Siddhantasiromani ; the Karanakutuhala (Calculation of Astronomical Wonders) or Brahmatulya which is a simplified version of the Siddhantasiromani ; and the Vivarana which is a commentary on the Shishyadhividdhidatantra of Lalla.
    • The Siddhantasiromani is a mathematical astronomy text similar in layout to many other Indian astronomy texts of this and earlier periods.

  129. Ellen Hayes (1851-1930)
    • She not only learnt to read and write, but she also learnt some astronomy and botany.
    • Her most important pieces of original scientific work were done in astronomy.
    • In 1904 the Department of Applied Mathematics was extended and became the Department of Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, with Hayes still as its Head.
    • My courses with her included Calculus, Celestial Mechanics, Logic, and Astronomy.

  130. Guillaume Bigourdan (1851-1932)
    • The French astronomer and mathematician Guillaume Bigourdan, nicknamed the "Benedictine of Astronomy", was born in Sistels, France, on 6 April 1851 to peasant parents Pierre Bigourdan and Jeanne Carrere.
    • He was also a member of multiple scientific societies, and held many important roles: he became a member of the Bureau des Longitudes in 1903 and worked to enrich their Annuaire with notices of interesting researches in current astronomy, such as determinations of parallax and classification of stellar spectra; also in 1903, he was elected an Associate of the Royal Astronomical Society; 1904 saw him become a member of the French Academy of Sciences, becoming vice-president in 1923.
    • This was certainly not his first historical work for he had published The first learned societies of Paris in the seventeenth century: and the origins of the Academy of Science (1918) and History of observational astronomy and observatories in France (3 volumes) (1918).
    • During his stays, he worked on cultivating his land, went to see his former classmates and spoke with them only in Occitan (a Romance language spoken in southern France), even when he gave lessons in astronomy.

  131. René de Sluze (1622-1685)
    • After this de Sluze remained in Rome where he greatly enjoyed the scholarly environment and he studied a large number of subjects including many languages such as Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Syriac, as well as mathematics and astronomy.
    • He also wrote on astronomy, physics, natural history, history and theological matters connected with his work in the church.
    • his research ranged from mathematics to astronomy, chronometry, chemistry, medicine, embryology, the development of the thermometer and the barometer, and the transfusion of blood.
    • De Sluze left hundreds of pages of unpublished work, including a history of Cologne as well as much on mathematics, astronomy, physics and natural history.

  132. Bartel van der Waerden (1903-1996)
    • Van der Waerden worked on algebraic geometry, abstract algebra, groups, topology, number theory, geometry, combinatorics, analysis, probability theory, mathematical statistics, quantum mechanics, the history of mathematics, the history of modern physics, the history of astronomy and the history of ancient science.
    • Among his many historical books are Ontwakende wetenschap Ⓣ (1950) translated into English as Science Awakening (1954), Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy (1974), Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations (1983), and A History of Algebra (1985).
    • The papers which appeared in the years 1986-88 include: Francesco Severi and the foundations of algebraic geometry (1986), On Greek and Hindu trigonometry (1987), The heliocentric system in Greek, Persian and Hindu astronomy (1987), The astronomical system of the Persian tables (1988), On the Romaka-Siddhanta (1988), Reconstruction of a Greek table of chords (1988), and The motion of Venus in Greek, Egyptian and Indian texts (1988).
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  133. Nicolaus Mercator (1620-1687)
    • While he was working there, he published a number of textbooks on spherical trigonometry, geography and astronomy [',' D T Whiteside, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • The second of these texts deals with physical geography, while the third is a text on spherical astronomy.
    • He published nothing for ten years but we do know that he maintained his interests in astronomy.
    • Mercator published a further two volume work in astronomy Institutiones astronomicae Ⓣ in 1676.

  134. Cleomedes (about 10-about 70)
    • Cleomedes is known only through his book On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies which is an uninspiring astronomy textbook.
    • In fact On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies ends with the words (see for example [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]):- .
    • Neugebauer gives samples of the sense and nonsense which are mixed in Cleomedes [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]:- .
    • This is one of the best known of the achievements of early mathematical astronomy and we are indebted to Cleomedes for relating the method.

  135. Achille-Pierre Dionis du Séjour (1734-1794)
    • He combined this political career with his research in mathematics and astronomy which, although of high quality, was no more than a hobby for him.
    • However, he wrote extensively on applications of mathematics to astronomy, in particular planetary orbits, and his work was highly regarded by Lagrange, Laplace and Condorcet.
    • Dionis du Sejour applied the latest analytic mathematical methods to the study of problems in astronomy.
    • He published two other volumes on mathematical astronomy.

  136. Sripati (1019-1066)
    • Sripati was a follower of the teaching of Lalla writing on astrology, astronomy and mathematics.
    • His mathematical work was undertaken with applications to astronomy in mind, for example a study of spheres.
    • His work on astronomy was undertaken to provide a basis for his astrology.
    • Among Sripati's works are: Dhikotidakarana written in 1039, a work of twenty verses on solar and lunar eclipses; Dhruvamanasa written in 1056, a work of 105 verses on calculating planetary longitudes, eclipses and planetary transits; Siddhantasekhara a major work on astronomy in 19 chapters; and Ganitatilaka an incomplete arithmetical treatise in 125 verses based on a work by Sridhara.

  137. David Gregory (1659-1708)
    • During his travels he studied the works of Descartes, Hudde, and Fermat but in addition to mathematical interests he also became increasing interested in physics and astronomy.
    • In 1691, the year after Presbyterianism was established as the official state religion in Scotland, Gregory resigned the mathematical chair at the University of Edinburgh and assumed the Savilian Professorship of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • In 1691 Gregory, as indicated in the above quote, was elected Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • 1.nSavilian Astronomy Professorn1691 .

  138. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750)
    • From Utrecht, he moved on to Leiden in April 1701 where he was welcomed by Lothar Zumbach von Koesfeld, the professor of astronomy, who invited him to live in his home during his visit.
    • Before the end of 1701 he was back in Holland, returning to Leiden for a five month visit to attend astronomy lectures by Lothar Zumbach von Koesfeld.
    • Doppelmayr wrote on astronomy, spherical trigonometry, sundials and mathematical instruments.
    • He used his language skills to translate a number of texts on astronomy, geography and scientific instrument into German or Latin.

  139. John Sacrobosco (about 1195-1256)
    • In 1220 Sacrobosco wrote Tractatus de Sphaera a book on astronomy in four chapters.
    • The book, which predates Grosseteste's astronomy book, is well written and was widely used throughout Europe from the middle of the 13th Century.
    • Clavius used in the 16th Century and it was still the basic astronomy text until the 17th Century.
    • It was essentially the first astronomy text to be printed in 1472.

  140. Ismael Boulliau (1605-1694)
    • Certainly as the young boy grew up he was taught about astronomy by his father although he studied law and the humanities rather than science.
    • Boulliau had the right skills for the work he undertook, for he was a broad scholar with a deep interest in history, philosophy and classics, yet equally at home in the scientific circles of Paris where he began to shine building on the firm foundations in astronomy taught by his father.
    • The Astronomia philolaica is finally complete, but I have a quarrel on my hands, as Jean-Baptiste Morin, the Prince - according to his own views - of the whole of Astronomy, has come across something not to his advantage or liking.
    • The other astronomy text worth mentioning is Ad astronomos monita duo Ⓣ (1667) in which he established for the first time the period of the variable star Mira Ceti, a long-period variable.

  141. Ulugh Beg (1393-1449)
    • Although in this archive we are primarily interested in Ulugh Beg's achievements in mathematics and astronomy, we need to examine the history of the area since it had such a major impact on Ulugh Beg's life.
    • In 1417, to push forward the study of astronomy, Ulugh Beg began building a madrasah which is a centre for higher education.
    • Ulugh Beg led scientific meetings where problems in astronomy were freely discussed.
    • The achievements of the scientists at the Observatory, working there under Ulugh Beg's direction and in collaboration with him, are discussed in detail in [',' T N Kary-Nijazov, The Ulugh Beg school of astronomy (Russian) (Tashkent, 1967).','4].

  142. Felix Hausdorff (1868-1942)
    • Hausdorff studied at Leipzig University under Heinrich Bruns and Adolph Mayer, graduating in 1891 with a doctorate in applications of mathematics to astronomy.
    • He published four papers on astronomy and optics over the next few years and he submitted his habilitation thesis to Leipzig in 1895, also based on his research into astronomy and optics.
    • We have mentioned above Hausdorff's early work on astronomy, his work on philosophy, and his literature.

  143. Heron of Alexandria (about 10-about 75)
    • The mechanicians of Heron's school say that mechanics can be divided into a theoretical and a manual part; the theoretical part is composed of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and physics, the manual of work in metals, architecture, carpentering and painting and anything involving skill with the hands.
    • It contains a chapter on astronomy giving a method to find the distance between Alexandria and Rome using the difference between local times at which an eclipse of the moon is observed at each cities.
    • Neugebauer writes [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','7]:- .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  144. Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553)
    • After Professor Johannes Volmar's death in 1536, at the instigation of Philipp Melanchthon, Reinhold obtained the professorship of "Mathematum Superiorum" in the University of Wittenberg, which included astronomy, while his colleague Georg Joachim Rheticus became "Mathematum Inferiorum".
    • Melanchthon played a major role in getting both Reinhold and Rheticus appointed to teach mathematics and astronomy at the University of Wittenberg in 1536.
    • Reinhold sums up his approach to Copernicus's opus by a motto inscribed on the title page, a paraphrase of the chapter title I,4 'The Axiom of astronomy: Celestial motion is uniform and circular, or composed of uniform and circular motions'.
    • The present edition of the first book is aimed at making students familiar with the basics of astronomy, which are preliminary to a correct understanding of the other books of the 'Almagest'.

  145. Winifred Edgerton Merrill (1862-1951)
    • After working at Harvard, in 1884 Merrill applied, to Columbia University, in New York, to be allowed to study mathematics and astronomy.
    • She argued the points that to be able to study astronomy Merrill needed a telescope and only Columbia University had one and also that the Professor of Astronomy required an assistant at the time.
    • Her work in the field of mathematical astronomy included in 1883 the computation of the orbit of a comet.

  146. Harold Jeffreys (1891-1989)
    • From 1932 to 1946 he taught geophysics there, then he became Plumian Professor of Astronomy.
    • In astronomy he studied the outer planets proposing models for their structures.
    • for distinguished work in geophysics and his important contributions to the astronomy of the solar system.
    • in recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy.

  147. Jeremiah Horrocks (1618-1641)
    • Certainly some members of the family were watchmakers and it is said that a watchmaker brother of Mary Aspinwall first interested Jeremiah in astronomy.
    • A very minor part of the course would cover Euclid's Elements and Ptolemy's astronomy.
    • Since Horrocks left Cambridge with a deep knowledge of the latest ideas in astronomy due to Copernicus and Kepler, as well as the expertise in mathematics to further develop their ideas, this tells us that he studied mathematics and astronomy in his own time.

  148. Victor Puiseux (1820-1883)
    • He had lots of free time and spent much of it walking in the countryside, enjoying nature but also thinking deeply about mathematics and mathematical astronomy.
    • In 1853-54 he was acted as a substitute for Jacques Binet in astronomy at the College de France.
    • In 1857 he was appointed professor of mathematical astronomy at the Faculty of Science, having earlier taught courses there for Le Verrier after he succeeded to Cauchy's position.
    • He went on to become professor of astronomy at the University of Paris.

  149. Al-Khwarizmi (about 790-about 850)
    • Their tasks there involved the translation of Greek scientific manuscripts and they also studied, and wrote on, algebra, geometry and astronomy.
    • These were his treatise on algebra and his treatise on astronomy.
    • Another important work by al-Khwarizmi was his work Sindhind zij on astronomy.
    • The main topics covered by al-Khwarizmi in the Sindhind zij are calendars; calculating true positions of the sun, moon and planets, tables of sines and tangents; spherical astronomy; astrological tables; parallax and eclipse calculations; and visibility of the moon.

  150. Yves Rocard (1903-1992)
    • After the war, Rocard returned to France and proposed that France set up a site to conduct radio astronomy.
    • By 1952, despite the pioneering work in radio astronomy in France, it became clear that others were using more powerful instruments and the French could not compete.
    • A site was found for the radio astronomy observatory at Nancay in the Cher region, 200 km due south of Paris.
    • In addition to his work on radio astronomy, Rocard contributed to the development of the French atomic bomb.

  151. Giovanni Plana (1781-1864)
    • As a consequence Piedmont was given to France so Plana found himself in France again without making a move! In 1811 Lagrange recommended Plana for the chair of astronomy at the University of Turin, and Plana was appointed to the position.
    • He would teach in Turin for the rest of his life, teaching both astronomy and mathematics, and teaching both at the university and at the school of artillery there.
    • Topics Plana worked on, in addition to astronomy, were integrals, elliptic functions, heat, electrostatics and geodesy.
    • In astronomy his most famous work relates to the motion of the moon.

  152. Takebe Katahiro (1664-1739)
    • Takebe's enthusiasm for the study of mathematics and astronomy was invigorated again from 1716.
    • Yoshimune was fascinated by astronomy and had a large globe made.
    • presents the contribution in astronomy and calendar science of Japanese mathematician Takebe, who worked around 1720-1730 on those subjects.
    • By this study, the author draws the conclusion that Takebe (whose work is still unpublished, and partly lost) had a role in the history of scientific thought, as his aim was to improve, by the assistance of geometry and mathematics, calculation techniques so that astronomy and calendar science could become, in Japan too, exact sciences.

  153. Josip Plemelj (1873-1967)
    • Topics other than mathematics also interested him, especially physics and astronomy.
    • He studied both the theoretical aspects of astronomy and also the practical aspects spending many evenings observing the stars and planets.
    • In 1894 Plemelj took his final school examinations and entered the Faculty of Arts of the University of Vienna to study his three favourite school subjects of mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • His physics lecturer was Boltzmann, perhaps the best known of all his teachers who was appointed to the chair of theoretical physics in Vienna in 1894, while his astronomy lecturer was Edmund Weiss.

  154. Jacques Binet (1786-1856)
    • Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre was appointed as the professor of astronomy at the College in 1807 and from around 1815 Binet was appointed as his assistant.
    • Delambre died in August 1822 and, in the following year, Binet was appointed to fill the vacant chair of astronomy at the College de France.
    • Binet's other contributions were in the fields of physics and astronomy, and since he held the chair of astronomy at the College de France for over 30 years this is not surprising.

  155. Johann Werner (1468-1522)
    • Werner's main scientific work was on astronomy, mathematics and geography.
    • In astronomy he followed Regiomontanus, having access to all his writings which he studied carefully, while on the practical side was a skilled maker of instruments.
    • His instruments include astrolabes, clocks, sundials, improved versions of Jacob's staff, and instruments to solve theoretical problems in spherical astronomy.
    • Werner's most famous work on astronomy and geography is In Hoc Opere Haec Continentur Nova Translatio Primi Libri Geographicae Cl Ptolomaei Ⓣ written in 1514.

  156. Yavanesvara (about 120-about 180)
    • Until around the first century AD no real distinction was made between astrology and astronomy and in fact most astronomical theories were propounded to support the theory that the positions of the heavenly bodies directly influenced human events.
    • The work was written with the aim of letting Indians became astrologers so it had to present astronomy in a form in which it could be used for astrology.
    • Although the influence was more than on astrology, as the science of astronomy split from astrology, the influence of Yavanesvara's work reached into astronomy too.

  157. Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762)
    • He gained an interest in mathematics and started studying astronomy on his own.
    • Through astronomy, Abbe Lacaille became friends with Jacques Cassini, then director of the Paris Observatory.
    • There, he published many textbooks based on his lectures in mathematics (Lecons de Mathematiques Ⓣ, 1741), in mechanics (Lecons de Mecanique Ⓣ, 1743), in astronomy (Lecons d'Astronomie geometrique et physique Ⓣ, 1746) and in optics (Lecons d'Optique Ⓣ, 1750).
    • Lacaille proposed a project for improving the foundations of astronomy, revising solar theory, and forming a star catalogue, and he invited the other astronomers of the Academy to join him in this undertaking.

  158. Banu Musa brothers (about 800-about 860)
    • Jafar Muhammad worked mainly on geometry and astronomy while Ahmad worked mainly on mechanics and al-Hasan worked mainly on geometry.
    • An example of this change is seen in the life of Musa ibn Shakir, the father of the Banu Musa brothers, who was a robber in his youth but turned to science, becoming highly proficient in astronomy.
    • The brothers were given the best education in Baghdad, studying geometry, mechanics, music, mathematics and astronomy.
    • In astronomy the brothers made many contributions.

  159. Posidonius (135 BC-51 BC)
    • Posidonius travelled widely in the western Mediterranean region and he made many scientific studies on his travels relating to astronomy, geography and geology.
    • His work on astronomy is fairly well known to us through the treatise by Cleomedes On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies.
    • As to his calculations of the sun, Neugebauer writes [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]:- .
    • Posidonius's attempts (according to Cleomedes) to determine the size of the sun are rather naive and make it difficult to understand that his astronomy was not ridiculed by authors like Cicero and Pliny who pretend to know the work of Hipparchus.

  160. Pappus (about 290-about 350)
    • Book VI deals with the books on astronomy which were collected into the Little Astronomy so-called in contrast to Ptolemy's Almagest Ⓣ or Greater Astronomy.
    • Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','5] writes:- .

  161. Aryabhata (476-550)
    • The problem arose from studying the problem in astronomy of determining the periods of the planets.
    • We have looked at the mathematics contained in the Aryabhatiya Ⓣ but this is an astronomy text so we should say a little regarding the astronomy which it contains.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .

  162. Jost Bürgi (1552-1632)
    • Although Burgi never learnt Latin (the language of science at this time), he was very knowledgeable in mathematics and astronomy with skills compatible with having been immersed in the scientific circle in Strasbourg, but certainly not as part of a university course.
    • The Landgraf, as we have mentioned, was trained in astronomy and it is often not realised that he was an exceptional astronomer whose observations, particularly those of the fixed stars, were on the whole at least as accurate as those by Tycho Brahe.
    • For the first time a clock was sufficiently accurate to be used in astronomy with relative positions of stars being calculated by timing their crossing of the sights of a telescope.
    • Burgi went on to teach the boy mathematics and astronomy to such a high level that he became one of the leading scientists of his day.

  163. Alexander Wilson (1714-1786)
    • What were Wilson's 'other scholarly activities' we referred to above? He was an excellent physicist with special interests in astronomy and, in 1760, he was appointed to the chair of astronomy in Glasgow University, holding the post until he resigned in 1784.
    • We noted above that Wilson resigned his chair of astronomy at Glasgow in 1784.
    • Not only did the type business pass to his sons, but so also did the chair of astronomy which was filled by Patrick Wilson, Alexander Wilson's middle son.

  164. Irving Segal (1918-1998)
    • The papers which he wrote developing this theory include A variant of special relativity and long-distance astronomy (1974) and Theoretical foundations of the chronometric cosmology (1976).
    • He set out his theory of chronometric cosmology in detail in his 1976 book Mathematical Cosmology and Extragalactic Astronomy.
    • Let us look briefly at some of the books Segal published in addition to Mathematical Cosmology and Extragalactic Astronomy (1976) which we mentioned above.
    • Before we do, however, let us quote a typical reaction to Segal's work on cosmology as expressed by A H Taub in his review of the 1976 book [',' A H Taub, Review: Mathematical cosmology and extragalactic astronomy by Irving Ezra Segal, Bull.

  165. John Machin (1680-1751)
    • On 16 May 1713 Machin was appointed as Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, London.
    • J Machin, Professor of Astronomy, and Henry Pemberton, M.D., have independently found the motion of the nodes by yet another method.
    • However this work, like most of his contributions to astronomy, is not highly rated.
    • Clerke writes in [',' A M Clerke, John Machin, Dictionary of National Biography XII (London, 1893), 554.','2] about another astronomy project:- .

  166. Baha' al-Din al-Amili (1547-1621)
    • We will say a little about his contributions to this wide range of topics but we will concentrate on his contributions to mathematics and astronomy.
    • Other works on astronomy included: The Flat Surface, a work on the astrolabe; A Treatise on Astronomy; and, his most important astronomical work The Anatomy of the Heavens, a treatise in five sections which summarised the works of earlier authors.

  167. Franz Aepinus (1724-1802)
    • Director of a major observatory may seem a strange appointment given that Aepinus's mathematical interests seemed far removed from astronomy.
    • These appointments were apparently merely a device for establishing Aepinus, who had begun to acquire a reputation, in Frederick's capital: he was neither especially interested nor experienced in astronomy, and his closest published approach to the subject during his Berlin sojourn was a mathematical analysis of a micrometer adapted to a quadrant circle.
    • Although Aepinus did not make contributions to astronomy while in Berlin, he did his most important work there.

  168. Jacques Cassini (1677-1756)
    • As to his contributions to astronomy, Cassini published many papers in the journals of the Academie des Sciences and two major treatises in 1740, namely Elements of Astronomy and Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon, Planets, Fixed Stars, and Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.
    • Cassini's work was not restricted to that of astronomy and geodesy.

  169. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
    • This position was ideal for Lambert who could now concentrate even more deeply on his own study of mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy.
    • Lambert could now use the excellent library in the Count's home and was in an even stronger position to continue his studies of mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy.
    • In 1760 Euler recommended Lambert for the position of Professor of Astronomy at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences to fill a vacancy which, due to a reorganization of the Academy and political changes, remained unfilled for several years.

  170. Pierre Fatou (1878-1929)
    • Having been appointed to the astronomy post at the Paris Observatory in November 1901, Fatou worked under Maurice Loewy (1833-1907) who had been made director of the Observatory in 1896 and had done much in reorganising it.
    • However it was mathematics rather than astronomy that was Fatou's passion.
    • In contrast to the negative report of 1916 about his contributions to the work of the Observatory, he had made important contributions to astronomy.

  171. Oenopides (about 490 BC-about 420 BC)
    • The young men were discussing a question in mathematical astronomy which had been tackled by Oenopides and Anaxagoras.
    • Another major contribution to mathematical astronomy made by Oenopides was his discovery of the period of the Great Year.
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  172. Joseph-Émile Barbier (1839-1889)
    • For a few years he applied his undoubted genius to problems of astronomy.
    • He made many contributions to astronomy while at the observatory but his talents in mathematics were also to the fore and he looked at problems in a wide range of mathematical topics in addition to his astronomy work.

  173. Cristoforo Alasia (1864-1918)
    • Despite being a school teacher, he was the author of around 150 publications that presented his research on a variety of subjects such as astronomy, geometry, rational mechanics, history of mathematics etc.
    • Alasia returned the compliment with an appreciation of Halsted on the occasion of his appointment as President of the Mathematics and Astronomy Section of the American Society for the Advancement of Science.
    • In 1911 he received a gold medal from the Royal Irish Academy of Dublin for a work in astronomy.

  174. Charles Pisot (1910-1984)
    • I have always been attracted by mathematics and by physical things such as astronomy.
    • This fascinated me and when I was a kid I devoured astronomy books more than novels.
    • Novels interested me less than astronomy books but I was interested in physics and also biology.

  175. Kamalakara (about 1616-about 1700)
    • [Kamalakara] combined traditional Indian astronomy with Aristotelian physics and Ptolemaic astronomy as presented by Islamic scientists (especially Ulugh Beg).
    • It is a work of fifteen chapters covering standard topics for Indian astronomy texts at this time.

  176. Florimond de Beaune (1601-1652)
    • In fact his library contained a good proportion of astronomy works (about a third of the total) in addition to a fine collection of mathematics volumes.
    • His interest in optics was related to his interest in astronomy for he worked on grinding lenses, in particular experimenting with non-spherical lenses.
    • Descartes knew that de Beaune was the only person who had the technical proficiency, a deep understanding of mathematics and a fascination with astronomy.

  177. James Gregory (1638-1675)
    • There follows propositions on mathematical astronomy discussing parallax, transits and elliptical orbits.
    • He presented various papers to the Society on a variety of topics including astronomy, gravitation and mechanics.
    • It was a year in which he was still very active in research in both astronomy and mathematics.

  178. Honoré Fabri (1608-1688)
    • There he taught logic, mathematics, natural philosophy, metaphysics and astronomy [',' E A Fellmann, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • We have seen that Fabri worked on astronomy, physics and mathematics and, in particular, we have mentioned his dispute with Huygens over Saturn's rings.
    • Another significant contribution to astronomy is his discovery of the Andromeda nebula.

  179. Hippias (about 460 BC-about 400 BC)
    • He lectured on poetry, grammar, history, politics, archaeology, mathematics and astronomy.
    • He was a master of the science of calculation, geometry, astronomy, 'rhythms and harmonies and correct writing'.
    • the Spartans could not endure lectures on astronomy or geometry or calculation; it was only a small minority of them who could even count; what they liked was history and archaeology.

  180. Joseph Raabe (1801-1859)
    • Von Littrow had studied at the Charles University of Prague, spent a period in Russia, and had been appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna in 1819, shortly before Raabe arrived in that city.
    • Eschmann was Swiss, growing up as orphan in Winterthur, and had studied mathematics, astronomy and geodesy in Zurich, Paris and Vienna.
    • Johannes Eschmann, Raabe's friend, was appointed to a similar position in astronomy.

  181. Guglielmo Righini (1908-1978)
    • His visit to Cambridge in 1948 was funded by the British Council and on this trip he was able to learn about the latest developments in solar radio astronomy.
    • He worked at the Asiago Observatory until late 1953 when he was appointed as Professor of Astronomy at the University of Florence and Director of the Arcetri Observatory, succeeding Giorgio Abetti.
    • In addition to his important research, Righini was also an excellent person to talk about the latest developments in astronomy and was in great demand from the press, radio and television channels to describe these developments at a level which could be understood by the general public.

  182. Plato (427 BC-347 BC)
    • the exact sciences - arithmetic, plane and solid geometry, astronomy, and harmonics - would first be studied for ten years to familiarise the mind with relations that can only be apprehended by thought.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  183. Louis Benjamin Francoeur (1773-1849)
    • Francoeur became interested in astronomy as a result of this comet and was appointed professor of astronomy at the Athenee in Paris.
    • He published his mechanics book Traite de mecanique elementaire, a l'usage des eleves de l'Ecole Polytechnique, redige d'apres les methodes de R Prony Ⓣ in 1800, an elementary course of mathematics in two volumes Cours complet de mathematiques pures Ⓣ in 1809, and two astronomy texts l'Uranographie, ou Traite elementaire d'astronomie, a l'usage des personnes peu versees dans les mathematiques, accompagne de planispheres Ⓣ (1812) and Astronomie pratique, usage et composition de la Connaissance des temps Ⓣ (1830).

  184. Edward Van Vleck (1863-1943)
    • John Van Vleck was a teacher of mathematics and astronomy at the Wesleyan University from 1853 until his death in 1912.
    • At this stage his interests were in mathematics, physics and astronomy and after graduating with an A.B.
    • In 1885 Van Vleck became a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University where his interests still ranged through mathematics, physics and astronomy.

  185. Michael Scot (1175-1235)
    • His education allegedly begins at the cathedral school of Durham and includes Oxford and the University of Paris where he studied Mathematics, Astrology (which included Astronomy), Alchemy and Medicine.
    • In 1543, the same year that Copernicus wrote his treatise on Astronomy De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ("On the revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"), Andreas Vesalius wrote his treatise on anatomy De Humani Corporis Fabrica ("On the structure of the human body").
    • For example, modern-day notions of what is called Astrology and Astronomy were fused together at that time (and even in Kepler's time) in one body of thought called "Astrology".

  186. John Greaves (1602-1652)
    • His interests were broad and in addition to studying mathematics, he had studied Persian, reading Persian astronomy texts in the original language.
    • However, in 1643 he was appointed to the more prestigious position of Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford.

  187. Jyesthadeva (about 1500-about 1575)
    • The Yuktibhasa is a major treatise, half on astronomy and half on mathematics, written in 1501.
    • The Tantrasamgraha on which it is based consists of 432 Sanskrit verses divided into 8 chapters, and it covers various aspects of Indian astronomy.
    • Education 7 (1973), B67-B70.','4] Gupta gives a translation of the text and this is also given in [',' K V Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur, 1972).','2] and a number of other sources.

  188. Thomas Fincke (1561-1656)
    • He did not entirely leave behind his interest in mathematics and astronomy, however, for he was friendly with Giovanni Antonio Magini while at Padua and, after he returned to his home town of Flensburg after the award of his doctorate, he continued to correspond with Magini.
    • Being a well-travelled versatile scientist with great expertise in mathematics, astrology, astronomy and medicine, he was very well-respected and came to the attention of the leading men such as Duke Philipp von Holstein-Gottorf who appointed him as the personal physician to his court in 1590.
    • His other works on astronomy and astrology are of much less interest despite the fact that he was in touch with Brahe and Kepler.

  189. Apollonius (about 262 BC-about 190 BC)
    • Apollonius was also an important founder of Greek mathematical astronomy, which used geometrical models to explain planetary theory.
    • Astronomy: The Structure of the Solar System .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  190. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)
    • The breakthrough that Borelli made here was to take Galileo's terrestrial mechanics and extend their principles to astronomy; despite his major contributions to both mechanics and astronomy, Galileo had never thought to combine the two.
    • In this text Borelli says that it will surprise some that he has published an astronomy text when it is well known that for years he has been working on anatomy, particularly studying the motion of animals.

  191. Paul Mansion (1844-1919)
    • He taught advanced algebra, analytic geometry, astronomy and mathematical methodology.
    • Quetelet and Jean-Guillaume Garnier (1766-1840), the professor of astronomy and higher mathematics at Ghent, had edited the Belgium publication Correspondance mathematique et physique and in 1874 Mansion, together with Eugene Catalan and Joseph Neuberg, founded the journal Nouvelle correspondance mathematique named to honour the earlier Correspondance mathematique et physique and to follow the naming pattern set by the French journal Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques which followed the Annales de Mathematiques.
    • He also wrote on the history of physics and on Greek astronomy in Note sur le caractere geometrique de l'ancienne astronomie Ⓣ (1899).

  192. Heraclides (387 BC-312 BC)
    • This reads (in Neugebauer's translation in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]):- .
    • Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3] shows clearly that the passage indicating that Venus is sometimes above, sometimes below the sun, means that it is sometimes ahead of the sun, sometimes behind it.
    • Apart from his writings on astronomy, Heraclides wrote on many of the usual topics that a leading philosopher of his day would have written on.

  193. Jean Picard (1620-1682)
    • There is no evidence that he attended any advanced mathematics or astronomy lectures, so it is a reasonable guess to assume that he was largely self-educated in these topics.
    • In 1655 Picard became professor of astronomy at the College de France in Paris, following the death of Gassendi in October of that year, but not on the strength of any published work for none had appeared.
    • Jean Picard was a shy and modest abbot who took their innovations and applied them systematically to astronomy, geodesy, and levelling.

  194. Doris Hellman (1910-1973)
    • After graduating from the Horace Mann School she entered Vassar College where she studied mathematics and astronomy.
    • from Columbia University in 1943 for her thesis The Comet of 1577: Its Place in the History of Astronomy.
    • It was with great pleasure that I found additional information for 'A bibliography of tracts and treatises on the comet of 1577', which I originally published in 'Isis 22 (1934), 4-68', and later corrected and augmented as the appendix to my book, 'The comet of 1577: Its Place in the History of Astronomy' (Columbia University Press, 1944).

  195. Joseph Serret (1819-1885)
    • He gave a course on the general principles of perturbation theory (1862), on the rotational movement of the celestial bodies around their centres of gravity (1863), on general variational theory and the applications of this theory in astronomy (1864), on the methods of analysis which are used in astronomical theories (1865), on elliptic functions, and applications of this theory to various problems of mechanics (1866), on several problems related to the theory of the figure of celestial bodies (1867), on the perturbation of the elliptical motion of celestial bodies (1868), and on various issues relating to the theory of forces acting inversely as the square of the distance (1869).
    • Serret also published papers on number theory, calculus, the theory of functions, group theory, mechanics, differential equations and astronomy.
    • Finally, the sixth chapter, which ends the textbook, is primarily devoted to developing trigonometric solutions based on the use of series; these solutions relate to different situations that arise frequently in Astronomy and in Geodesy, and for which general methods become insufficient.

  196. Daniel da Silva (1814-1878)
    • He also took courses on Mechanics such as Astronomy, Dynamics, Hydrostatics, Hydraulics and Optics.
    • From 1845 to 1848 he taught Mechanics, Spherical Trigonometry, Nautical Astronomy, Optics, Use of Instruments, and Practical Astronomical Observations.
    • In 1849 he gave the course 'Popular Astronomy' which was run by that Society.

  197. Charles S Peirce (1839-1914)
    • He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences on 30 January 1867, then from October 1869 to December 1872 he conducted research in astronomy as an assistant at Harvard Observatory.
    • He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (United States) in April 1877 and published the results of his earlier research in astronomy in a book Photometric Researches (1878).
    • In 1884 Simon Newcomb, who had just been appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, reported to the trustees of the university that Peirce had been living with a French gypsy while still married to Melusina.

  198. Aurel Wintner (1903-1958)
    • Although being allowed to use the mathematics library at the University of Budapest was a major influence in directing his interests in that direction, there was another influence which pushed him towards astronomy.
    • As a schoolboy Wintner had spent holidays in Vienna and had used his uncle's astronomy library.
    • During the years 1924 to 1927 he published about 20 papers on astronomy and mathematics.

  199. Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877)
    • As a boy he had shown great curiosity about the world and remarkably wide interests, particularly in mathematics, languages, politics, botany, optics, and astronomy.
    • In addition to his work on mathematics and physics, Talbot also published on astronomy.
    • The inventor's name is preserved in various scientific fields: in mathematics, there is Talbot's curve; in physics Talbot's law and the Talbot (a unit of luminous energy); in botany two species are named after him; in astronomy a crater of the moon is named after him; and there is the persistent testimony of an art that has become so pervasive in society that its products are sometimes as invisible to us as are his latent images.

  200. Eugène Cosserat (1866-1931)
    • In 1908 Cosserat was appointed to the chair of astronomy at Toulouse, becoming director of the Observatory there for the rest of his life.
    • In the first part of his career in astronomy, we have already noted that he made observations of double stars.
    • All these various contributions showed great skill and resulted in highly accurate data but much of Cosserat's work on astronomy was carried out at a time when he was also devoting much of his time to the study of mathematics.

  201. Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)
    • Peiresc had attended lectures by Galileo on astronomy and had become so interested that he set up an observatory in 1610.
    • Gassendi quickly learnt astronomy from Gaultier and so Peiresc also employed Gassendi as part of the team to assist in his project of computing the times of the four moons of Jupiter.
    • Gassendi continued to publish works on philosophy and astronomy.

  202. William Greaves (1897-1955)
    • Having won a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, he became an undergraduate there studying mathematics and astronomy.
    • He held this position until 1938 when he was appointed to the chair of astronomy at the University of Edinburgh and Astronomer Royal for Scotland.
    • He was Professor of Astronomy at Edinburgh from 1938 until his death in 1955.

  203. Matteo Ricci (1552-1610)
    • He then continued his studies in Rome, studying mathematics and astronomy under Clavius.
    • He went instead to Nanking where he lived from 1599, working on mathematics, astronomy and geography.
    • However he became famous in China for more than his mathematical skills, becoming known for his extraordinary memory and for his knowledge of astronomy.

  204. Martin Kruskal (1925-2006)
    • In 1959, while continuing to hold his post in Project Matterhorn, Kruskal was also appointed as a lecturer in astronomy at Princeton.
    • An important paper on astronomy was Maximal extension of Schwarzschild's metric (1960) which showed that, using what are now called Kruskal coordinates, certain solutions of the equations of general relativity which are singular at the origin are not singular away from the origin, so allowing the study of black holes.
    • In 1961 Kruskal was promoted to Professor of Astronomy at Princeton but continued his position within Project Matterhorn until 1964.

  205. Christoph Scheiner (1573-1650)
    • Matthaus Rader (1561-1634), a prominent philologist and historian, worked at the Jesuit gymnasium in Ingolstadt and was a particular support to the young Jesuits who were taking an interest in science, particularly in astronomy.
    • Lantz had moved to Munich and Scheiner succeeded him in Ingolstadt as Professor of Mathematics and Hebrew, teaching geometry, astronomy and, in addition, his specialist subjects of sundials and telescopes.
    • However, he deliberately did not try to record the size and shape of the spots accurately, writing [',' A van Helden, Galileo and Scheiner on Sunspots: A Case Study in the Visual Language of Astronomy, Proc.

  206. Félix Tisserand (1845-1896)
    • This work was an outstanding contribution to mathematical astronomy coming quickly after the publication of the second volume of Delaunay's work on lunar theory La Theorie du mouvement de la lune Ⓣ which had been published in 1867.
    • Tisserand showed remarkable abilities in his work at the Observatory and it was clear that he would soon achieve an elevated position in the world of astronomy.
    • Neither were experienced in astronomy but Tisserand had made two good choices for he soon trained the young men to become astronomers of outstanding qualities.

  207. François Folie (1833-1905)
    • While undertaking teaching these mathematics courses he was able to make short visits to the University of Bonn where he was introduced to practical astronomy by Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander and his assistants Schonfeld and Krueger.
    • As one would expect, he began to publish papers on astronomy, for example Douze tables pour le calcul des reductions stellaires Ⓣ (1883) and Traite des reductions stellaires Ⓣ (1888).
    • He continued to publish works on astronomy up to the time of his death which followed a short illness.

  208. Sinan ibn Thabit ibn Qurra (about 880-943)
    • Of course being worshipers of the stars meant that there was strong motivation for the study of astronomy and the sect produced many quality astronomers and mathematicians such as Thabit himself.
    • He wrote mainly on three topics, political history, mathematics and astronomy.
    • occupied himself with topics within his competence, such as the science of Euclid, the Almagest Ⓣ, astronomy, the theories of meteorological phenomena, logic, metaphysics, and the philosophical systems of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

  209. Olinthus Gregory (1774-1841)
    • Gregory still appears as "Teacher of Mathematics, Cambridge" on the title page of his book A Treatise on Astronomy published in 1802.
    • Gregory explains in the Preface of A Treatise on Astronomy that he has religious reason for studying the subject.
    • is it possible that we should not be impressed with a sense of the unlimited power, unbounded wisdom, and infinite goodness, of the adorable Creator and Governor? The great excellence of Astronomy then, even as a promoter of morality and devotion, must be admitted if it appear that it furnishes us with stronger arguments to prove the existence of a supreme, intelligent First Cause - shows more effectually his power and wisdom - or gives us more clear and just notions of his other attributes and perfections ..

  210. Victor Bäcklund (1845-1922)
    • He studied astronomy, mechanics, physics and mathematics and graduated with his Candidates' Degree on 14 September 1866.
    • However, his first love was astronomy and, from 1864, he worked at Lund Observatory under the direction of Axel Moller (1830-1896).
    • Despite writing a thesis on astronomy, Backlund published a paper on geometry Några satser om plana algebraiska kurvor, som gå genom samma skarningspunkter Ⓣ in 1868.

  211. Gomes Teixeira (1851-1933)
    • In his fourth year, 1872-73, he studied Practical Astronomy, Geodesy and Botany.
    • This journal played an important role in encouraging research in mathematics and astronomy in Portugal and it was published for 28 years.
    • Pure mathematics is closely linked to Cosmology, which illuminates it, and Philosophy, which directs scientific thought; so to the history of those sciences we will join the history of Astronomy, a science that in Portugal played a great role in nautical studies, and, from time to time, some notions of the history of Physics and Philosophy.

  212. Pierre Humbert (1891-1953)
    • Following this he was appointed to the Faculty of Science at Montpellier as professor of astronomy and, despite travelling widely in France and abroad, he essentially spent his entire teaching career at Montpellier.
    • Humbert married the daughter of the astronomer Henri Andoyer and this, certainly in part, increased his interest in the history of astronomy.
    • He even wrote some articles on the history of mathematics and astronomy with his father-in-law.

  213. Madhava (1350-1425)
    • All the mathematical writings of Madhava have been lost, although some of his texts on astronomy have survived.
    • In fact this work had been claimed by some historians such as Sarma (see for example [',' K V Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur, 1972).','2]) to be by Madhava himself but this seems highly unlikely and it is now accepted by most historians to be a 16th century work by a follower of Madhava.
    • Education 7 (1973), B67-B70.','9] Gupta gives a translation of the text and this is also given in [',' K V Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur, 1972).','2] and a number of other sources.

  214. Martha Betz Shapley (1890-1981)
    • However, Martha's early education was not in astronomy.
    • Through Harlow Shapley, Martha Betz gained an interest in astronomy.
    • Her work culminated in Catalogue of the Elements of Eclipsing Binaries (1956, co-authored with Zdeněk Kopal), her last contribution to astronomy.

  215. John Keill (1671-1721)
    • Similarly he was unlucky to fail in his application for the Savilian Professor of Astronomy which became vacant on David Gregory's death in 1708.
    • In the following year the Savilian Professorship of Astronomy in Oxford became vacant again and this time Keill was appointed taking up the post in 1712.
    • 2.nSavilian Astronomy Professorn1712 .

  216. Georg Zehfuss (1832-1901)
    • Our story begins with one Johann Georg Zehfuss (1832-1901) at the University of Heidelberg who, according to biographical notes by Poggendorf (1863, 1898), published papers on determinants until at least 1868 before moving to studies in astronomy.
    • Later in his career, however, his attention turned more towards physics and astronomy.
    • Other lectures related to astronomy included "On meteorites" delivered in 1870 and "Some explanations of the appearance of the Northern Lights" in 1871.

  217. John Hellins (1749-1827)
    • In our days he must be a slender mathematician who does not know that they are useful, not only in trigonometry, navigation, astronomy, the calculation of compound interest and annuities, but also in the finding of fluents, and the summation of infinite series.
    • Hellins published many papers; the following were all in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: A new method of finding the equal roots of an equation by division (1782); Dr Halley's method of computing the quadrature of the circle improved; being a transformation of his series for that purpose, to others which converge by the powers of 60 (1794); Mr Jones' computation of the hyperbolic logarithm of 10 compared (1796); A method of computing the value of a slowly converging series, of which all the terms are affirmative (1798); An improved solution of a problem in physical astronomy, by which swiftly converging series are obtained, which are useful in computing the perturbations of the motions of the Earth, Mars, and Venus, by their mutual attraction (1798); A second appendix to the improved solution of a problem in physical astronomy (1800); and On the rectification of the conic sections (1802).

  218. Agner Erlang (1878-1929)
    • Astronomy was his favourite subject, encouraged by his maternal grandfather who also loved it, but Agner combined that interest with another passion by writing poems about astronomical objects.
    • After graduating from Copenhagen in January 1901 with mathematics as his major subject and physics, astronomy and chemistry as secondary subjects, he taught in schools for the next seven years.
    • He collected a large library of books mainly on mathematics, astronomy and physics, but he was also interested in history, philosophy and poetry.

  219. Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757)
    • As for Instance, the Art of Navigation hath a necessary Connection with Astronomy, and Astronomy can never be too much improv'd for the Benefit of Navigation.
    • Astronomy cannot be without Optics by reason of Perspective Glasses: and both, as all parts of the Mathematicks are grounded upon Geometry ..

  220. Callippus (about 370 BC-about 310 BC)
    • Other contributions of Callippus to mathematical astronomy included his observation of the inequality in the lengths of the seasons.
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  221. Euclid (about 325 BC-about 265 BC)
    • Euclid also wrote the following books which have survived: Data (with 94 propositions), which looks at what properties of figures can be deduced when other properties are given; On Divisions which looks at constructions to divide a figure into two parts with areas of given ratio; Optics which is the first Greek work on perspective; and Phaenomena which is an elementary introduction to mathematical astronomy and gives results on the times stars in certain positions will rise and set.
    • Euclid on elementary astronomy .
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  222. A A Krishnaswami Ayyangar (1892-1953)
    • During nearly three decades during which he taught and undertook research at Mysore he made many contributions to geometry, statistics, astronomy, the history of Indian mathematics, and other topics.
    • His papers include: Ancient Hindu Mathematics (1921); The Hindu sine Table (1923-24); The mathematics of Aryabhata (1926); The Hindu Arabic numerals (2 parts) (1928,1929); Bhaskara and samclishta kuttaka (1929-30); New light on Bhaskara's chakravala or cyclic method of solving indeterminate equations of the second degree in two variables (1929-30); New proofs of old theorems - Apollonius and Brahmagupta (1920-30); Astronomy - past and present (1930); Some glimpses of ancient Hindu mathematics (1933); Fourteen calendars (1937); A new continued fraction (1937-38); The Bhakshali manuscript (1939); Theory of the nearest square continued fraction (2 parts) (1940, 1941); Peeps into India's mathematical past (1945); and Remarks on Bhaskara's approximation to the sine of an angle (1950).
    • It has a brief description of the mathematics and astronomy developed by Indian mathematicians of that era.

  223. Claude-Louis Mathieu (1783-1875)
    • Charles Messier, the comet hunter who produced his famous catalogue of extended sky objects, died on 12 April 1817 and so a place in the Astronomy Section of the Academy of Sciences became vacant.
    • In addition in 1817, he was appointed as repetiteur by Arago for his course on Geodesy at the Ecole Polytechnique, and by Delambre for his course on Astronomy at the College de France.
    • Delambre had published five volumes of his history of astronomy but left the sixth volume L'Histoire de l'astronomie au XVIII siecle Ⓣ unpublished.

  224. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953)
    • It was only some time after he returned to the US that he decided his future lay in astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  225. Rudolf Wolf (1816-1893)
    • In addition, he became professor of astronomy there in 1844.
    • In 1855 he accepted a chair of astronomy at both the University of Zurich and the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich.
    • Upon the establishment of the Zurich Polytechnikum he was named head librarian; during his tenure he assembled a valuable collection of early printed books on astronomy, mathematics, and other branches of science.

  226. Bhaskara I (about 600-about 680)
    • The Mahabhaskariya Ⓣ is an eight chapter work on Indian mathematical astronomy and includes topics which were fairly standard for such works at this time.
    • The Aryabhatiya Ⓣ contains 33 verses dealing with mathematics, the remainder of the work being concerned with mathematical astronomy.
    • ','12], [',' K S Shukla, Hindu mathematics in the seventh century as found in Bhaskara I’s commentary on the Aryabhatiya III, Ganita 23 (1) (1972), 57-79','13] and [',' K S Shukla, Hindu mathematics in the seventh century as found in Bhaskara I’s commentary on the Aryabhatiya IV, Ganita 23 (2) (1972), 41-50.','14] Shukla discusses some features of Bhaskara's mathematics such as: numbers and symbolism, the classification of mathematics, the names and solution methods of equations of the first degree, quadratic equations, cubic equations and equations with more than one unknown, symbolic algebra, unusual and special terms in Bhaskara's work, weights and measures, the Euclidean algorithm method of solving linear indeterminate equations, examples given by Bhaskara I illustrating Aryabhata I's rules, certain tables for solving an equation occurring in astronomy, and reference made by Bhaskara I to the works of earlier Indian mathematicians.

  227. Francesco Faà di Bruno (1825-1888)
    • However, in Paris Faa di Bruno studied astronomy under Urbain Le Verrier and also undertook research with Cauchy on mathematics.
    • He graduated in 1856 having presented two theses, one in mathematics Theorie generale de l'elimination Ⓣ on elimination theory, and the other in astronomy on celestial mechanics.
    • After his time in Paris, he was appointed as a lecturer in higher analysis at the University of Turin, and he also gave popular astronomy courses.

  228. Tom Cowling (1906-1990)
    • It was, therefore, totally by chance that he began to undertake research in mathematical astronomy.
    • In 1957 he published another major text Magnetohydrodynamics which gave a concise account of the subject, making particular reference to applications in astronomy and geophysics.
    • He was awarded the Johnson Memorial Prize by Oxford University in 1935 for original work in astronomy.

  229. Johannes Campanus (1220-1296)
    • Most of Campanus's writings were on astronomy.
    • Campanus also wrote the important text Tractatus de Sphaera which was an elementary astronomy book describing celestial phenomena seen during the 24 hour rotation of the heavens.
    • His importance lies rather in his ability to understand and utilise the recently rediscovered astronomy of the ancients.

  230. Elisabetha Koopman (1647-1693)
    • It was a fascination for astronomy which led Elisabetha, when still only a child, to approach Hevelius, an astronomer of international repute who had a complex of three houses in Danzig which contained the best observatory in the world.
    • In fact she had become even more enthusiastic about astronomy as she had grown older and had come more and more to realise what an important figure in the world of astronomy was living in the same city.

  231. François Viète (1540-1603)
    • Although he was never employed as a professional scientist or mathematician, Viete was already working on topics in mathematics and astronomy and his first published mathematical work appeared in Paris in 1571.
    • Some of Viete's first work was directed towards the production of a major work on mathematical astronomy Ad harmonicon coeleste.
    • Although the Ad harmonicon coeleste was never published, Viete did begin publishing the Canon Mathematicus in 1571 which was intended as a mathematical introduction to the astronomy treatise.

  232. Francesco Cantelli (1875-1966)
    • Cantelli's work in astronomy involved statistical analysis of data and his interests turned more towards the statistical style of mathematics and to applications of probability to astronomy and other areas.
    • His first papers were on problems in astronomy and celestial mechanics and he wrote on Lagrange's method of studying perturbations of the planets.

  233. Jordanus Nemorarius (1225-1260)
    • He wrote several books on arithmetic, algebra, geometry and astronomy.
    • In astronomy Jordanus used letters to denote the magnitudes of stars (not unrelated to his use of letters for algebraic notation).
    • He wrote a treatise on mathematical astronomy called Planisphaerium as well as Tractatus de Sphaera.

  234. Zu Chongzhi (429-501)
    • In particular he was taught mathematics, astronomy and the science of the calendar from his talented father.
    • During this time Zu worked on mathematics and astronomy.
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .

  235. Joel E Hendricks (1818-1893)
    • In presenting the following pages to the public, I will briefly mark that the people generally are grossly ignorant in the important and engaging science of Astronomy.
    • I now present to this enlightened community a volume within the means of almost every person; containing all the essential parts of Astronomy ..
    • it is intended to afford a medium for the presentation and analysis of any and all questions of interest or importance in pure and applied Mathematics, embracing especially all new and interesting discoveries in theoretical and practical astronomy, mechanical philosophy, and engineering.

  236. Gustav Herglotz (1881-1953)
    • It was in Vienna that he completed his school studies and entered the Technische Hochschule in 1899 to study mathematics and astronomy.
    • Wishing to concentrate more on astronomy, Herglotz decided that he would be able to attend more appropriate courses at the University of Munich and so, after one year at the University of Vienna, he moved to Munich in 1900.
    • This earned him the right to lecture on mathematics and astronomy.

  237. Philipp von Seidel (1821-1896)
    • It is worth noting that these two theses, submitted only six months apart, were on two completely different topics - the first was on astronomy while the second was on mathematical analysis.
    • He also introduced the concept of nonuniform convergence and applied probability to astronomy.
    • However, he did not restrict his use of this mathematical discipline to astronomy, for he also applied his skills in this area to study the frequency of certain diseases and also looked at certain questions relating to the climate.

  238. John Bonnycastle (1751-1821)
    • His next book Introduction to Astronomy (1786) was written for those without a mathematical background.
    • At a time when the sciences are generally cultivated, and a love of literature and useful information has pervaded every rank and order of society, an easy and familiar account of the most interesting parts of Astronomy, will, it is presumed, be found an acceptable performance.
    • While suffering from this he lived in Bath and during this period he wrote Introduction to Astronomy (1786).

  239. Georges Lemaître (1894-1966)
    • Now, with the strong mathematical background obtained from his studies with de la Vallee Poussin, Lemaitre turned towards mathematical astronomy and went to Cambridge in England where he studied with Eddington during the academic years 1923-24, then he went to the United States spending the next academic year at the Harvard College Observatory in Massachusetts.
    • In 1948 he published a paper applying mathematical techniques to a problem in astronomy publishing Modeles mecaniques d'amas de nebuleuses Ⓣ.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  240. Ruan Yuan (1764-1849)
    • They also reveal, at various levels, some limitations and obstacles faced by astronomy and mathematics in the process of transmission from Western countries to China.
    • Despite obvious limitations and misrepresentations, Western astronomy and mathematics made accessible to Chinese readers, was none the less, for the most part, based on significant excerpts from texts of primary importance such as Ptolemy's Almagest Ⓣ, Copernicus's De revolutionibus or Euclid's Elements and never on mythical accounts.
    • The school was set up with an innovative curriculum, and literature, astronomy, geometry and mathematics were taught there.

  241. Erich Kähler (1906-2000)
    • After wanting to to follow Hedin and be an explorer, Erich developed an interest in astronomy which by about the age of 12 developed into a love for mathematics.
    • In addition to mathematics, he took courses on astronomy and physics.
    • His interests now moved towards mathematical physics and he lectured on the way that mathematics, physics and astronomy are related.

  242. Jacopo Riccati (1676-1754)
    • Although he entered Padua to read law, Jacopo Riccati was certainly interested in the sciences, particularly in astronomy, so, as well as courses in law, he attended an astronomy course taught by Stephano degli Angeli.
    • Suzzi and da Riva were students of exceptional quality, becoming professors of mathematics and astronomy, respectively, at the University of Padua.

  243. Nathaniel Bliss (1700-1764)
    • Bradley had been appointed to the Savilian chair of astronomy at Oxford in 1721.
    • Bliss, of course, was Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford so, although his research interests were mainly in astronomy, he also taught mathematics at Oxford.
    • It seems slightly ironical, but Bliss seems to have been more productive in astronomy research when he was the professor of geometry than when he was Astronomer Royal.

  244. Gabriele Manfredi (1681-1761)
    • It was a remarkable family for, in addition to Gabriele, his brothers Eustachio Manfredi (1674-1739) (who also has a biography in the archive) and Eraclito (1682-1759) became professors of mathematics and of astronomy.
    • However, they learnt from their brothers and became very knowledgeable in astronomy, mathematics and Latin.
    • Gabriele Manfredi also studied with Guglielmini but, after his brother Eustachio turned to astronomy and Guglielmini left Bologna to move to Padua in 1699, Gabriele carried on studying mathematics on his own.

  245. John Dee (1527-1609)
    • There he studied Greek, Latin, philosophy, geometry, arithmetic and astronomy.
    • During his time in Louvain Dee wrote two texts on astronomy.
    • During the next five years Dee spent time abroad collecting books for his library, and studying astronomy, astrology, mathematics, coding, and magic - all topics which were linked in his mind as he struggled to understand the ultimate truths about the universe.

  246. Otto Neugebauer (1899-1990)
    • His contributions to the history of ancient mathematics and astronomy continued to astound.
    • Among his classic texts we should mention The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (1951) and the three volume History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (1975).
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  247. Xu Guang-qi (1562-1633)
    • He obtained the highest level in the civil-service examination having been educated in astronomy and calendar computation.
    • Indeed the question of calendar reform had occupied the Chinese for 200 years but, despite various proposals being made, the Bureau of Astronomy had been cautious and done nothing.
    • The Western approach to astronomy and the calendar scored a major success shortly after Ricci died when it accurately predicted the eclipse of 15 December 1610.

  248. Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574)
    • Melanchthon played a major role in getting Rheticus an appointment to teach mathematics and astronomy at the University of Wittenberg in 1536.
    • Copernicus could not have asked for a more erudite, elegant, and enthusiastic introduction of his new astronomy to the world of good letters; indeed to this day the Narratio Prima remains the best introduction to Copernicus's work.

  249. Heinrich Suter (1848-1922)
    • He then began to publish important work on the history of medieval Islamic mathematics and astronomy.
    • in 1900, Swiss historian of mathematics and astronomy Heinrich Suter published the bio-bibliographical survey Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke.

  250. Thomas Heath (1861-1940)
    • Greek astronomical work also attracted Heath's attention and in 1913 he published a translation of Aristarchus's On the sizes and distances of the sun and moon again with an important preface, this time giving a thorough account of Greek astronomy.
    • A single volume version on Greek mathematics, condensing the material from his earlier work, appeared in 1931 under the title A manual of Greek mathematics and the following year he produced a companion volume Greek astronomy.

  251. Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  252. Hermann Bondi (1919-2005)
    • Bondi, in his mid teens, became very interested in theoretical physics and astronomy, as well as mathematics, and when Eddington visited Vienna, Bondi's mother engineered an opportunity for her son to meet him.
    • During the time that Bondi, Hoyle and Gold worked together on this wartime project they were discussing theoretical astronomy, and their collaboration which began at that time lasted for many years.

  253. Vijayanandi (about 940-about 1010)
    • It is a work in fourteen chapters covering the standard topics of Indian astronomy.
    • This system led to much work on integer solutions of equations and their application to astronomy.

  254. Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)
    • The appearance of a comet attracted Harriot's attention and turned his scientific mind towards astronomy.
    • His astronomy brought back to the fore, Harriot went on to make the earliest telescopic observations in England.

  255. Li Chunfeng (602-670)
    • We shall describe below some of the contributions Li made to mathematics through his work in astronomy and calendar reform.
    • In the Jinshu (History of the Jin Dynasty) and Suishu (History of the Sui Dynasty) Li wrote the chapters on the developments in Chinese astronomy, astrology, metrology, and the mathematics of music through the relevant periods.

  256. Willebrord Snell (1580-1626)
    • From 1600 he travelled to various European countries, mostly discussing astronomy.
    • Throughout his career Snell was interested in astronomy and published several works on that topic some, but not all, of which contained data from his own observations.

  257. Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806)
    • In Paris he entered the College Mazarin, where he received a good classical grounding in language, literature, and philosophy, and he received the best available teaching in mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and botany.
    • At this stage Coulomb's interests were mainly in mathematics and astronomy and while in Montpellier he joined the Society of Sciences there in March 1757 and read several papers on these topics to the Society.

  258. Steve Rallis (1942-2012)
    • thesis in astronomy and, like Rallis, was in Harvard Square to make copies of the thesis.
    • Remarkably, throughout Steve's career she managed to maintain her career in astronomy while facilitating his life in mathematical research.

  259. Hugh Blackburn (1823-1909)
    • However, this is not easy to do as he published little (in fact just one paper on astronomy while at Cambridge).
    • MacRobert writes [',' T M MacRobert, Mathematics (and Astronomy), in Fortuna Domus (1951).','4]:- .

  260. Moritz Abraham Stern (1807-1894)
    • During his 55 years at the University of Gottingen, Stern lectured on a wide variety of topics, including algebraic analysis, analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus, variational calculus, mechanics, popular astronomy and, of course, number theory.
    • Further publications considered problems in mechanics and astronomy, such as his books Darstellung der popularen Astronomie Ⓣ (1834) and Himmelskunde Ⓣ (1846).

  261. Al-Quhi (about 940-about 1000)
    • He continued to support mathematics and astronomy so al-Quhi remained at the court in Baghdad working for the new Caliph.
    • Our description of al-Quhi's life has highlighted his work in astronomy.

  262. William Emerson (1701-1782)
    • Emerson maintained a remarkable output of textbooks: The Elements of Optics (four books) (1768); A System of Astronomy (1769); The Laws of Centripetal and Centrifugal Force (1769); The Mathematical Principles of Geography (1770); and Tracts (1770).
    • For example, two and a half pages of the Preface to Miscellanies consists of an attack on someone who had criticised his A System of Astronomy.

  263. Anaxagoras (499 BC-428 BC)
    • It is a little unclear why he felt it necessary to postulate the existence of these bodies but it does not detract from this major breakthrough in mathematical astronomy.
    • There is also other evidence to suggest that Anaxagoras had applied geometry to the study of astronomy.

  264. Richard Robb (1901-1977)
    • A Commonwealth Fund Fellowship allowed Robb to study for a Master's Degree in astronomy at the University of Michigan from 1926 to 1928.
    • He spent time as a postgraduate student of astronomy at the University of Lund in Sweden, then in 1936 obtained a D.Sc.

  265. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)
    • Daniel Bernoulli submitted an entry for the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy for 1734 giving an application of his ideas to astronomy.
    • In total he won the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy 10 times, for topics in astronomy and nautical topics.

  266. Aleksandr Nekrasov (1883-1957)
    • In fact Nekrasov worked for a Master's degree in both astronomy and mechanics and he qualified for these in 1909 and 1911.
    • Appointed an assistant professor in the Department of Astronomy and Geodesy in 1912, he became an assistant professor in the Department of Theoretical Mechanics in the following year.

  267. Henry Baker (1866-1956)
    • From 1903 to 1914 he also held the Cayley Lectureship in Mathematics, then from 1914 until he retired in 1936 he was Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry.
    • He justified the 'astronomy' title in his chair by lecturing on periodic orbits and other astronomical topics but he continued to undertake research exclusively in pure mathematics.

  268. Joan Sylvia Lyttle Birman (1927-)
    • At school she had shown little talent for languages but loved physics, biology and astronomy but, deciding against studying astronomy as she liked living in cities, she aimed to major in mathematics at college.

  269. Johann Friedrich Pfaff (1765-1825)
    • There he studied astronomy under J E Bode, and Pfaff wrote his first paper which was on a problem in astronomy.

  270. George Darwin (1845-1912)
    • After much indecision, they sent George's older brother to Rugby and George was sent to a school in Clapham run by the Rev Charles Pritchard who later became the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford [',' E W Brown, Sir George Darwin, Scientific Mo.
    • His fellowship expired in 1878 but he continued to work at Cambridge, becoming Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy there in 1883.

  271. Archytas (about 428 BC-about 350 BC)
    • He claimed that mathematics was composed of four branches, namely geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music.
    • Indeed, they have transmitted to us a keen discernment about the velocities of the stars and their risings and settings, and about geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and, not least of all, music.

  272. Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891)
    • He did not restrict himself to studying mathematics, however, for he studied other topics such as astronomy, meteorology and chemistry.
    • After spending the summer of 1843 at the University of Bonn, which he went to because of his interest in astronomy rather than mathematics, he then went to the University of Breslau for the winter semester of 1843-44.

  273. Adriaan van Roomen (1561-1615)
    • This was his first work and it was essentially a work on astronomy, in particular on the number and nature of the heavenly spheres of Ptolemy.
    • Most treat medical or anatomical subjects, but there is one on astronomy and one on meteorology.

  274. Alice Bache Gould (1868-1953)
    • Benjamin Gould had been born in Boston and had studied mathematics and astronomy at Harvard, taught by Benjamin Peirce.
    • stipulated among the six major requirements for recipients of awards that preference be given to "the astronomy of precision" rather than astrophysics because of her father's "strong feelings on the subject." .

  275. Egon Pearson (1895-1980)
    • However, even the astronomy lectures he attended, which were given by Eddington, involved him in statistics since Eddington was lecturing on the theory of errors.
    • Pearson also attended astronomy lectures by F J M Stratton and undertook work with F L Engledow and G U Yule.

  276. Giovanni Poleni (1683-1761)
    • He accepted the chair of Astronomy and Meteorology at the University of Padua in 1709.
    • In 1715 he became professor of physics, in addition holding the chair of Astronomy and Meteorology.

  277. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880)
    • Appointed professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy there in 1833 he held this position for nine years until the professorship of Mathematics and Astronomy became vacant when he was moved to that chair.
    • In astronomy ..

  278. Paul Wittich (1546-1586)
    • We now know that Wittich became a kind of itinerant humanistic tutor to men who valued and practiced astronomy in a variety of contexts.
    • Wihelm of Hesse was Tycho's great astronomy rival and Wittich now passed on Tycho's secrets regarding star-sights and scales.

  279. Giorgio Bidone (1781-1839)
    • In the Turin university environment, he continued his friendship with the chemist Amedeo Avogadro and with his colleague and compatriot Giovanni Plana, who initially also dedicated himself to research in hydraulics and mathematics and later solely to astronomy having been appointed to the chair of astronomy at the University of Turin in 1811.

  280. Jacob Bernoulli (1655-1705)
    • During the time that Jacob Bernoulli was taking his university degrees he was studying mathematics and astronomy against the wishes of his parents.
    • At this time he was deeply interested in astronomy and produced a work giving an incorrect theory of comets.

  281. Li Shanlan (1811-1882)
    • He also translated John Herschel's Outlines of astronomy.
    • However the government realised the importance of mathematics in the development of the country and in 1868 the T'ung wen-kuan was upgraded to a college and a department of mathematics and astronomy was added.

  282. Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887)
    • This work started a new era in astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  283. Étienne Montucla (1725-1799)
    • Volume three covered 18th century pure mathematics, optics and mechanics in 832 pages, while the fourth volume covered 18th century astronomy, mathematical geography and navigation in 688 pages.
    • the account also included mechanics, astronomy, optics, and music ..

  284. Alexis Petit (1791-1820)
    • The second minor thesis that Petit submitted was the Programme for the Astronomy thesis, entitled La theorie des refractions astronomiques Ⓣ, which he submitted on 18 December 1811.
    • A T Petit's Programme for his Astronomy thesis .

  285. Gerard Mercator (1512-1594)
    • He also learnt about applications of mathematics to geography and astronomy which he found "extremely agreeable".
    • Mercator's break from the methods of Ptolemy was as important for geography as was Copernicus for astronomy.

  286. Thomas Simpson (1710-1761)
    • His justification of this appeared in his 1757 memoir An attempt to show the advantage arising by taking the mean of a number of observations in practical astronomy.
    • Problems in astronomy such as the precession of the equinoxes were discussed by Simpson in Miscellaneous Tracts (1757).

  287. Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862)
    • In 1809 Biot was appointed Professor of Physical Astronomy at the Faculty of Sciences.
    • He made advances in astronomy, elasticity, electricity and magnetism, heat and optics on the applied side while, in pure mathematics, he also did important work in geometry.

  288. Arthur Milne (1896-1950)
    • Milne's abilities and style as a lecturer and author are described in [',' M C Johnson, Time, knowledge and the Nebulae : an introduction to the meanings of time in physics, astronomy, and philosophy, and the relativities of Einstein and of Milne (London, 1945).','2]:- .
    • In [',' M C Johnson, Time, knowledge and the Nebulae : an introduction to the meanings of time in physics, astronomy, and philosophy, and the relativities of Einstein and of Milne (London, 1945).','2] he is described as:- .

  289. Boris Yakovlevic Bukreev (1859-1962)
    • Other topics which Bukreev studied include: mechanics where be was taught by Ivan Ivanovich Rakhmaninov (1826-1897) from the Department of Mechanics; astronomy taught by Mitrofan Fedorovich Handrikov (1837-1915), the Professor of astronomy; and chemistry taught by A Bazarov.

  290. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865)
    • Later in 1827 the board appointed Hamilton Andrews' Professor of Astronomy in Trinity College while he was still an undergraduate aged twenty-one years.
    • It turned out that Hamilton had made an poor choice as he lost interest in astronomy and spend all time on mathematics.

  291. Adelard (1075-1160)
    • The remaining two books of the five which compose the treatise cover geometry, which is completely Greek in style, music, and astronomy.
    • The astronomy, like the arithmetic, is Arabic in style.

  292. Peter Ramus (1515-1572)
    • Using this approach Ramus worked on many topics and wrote a whole series of textbooks on logic and rhetoric, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, and optics.
    • One of the topics which Ramus believed that mathematics should be applied to was astronomy.

  293. Amélie Harlay (1768-1832)
    • Jerome Lalande taught astronomy to them both and wrote the following description of Amelie in his work Bibliographie Astronomique (Paris, 1803):- .
    • lectured on astronomy in Paris, and worked independently as well as in collaboration with her husband.

  294. Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
    • In Oxford Hooke learnt astronomy from Seth Ward and impressed Wilkins with his knowledge of mechanics.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  295. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995)
    • These texts have played a major role in mathematical astronomy.
    • [Chandrasekhar] was a classical applied mathematician whose research was primarily applied in astronomy and whose like will probably never be seen again.

  296. Roger Bacon (1214-1292)
    • He then progressed to the quadrivium, studying geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy.
    • Only parts were ever published, probably most was never written, but again there was some remarkable insights on astronomy and calendar reform which Bacon had formed after making observations.

  297. Anders Lexell (1740-1784)
    • In 1771 Lexell was appointed professor of astronomy at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and a few years later he was approached by the Swedish government trying to persuade him to return to Sweden.
    • Specific problems which Lexell studied in astronomy were his calculation of the solar parallax and his calculation of the orbits of several comets.

  298. Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813)
    • His work in Berlin covered many topics: astronomy, the stability of the solar system, mechanics, dynamics, fluid mechanics, probability, and the foundations of the calculus.
    • Lagrange's foundations of the calculus is assuredly a very interesting part of what one might call purely philosophical study: but when it is a case of making transcendental analysis an instrument of exploration for questions presented by astronomy, marine engineering, geodesy, and the different branches of science of the engineer, the consideration of the infinitely small leads to the aim in a manner which is more felicitous, more prompt, and more immediately adapted to the nature of the questions, and that is why the Leibnizian method has, in general, prevailed in French schools.

  299. Sewall Green Wright (1889-1988)
    • Philip Wright was an economist and in 1892 he moved with his family to Galesburg, Illinois, to join the faculty at Lombard College where he taught mathematics, astronomy, surveying, and English composition in addition to economics.
    • He had also read much natural history, influenced by his mother, and at the age of seven had written a pamphlet on natural history, with chapters on marmosets, ants, dinosaurs, chicken gizzards, and astronomy.

  300. Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi (about 1250-about 1310)
    • He wrote works on theology, logic, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy which have proved important in their own right and also in giving information about the works of other scientists of his period.
    • He also wrote Synopsis of astronomy and produced a star catalogue for the year 1276-77.

  301. Herbert Dingle (1890-1978)
    • Studying under R H Fowler, Dingle became interested in spectroscopy and its applications to astronomy.
    • He also became President of Commission 41 (History of Astronomy) at the International Astronomical Union and a Vice-President of the International Union for the History of Science.

  302. James Thomson (1786-1849)
    • MacRobert writes [',' T M MacRobert, Mathematics (and Astronomy), in Fortuna Domus (1951).','5]:- .
    • To remedy this he gave lectures on Geography and Astronomy to large and enthusiastic classes of ladies.

  303. Jabir ibn Aflah (about 1100-about 1160)
    • In [',' R P Lorch, The astronomy of Jabir ibn Aflah, Centaurus 19 (2) (1975), 85-107.','4] Lorch explains Jabir ibn Aflah's most famous criticism, namely Ptolemy's placement of Venus and Mercury below the Sun.
    • In [',' R P Lorch, The astronomy of Jabir ibn Aflah, Centaurus 19 (2) (1975), 85-107.','4] his influence on astronomers in both the East and West is studied.

  304. Morris Kline (1908-1992)
    • Accordingly the book shows how various developments in mathematics proper in turn influenced developments in logic, astronomy, philosophy, painting, music, religious thought, literature, and the social sciences.
    • Three years later he published Mathematics, A Cultural Approach (1962) in which he looks at the way that problems of physics, of astronomy, of music, of art and other such activities have led to developments in mathematical ideas.

  305. Vitruvius (about 85 BC-about 20 BC)
    • Let him be educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens.
    • Astronomy is the first topic of Volume IX, followed by mathematical tools such as a method of doubling a square, a method of constructing a right angled triangle, the mathematical principles of a sundial and of water-clocks.

  306. Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924-)
    • On entering Smith College in 1941 Granville studied French as well as mathematics but, although she enjoyed the language, did not find French literature to her liking and soon concentrated on mathematics, theoretical physics and astronomy [',' E B Granville, My life as a mathematician, Sage : A Scholarly Journal of Black Women 6 (2) (1989), 44-46.','3]:- .
    • I was fascinated by the study of astronomy and at one point I toyed with the idea of switching my major to this subject.

  307. Julius Gysel (1851-1935)
    • The other publications are a report on the Kantonsschule's new building (1903), an obituary of his friend Jakob Amsler-Laffon (1912), and the chapter on Mathematics, Astronomy, Technology and Physics in the centennial publication of the Naturforschende Gesellschaft Schaffhausen Ⓣ (1923).
    • Moreover, he was member of the town's library committee from 1888-1929, responsible for mathematics, astronomy, physics, technology and alpinism.

  308. Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607)
    • After serving in the army, Guidobaldo returned to his estate of Montebaroccio in Urbino where he was able to spend his time doing research into mathematics, mechanics, astronomy and optics.
    • Guidobaldo also wrote astronomy books, for example Planisphaeriorum (1579) and Problematum astronomicorum (1609).

  309. Eutocius (about 480-about 540)
    • As to contributions to astronomy, Eutocius did write an introduction to Book I of the Almagest Ⓣ but Neugebauer writes [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','3]:- .

  310. Gabriel Mouton (1618-1694)
    • However he spent much of his spare time studying mathematics and astronomy.
    • During his leisure time he studied mathematics and astronomy and rapidly acquired a certain renown in the city.

  311. Alexander Weinstein (1897-1979)
    • Alexander Weinstein studied at Astrakhan, at this stage planning to study astronomy.
    • He moved to Zurich and he continued his interest in astronomy carrying out observations.

  312. Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
    • At Oxford he joined a group of forward looking scientists, including John Wilkins, John Wallis who was the Savilian Professor of Geometry, Seth Ward who was the Savilian Professor of Astronomy, and Christopher Wren who would succeed Ward as Savilian Professor of Astronomy in 1661.

  313. Nicholas Saunderson (1682-1739)
    • The topics that he taught included Newtonian philosophy, hydrostatics, mechanics, optics, sound, and astronomy.
    • Roger Cotes, who was already working at Cambridge when Saunderson began teaching there, became the Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy in 1708 and, in the following year, he began editing a second edition of Newton's Principia.

  314. Xu Yue (about 160-about 227)
    • Mathematics was used by Liu Hong and others at the Observatory in their studies of astronomy and the related work on the calendar which, of course, was based on the apparent motion of the sun and the moon.
    • It was natural, therefore that Xu Yue would gain expertise from these men in astronomy and calendar science.

  315. Julius Plücker (1801-1868)
    • He was also taught mathematics and physics by Karl Dietrich von Munchow (1778-1836), the professor of astronomy, mathematics and physics, and mathematics by Wilhelm Adolf Diesterweg who had been appointed professor of mathematics in 1819.
    • Lecture courses he gave while a docent at Bonn include: Analysis and algebra including number theory; Geometry; Mathematical Physics; Bookkeeping; and Astronomy.

  316. Eliakim Moore (1862-1932)
    • One summer he worked as an assistant to Ormond Stone, who was the director of the Cincinnati Observatory, and from this time on Eliakim knew that he wanted to study mathematics and astronomy at university.
    • In 1879 Moore entered Yale University and took, as he had planned, courses in mathematics and astronomy.

  317. Louis Lefébure de Fourcy (1787-1869)
    • One, on mechanics, Equations generales du mouvement des fluides et application de ces equations a la theorie du son Ⓣ consisted of five pages, while the second, on astronomy, De l'attraction des spheroides et de la figure des planetes Ⓣ, contained eleven pages.
    • a detailed plan, but a list of books by which it is taught, and the authors for the mathematics texts are Euler, Lagrange and Lacroix in algebra, Lacroix or Biot for applications of algebra to geometry, Monge and Poinsot for statics, and Delambre or Biot for astronomy.

  318. Martin Bartels (1769-1836)
    • However, mathematics was not the only subject that Bartels studied, for in the winter semester of 1793-4 he studied Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Meteorology and Geology.
    • Bartels took up his post at professor of mathematics at Kazan in 1808 and, during the following twelve years, he lectured on the History of Mathematics, Higher Arithmetic, Differential and Integral Calculus, Analytical Geometry and Trigonometry, Spherical Trigonometry, Analytical Mechanics and Astronomy.

  319. Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)
    • Chapman, however, was not entirely happy with devoting himself to astronomy as is pointed out in [',' V C A Ferraro, Sydney Chapman, Bull.
    • he did not feel he was a good observer, and he did not want to subordinate all his other interests to astronomy; in particular, he wanted to complete the work he had begun on the kinetic theory of gases.

  320. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759)
    • By 1731 he had written his first paper on astronomy and another on differential equations, and was rapidly developing a reputation as an all round mathematician and scientist.
    • Maupertuis published on many topics including mathematics, geography, moral philosophy, biology, astronomy and cosmology.

  321. Johann Karl Burckhardt (1773-1825)
    • In addition to being enthusiastic about his studies of mathematics, Burckhardt purchased a German translation of Lalande's astronomy text which inspired him to begin to make astronomical observations.
    • In 1795 he was awarded a scholarship which had been donated by Karl Friedrich Kregel von Sternbach (1717-1789) to support the study of mathematics and astronomy.

  322. Max Noether (1844-1921)
    • At this stage Noether was interested in astronomy, so before beginning his university studies he spent a short period at Mannheim Observatory.
    • His doctorate from Heidelberg was on astronomy, and Noether was not required to write a dissertation.

  323. Christian Doppler (1803-1853)
    • After this he returned to Salzburg, attended philosophy lectures at the Salzburg Lyceum, then went to the University of Vienna where he studied higher mathematics, mechanics and astronomy.
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  324. Giuseppe Biancani (1566-1624)
    • In this course he taught Euclid's Elements and astronomy.
    • This ancient [heliocentric] belief was brought back to life again in the past century by Nicolaus Copernicus, a man of sharp mind and a great restorer of the science of astronomy.

  325. John T Graves (1806-1870)
    • He had also come to the attention of John Brinkley, the Andrews Professor of Astronomy at Trinity who was an excellent mathematician having studied the latest continental mathematics.
    • The library acquired contains over 10,000 books, 4,600 pamphlets, 51 manuscripts and numerous periodicals, covering mainly mathematics and astronomy.

  326. Wallace J Eckert (1902-1971)
    • Wallace J Eckert earned his PhD was from Yale in 1931 in astronomy.
    • At that time Ernest Brown was a member of the astronomy department and Brown's work on the Moon was an important ingredient of Eckert's later work.

  327. Willem 'sGravesande (1688-1742)
    • In 1717 'sGravesande became professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Leiden.
    • From the outset of his teaching in both physics and astronomy 'sGravesande modelled his lectures on the example of Newton in the 'Principia' and 'Opticks', although in later years they incorporated other influences, especially that of Boerhaave.

  328. Jürgen Moser (1928-1999)
    • In particular Moser acquired an interest in astronomy and number theory through Siegel.
    • Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973, he had been awarded its Craig Watson Medal in 1969 for his contributions to dynamic astronomy.

  329. Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647)
    • As well as being taught mathematics, mechanics, hydraulics, and astronomy by Castelli, Torricelli became his secretary and held this post from 1626 to 1632.
    • It was clear from his letter that Torricelli was fascinated by astronomy and was a strong supporter of Galileo.

  330. John Wallis (1616-1703)
    • He took the standard bachelor of arts degree and, since nobody at Cambridge at this time could direct his mathematical studies, he took a range of topics such as ethics, metaphysics, geography, astronomy, medicine and anatomy.
    • There, to avoid being diverted to other discourses and for some other reasons, we barred all discussion of Divinity, of State Affairs, and of news (other than what concerned our business of philosophy) confining ourselves to philosophical inquiries, and related topics; as medicine, anatomy, geometry, astronomy, navigation, statics, mechanics, and natural experiments.

  331. al-Mahani (about 820-880)
    • We do know a little about al-Mahani's work in astronomy from Ibn Yunus's astronomical handbook al-Zij al-Hakimi al-kabir.
    • It gives a full account of the Arabic literature which was available in the 10th century and in particular mentions al-Mahani, not for his work in astronomy, but rather for his work in geometry and arithmetic.

  332. Dunham Jackson (1888-1946)
    • Although mathematics was the main subject that Jackson studied at Harvard, he also took courses in astronomy, chemistry, physics, classical languages and modern languages.
    • During 1908-09 while he was studying for his Master's degree he held a George C Shattuck Fellowship and was appointed as an assistant in astronomy.

  333. Jean Chazy (1882-1955)
    • The reporters of his election to the Academy were, however, correct to stress how much, in a period of crisis, celestial mechanics needed men like him, who were capable of pushing to its extreme limits the model of mathematical astronomy that originated with Newton.
    • He was elected a member of the astronomy section of the Academy of Sciences on 8 February 1937, and became a member of the Bureau des Longitudes in 1952.

  334. Christian Juel (1855-1935)
    • The Society's first committee consisted of Thorvald Thiele, who taught astronomy at the university, Steen, and Zeuthen.
    • On 23 July 1902, Juel married Laura Thiele (born 26 May 1873 in Copenhagen, died 21 March 1925) a daughter of the professor of astronomy in Copenhagen, Thorvald N Thiele, and his wife Marie M Trolle (1841-89).

  335. Naonobu Ajima (1732-1798)
    • After this he studied mathematics and astronomy under Nushizumi Yamaji becoming a pupil of the Seki school in Edo.
    • While studying with him, Ajima wrote books on astronomy and helped his teacher to compile an almanac.

  336. Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)
    • In 1973 he left the Institute of Astronomy and joined to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge.
    • The great works of physics and astronomy.

  337. Joseph Liouville (1809-1882)
    • The following year he was elected to the astronomy section of the Academie des Sciences but this was only after strong opposition from Libri.
    • Liouville's mathematical work was extremely wide ranging, from mathematical physics to astronomy to pure mathematics.

  338. Theodor Reye (1838-1919)
    • About two dozen candidates received their doctoral degrees in mathematics and astronomy at Strasbourg between 1872 and 1895.
    • The remaining half-dozen were in the field of astronomy.

  339. Udo Wegner (1902-June1989)
    • He attended a wide range of courses on mathematics, physics, chemistry, and astronomy.
    • In 1929 he habilitated at the University of Gottingen for Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Astronomy.

  340. Diederik Korteweg (1848-1941)
    • He remained at Amsterdam becoming the professor of mathematics, mechanics and astronomy there in September 1881.
    • Korteweg showed a similar versatility in his teaching, with his usual courses being analytic and projective geometry, mechanics, astronomy and probability theory.

  341. Eudemus (about 350 BC-about 290 BC)
    • We know of three works on the history of mathematics by Eudemus, namely History of Arithmetic (two or more books), History of Geometry (two or more books), and History of Astronomy (two or more books).
    • The History of Astronomy again was heavily used by later writers and in exactly the same way as his geometry text, much information has survived in the works of others despite the loss of the original text.

  342. Samuel Molyneux (1689-1728)
    • Now he became active in astronomy and optics, particularly after he got to know James Bradley.
    • Bradley was, like Molyneux, a fellow of the Royal Society and, after being appointed to the Savilian chair of astronomy at Oxford in 1721, moved from being an amateur astronomer to a professional one.

  343. Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838)
    • Bowditch's scientific career was largely one of self-education; the United States of his day afforded very little opportunity for research in astronomy and mathematical physics.
    • It would be difficult to overestimate the value of Bowditch's translation and commentary to American physical astronomy during the first half of the nineteenth century.

  344. Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806)
    • In 1788 Ellicot lent Banneker some astronomy books and instruments.
    • and only a few semesters of elementary schooling in his childhood, Banneker taught himself the algebra, geometry, logarithms, trigonometry, and astronomy needed to become an astronomer.

  345. Alexander von Brill (1842-1935)
    • It is particularly to be commended for the fine balance which it maintains between general principles on the one side and applications to physics, astronomy, and engineering on the other.
    • In 1930, at age 87 he wrote a book on Kepler's astronomy, Uber Kepler's Astronomia nova Ⓣ.

  346. Pierre Méchain (1744-1804)
    • It was in Loan that Pierre was educated by the Jesuits and as a young boy his aim was to become an architect, although his main hobby was astronomy.
    • For the next ten years from 1780 to 1790 Mechain undertook surveys to produce maps and also worked in astronomy where he is particularly famed as a discoverer of comets.

  347. Stanisaw wierczkowski (1932-2015)
    • Did those two years of roaming the countryside, of hiking in forests and of climbing trees provide me with enough experience of distances, angles and shapes to solve problems in geometry?" His school record was good enough to allow him to sit for university entrance and he succeeded in gaining a place to study astronomy at the newly-founded University of Wrocław.
    • Astronomy was not to be Świerczkowski's calling, however.

  348. Louis Karpinski (1878-1956)
    • In the Exhibit, which was arranged for the Association meeting and which was visited by many during the sessions and on Friday afternoon when Professor Karpinski personally explained the collection, were placed all the works on the history of mathematics and astronomy, a fairly complete collection, the bibliographies, the dictionaries of mathematics and astronomy, the mathematical tables, and all mathematical and astronomical works in the library which were published before 1800.

  349. Robert Woodhouse (1773-1827)
    • He was appointed Lucasian professor of mathematics in 1820 but this chair provided such a small income that he was happy to resign in 1822 so that he might accept the better paid position as Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy.
    • Woodhouse's other works include A Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry (1809), A Treatise on Isoperimetrical Problems and the Calculus of Variations (1810), Treatise on Astronomy (1812) and a work on gravitation published in 1818.

  350. John Playfair (1748-1819)
    • The Astronomical Institution of Edinburgh was founded in 1811, preceding the Royal Astronomical Society in England by nine years, making it the first British society devoted to astronomy.
    • The second volume was entirely devoted to astronomy, while a third volume, which was intended to complete the series and cover the subjects of optics, electricity, and magnetism, was never completed.

  351. William Whewell (1794-1866)
    • However this changed and he moved towards broader scientific interests with publications of books such as Essay on Mineralogical Classification and Nomenclature (1828), Architectural Notes on German Churches, with Remarks on the Origin of Gothic Architecture (1830), Astronomy and General Physics (1833), History of the Inductive Sciences (3 vols.) (1837), and The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences (2 vols.) (1840).
    • He published significant works in experimental physics, crystallography, mineralogy, physical astronomy, science education, architecture, poetry, and religion, along with a bewildering number of more popular reviews, lectures, and sermons.

  352. Heinrich Bruns (1848-1919)
    • On leaving Berlin he took up the chair of astronomy in the Philosophy Faculty of the University of Leipzig, becoming director of the Leipzig Observatory.
    • Bruns was interested in astronomy, mathematics and geodesy.

  353. Marino Ghetaldi (1568-1626)
    • The topics he studied were scientific and as well as reading the latest mathematical papers he also studied mathematical astronomy.
    • This was an important opportunity for Ghetaldi who attended Galileo's lectures on mathematics, mechanics and astronomy.

  354. Henri Poincaré (1854-1912)
    • changing his lectures every year, he would review optics, electricity, the equilibrium of fluid masses, the mathematics of electricity, astronomy, thermodynamics, light, and probability.
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  355. Jacob Gool (1596-1667)
    • Golius initially focused on the study of medicine, mathematics and astronomy.
    • He was particularly interested in visiting Mesopotamia with its strong reputation for ancient studies in mathematics, astronomy and medicine.

  356. Ramchundra (1821-1880)
    • Delhi College, originally intended to promote Oriental learning, soon added the teaching of astronomy and mathematics based on European methods.
    • In another monthly publication, founded in September 1847 and published by Delhi College, Ramchundra contributed articles on a wide variety of topics including: A Description of the Diving Bell, by which Sunken Materials may be retrieved from the Sea; A Discussion of the Mistakes that Hindu Learned Men have made in Various Sciences in the Shastras; On Astronomy; On the work of Sir Isaac Newton; A discussion of the Relationship of the Human Mind and Body; On Demosthenes; On Confucius; and A biography of the Safavid Shah Abbas.

  357. Qin Jiushao (1202-1261)
    • In my youth I was living in the capital, so that I was able to study in the Board of Astronomy; subsequently, I was instructed in mathematics by a recluse scholar.
    • He says that he learn it from the calendar experts when he was studying at the Board of Astronomy in Hang-chou.

  358. Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253)
    • Grosseteste worked on geometry, optics and astronomy.
    • In an astronomy text he claimed that the Milky Way was the fusion of light from many small close stars.

  359. Menelaus (about 70-about 130)
    • It deals with spherical triangles and their application to astronomy.
    • Book 2 applies spherical geometry to astronomy.

  360. Jack Todd (1911-2007)
    • In May 2006, Todd was honoured at a 95th birthday dinner in the Athenaeum Library given by the Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy.
    • Thomas A Tombrello, chair of the Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy and William R Kenan, Jr Professor of Physics at Caltech says, "Jack and his wife Olga were among the pioneers who made us what we are in teaching and research in mathematics.

  361. David Rittenhouse (1732-1796)
    • He was professor of astronomy at the University during 1780-81.
    • He had published works on astronomy throughout his life but only in the second half of the 1780s did he turn his attention to scientific topics such as magnetism, publishing An account of some experiments in magnetism in 1786.

  362. Simplicius (about 490-about 560)
    • Simplicius is quoting from Eudemus's History of Astronomy in giving these details, but he does not quote directly from that work, rather quoting from Sosigenes (who wrote in the second century AD) who in turn quotes from Eudemus.
    • Simplicius on astronomy and physics .

  363. Thorvald Thiele (1838-1910)
    • Thiele studied astronomy at the University of Copenhagen and from there he obtained his Master's Degree in 1860.
    • As Director of the Astronomical Observatory Thiele had an interest in astronomy.

  364. Paolo Frisi (1728-1784)
    • We have already indicated many contributions that Frisi made to mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • His work on astronomy was based on Newton's theory of gravitation and is therefore of considerably more importance than his work in physics.

  365. Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598-1647)
    • Cavalieri also wrote on conic sections, trigonometry, optics, astronomy, and astrology.
    • His health had not improved and he was being pressed by the university authorities to work on astronomy rather than on mathematics, the topic that Cavalieri loved.

  366. Abraham bar Hiyya (1070-1136)
    • This work is an encyclopaedia of mathematics, astronomy, optics and music.
    • Abraham also wrote a number of texts on astronomy; in particular he wrote on the form of the Earth and the calculation of the paths of the stars on the celestial sphere.

  367. al-Khazin (about 900-about 971)
    • Abu Jafar al-Khazin may have worked on both astronomy and number theory or there may have been two mathematicians both working around the same period, one working on astronomy and one on number theory.

  368. Giovanni Magini (1555-1617)
    • He published Ephemerides coelestium motuum, a major treatise on astronomy, in 1582 and in the following year he published an Italian version of the original Latin text.
    • In 1592 Magini published De Planis Triangulis which explains the use of quadrants in astronomy and in surveying, in particular describing details of calculations and measurements which could be performed with a quadrant.

  369. Robert Simson (1687-1768)
    • after which he gave a satisfactory specimen of his skill in mathematicks and dexterity in teaching geometry and algebra, he also produced sufficient testimonials from Mr Caswell the Professor of astronomy at Oxford and from others in London well skilled in the mathematicks, upon all which the faculty resolve he shall be admitted the nineteenth day of this instant November.
    • These cover the years 1715-1765 and consist of numerous geometrical problems interspersed with exercises in algebra and astronomy, as well as occasional accounts of financial transactions.

  370. Stan Ulam (1909-1984)
    • At the age of ten, Ulam entered the gymnasium in Lvov and, about this time, he became interested first in astronomy and then in physics.
    • Now with interests in astronomy, physics and mathematics, Ulam entered the Polytechnic Institute in Lvov.

  371. Zhao Youqin (1271-about 1335)
    • When he was a young man he learnt astronomy and obtained a secret book on alchemy from a Daoist master.
    • He was an expert in astronomy, mathematics and physics, with particular skills in optics.

  372. Dominique Cassini (1748-1845)
    • Dominique Cassini, however, did not wish to join the priesthood but wished to follow in the family tradition, so he continued his education by studying physics, mathematics and astronomy.
    • "But what of your astronomy?" you ask.

  373. Ibn al-Banna (1256-1321)
    • At the university in Fez Al-Banna taught all branches of mathematics, which at this time included arithmetic, algebra, geometry and astronomy.
    • Not all are on mathematics, but the mathematical texts included an introduction to Euclid's Elements, an algebra text and various works on astronomy.

  374. René Descartes (1596-1650)
    • He also learnt mathematics from the books of Clavius, while studying all the branches of mathematics, namely arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  375. Henry Gellibrand (1597-1637)
    • Gellibrand succeeded Gunter to the chair of astronomy in Gresham College, London in 1627.
    • Institution Trigonometrical (1638), with an expanded version in 1658, applied trigonometry to navigation and astronomy.

  376. Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky (1669-1739)
    • It was in effect an encyclopaedia of the mathematical sciences of its day, based strongly on applications in navigational astronomy, geodesy and navigation.
    • "Astronomy" meant celestial navigation.

  377. Chrystal Macmillan (1872-1937)
    • In the following academic year 1894-95 she studied Advanced Honours Mathematics with Chrystal, Astronomy and Practical Astronomy with Copeland, then in 1895-96 Advanced Natural Philosophy with Tait.

  378. John Conway (1937-)
    • Mathematics was not the only subject which interested him, however, for he also had spells of deep interest in astronomy and at other times in fossils.
    • The interest in astronomy has remained with him and he lists it as one of his interests today.

  379. Enno Heeren Dirksen (1788-1850)
    • Between 1803 and 1807 Dirksen received private lessons in mathematics, physics, astronomy and navigation from Cornelius Voorn who was a teacher at the Emden Navigation School.
    • Dirksen assisted Bode both in making observations and in doing mathematical computation and he habilitated at Berlin University on 6 May 1820 as an expert in astronomy in the Mathematics Department.

  380. Thomas Stieltjes (1856-1894)
    • After de Haan returned, he and van de Sande-Bakhuyzen proposed Stieltjes for an honorary degree in mathematics and astronomy.
    • The Rector reported that a request has been received from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics to confer the degree of doctor honoris causa in Mathematics and Astronomy upon Mr T J Stieltjes, a former employee of Leiden Observatory.

  381. John Flamsteed (1646-1719)
    • Between 1662 and 1669 Flamsteed studied astronomy on his own without the help of teachers.
    • Astronomy: The Dynamics of the Solar System .

  382. Joachim Jungius (1587-1657)
    • In 1609 he was appointed as a professor of mathematics at Giessen and there he taught pure mathematics, the physical applications of mathematics to optics, harmonics, astronomy and geography, and the mechanical applications to the theory of refraction, hydrostatics and architecture.
    • shifted: from his early training in the late scholasticism of Francisco Suarez and his like, to astronomy, logic and mathematics, educational reform, medicine, and chemical philosophy (in his case corpuscularism), to an ambitious program to organise, systematise, and taxonomise - as well as further to contribute to (based on a mathematical paradigm) - the sum total of human knowledge.

  383. Nikolai Dmetrievich Brashman (1796-1866)
    • There he was taught by Joseph Johann Littrow (1781-1840), an Austrian who had worked in Russia at Kazan University before being appointed professor of astronomy at Vienna in 1819.
    • There he taught mathematics, spherical astronomy and mechanics.

  384. Siguenza y Gongora (1645-1700)
    • He was to hold this appointment for 20 years and contribute not only to mathematics but also to astronomy and cosmography.
    • He had been educated in Germany, studying mathematics and astronomy, and then entered the Society of Jesus before being sent as a missionary to Mexico City in 1681.

  385. Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951)
    • As indicated, the direction of Sommerfeld's research was immediately influenced by Klein who at this time was heavily involved in applying the theory of functions of a complex variable, and other pure mathematics, to a range of physical topics from astronomy to dynamics.
    • This would eventually be published in 1909-1910, the first two volumes dealing with the mathematical theory, while the final two volumes deal with applications to geophysics, astronomy and technology.

  386. J A Green (1926-2014)
    • Sandy spent two years as an undergraduate at St Andrews, taking courses on Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Astronomy, graduating with a B.Sc.
    • in Mathematics and Astronomy from St Andrews, was in the same class as Sandy Green.

  387. Bertha Swirles Jeffreys (1903-1999)
    • She then remained at Cambridge in 1925 to undertake research in mathematical astronomy under the supervision of Ralph Fowler, supported by a Yarrow Fellowship.
    • He had taught mathematics at Cambridge from 1922 to 1932 then, after fourteen years teaching geophysics, he was appointed as Plumian Professor of Astronomy in 1946.

  388. Arthur Cayley (1821-1895)
    • He was also interested in the Lowndean Chair of Geometry and Astronomy at Cambridge in 1858 and the chair of astronomy at Glasgow University in the following year.

  389. Samuel Haughton (1821-1897)
    • Haughton, however, had a wide range of interests and was taught Hebrew, botany, chemistry and astronomy by the Rev John Emerson of Mayo.
    • Returning to the Galbraith-Haughton manuals we list them together with the date of publication by Longmans of their first edition: Mechanics (1854), Optics (1854), Hydrostatics (1854), Trigonometry (1852), Arithmetic (1854), Astronomy (1856), Euclid I-III (1854), Euclid IV-VI (1859), Algebra (1860), Mathematical Tables (1860), Steam Engine (1864), and Tides & Currents (1862).

  390. Bartholomew Lloyd (1772-1837)
    • John Brinkley had been appointed to the Andrews Chair of Astronomy at Trinity in 1790 and, two years later, he was also appointed as Royal Astronomer of Ireland.
    • Among the undergraduates, those who now look for high academical honours read the works of Cagnoli and Woodhouse on Trigonometry, Brinkley's Astronomy, a course of Algebraic geometry, equivalent to the extent of the first part of the present treatise, the Elementary Treatise of Lacroix on the Differential, and part of that on the Integral Calculus; with Peacock's examples as a praxis; a selection from the 'Mecanique' of Poisson, including the Statics, the Dynamical principle of D'Alembert, with its various applications; the theory of the moments of inertia, the motion of a body round a fixed axis, and most of the Hydrodynamics; also the subject of the first seventeen propositions, and the seventh section of the 'Principia', and the theory of projectiles 'in vacuo', all treated analytically.

  391. Zhang Heng (78-139)
    • Zhang was thirty years old before his interests turned from literature to scientific matters, and at that time he became particularly interested in astronomy.
    • It was natural therefore that Zhang having become an expert in astronomy should become involved in calendar reform by the year 123.

  392. Hubert Linfoot (1905-1982)
    • His reason for choosing optics was a longstanding interest in astronomy and, when he was a young boy, he had built himself a small telescope.
    • His need to reserve his effort for what was of greatest importance could give the impression of a more retiring disposition than he in fact possessed, and this contributed to the sense of intellectual loneliness that he undoubtedly felt even in a great university, particularly among astronomers who in the days before radio astronomy and space research tended towards conservatism of outlook.

  393. John Pell (1611-1685)
    • Pell also translated Lansberge's tables, which were published in 1632, and worked on astronomy.

  394. Arend Heyting (1898-1980)
    • His interests were very wide-ranging and varied: music, literature, linguistics, philosophy, astronomy, and botany; he also was fond of walking.

  395. Matthew Stewart (1717-1785)
    • In 1761 he wrote Tracts, Physical and Mathematical, Containing an Explication of Several Points in Physical Astronomy describing planetary motion and the perturbation of one planet on another.

  396. Marian Smoluchowski (1872-1917)
    • At this school Marian was at first attracted by the humanities and it was not until late in his school education that he became fascinated by physics and astronomy.

  397. William Spottiswoode (1825-1883)
    • He combined these different skills by undertaking research on the history of mathematics and astronomy in India.

  398. Edward Routh (1831-1907)
    • The research areas which interested him most were geometry, dynamics, astronomy, waves, vibrations and harmonic analysis.

  399. William Hodge (1903-1975)
    • In March 1936 Hodge had been appointed as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry, succeeding Henry Baker, and he held this chair at Cambridge until 1970.

  400. William Wallace (1768-1843)
    • In addition to mathematical articles, he wrote articles on astronomy which he published in the Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society.

  401. Michel Chasles (1793-1880)
    • Topics he taught were geodesy, mechanics, and astronomy.

  402. John Waterston (1811-1883)
    • He published papers on many scientific topics including astronomy, physics, chemistry, and physiology.

  403. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944)
    • For use in my lectures I had, over a period of more than 40 years, collected more than 275 instruments of early and medieval times for purposes of calculating, measuring (lengths, areas, volumes, weight and time) and astronomy (navigation, astrology, and the calendar).

  404. Tom Whiteside (1932-2008)
    • For example he published Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy, 1664-1684 in 1970.

  405. Józef Marcinkiewicz (1910-1940)
    • It was not that his training had lacked a science base, for he had a wide knowledge of physics and astronomy, but rather he just had broad interests.

  406. Thales of Miletus (about 624 BC-about 547 BC)
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  407. Rabbi Ben Ezra (1092-1167)
    • grammar, exegesis, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, and astrology.

  408. Paul Davies (1946-)
    • Following the award of his doctorate, he spent two years, 1970-72, as a Research Fellow at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy at the University of Cambridge working with Fred Hoyle.

  409. Katherine Johnson (1918-)
    • Katherine also became very interested in astronomy while at the high school.

  410. Al-Nayrizi (about 875-about 940)
    • Al-Nayrizi's works on astronomy include a commentary of Ptolemy's Almagest Ⓣ and Tetrabiblos.

  411. Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
    • Work in astronomy required accurate timekeeping and this prompted Huygens to tackle this problem.

  412. T J J See (1866-1962)
    • He received a doctorate in astronomy from the University of Berlin.

  413. Hans Bethe (1906-2005)
    • Nonetheless, his conclusion -- that the CNO cycle drove energy generation in stars much more massive that the sun while the p-p reaction drove energy production in lighter stars -- is a staple of nearly every introductory textbook on astronomy.

  414. Tomás Rodríguez Bachiller (1899-1980)
    • Back at the Faculty of Sciences in Madrid, Bachiller was appointed as an assistant on 2 October 1925 to give practical classes on "Elements of Infinitesimal Calculus", and on 13 November of that year also on "Spherical Astronomy and Geodesy".

  415. Ralph Sampson (1866-1939)
    • After two years as a lecturer in mathematics in London, Sampson returned to Cambridge in 1891 when he became the first holder of the Isaac Newton Studentship in Astronomy and Physical Optics.

  416. James Stirling (1692-1770)
    • The syllabus included mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, and astronomy.

  417. Olive Clio Hazlett (1890-1974)
    • graduate training in the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy of the University of Chicago (chiefly under Professors E H Moore and L E Dickson, writing my theses under the latter) ..

  418. Mahavira (about 800-about 870)
    • There were many Indian mathematicians before the time of Mahavira but, perhaps surprisingly, their work on mathematics is always contained in texts which discuss other topics such as astronomy.

  419. Wacaw Sierpiski (1882-1969)
    • At the Jagiellonian University in Krakow he attended lectures by Zaremba on mathematics, studying in addition astronomy and philosophy.

  420. Rolf Nevanlinna (1895-1980)
    • Otto, born in 1867, came from a mathematical family and studied mathematics, physics and astronomy at Helsinki University.

  421. Albertus (about 1200-1280)
    • While in Paris Albertus began the task of presenting the entire body of knowledge, natural science, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, astronomy, ethics, economics, politics and metaphysics.

  422. Charles-Étienne Camus (1699-1768)
    • also undertook work in civil and military architecture, mechanics, and astronomy.

  423. Anatolii Volodymyrovych Skorokhod (1930-2011)
    • Volodymyr Oleksiyovych taught mathematics, physics and astronomy, while Nadiya Andriivna taught mathematics, history, literature, and music.

  424. Gregory Maxwell Kelly (1930-2007)
    • When I was a child, it seemed to me that Dad knew quite a bit about most things -- astronomy, languages, history, and of course theology and philosophy, just to name a few.

  425. Axel Harnack (1851-1888)
    • There he was taught physics by Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) who had studied physics and astronomy at Dorpat before studying further in Paris and Berlin.

  426. Govindasvami (about 800-about 860)
    • It is an eight chapter work on Indian mathematical astronomy and includes topics which were fairly standard for such works at this time.

  427. Jan A Schouten (1883-1971)
    • He published a monograph On the Determination of the Principle Laws of Statistical Astronomy in 1918 and his classic work on the Ricci calculus Der Ricci-Kalkul : Eine Einfuhrung in die neueren Methoden und Probleme der mehrdimensionalen Differentialgeometrie Ⓣ in 1924.

  428. John Napier (1550-1617)
    • At last Mr Briggs began, -"My Lord, I have undertaken this long journey purposely to see your person, and to know by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came first to think of this most excellent help unto astronomy, viz.

  429. Antonio Mario Lorgna (1735-1796)
    • He also attended lectures on astronomy by Giovanni Alberto Colombo who predicted a bright scientific future for him.

  430. Mary Newson (1869-1959)
    • Newson taught courses in both mathematics and astronomy and shared the leadership of the combined mathematics and science division from 1928 to 1934 when she became chairman of that division.

  431. Emil Post (1897-1954)
    • We now think of Post as a mathematical logician but the first subject which attracted him was astronomy.

  432. Stephen de Gurbs (1800-1892)
    • with their practical applications to the mensuration of heights and distances; to determining the latitude by two altitudes of the sun, the longitude by the lunar observations, and to other important problems on the sphere, and on nautical astronomy (1820); Silvestre Francois Lacroix, Traite elementaire de calcul differentiel et de calcul integral Ⓣ (1806); and Silvestre Francois Lacroix, Complement des Elemens d'algebre, a l'usage de l'Ecole centrale des quatre-nations Ⓣ (1800).

  433. Roger Cotes (1682-1716)
    • In January 1706 he was nominated to be the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy.

  434. Ronald Graham (1935-)
    • His first real fascination was with astronomy but soon he fell in love with mathematics.

  435. Albert Tucker (1905-1995)
    • As well as mathematics and physics courses, he also took courses in chemistry and astronomy.

  436. Carl Siegel (1896-1981)
    • Initially his intention had been to study astronomy, but Frobenius's influence took him towards number theory which would became the main research topic of his career.

  437. Pierre Petit (1594-1677)
    • He wanted the King to establish a Royal Observatory to allow France to again take a leading role in astronomy.

  438. Jean Beaugrand (about 1590-1640)
    • As well as mathematics, he was interested in astronomy.

  439. Ernest Wilczynski (1876-1932)
    • By that time he had published over a dozen papers in astronomy, but his interests moved towards differential equations which arose in his study of the dynamics of astronomical objects.

  440. Philip Stein (1890-1974)
    • Ralph Fowler, who made important advances in astronomy, had worked on statistical mechanics in the 1920s.

  441. Guido Grandi (1671-1742)
    • Having learnt much geometry, between 1699 and 1700 Grandi began to look at applications to optics, mechanics, astronomy.

  442. Gaston Floquet (1847-1920)
    • He continued to publish high quality papers on mathematics and astronomy in Comptes Rendus and in various journals associated with Nancy.

  443. Erland Bring (1736-1798)
    • various questions in algebra, geometry, analysis and astronomy, and commentaries on the work of De L'Hopital, Christian von Wolf, Leonhard Euler, and other scholars.

  444. Ibrahim ibn Sinan (908-946)
    • We know of Ibrahim's works through his own work Letter on the description of the notions Ibrahim derived in geometry and astronomy in which Ibrahim lists his own works.

  445. Simon Stevin (1548-1620)
    • In De Hemelloop Ⓣ, published in 1608, he wrote on astronomy and strongly defended the sun centred system of Copernicus.

  446. Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
    • He studied physics as his main subject but took mathematics, astronomy and chemistry as minor subjects.

  447. João Baptista Lavanha (1555-1624)
    • During this period he wrote a book on astronomy, namely Taboas do lugar do Sol but it was not published until 1600.

  448. al-Jayyani (989-1079)
    • Work by al-Jayyani on astronomy was also important.

  449. Christopher Clavius (1538-1612)
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .

  450. Georges Buffon (1707-1788)
    • The wide range of topics which Buffon wrote on include mathematics, the theory of probability, astronomy and physics, especially optics.

  451. James Whitbread Lee Glaisher (1848-1928)
    • Glaisher wrote over 400 articles on his main interests of astronomy, special functions, calculation of numerical tables, number theory, and the history of mathematics.

  452. Niels Abel (1802-1829)
    • At the University of Christiania Abel found a supporter in the professor of astronomy Christopher Hansteen, who provided both financial support and encouragement.

  453. Hypatia (about 370-415)
    • However no purely philosophical work is known, only work in mathematics and astronomy.

  454. Joseph Gergonne (1771-1859)
    • Gergonne was appointed to the chair of astronomy at the University of Montpellier in 1816.

  455. Kelly Miller (1863-1939)
    • During the following two years he studied mathematics, physics and astronomy.

  456. Antoine Cournot (1801-1877)
    • During this time he translated John Herschel's Treatise on astronomy into French, it was published in 1834.

  457. Edward Blades (1875-1953)
    • (Pure) in 1902 after a very full course of study, especially in mathematics, astronomy, and geology.

  458. Reinhard Selten (1930-)
    • His increasing interest in game theory and economics led to him to ask if he could take mathematical economics as a minor subject instead of astronomy.

  459. Pierre Puiseux (1855-1928)
    • He was elected to the Astronomy Section of the Academy of Sciences in 1912, and was elected an associate member of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1917.

  460. Ernest Brown (1866-1938)
    • His life style, perhaps the consequence of his interest in astronomy, is described in [',' A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society 1888-1938 (New York, 1980), 173-183.','8] as follows:- .

  461. Eugène Catalan (1814-1894)
    • He was awarded his doctorate in mathematics in 1841 for his main thesis in Mechanics Attraction d'un ellipsoide homogene sur un point exterieur ou sur un point interieur Ⓣ, and a further thesis Sur le mouvement des etoiles doubles Ⓣ in Astronomy.

  462. César-François Cassini de Thury (1714-1784)
    • Despite many observations made by Cassini in his role as head of the Paris Observatory, his work in astronomy is of relatively little importance.

  463. Jonas Moore (1627-1679)
    • Rather Moore is famous for his strong support of mathematics and astronomy which made many other mathematical and astronomical advances possible.

  464. Anaximander (611 BC-546 BC)
    • The importance of his work is that he introduced scientific and mathematical principles into the study of astronomy and geography.

  465. Paul Finsler (1894-1970)
    • Now Finsler had another passion in addition to mathematics, namely astronomy.

  466. Brian Hartley (1939-1994)
    • In addition there was William Hodge who was Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry.

  467. Heinrich-Wolfgang Leopoldt (1927-2011)
    • The teacher was, of course, already fully aware of Leopoldt's mathematical abilities and he began to teach him the mathematical principles of astronomy.

  468. Archimedes (287 BC-212 BC)
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  469. Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865)
    • In 1838, he became a member of the Board of Studies of the Military College, and in 1844, he earned the title of Professor of Astronomy at the University of Berlin.

  470. Corrado Segre (1863-1924)
    • In his fourth and final year of study (1882-83), in addition to the compulsory courses on Higher Mechanics, Astronomy and Mathematical Physics, Segre again followed the course of higher geometry given by D'Ovidio and the analysis course by Faa di Bruno.

  471. Johann Castillon (1704-1791)
    • In December 1751 he went to the University of Utrecht to lecture on mathematics and astronomy.

  472. Sotero Prieto (1884-1935)
    • A third son was Agustin Prieto Rio de la Loza (12 March 1923 - 4 July 2003) who studied astronomy and specialised in astrophysics.

  473. George Peacock (1791-1858)
    • In 1836 he was appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge and three years later was appointed dean of Ely cathedral, spending the last 20 years of his life there [',' H W Becher, Peacock, George (1791-1858), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004).','6]:- .

  474. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894)
    • He took courses on physics, zoology and astronomy as well as on mathematics taking courses in the second semester both at the University and at the Technische Hochschule.

  475. Hypsicles (about 190 BC-about 120 BC)
    • Having made this assumption his results are correct and Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','4] certainly values this work much more highly than Heath does.

  476. Émile Picard (1856-1941)
    • In 1881 he returned to Paris when appointed maitre de conference in mechanics and astronomy at the Ecole Normale.

  477. Gherard (1114-1187)
    • The most important, however, were on astronomy, geometry and other branches of mathematics.

  478. Joseph Plateau (1801-1883)
    • It was Quetelet who arranged for Plateau and his friends to frequently visit the National Observatory which encouraged his interest in astronomy.

  479. Dougald Mcquistan (1879-1946)
    • with Special Distinction in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Astronomy in 1903.

  480. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
    • See [',' D Whitehouse, Leonardo and astronomy, Journal of the British Astronomical Association 103 (1993), 218.','28] for more details of this quotation and more of Leonardo's ideas about the Universe.

  481. Kushyar ibn Labban (971-1029)
    • From his works we know that Kushyar was primarily an astronomer who wrote texts on astronomy and geography.

  482. Antoni Zygmund (1900-1992)
    • Since his boyhood Antoni Zygmund had been interested in astronomy and had a considerable knowledge in this field; at that time, however, such studies were not offered in Warsaw.

  483. P G Tait (1831-1901)
    • An Edinburgh banker, John Ronaldson was nevertheless interested in science, in particular in astronomy, geology and with the newly invented photography.

  484. Henry White (1861-1943)
    • At the Wesleyan University White was taught mathematics and astronomy by Van Vleck's father, John Monroe Van Vleck.

  485. Jacob ben Tibbon (1236-1305)
    • He also translated Arabic-language works by Jews and Arabs dealing with philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.

  486. Paul Epstein (1871-1939)
    • Theobald Epstein was a excellent scientist who had been taught astronomy by Karl Schwarzschild.

  487. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
    • Seth Ward, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, wrote:- .

  488. Gilles Roberval (1602-1675)
    • Other texts have been published much later, for example Elements de geometrie Ⓣ in 1996, and other material has not yet been published (and perhaps never will be published) such as his courses on astronomy, surveying, architecture and physical geography.

  489. Henry Ernest Dudeney (1857-1930)
    • Henry's father Gilbert Dudeney(born in Mayfield, Sussex about 1825) was a schoolmaster and his father, Henry's paternal grandfather, although he began life as a shepherd, taught himself mathematics and astronomy and left his life on the hills to become a schoolmaster in Lewes.

  490. Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698)
    • In both these pieces of work in astronomy he was assisted by Ole Romer.

  491. Harry Vandiver (1882-1973)
    • He spent the rest of his career at the University of Texas, being promoted to full professor in 1925, then named as distinguished professor of applied mathematics and astronomy in 1947.

  492. Edward Troughton (1753-1835)
    • Edward Troughton took the science of instrument-making very seriously indeed and began to study the mathematical background necessary, as well as astronomy so that he could understand precisely how the instruments were being used and the type of scientific discoveries that users of the instruments were hoping to make.

  493. Bent Christiansen (1921-1996)
    • However Christiansen was able to study mathematics, astronomy, physics, and chemistry at the University despite the difficult situation.

  494. Richard Tapia (1939-)
    • I think my love for mathematics may have come from the Mayas, one of the first civilizations to deeply understand mathematics and astronomy.

  495. Johann Segner (1704-1777)
    • While he was an undergraduate he published essays on a wide variety of topics including mathematics, philosophy, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and medicine.

  496. Luoxia Hong (about 130 BC-about 70 BC)
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .

  497. Alfréd Rényi (1921-1970)
    • He also began to take an interest in astronomy and this interest led him to take an interest in physics.

  498. Bernt Holmboe (1795-1850)
    • During the years 1828-30 Holmboe lectured on astronomy since Hansteen was absent on a geomagnetic expedition to Siberia.

  499. Francesco Brioschi (1824-1897)
    • There he taught mechanics, architecture and astronomy.

  500. John William Strutt (1842-1919)
    • He was awarded an astronomy scholarship in 1864, then in the Tripos examinations of 1865 he was Senior Wrangler (the top First Class student) and in the same year he was the first Smith's prizeman.

  501. Constantin Carathéodory (1873-1950)
    • His oral examination was held on 13 July when he was also examined in his subsidiary subjects of applied mathematics and astronomy by Klein and Schwarzschild.

  502. Dorothea Beale (1831-1906)
    • Beale also attended the lectures by the Gresham Professor of Astronomy, Joseph Pullen, at Crosby Hall.

  503. Hans Heilbronn (1908-1975)
    • It is worth noting that Heilbronn and Linfoot remained friends throughout their lives but their interests diverged with Linfoot's interests turning from number theory to research in optics and astronomy.

  504. James Ivory (1765-1842)
    • In fact he never joined the Royal Astronomical Society, despite his interests in astronomy, since he believed that members of that Society were systematically working against him.

  505. Frank Adams (1930-1989)
    • In 1970 Adams succeeded Hodge as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge, and at this time he returned to Trinity College.

  506. Boethius (about 480-524)
    • Boethius was one of the main sources of material for the quadrivium, an educational course introduced into monasteries consisting of four topics: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and the theory of music.

  507. Edwin Wilson (1879-1964)
    • He did not study statistics for its own, however, but he was interested in applying statistics both to astronomy and to biology.

  508. William Neile (1637-1670)
    • We know little of Neile's life during the Commonwealth (1649-60) except that he was living at White Waltham near Maidenhead, evidently a man of means with an interest in astronomy and in the making of telescopes.

  509. Wilhelm Fiedler (1832-1912)
    • Fiedler himself lectured on a wide variety of topics in addition to mathematics, physics and astronomy.

  510. Karl von Staudt (1798-1867)
    • His reputation in astronomy was high, largely due to the high opinion that Gauss had of him, and Wilhelm Bessel offered him a position at the Albertus University of Konigsberg in 1829.

  511. Duncan Sommerville (1879-1934)
    • Outside mathematics one of Sommerville's interests was astronomy and he was a founder of the New Zealand Astronomical Society as well as being its first secretary.

  512. Abraham Kästner (1719-1800)
    • Despite this he was interested in the philosophy of mathematics and he wrote widely, in long volumes, about the applications of mathematics to optics, dynamics and astronomy.

  513. Aryabhata II (about 920-about 1000)
    • The treatise is written in Sanskrit verse and the first twelve chapters form a treatise on mathematical astronomy covering the usual topics that Indian mathematicians worked on during this period.

  514. Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930)
    • When she returned to Vassar College after teaching for a year, she was greatly encouraged by the professor of astronomy there, Maria Mitchell, to follow her interests in mathematics and science.

  515. Kristen Nygaard (1926-2002)
    • He then studied science at the University of Oslo where his main interest was first in astronomy, and later in applied mathematics.

  516. Duncan Gregory (1813-1844)
    • He was one of the founder members of the Cambridge Chemical Society but had broader interests than even mathematics and chemistry for he also studied physics, astronomy and botany.

  517. Theodor Molien (1861-1941)
    • Molien graduated from the University of Dorpat in 1883 after studying astronomy under A Lindstedt as well as mathematics, and continued to work there to become a university professor.

  518. George Atwood (1745-1807)
    • He also taught astronomy, mentioning recent surveys of the earth's density by the mathematician Charles Hutton and the astronomer royal Nevil Maskelyne, plus Maskelyne's favoured lunar method for longitude.

  519. Philip Hall (1904-1982)
    • Among his teachers at Cambridge were Hobson, the Sadleirian professor, and Baker, the Lowndean professor of Astronomy and Geometry.

  520. Erastus De Forest (1834-1888)
    • In a tour de force that anticipated much of the work that would appear over the following half-century, he introduced formal optimality criteria for smoothness, and he borrowed statistical ideas from astronomy in developing and fully investigating the use of least squares methods in this area.

  521. John Hadley (1682-1744)
    • It was due to him that reflecting telescopes of sufficient accuracy and power to be useful in astronomy were developed.

  522. Andrew Hart (1811-1890)
    • At the time when Hart began his studies William Rowan Hamilton was Andrews' Professor of Astronomy in Trinity College Dublin while Franc Sadleir (1775-1851) was Erasmus Smith professor of mathematics.

  523. Edward Kasner (1878-1955)
    • in 1896 having studied a range of subjects including mathematics, astronomy, logic, physics, and political science.

  524. David Hilbert (1862-1943)
    • Maria was fascinated by philosophy, astronomy and prime numbers.

  525. Ernst Abbe (1840-1905)
    • This turned his attention towards optics and astronomy.

  526. Nikolaos Hatzidakis (1872-1942)
    • After two years spent in Germany, he returned to Greece in 1900 where he was appointed as the Professor of Theoretical Mechanics and Astronomy at the Hellenic Military Academy.

  527. Thomas Digges (1546-1595)
    • He makes his Copernican views very clear in this letter quoted in [',' F R Johnson, The Influence of Thomas Digges on the Progress of Modern Astronomy in 16th Century Englsnd, Osiris 1 (1936), 390-410.','3]:- .

  528. Alcuin (735-804)
    • Alcuin wrote elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy at a time when a renaissance in learning in Europe was just beginning, a renaissance mainly led by Alcuin himself.

  529. Armand Borel (1923-2003)
    • By visible part I mean the mathematics useful in the external world, in technology, physics, natural sciences, astronomy, computers and so on, whose usefulness and social justification cannot be doubted.

  530. Paul Tannery (1843-1904)
    • He published a history of Greek science in 1887, a history of Greek geometry in the same year, and a history of ancient astronomy in 1893.

  531. Jean Delsarte (1903-1968)
    • Not only did Delsarte teach some outstanding mathematics courses at Nancy but he taught a public course on astronomy from 1929, continuing to give this when at Nancy for the rest of his career.

  532. Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857)
    • He also wrote on mathematical astronomy, mainly because of his candidacy for positions at the Bureau des Longitudes.

  533. Nicole-Reine Etable de Labrière (1723-1788)
    • It was not long after Nicole-Reine married that Jerome Lalande, who was at that time a law student, became fascinated by astronomy and was given a room above the porch of the Palais du Luxembourg to use as an observatory.

  534. Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615)
    • Whereas in Della Porta's day, the astronomer was still an astrologer and the physicist a magician, by the end of the seventeenth century astrology had been severed from astronomy, and magic was either frowned upon or reinterpreted along recognizably rational lines.

  535. Abu'l-Wafa (940-998)
    • He continued to support mathematics and astronomy and Abu'l-Wafa and al-Quhi remained at the court in Baghdad working for the new Caliph.

  536. Eduard Heine (1821-1881)
    • He also attended geometry lectures by Steiner, and astronomy lectures by J F Encke, the director of the observatory.

  537. Ferdinand Rudio (1856-1929)
    • Rudolf Wolf, the professor of astronomy at the Eidgenossische Polytechnikum Zurich and director of the Zurich Observatory, also held a role as director of the Eidgenossische Polytechnikum library.

  538. Ágoston Scholtz (1844-1916)
    • They were often on the same committee set up to examine doctoral candidates, who usually offered mathematics, physics and astronomy as the subjects to be examined.

  539. George Hill (1838-1914)
    • Newcomb persuaded Hill to develop a theory of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn and Hill's work on this topic is another major contribution to mathematical astronomy.

  540. Thomas Bradwardine (about 1295-1349)
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  541. Moritz Cantor (1829-1920)
    • At Gottingen he was taught mathematics and astronomy by Carl Gauss, physics by Wilhelm Weber and mathematics by Moritz Stern, who was particularly interested in number theory.

  542. Harold Hotelling (1895-1973)
    • Should statistics be taught in the department of agriculture, anthropology, astronomy, biology, business, economics, education, engineering, medicine, physics, political science, psychology, or sociology, or in all these departments? Should its teaching be entrusted to the department of mathematics, or to a separate department of statistics, and in either of these cases should other departments be prohibited from offering duplicating courses in statistics, as they are often inclined to do? ..

  543. Francesco Grimaldi (1618-1663)
    • Grimaldi was well prepared to teach all branches of mathematics: geometry, optics, gnomonics, statics, geography, astronomy and celestial mechanics.

  544. Georges Darmois (1888-1960)
    • He was President of the International Institute of Statistics from 1954 until his death, and was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1955 in the Astronomy Section.

  545. Mihailo Petrovi (1868-1943)
    • He wrote academic papers in and studied other natural sciences, primarily astronomy, theory of relativity and chemistry.

  546. Ferdinand Joachimsthal (1818-1861)
    • At Halle, Rosenberger taught mathematics and astronomy but, although he continued to undertake research, he published nothing after 1836.

  547. Hjalmar Mellin (1854-1933)
    • He majored in mathematics and physics but also took courses on astronomy, chemistry, botany and the history of the Nordic countries.

  548. Nicholas Oresme (1323-1382)
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  549. Robert Recorde (1510-1558)
    • The Castle of Knowledge was first published in 1556 and gives an elementary introduction to Ptolemy's version of astronomy.

  550. Carl Størmer (1874-1957)
    • From his childhood he showed a deep interest in the natural sciences, astronomy, physics, chemistry, meteorology, geology and in particular botany.

  551. Gan De (about 400 BC-about 340 BC)
    • Of course the intriguing question is what was the small reddish star which Gan De saw? Could it have been one of Jupiter's satellites? This has intrigued those interested in the history of astronomy.

  552. William Jack (1834-1924)
    • Jack married Agnes Jane Nichol, the daughter of John Pringle Nichol, Regius Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow and the sister of John Nichol, Regius Professor of English Literature at the same University.

  553. Félix Savary (1797-1841)
    • He then taught at the Ecole, becoming a professor of astronomy and geodesy there in 1831.

  554. Joseph Neuberg (1840-1926)
    • Adolphe Quetelet and Jean-Guillaume Garnier (1766-1840), the professor of astronomy and higher mathematics at Ghent, edited the Belgium publication Correspondance mathematique et physique.

  555. Pietro Cataldi (1548-1626)
    • He taught mathematics and astronomy at the Studio di Bologna for almost forty years until his death.

  556. Linards Reizins (1924-1991)
    • He also worked at the Latvian Academy of Sciences, being appointed as a junior research fellow at the Astronomy Department in 1957.

  557. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
    • Gauss's contributions to theoretical astronomy stopped after 1817, although he went on making observations until the age of 70.

  558. Paul Butzer (1928-)
    • Paul L Butzer presents a broad but un-specialized survey of scholarship in mathematics and astronomy during Carolingian times, in the explicit context of the older sources available to early medieval writers and in comparison with parallel developments in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds.

  559. Charles Tinseau (1748-1822)
    • He also wrote Solution de quelques questions d'astronomie Ⓣ on astronomy but it was never published.

  560. Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995)
    • He read Astronomie Populaire Ⓣ by Camille Flamarion as a teenager and this book proved to be a major influence in determining his fascination with astronomy.

  561. Democritus (about 460 BC-about 370 BC)
    • History Topics: Greek Astronomy .

  562. William McFadden Orr (1866-1934)
    • Captain William de Wiveleslie Abney (1843-1920) was a scientific photographer particularly interested in applications of photography to astronomy.

  563. Nikolai Fuss (1755-1826)
    • He made contributions to differential geometry and won a prize from the French Academy in 1778 for a paper on the motion of comets near some planet Recherche sur le derangement d'une comete qui passe pres d'une planete Ⓣ (see [',' E P Ozhigova, Works of N I Fuss relating to astronomy (Russian), Istor.-Astronom.

  564. R A Fisher (1890-1962)
    • Although he studied mathematics and astronomy at Cambridge, he was also interested in biology.

  565. al-Khujandi (about 940-1000)
    • Finally, although this really proves little, the theorem appears many times in the writings of Abu Nasr Mansur: both his writings on geometry as well as those on astronomy.

  566. Jan-Karel della Faille (1597-1652)
    • In della Faille's letters to van Langren one can appreciate the breadth of his scientific interests and the attention and critical spirit with which he followed progress in mathematics, astronomy, geography, cartography, and natural philosophy.

  567. Fritz Noether (1884-1941)
    • In July 1936 Noether had attended the International Congress of Mathematicians in Oslo and presented a paper Uber elektrische Drahtwellen to Section V, the Mathematics Physics, Astronomy and Geophysics Section.

  568. Anna Adelaide Stafford Henriques (1905-2004)
    • In addition to her love of mathematics and astronomy, and for bowling and travelling which we have already mentioned, Henriques loved to climb mountains and go hiking.

  569. Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925)
    • Astronomy: The Infinite Universe .

  570. Simon Mayr (1573-1624)
    • While at this school he became interested in astronomy and in 1594 he began to make astronomical and meteorological observations.

  571. Richard Delamain (1600-1644)
    • Certainly Oughtred claims to have taught Delamain astronomy, conic sections and optics.

  572. Bartholomeo Pitiscus (1561-1613)
    • problems of geodesy, measuring of heights, geography, gnomometry, and astronomy.

  573. Robert Lee Moore (1882-1974)
    • The University of Texas did Moore a great honour, however, for in 1973 they named a new physics, mathematics and astronomy building after him.

  574. Andreas Speiser (1885-1970)
    • Series II contains the works on mechanics, technology and astronomy, while Series III is devoted to the works on physics and philosophy.

  575. Robert Carmichael (1879-1967)
    • The Association was divided into two Sections, namely Section A covering Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry and Mineralogy, and Section B covering Geology, Zoology, Botany and Anthropology.

  576. Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896)
    • Astronomy: The Reaches of the Milky Way .

  577. Jean Bartik (1924-2011)
    • Returning to Northwest Missouri State Teachers College for her junior year, she found that nobody else was majoring in mathematics and, in some of the courses, for example Calculus and Astronomy, she was one of only two students, the other student being a young man from Peru.

  578. Johann Benedict Listing (1808-1882)
    • In addition to these two topics he also took courses on astronomy, anatomy, physiology, botany, mineralogy, geology and chemistry.

  579. Ahmed ibn Yusuf (835-912)
    • As well as a text on medicine, Yusuf is known to have written a work on astronomy and produced a collection of astronomical tables.

  580. Attia Ashour (1924-2017)
    • By the third year he was attending courses on multivariable calculus, mathematical analysis and astronomy.

  581. João Delgado (1553-1612)
    • Mathematics and astronomy were the foundation of these skills but Portuguese universities concentrated on teaching theology so the King of Portugal appealed for instructional courses to be set up.

  582. Martin Ohm (1792-1872)
    • Niels Abel wrote to Christopher Hansteen, the professor of astronomy at the University of Christiania, while he was on a visit to Berlin in 1826:- .

  583. Eizens Leimanis (1905-1992)
    • Back in Riga, he was appointed as a dozent in 1937 in the Department of Theoretical Astronomy and Analytical Mechanics at the University of Latvia.

  584. Adam Günther (1848-1923)
    • numerous books and journal articles [which] encompass both pure mathematics and its history, and physics, geophysics, meteorology, geography, and astronomy.

  585. Eberhard Hopf (1902-1983)
    • in Mathematics in 1926 and, in 1929, his Habilitation in Mathematical Astronomy from the University of Berlin.

  586. Mikhail Vasilevich Ostrogradski (1801-1862)
    • Between 1822 and 1827, he attended lectures at the Ecole Polytechnique, the Sorbonne, and the College de France, on mathematics, physics, mechanics, and astronomy.

  587. Walter Samuel McAfee (1914-1995)
    • It was to study radio astronomy and solar physics and was presented to McAfee by President Eisenhower.

  588. Robert Murphy (1806-1843)
    • His mother could not afford to buy him mathematics books but she found an old Cork almanac containing problems on navigation and positional astronomy solved using trigonometry.

  589. Francesco Maurolico (1494-1575)
    • Much of Francesco's education came from his mother, described as a wise and noble women, and his father, who taught him Greek, mathematics and astronomy.

  590. Mary Somerville (1780-1872)
    • She overheard him explaining to another pupil that Euclid's Elements formed the basis for understanding perspective in painting, but much more, it was the basis for understanding astronomy and other sciences.

  591. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-1898)
    • I mean to have read by next time, Integral Calculus, Optics (and theory of light), Astronomy, and higher Dynamics.

  592. Proclus (411-485)
    • He combined his geometrical skills and his knowledge of astronomy to give a geometrical proof that the epicycle theory for the planets is equivalent to the eccentric theory.

  593. Jozéf Hoëné Wronski (1778-1853)
    • His many projects ranged from the design of water works, navigational instruments, and railway car wheels, through mathematics, astronomy, and other sciences to the farthest reaches of metaphysics ..

  594. Marinus (about 450-about 500)
    • We are told in [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','5] that:- .

  595. Robert Gillespie (1903-1977)
    • in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy.

  596. Johann(III) Bernoulli (1744-1807)
    • Johann(III) Bernoulli wrote a number of works on astronomy, reporting on astronomical observations and calculations, but these are of little importance.

  597. Jean-Baptiste Morin (1583-1656)
    • However astrology remained his main interest although he worked with Gassendi on observational astronomy.

  598. Gino Loria (1862-1954)
    • Concerned only with exact sciences, Loria gelt himself compelled to justify his incursions into "foreign fields" like philosophy, geodesy, and astronomy, forced as he said by "the indissoluble links" among the various branches of his subject matter.

  599. Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039)
    • The main topics on which he wrote were optics, including a theory of light and a theory of vision, astronomy, and mathematics, including geometry and number theory.

  600. Giovanni Guccia (1855-1914)
    • The goal was to stimulate the study of higher mathematics by means of original communications presented by the members of the society on the different branches of analysis and geometry, as well as on rational mechanics, mathematical physics, geodesy, and astronomy.

  601. Brahmadeva (1060-1130)
    • The work contains some contributions to trigonometry, motivated by its application to mathematical astronomy.

  602. Paramesvara (about 1370-about 1460)
    • It is a work containing typical topics for Indian mathematical astronomy works of this period: the mean motions of the heavenly bodies; the true motions of the heavenly bodies; miscellaneous mathematical rules; the systems of coordinates, direction, place and time; eclipses of the sun and the moon; and the operation for apparent longitude.

  603. Alfreds Meders (1873-1944)
    • His interests went outside mathematics and he sometimes lectured on astronomy, meteorology and biology where he had a special interest in birds.

  604. Jacques Feldbau (1914-1945)
    • Taken to the La Malcoiffee prison in Moulins, Feldbau gave lessons in astronomy, mathematical games and topology to fellow prisoners.

  605. Carl Jacobi (1804-1851)
    • There he joined Franz Neumann, who had also received his doctorate from Berlin in 1825, and Bessel who was the professor of astronomy at Konigsberg.

  606. al-Karaji (953-about 1029)
    • The paper [',' M A Abrarova, The geometrical section of al-Karaji’s treatise ’Comprehensive book of arithmetic’ (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 118-125.','9] discusses some of his geometrical work.

  607. Isaac Barrow (1630-1677)
    • His study of church history led him to astronomy which in turn led him to study geometry.

  608. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
    • Carlyle also applied unsuccessfully for the chair of moral philosophy at St Andrews University, and he even applied for the chair of astronomy at Edinburgh University in 1834.

  609. Francesco Gerbaldi (1858-1934)
    • The goal was to stimulate the study of higher mathematics by means of original communications presented by the members of the society on the different branches of analysis and geometry, as well as on rational mechanics, mathematical physics, geodesy, and astronomy.

  610. Christian Heinrich von Nagel (1803-1882)
    • However he also attended lectures on mathematics and physics at the university given by the astronomer Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger (1765-1831), who was the professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Tubingen, and Friedrich Joseph Pythagoras Riecke (1794-1876) who was a lecturer in Tubingen until 1823 when he left to become Professor of Mathematics and Physics in Hohenheim.

  611. Juan Caramuel (1606-1682)
    • He published works in mathematics and astronomy, corresponded with important scholars, and even experimented with a pendulum by hanging weights from a library roof.

  612. Germinal Dandelin (1794-1847)
    • From 9 November 1835 he was appointed to teach physics and astronomy at the Athenee in Namur although he remained in the army.

  613. Leopold Schmetterer (1919-2004)
    • The reason was that an old professor of astronomy retired.

  614. John Kingman (1939-)
    • It is shown how the theory can be applied to interesting problems of astronomy, queuing and traffic etc., and these examples are studied very thoroughly and deeply, giving even the specialist new insights.

  615. Brian Haselgrove (1926-1964)
    • This was particularly true in astronomy, a classical area for numerical work, where the research at Jodrell Bank called for major computing support.

  616. Edmund Hlawka (1916-2009)
    • Hlawka graduated from the Gymnasium in 1934 and later that same year he entered the University of Vienna where he studied mathematics, physics and astronomy.

  617. Petre Sergescu (1893-1954)
    • There he was attended lectures by Gheorghe Țițeica, Dimitrie Pompeiu, Anton Davidoglu (1876-1958) an expert on differential equations, Traian Lalescu (1882-1929) who contributed to many areas particularly integral equations, Nicolae Coculescu (1866-1952) the professor of astronomy and celestial mechanics, and David Emmanuel (1854-1941) the professor of Higher Algebra and Function Theory.

  618. Jacques Hadamard (1865-1963)
    • On 1 February 1896 he was appointed as Professor of Astronomy and Rational Mechanics at Bordeaux.

  619. Sylvestre Lacroix (1765-1843)
    • Lacroix continued to teach astronomy and the theory of probability at the Lycee.

  620. Ludwig Sylow (1832-1918)
    • In the early nineteenth century, applied mathematics had already achieved great triumphs, especially in the fields of astronomy and physics.

  621. Jean-Nicolas Nicollet (1786-1843)
    • His publications were all in the field of cartography and mathematical astronomy.

  622. Charles Briot (1817-1882)
    • He taught engineering and surveying in the year he moved back to Paris, then he taught a calculus course in 1853 and, two years later, courses on mechanics and astronomy.

  623. Hermann of Reichenau (1013-1054)
    • Despite his disabilities, being confined to a chair and hardly able to speak, he was a key figure in the transmission of Arabic mathematics, astronomy and scientific instruments from Arabic sources into central Europe.

  624. George Stokes (1819-1903)
    • praised the study of physical astronomy and physical optics, for example, because they revealed mathematics to be 'the only instrument of investigation by which man could possibly have attained to a knowledge of so much of what is perfect and beautiful in the structure of the material universe, and the laws that govern it'.

  625. Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576)
    • This was the beginning of Cardan's prolific literary career writing on a diversity of topics medicine, philosophy, astronomy and theology in addition to mathematics.

  626. Paul Guldin (1577-1643)
    • There is hardly anyone at this time with whom I would rather discuss matters of astronomy than with you ..

  627. Jean d'Alembert (1717-1783)
    • He was contracted as an editor to cover mathematics and physical astronomy but his work covered a wider field.

  628. George Pólya (1887-1985)
    • The following year, in addition to papers on these topics, he published on astronomy and probability.

  629. William Thomson (1824-1907)
    • In the session 1838-39 he studied astronomy and chemistry.

  630. Pauline Sperry (1885-1967)
    • Given Wilczynski's interests, it is not surprising that Sperry worked on geometry and astronomy for her doctorate which was awarded in 1916 for the thesis Properties of a certain projectively defined two-parameter family of curves on a general surface in 1916.

  631. Claude Dechales (1621-1678)
    • Topics covered in this wide ranging work included practical geometry, mechanics, statics, magnetism and optics as well as topics outwith the usual topics of mathematics such as geography, architecture, astronomy, natural philosophy and music.

  632. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
    • He did important work in astronomy including [',' A P Youschkevitch, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).

  633. Emil Artin (1898-1962)
    • Artin had many interests outside mathematics, however, having a love of chemistry, astronomy and biology.

  634. Timofei Fedorovic Osipovsky (1765-1832)
    • Other work by Osipovsky outside mathematics was in physics, astronomy and philosophy, and it is in this latter subject that he has acquired the greatest lasting fame.

  635. Tobias Mayer (1723-1762)
    • During his time in Gottingen, he lectured on mathematics, mechanics and optics, and introduced projective methods into astronomy and geography.

  636. John Purser (1835-1903)
    • As well as acting as tutor to the children, Purser did become involved in Lord Rosse's interest in astronomy but he did not do any observing.

  637. Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)
    • As well as his vigorous mathematical research, which we shall talk about later in this article, he taught a wide range of topics including mathematics, physics and astronomy.

  638. Gilbert Bliss (1876-1951)
    • He then began his graduate studies at Chicago in mathematical astronomy and his first publication was in that field.

  639. Wilhelm Killing (1847-1923)
    • The lecturer in mathematics and astronomy at the Academy was Eduard Heis but he did not teach mathematics to a high level and Killing learnt his mathematics from studying books on his own: in particular he read Plucker's works on geometry and tried to extend the results which Plucker proved.

  640. Theodorus (465 BC-398 BC)
    • in astronomy, arithmetic, music and all educational subjects.

  641. Gianfrancesco Malfatti (1731-1807)
    • Toaldo was a physicist who held the chair of astronomy at the University of Padua.

  642. August Adler (1863-1923)
    • Adler was appointed as an assistant in astronomy and geodesy in Vienna in 1885 holding this position for two years.

  643. Pierre Verhulst (1804-1849)
    • There he gave courses on astronomy, celestial mechanics, the differential and integral calculus, the theory of probability, geometry and trigonometry.

  644. Dmitrii Matveevich Sintsov (1867-1946)
    • He also took courses in astronomy with D I Dubyago.

  645. William Whiston (1667-1752)
    • With Newton's agreement, Whiston published Newton's algebra lectures in 1707 under the title Arithmetica universalis Ⓣ and, three years later, his own astronomy lectures as Praelectiones astronomicae Ⓣ.

  646. Norman Steenrod (1910-1971)
    • Earl Steenrod taught mechanical drawing but had astronomy as a hobby and he interested Norman in this exciting subject while he was still a young boy.

  647. Richard von Mises (1883-1953)
    • He set up a new curriculum for applied mathematics at the university which spread over six semesters and included applications of mathematics to astronomy, geodesy and technology.

  648. Sophus Lie (1842-1899)
    • The one thing he knew he wanted was an academic career and he thought for a while that astronomy might be the right topic.

  649. Alexis Bouvard (1767-1843)
    • He became fascinated by astronomy after a visit to the Paris Observatory.

  650. Pietro Mengoli (1626-1686)
    • Other work by Mengoli included work on astronomy, work on refraction in the atmosphere and a book Speculazioni musicali (1670) on the theory of music.

  651. Howard Percy Robertson (1903-1961)
    • After moving from Princeton to Caltech, Robertson's interests became somewhat more directed towards astronomy.

  652. Charles Graves (1812-1899)
    • At the time when Graves began his studies William Rowan Hamilton was Andrews' Professor of Astronomy in Trinity College Dublin while Franc Sadleir (1775-1851) was Erasmus Smith professor of mathematics.

  653. Ole Jacob Broch (1818-1889)
    • Christopher Hansteen (1784-1873) was responsible for applied mathematics and astronomy, and Bernt Holmboe for pure mathematics.

  654. Giuseppe Vitali (1875-1932)
    • Vitali was at the height of his scientific career, both in terms of the recognition he received - alas, so tardily! - by the highest Italian academies, and for having begun and, in part, concluded the preparation of his treatises, as well as for having begun, with renewed, surprising creative capacities, that research in stellar astronomy ..

  655. Gabriel Cramer (1704-1752)
    • Cramer taught geometry and mechanics while Calandrini taught algebra and astronomy.

  656. David Enskog (1884-1947)
    • He graduated from Uppsala University with a first degree in 1907, having taken courses in mathematics, mechanics, natural philosophy, astronomy and chemistry.

  657. Andrea Tacquet (1612-1660)
    • This major contribution contained works on astronomy, spherical trigonometry, practical geometry, and fortifications.

  658. Omar Khayyam (1048-1131)
    • Astronomy: A Brief History of Time and Calendars .

  659. Steven Orszag (1943-2011)
    • His thesis advisor was Martin David Kruskal who was Professor of Astronomy at Princeton but, when Orszag began his graduate studies, Kruskal was also a member of Project Matterhorn, which today is known as the Princeton Plasma Physics laboratory.

  660. John Steggall (1855-1935)
    • He gave lectures such as Teaching of Mathematics and Physics in 1898 in Glasgow; Education and Machinery in 1905 to the Ruskin Society; A Pioneer in Hydraulics: Mark Beaufoy in 1908 to the Dundee Society of Engineers; and Lectures on Astronomy.

  661. José Sebastiao e Silva (1914-1972)
    • Silva was appointed as a professor in the Instituto Superior de Agronomia in 1951 and remained there for ten years before returning to the Faculty of Sciences in Lisbon to the chairs of Mechanics and Astronomy.

  662. Abraham Fraenkel (1891-1965)
    • Fraenkel also published many articles relating to Jewish mathematics and Jewish mathematicians, for example Jewish mathematics and astronomy (1960).

  663. Jakob Kulik (1793-1863)
    • In the following year of 1817 he took on additional duties, teaching astronomy at the Joanneum in Graz.

  664. François Arago (1786-1853)
    • In 1813 Arago began to give popular lectures on astronomy.

  665. Theon of Alexandria (about 335-about 405)
    • Theon of Alexandria worked in Alexandria as a teacher of mathematics and astronomy.

  666. Liu Hong (129-210)
    • Liu Hong became interested in astronomy as a young boy.

  667. Isaac Schoenberg (1903-1990)
    • In his first year, 1919-20, Schoenberg studied Victor Costin's course in 'Projective and Descriptive Geometry' and, in 1920-22, he studied the following courses leading to the degree of M.A.: 'Analytic Geometry', taught by Alexandru Myller; 'Algebra Including Galois Theory', taught by Simion Stoilow; 'Analysis', taught by Simion Sanielevic; 'The Theory of Analytic Functions', taught by Vera Myller-Lebedev; 'Mechanics', taught by Simion Sanielevici; and 'Astronomy', taught by Constantin Popovici.


History Topics

  1. Greek astronomy
    • Greek astronomy .
    • Today the study of astronomy requires a deep understanding of mathematics and physics.
    • It is important to realise that Greek astronomy (we are interested in the topic during the 1000 years between 700 BC and 300 AD) did not involve physics.
    • Indeed, as Pannekoek points out in [',' A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).','7], a Greek astronomer aimed only to describe the heavens while a Greek physicist sought out physical truth.
    • Mathematics provided the means of description, so astronomy during the 1000 years that interest us in this article was one of the branches of mathematics.
    • Thales himself, although famed for his prediction of an eclipse, probably had little knowledge of astronomy, yet he brought back from Egypt knowledge of mathematics into the Greek world and possibly also some knowledge of Babylonian astronomy.
    • It is reasonable to begin by looking at what 'astronomy' was in Greece around this time.
    • Basically at this time astronomy was all to do with time keeping.
    • In this work Hesiod writes that (see [',' B Hetherington, A chronicle of pre-telescope astronomy (Chichester, 1996).','5], also [',' A F Aveni, Empires of time : Calendars, clocks and cultures (New York, 1989).','1] and [',' A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).','7]):- .
    • Astronomy was clearly a subject of major practical importance in sorting out the mess of these calendars and so observations began to be made to enable better schemes to be devised.
    • Pythagoras, around 500 BC, made a number of important advances in astronomy.
    • This seemed to owe more to the numerology of the Pythagoreans than to astronomy since 729 is 272, 27 being the Pythagorean number for the moon, while it is also 93, 9 being the Pythagorean number associated with the earth.
    • As far as astronomy is concerned Plato had a negative effect, for although he mentions the topic many times, no dialogue is devoted to astronomy.
    • Worse still, Plato did not believe in astronomy as a practical subject, and condemned as lowering the spirit the actual observation of the heavenly bodies.
    • Plato only believed in astronomy to the extent that it encouraged the study of mathematics and suggested beautiful geometrical theories.
    • Perhaps we should digress for a moment to think about how the ideas of philosophy which were being developed by Plato and others affected the development of astronomy.
    • Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','6] feels that philosophy had a detrimental affect:- .
    • In fact Eudoxus marks the beginning of a new phase in Greek astronomy and must figure as one of a small number of remarkable innovators in astronomical thought.
    • The star Canopus played an important role in early astronomy, for it is seen to set and rise in Cnidus yet one does no have to go much further north from there before it can never be seen.
    • Although in many areas Aristotle advocated a modern scientific approach and he collected data in a scientific way, this was unfortunately not the case in astronomy.
    • As Berry writes [',' A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).','2]:- .
    • As Berry goes on to say, this was very unfortunate for astronomy since the influence of the writings of Aristotle had an authority for many centuries which meant that astronomers had a harder battle than they might otherwise have had in getting the truth accepted.
    • The next development which was absolutely necessary for progress in astronomy took place in geometry.
    • Whether or not this is the case there is no doubt that Autolycus was strongly influenced by the views of Eudoxus on astronomy.
    • Like so many astronomers, Autolycus wrote a work On Risings and Settings which is a book on observational astronomy.
    • After Autolycus the main place for major developments in astronomy seemed to move to Alexandria.
    • Euclid also wrote Phaenomena which is an elementary introduction to mathematical astronomy and gives results on the times stars in certain positions will rise and set.
    • In [',' B L van der Waerden, The motion of Venus, Mercury and the Sun in early Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • Now Goldstein and Bowen in [',' B R Goldstein and A C Bowen, The introduction of dated observations and precise measurement in Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • However van der Waerden in [',' B L van der Waerden, The motion of Venus, Mercury and the Sun in early Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • Goldstein and Bowen in [',' B R Goldstein and A C Bowen, The introduction of dated observations and precise measurement in Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • As Berry writes in [',' A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).','2]:- .
    • 79">An immense advance in astronomy was made by Hipparchus, whom all competent critics have agreed to rank far above any other astronomers of the ancient world, and who must stand side by side with the greatest astronomers of all time.
    • Delambre, in his famous work on the history of astronomy, writes:- .
    • As Jones writes in [',' A Jones, The adaptation of Babylonian methods in Greek numerical astronomy, Isis 82 (313) (1991), 441-453.','21]:- .
    • Suffice to end this article with a quotation from [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','6]:- .
    • this caused an almost total obliteration of the prehistory of the Ptolemaic astronomy.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_astronomy.html .

  2. References for Greek astronomy
    • References for Greek astronomy .
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).
    • D R Dicks, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle (London, 1970).
    • J L E Dreyer, A history of astronomy from Thales to Kepler (New York, 1953).
    • B Hetherington, A chronicle of pre-telescope astronomy (Chichester, 1996).
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).
    • A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).
    • H Thurston, Early astronomy (New York, 1994).
    • G Abraham, Mean sun and moon in ancient Greek and Indian astronomy, Indian J.
    • J L Berggren, The relation of Greek spherics to early Greek astronomy, in Science and philosophy in classical Greece (New York, 1991), 227-248.
    • J L Berggren and R S D Thomas, Mathematical astronomy in the fourth century B.C.
    • B R Goldstein, The obliquity of the ecliptic in ancient Greek astronomy, in Theory and observation in ancient and medieval astronomy (London, 1985), 12-23.
    • B R Goldstein, The obliquity of the ecliptic in ancient Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • B R Goldstein and A C Bowen, A new view of early Greek astronomy, Isis 74 (273) (1983), 330-340.
    • B R Goldstein and A C Bowen, The introduction of dated observations and precise measurement in Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • G Hon, Is there a concept of experimental error in Greek astronomy?, British J.
    • A Jones, Babylonian and Greek astronomy in a papyrus concerning Mars, Centaurus 33 (2-3) 1990), 97-114.
    • A Jones, On Babylonian astronomy and its Greek metamorphoses, in Tradition, transmission, transformation (Leiden, 1996), 139-155.
    • A Jones, The adaptation of Babylonian methods in Greek numerical astronomy, Isis 82 (313) (1991), 441-453.
    • R Mercier, Newly discovered mathematical relations between Greek and Indian astronomy, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the 1500th Birth Anniversary of Aryabhata I, Indian J.
    • K P Moesgaard, The full moon serpent : A foundation stone of ancient astronomy?, Centaurus 24 (1980), 51-96.
    • D Pingree, The recovery of early Greek astronomy from India, J.
    • D Rawlins, Eratosthenes' geodest unraveled : was there a high-accuracy Hellenistic astronomy, Isis 73 (1982), 259-265.
    • C W Rufus, Greek astronomy - its birth, death, and immortality, J.
    • L Russo, The astronomy of Hipparchus and his time : a study based on pre-Ptolemaic sources, Vistas Astronom.
    • B L van der Waerden, The Great Year in Greek, Persian and Hindu astronomy, Arch.
    • B L van der Waerden, The heliocentric system in Greek, Persian and Hindu astronomy, in From deferent to equant (New York, 1987), 525-545.
    • B L van der Waerden, The motion of Venus, Mercury and the Sun in early Greek astronomy, Arch.
    • L Wright, The astronomy of Eudoxus : geometry or physics?, Studies in Hist.

  3. Kepler's Laws
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .
    • This account of Kepler's mathematical astronomy may well challenge some cherished and long-held beliefs, since most of what has been written about Kepler has either been based on secondary or tertiary sources, or has concentrated on his astronomical background and techniques.
    • Strongly influenced both by Plato and by his underlying belief in God, Kepler believed more intensely than his contemporaries in the power of mathematics to expose the order in the universe that lay behind apparent complication, and he applied this criterion of simplicity with great effect in his astronomy.
    • Tycho had amassed a vast store of observations extending over 30 years; these are probably the most accurate that would ever be made with the naked eye, since Galileo (1564-1642) had introduced the telescope into astronomy soon afterwards (in 1610).
    • Kepler's new astronomy was, indeed, founded on circles, but there was a different reason for this, as we shall explain in Section 5.
    • To provide the foundation for his new approach to astronomy, Kepler adopted the simplest geometrical structure consistent with observations.
    • In Kepler's day modern algebraic notation and techniques were just being developed, but for his approach to astronomy Kepler depended exclusively on the traditional geometry of Euclid in which he had been trained at the University of Tubingen, as part of the standard preparation for the ministry.
    • Sometime in the years 1594-1604, Kepler studied the Conics of Apollonius, and expressed great admiration for it, citing it throughout his optical and stereometrical work - yet he never referred to any of its propositions in connection with his astronomy.
    • This is because Conics is expressed in terms of an oblique (non-orthogonal) frame of reference (coordinate-system), which Kepler implicitly rejected as inappropriate for the study of astronomy (nor did he need any of its propositions, as we confirm in Section 6).
    • (This usage was authenticated by tradition, since in ancient astronomy motions consisted of combinations of rotations which were measured by the angles at the centres of their respective circles.) Then we have corresponding angles from the parallels AZ and BQ, so that: .
    • This angle β is called 'the eccentric anomaly' in both ancient and modern astronomy (though we shall avoid that name here).
    • Kepler had already invented the term 'focus' in Astronomiae Pars Optica Ⓣ (1604) in connection with his work on vision, though he did not realize its connection with his astronomy at that juncture - in Astronomia Nova Ⓣ he simply referred to the point A as punctum eccentricum, or eccentric point.
    • Incidentally, this provides additional confirmation of my contention (in Section 5) that Kepler did not rely on the Conics of Apollonius for his discovery of the ellipse - in his astronomy he simply did not need anything so sophisticated.
    • Incidentally, this provides additional confirmation of my contention (in Section 5) that Kepler did not rely on the Conics of Apollonius for his discovery of the ellipse - in his astronomy he simply did not need anything so sophisticated.
    • Despite the title, it epitomizes Keplerian, rather than Copernican astronomy.
    • The mathematical treatment carried out in Planetary motion tackled kinematically demonstrates that this angle is the uniquely appropriate foundation for a structure which is simple because it depends on orthogonality and therefore is the only workable basis for Kepler's astronomy.
    • Kepler was the first to introduce the concept of causation into astronomy, and in accordance with his Copernican convictions, he naturally believed that the Sun was the generator of all causes.
    • (In all other respects, the methods of the two were quite different.) The table below shows the fundamentally orthogonal structure of Kepler's planetary astronomy.
    • Summary of Kepler's orthogonal astronomy (for a single planet) .
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .

  4. Indian mathematics
    • Also it has been shown that the study of mathematical astronomy in India goes back to at least the third millennium BC and mathematics and geometry must have existed to support this study in these ancient times.
    • Later mathematical advances were often driven by the study of astronomy.
    • His work was both a summary of Jaina mathematics and the beginning of new era for astronomy and mathematics.
    • His ideas of astronomy were truly remarkable.
    • Aryabhata headed a research centre for mathematics and astronomy at Kusumapura in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent.
    • The most important of the mathematicians at this second centre was Varahamihira who also made important contributions to astronomy and trigonometry.
    • The way that the contributions of these mathematicians were prompted by a study of methods in spherical astronomy is described in [',' K Shankar Shukla, Early Hindu methods in spherical astronomy, Ganita 19 (2) (1968), 49-72.','25]:- .
    • 52">The Hindu astronomers did not possess a general method for solving problems in spherical astronomy, unlike the Greeks who systematically followed the method of Ptolemy, based on the well-known theorem of Menelaus.
    • Brahmagupta is probably the earliest astronomer to have employed the theory of quadratic equations and the method of successive approximations to solving problems in spherical astronomy.
    • The educational system in India at this time did not allow talented people with ability to receive training in mathematics or astronomy.
    • There were a number of families who carried the traditions of astrology, astronomy and mathematics forward by educating each new generation of the family in the skills which had been developed.
    • We should also note that astronomy and mathematics developed on their own, separate for the development of other areas of knowledge.
    • They would not be aiming to provide texts to be used in educating people outside the family, nor would they be looking for innovative ideas in astronomy.
    • Again religion was the key, for astronomy was considered to be of divine origin and each family would remain faithful to the revelations of the subject as presented by their gods.
    • If one could produce innovative mathematical ideas then one could exhibit the truths of astronomy more easily.
    • This meant that despite mathematics only being used as a computational tool for astronomy, the brilliant Indian scholars were encouraged by their culture to put their genius into advances in this topic.
    • He worked on algebra, number systems, and astronomy.
    • He wrote beautiful texts illustrated with mathematical problems, some of which we present in his biography, and he provided the best summary of the mathematics and astronomy of the classical period.

  5. Greek astronomy
    • Greek_astronomy .

  6. Sundials
    • Though this is the date of the earliest surviving sundials [',' S Schechner, The Material Culture of Astronomy in Daily Life: Sundials, Science, and Social Change.
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • In practice, the shadow clock needed to be rotated once a day at noon in order to be able to mark the time in both the morning and afternoon [',' R A Parker, Ancient Egyptian Astronomy.
    • (The shadow at sunrise would be infinite in length, and so useless for marking the hour.) Two hours similarly passed in the evening.[',' R A Parker, Ancient Egyptian Astronomy.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.

  7. Arabic mathematics
    • Although the Arabic mathematicians are most famed for their work on algebra, number theory and number systems, they also made considerable contributions to geometry, trigonometry and mathematical astronomy.
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    • Astronomy, time-keeping and geography provided other motivations for geometrical and trigonometrical research.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Abu'l-Wafa and Abu Nasr Mansur both applied spherical geometry to astronomy and also used formulas involving sin and tan.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Al-Biruni (born 973) used the sin formula in both astronomy and in the calculation of longitudes and latitudes of many cities.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Again both astronomy and geography motivated al-Biruni's extensive studies of projecting a hemisphere onto the plane.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Thabit ibn Qurra undertook both theoretical and observational work in astronomy.
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    • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (born 1201), like many other Arabic mathematicians, based his theoretical astronomy on Ptolemy's work but al-Tusi made the most significant development of Ptolemy's model of the planetary system up to the development of the heliocentric model in the time of Copernicus.
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    • Many of the Arabic mathematicians produced tables of trigonometric functions as part of their studies of astronomy.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • The culminating masterpiece was the astrolabe of the Syrian Ibn ash-Shatir (1305-75), a mathematical tool that could be used to solve all the standard problems of spherical astronomy in five different ways.

  8. References for Jaina mathematics
    • L C Jain and Km Prabha Jain, Constant-set (dhruva-rasi) technique in Jaina school of astronomy, Indian J.
    • P Jha, Contributions of the Jainas to astronomy and mathematics, Math.
    • S S Lishk and S D Sharma, Role of pre-Aryabhata Jaina school of astronomy in the development of Siddhantic astronomy, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the 1500th Birth Anniversary of Aryabhata I, New Delhi, 1976, Indian J.
    • S S Lishk and S D Sharma, Season determination through the science of sciatherics in Jaina School of Astronomy, Indian J.
    • S S Lishk and S D Sharma, Zodiacal circumference as graduated in Jaina astronomy, Indian J.
    • S D Sharma, and S S Lishk, Length of the day in Jaina astronomy, Centaurus 22 (3) (1978/79), 165-176.
    • J C Sikdar, Eclipses of the Sun and Moon according to Jaina astronomy, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the 1500th Birth Anniversary of Aryabhata I, New Delhi, 1976, Indian J.

  9. Chinese overview
    • It is an astronomy text, showing how to measure the positions of the heavenly bodies using shadow gauges which are also called gnomons, but it contains important sections on mathematics.
    • The Zhoubi suanjing Ⓣ contains a statement of the Gougu rule (the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem) and applies it to surveying, astronomy, and other topics.
    • Although it is widely accepted that the work also contains a proof of Pythagoras's theorem, Cullen in [',' C Cullen, Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).','3] disputes this, claiming that the belief is based on a flawed translation given by Needham in [',' J Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 3 (Cambridge, 1959).','13].
    • About fifty years after Liu's remarkable contributions, a major advance was made in astronomy when Yu Xi discovered the precession of the equinoxes.
    • Interpolation was an important tool in astronomy and Liu Zhuo (544-610) was an astronomer who introduced quadratic interpolation with a second order difference method.
    • Certainly Chinese astronomy was not totally independent of developments taking place in the subject in India and similarly mathematics was influenced to some extent by Indian mathematical works, some of which were translated into Chinese.
    • Two of his brothers, Mei Wenmi and Mei Wennai, worked on astronomy and mathematics.

  10. Mayan mathematics
    • The Dresden Codex is a treatise on astronomy, thought to have been copied in the eleventh century AD from an original document dating from the seventh or eighth centuries AD.
    • A common culture, calendar, and mythology held the civilisation together and astronomy played an important part in the religion which underlay the whole life of the people.
    • Of course astronomy and calendar calculations require mathematics and indeed the Maya constructed a very sophisticated number system.
    • Finally we should say a little about the Mayan advances in astronomy.
    • Rodriguez writes in [',' L F Rodriguez, Astronomy among the Mayans (Spanish), Rev.
    • Michiel Berger (Mayan Astronomy) .

  11. Jaina mathematics
    • For example in [',' P Jha, Contributions of the Jainas to astronomy and mathematics, Math.
    • Finally let us comment on the Jaina's astronomy.
    • It was not until the works of Aryabhata that the Greek ideas of epicycles entered Indian astronomy.
    • The author of [',' J C Sikdar, Eclipses of the Sun and Moon according to Jaina astronomy, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the 1500th Birth Anniversary of Aryabhata I, New Delhi, 1976, Indian J.
    • However, in [',' S D Sharma, and S S Lishk, Length of the day in Jaina astronomy, Centaurus 22 (3) (1978/79), 165-176.','22] Sharma and Lishk present an alternative hypothesis which would allow the data to be of Indian origin.

  12. Planetary motion
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .
    • Moreover the topic is of great historical significance - since the discovery of the two laws stated above actually took place during the period 1600-1630 [','The laws appeared in Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): New Astronomy, Heidelberg 1609.
    • They were validated in his later work: Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Book V, Frankfurt 1621.','3], under the kinematical circumstances described above: see Kepler's Planetary Laws.
    • (It is explained in elementary textbooks of modern astronomy that the corresponding value μ in the dynamical system depends on the relative masses as well as the actual constant of gravitation.) So we will name μ0 'the coefficient of planetary cohesion', and in correlation, we have: .
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .

  13. Science in the 17th century
    • The advances in knowledge resulted in a powerful wave that, emerging from astronomy and mathematics, swept the habits, the culture, and the social behaviour of an era.
    • As stated previously, mathematics and astronomy were the branches of science that pushed forward the Scientific Revolution.
    • But dear Lord, what would happen to her mother, the highly reasonable Astronomy, if she did not have this foolish daughter.
    • The world, after all, is much more foolish, indeed is so foolish, that this old sensible mother, Astronomy, is talked into things and lied to as a result of her daughter's foolish pranks ..
    • During his years in St Andrews Gregory carried out important work in the field of mathematics and astronomy and modernised the teachings of these subjects, introducing the latest developments and theories in these areas.

  14. Chandrasekhar Eddington
    • Mathematical Astronomy .
    • Astronomy and Mathematics have always had a close relationship: often one has influenced the development of the other.
    • It was well received: for example Stromgren called it [',' B Stromgren, Review: An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure, by S Chandrasekhar, Popular Astronomy 47 (1939), 287-289.','27]:- .
    • Mathematical Astronomy .

  15. References for Indian mathematics
    • R C Gupta, A bibliography of selected Sanskrit and allied works on Indian mathematics and mathematical astronomy, Ganita Bharati 3 (3-4) (1981), 86-102.
    • R C Gupta, Indian mathematics and astronomy in the eleventh century Spain, Ganita Bharati 2 (3-4) (1980), 53-57.
    • K V Sarma and S Hariharan, Yuktibhasa of Jyesthadeva : a book of rationales in Indian mathematics and astronomy - an analytical appraisal, Indian J.
    • K Shankar Shukla, Early Hindu methods in spherical astronomy, Ganita 19 (2) (1968), 49-72.

  16. References for Sundials
    • S Schechner, The Material Culture of Astronomy in Daily Life: Sundials, Science, and Social Change.
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • R A Parker, Ancient Egyptian Astronomy.

  17. Christianity and Mathematics
    • The developments of Aristotle's astronomy by Ptolemy became more than a scientific belief; for many Christians it became part of their religious belief.
    • He began his book with a discussion of its relevance to the Holy Scripture (see for example [',' E Rosen, Kepler and the Lutheran attitude towards Copernicus, Vistas in Astronomy 18 (1975), 225-231.','25]):- .
    • He tackled the question head-on in the Introduction to Astronomia nova Ⓣ (1609) (see for example [',' E Rosen, Kepler and the Lutheran attitude towards Copernicus, Vistas in Astronomy 18 (1975), 225-231.','25]):- .
    • In this work he also argued that the Holy Scripture was written to teach morals but not to teach astronomy.

  18. History overview

  19. Black holes
    • Mathematical Astronomy .
    • He appears to have been the first to use statistical arguments in astronomy.
    • With its conceptual development, a large number of scientists have made their name bringing what was initially just a mathematical concept, ridiculed for its lack of physical meaning, into the forefront as one of astronomy's most exciting realities, questioning long held beliefs of the workings of the universe.
    • Mathematical Astronomy .

  20. References for Water-clocks
    • S Schechner, The Material Culture of Astronomy in Daily Life: Sundials, Science, and Social Change.
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.
    • Vistas in Astronomy, 1997.
    • R A Parker, Ancient Egyptian Astronomy.

  21. Cartography
    • With an interest in trigonometry, mathematical instruments, astronomy, and geography, Regiomontanus was in a good position to give a lead.
    • His 1524 publication Cosmographia seu descriptio totis orbis Ⓣ was a work based largely on Ptolemy which provided an introduction to astronomy, geography, cartography, surveying, navigation, weather and climate, the shape of the earth, map projections, and mathematical instruments.
    • In 1530 he published On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography, with Instruction for the Use of Globes, and Information on the World and on Islands and Other Places Recently Discovered which made major contributions to cartography.

  22. Copernicus autograph
    • Mathematical Astronomy .
    • In [',' N M Swerdlow, On Establishing the Text of De Revolutionibus, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981), 35-46.','3] Swerdlow denotes the autograph by M and the 1543 printed text N.
    • Mathematical Astronomy .

  23. Mathematics and Architecture
    • In the 19th century Poleni made contributions to hydraulics, physics, astronomy and archaeology.
    • He held university chairs in astronomy, physics and mathematics as well as working as an architect.
    • There he taught mechanics, architecture and astronomy.

  24. Orbits
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .
    • In the eyes of all impartial men, this discovery will remain one of the most magnificent triumphs of theoretical astronomy, one of the glories of the Academie and one of the most beautiful distinctions of our country.
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .

  25. Harriot's manuscripts
    • Thomas Hornsby, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, proposed Zach for an honorary degree which was awarded in 1786.
    • Three years after receiving Harriot's papers to referee for publication, Robertson was appointed Savilian Professor of Geometry and, in 1810, Savilian Professor of Astronomy.
    • contribute, in the smallest degree, to the advancement of astronomy.

  26. References for Black holes
    • S Schaffer, John Mitchell and Black Holes, Journal for the History of Astronomy 10 (1979), 42-43.
    • S Soter and N deGrasse Tyson, Case Study: John Michell And Black Holes, Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, American Museum of Natural History (2000).https://www.amnh.org/explore/resource-collections/cosmic-horizons/case-study-john-michell-and-black-holes .

  27. References for Mayan mathematics
    • A F Aveni and L D Hotaling, Monumental inscriptions and the observational basis of Maya planetary astronomy, Archaeoastronomy No.
    • L F Rodriguez, Astronomy among the Mayans (Spanish), Rev.

  28. References for Chinese overview
    • C Cullen, Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).
    • N Sivin, Cosmos and early Chinese mathematical astronomy (Leiden, 1969).

  29. References for Mathematics and Architecture
    • J A Bennett, Christopher Wren : astronomy, architecture, and the mathematical sciences, J.
    • L Mancini Proia and M Menghini, From polycentric ovals to ellipses in Baroque architecture (a possible conceptual derivation from astronomy) (Italian), Atti Accad.

  30. References for Planetary motion
    • The laws appeared in Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): New Astronomy, Heidelberg 1609.
    • They were validated in his later work: Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Book V, Frankfurt 1621.

  31. Neptune and Pluto
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .

  32. Topology history
    • This was a topic which arose from mathematical physics and astronomy, brought about because the methods of classical analysis were somewhat inadequate in tackling certain types of problems.
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    • Poincare developed many of his topological methods while studying ordinary differential equations which arose from a study of certain astronomy problems.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  33. Arabic numerals
    • , of their subtle discoveries in astronomy, discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians, and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description.
    • This may have encouraged him to find out about the astronomy works of the Indians and in these, of course, he would find the arithmetic of the nine symbols.

  34. Classical light
    • He published his results were published in Supplements to Witelo, on the optical part of astronomy (1604).
    • Descartes and Fermat carried on a discussion after this publication (see [',' W Tobin, Toothed wheels and rotating mirrors : Parisian astronomy and mid-nineteenth century experimental measurements of the speed of light, Vistas Astronom.

  35. Indian numerals
    • Before he went there al-Biruni already knew of Indian astronomy and mathematics from Arabic translations of some Sanskrit texts.
    • In particular his account of Indian astronomy and mathematics is a valuable contribution to the study of the history of Indian science.

  36. Trigonometric functions
    • The use of trigonometric functions arises from the early connection between mathematics and astronomy.
    • Chapters of Copernicus's book giving all the trigonometry relevant to astronomy was published in 1542 by Rheticus.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  37. Cosmology
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .
    • Mathematical Astronomy index .

  38. References for Copernicus autograph
    • N M Swerdlow, The Holograph of De Revolutionibus and the Chronology of its Composition, Journal of the History of Astronomy 5 (1974), 186-198.
    • N M Swerdlow, On Establishing the Text of De Revolutionibus, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981), 35-46.

  39. Forgery 2
    • It covered exploration at sea, problems of navigation, exploration on land, scientific institutions, questions concerning astronomy, and medical problems.

  40. Coffee houses
    • Harris gave a mathematics and astronomy lecture course at the Marine Coffee House in Birchin Lane.

  41. Tait's scrapbook
    • He was a banker with a keen interest in science, and fostered Peter's scientific interests in astronomy, geology and photography.

  42. References for Chandrasekhar Eddington
    • B Stromgren, Review: An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure, by S Chandrasekhar, Popular Astronomy 47 (1939), 287-289.

  43. Egyptian mathematics
    • Knowing when the rainy season was about to arrive was vital and the study of astronomy developed to provide calendar information.

  44. References for Cosmology
    • S Bochner, Mathematical background space in astronomy and cosmology, Vistas Astronom.

  45. References for Christianity and Mathematics
    • E Rosen, Kepler and the Lutheran attitude towards Copernicus, Vistas in Astronomy 18 (1975), 225-231.

  46. References for Egyptian mathematics
    • G J Toomer, Mathematics and Astronomy, in J R Harris (ed.), The Legacy of Egypt (Oxford, 1971), 27-54.

  47. References for Classical light
    • W Tobin, Toothed wheels and rotating mirrors : Parisian astronomy and mid-nineteenth century experimental measurements of the speed of light, Vistas Astronom.

  48. References for Egyptian Papyri
    • G J Toomer, Mathematics and Astronomy, in J R Harris (ed.), The Legacy of Egypt (Oxford, 1971), 27-54.

  49. Longitude1
    • It was firmly believed that mathematics and astronomy held the key to solve these outstanding problems of the day.

  50. Ten classics
    • This was essentially an astronomy text, thought to have been compiled between 100 BC and 100 AD, containing some important mathematical sections.

  51. References for Neptune and Pluto
    • N Foster, John Couch Adams, the astronomer, Astronomy Now 3 (1989), 34-37.

  52. General relativity
    • At the time this was purely theoretical work but, of course, work on neutron stars, pulsars and black holes relied entirely on Schwarzschild's solutions and has made this part of the most important work going on in astronomy today.
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  53. Maxwell's House
    • However this may be, when he crossed the bridge from Astronomy to Physics he left behind him for ever the prospect of becoming a great astronomer - but only to become the greatest mathematical physicist the world has seen since Newton.

  54. EMS History
    • Astronomy, engineering, actuarial and statistical sciences, were also represented.


Societies etc

  1. Athens Academy
    • The present Academy of Athens consists of fourteen research centres, two of which are particularly relevant to this Archive, namely the Research Centre of Pure and Applied Mathematics, and the Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics.
    • We give some information concerning these taken from the websites [',' Research Centre of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens.','2] and [',' Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens.','3].
    • Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics.
    • The Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics was established in 1959 initially as the "Office for Research and Calculations", to promote scientific research in Astronomy and Applied Mathematics and to perform calculations related to these topics.
    • In 1966, it was renamed "Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics".
    • The first supervisor of the "Office for Research and Calculations", and later of the "Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics", was Academician Professor John Nikita Xanthakis, until his death on 10 July 1994.
    • (i) Dynamical Astronomy, Nonlinear phenomena and applications of Chaos Theory in Astronomy.
    • (v) Mathematical Applications in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
    • Since 1997, the Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics organizes a weekly seminar with leading scientists from Greece and abroad as speakers.
    • In 2007 the Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics organized an international conference on "Chaos in Astronomy" as a continuation of another conference organized in 2002.
    • The Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics has also organized, with remarkable success, a series of talks for the general public in the Academy of Athens during 2009 in the spirit of the International Year of Astronomy.

  2. Swiss Academy of Science
    • In 2007, the Academy adopted four main themes which it called platforms: Biology; Chemistry; Geosciences; and Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics.
    • We give some details of the Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics Platform taken from [',' Swiss Academy of Sciences website.','4].
    • The "Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics Platform" of the Swiss Academy of Science incorporates scientific societies and workgroups dedicated to the areas of mathematics, astronomy and physics.
    • The platform's main functions are the support of the organisations' activities as wells as the coordination and promotion of research and education in the field of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics.
    • The Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics platform brings together expertise from the fields of mathematics, astronomy and physics.
    • The Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics platform promotes exchange within the scientific community and is committed to strong networking and knowledge transfer.
    • The Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics platform supports young scientists and engages in various activities to promote the enjoyment of science in general and of mathematics, astronomy and physics in particular among young people of all levels of education.
    • On the one hand, to give decision-makers and voters a solid scientific argument, and on the other to sensitize the public to mathematics, astronomy and physics as fundamental and future-oriented sciences.

  3. Mexican Academy of Sciences
    • After talking with the Mexican astronomer Luis Enrique Erro (1897-1955) in 1937 he became fascinated with astronomy and, despite having no formal qualifications in astronomy, later he was appointed by Erro as an assistant astronomer at the Observatorio Astrofisico de Tonantzintla.
    • To gain experience in astronomy, Erro arranged for Haro to go to the United States for training, and there he worked at Harvard College Observatory with Harlow Shapley, then at Case Observatory, Yerkes Observatory and McDonald Observatory.
    • He returned to Mexico and made many major contributions to observational astronomy at the Observatorio Astrofisico de Tonantzintla.
    • He was also the director of the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Mexico for 20 years from 1948.
    • Exact Sciences (Astronomy, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Mathematics and Physics); 2.
    • The programme provides grants for young researchers in the areas of Astronomy, Biology, Computing, Physics, Engineering, Education, Mathematics, Medicine and Chemistry so that they may undertake a summer research project in laboratories in the USA.

  4. Pontifical Academy of Sciences
    • These include: Giuseppe Armellini (24 October 1887 - 16 July 1958), Professor of Astronomy at the University of Rome and Director of the Astronomy Observatory in Rome; Emilio Bianchi (26 September 1875 - 11 September 1941), Professor of Astronomy and Geodesic Science at the University of Milan and Director of the Astronomy Observatory in Milan; Ugo Amaldi (18 April 1875 - 11 November 1957), Professor of Algebraic and Infinitesimal Mathematical Analysis at the University of Rome; Marcello Boldrini (9 February 1890 - 5 March 1969), Professor of Statistics at the University of Rome; and Enrico Pistolesi (2 December 1889 - 29 February 1968), Professor of Mechanics Applied to Machines and Aeronautical Construction, University of Pisa.
    • This was Daniel Joseph Kelly O'Connell who had studied mathematics and physics at the University of Dublin and, after being ordained and studying astronomy at Harvard College Observatory with Harlow Shapley, was appointed to the Riverview Observatory in Sydney, Australia, in 1933.
    • These include: Hermann A Bruck (15 August 1905 - 4 March 2000), Professor of Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, nominated 5 April 1955; Louis de Broglie (15 August 1892 - 19 March 1987), Honorary Professor of Physics, Faculte des Sciences, Paris, France and Honorary Perpetual Secretary, Academy of Sciences, Paris, nominated 5 April 1955; Daniel Joseph Kelly O'Connell (25 July 1896 - 15 October 1982), Vatican Observatory, Vatican City, nominated 24 September 1964; Stanislaw Lojasiewicz (9 October 1926 -13 November 2002), Professor of Mathematics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, nominated 27 January 1983; Ennio de Giorgi (8 February 1928 - 25 October 1996), Professor of Mathematical Analysis, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy, Nominated 12 May 1981; Paul Marie Germain (28 August 1920 - 26 February 2009), Professor Emeritus of Mechanics at the University of Pierre et Marie Curie and Secretaire perpetuel honoraire of the Academy of Sciences, Paris, nominated 9 June 1986, Martin John Rees (23 June 1942 -), Professor of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, England, nominated 25 June 1990; and Luis Angel Caffarelli (8 December 1948 -), Professor of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA, nominated 2 August 1994.

  5. International Astronomical Union
    • In the fourth conference, held in Mount Wilson, California, in 1910, stellar research and astrophysics were also included in the programme, in an effort to expand the Union's research to other areas of astronomy that might benefit from international collaboration.
    • The IAU established different commissions (there were 41 by 1949) which covered different branches of astronomy.
    • The Chinese (through the National Committee of Astronomy at Nanjing) joined the IAU in 1935, but they left in 1961, just prior to the General Assembly in Berkeley, California.
    • Many astronomers considered the exit of China a big loss, since astronomy had been present in China for longer than in Europe, but the Executive Committee was not willing to go back on its acceptance of the Taiwanese (a measure other international scientific unions had taken when faced with a similar dilemma).
    • The IAU has always been concerned with the dissemination of astronomy and with the public understanding of the importance of the science.
    • In 2009, under President Catherine Cesarsky, it celebrated the International Year of Astronomy, coinciding with the 90th anniversary of the institution and the 400th of Galileo's first telescope observations and the publication of Kepler's Astronomia Nova.

  6. Sinica Academia
    • The Institute of Physics was founded in January 1928, as was the Institute of Astronomy which was the successor of the Peking Central Observatory.
    • In December of 2009 the Institute of Mathematics moved to the newly completed Astronomy-Mathematics building located on the main campus of the National Taiwan University.
    • The building is shared with the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Departments of Mathematics and of Astronomy of the National Taiwan University, creating a centre of intense mathematical activities in Taipei.
    • The Division of Mathematics and Physical Sciences has eleven units: the Institute of Mathematics; the Institute of Physics; the Institute of Chemistry; the Institute of Earth Science; the Institute of Information Science; the Institute of Statistical Science; the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences; the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics; the Research Centre for Applied Sciences; the Research Centre for Environmental Changes; and the Research Centre for Information Technology Innovation.

  7. Italian Academy of Sciences
    • An astronomer and hydraulics expert, he held the chair of astronomy at the University of Pisa.
    • He worked at the Observatory in Pisa and succeeded Tommaso Perelli as Professor of Astronomy at the University of Pisa.
    • A Catholic priest and physicist, he edited Galileo's works and later became professor of astronomy at the University of Padua.
    • A priest who was interested in mathematics and astronomy.

  8. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • These in turn were each divided into three, with geometry, mechanics and astronomy being the three Mathematical Sciences, while chemistry, botany and anatomy were the three Physical Sciences.
    • To geometry, mechanics and astronomy in the Mathematical Sciences was added 'general physics'.
    • Mathematical Sciences now consisted of: mathematics; mechanical arts; astronomy; and experimental physics.
    • The two categories of Mathematical Sciences and Physical Sciences were retained for the First Class with Mathematical Sciences now divided into five: geometry; mechanics; astronomy; geography and navigation; and general physics.

  9. American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    • The first President of the Academy was James Bowdoin who was governor of Massachusetts (1785-87) but also did scientific work in physics (writing a paper with Benjamin Franklin) and astronomy.
    • We list the contents of this first volume relating to mathematics and astronomy at THIS LINK.
    • In fact Safford went on to study astronomy and served as director of the Hopkins Observatory at Williams College.
    • Astronomy (including Astrophysics) and Earth Science; .

  10. Barcelona Academy of Sciences
    • He was a Jesuit and published Jesuiticae Philosophiae Theses (1753) which deals with issues of physics, mathematics, and astronomy.
    • He was the first person lecturing on the new Newtonian theories in Catalonia and Spain, and his efforts to support the "Physico-Mathematical Conference" led to the academy having a strong interest in astronomy from its very beginning.
    • It is divided into seven section, Section 1 being the Mathematics and Astronomy section with 12 full members.
    • The current 12 members have interests in Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Probability, Astronomy, Robotics and Astrophysics.

  11. Royal Astronomical Society
    • met together by appointment at the Freemason's Tavern, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, to take into consideration the propriety and expediency of establishing a Society for the encouragement and promotion of astronomy.
    • Why was the Society founded at this time? The reasons given by Herschel point to the fact that it was due to the lack of progress in mathematics and the mathematical side of astronomy in Britain.
    • Mathematics were at the last gasp, and astronomy nearly so -- I mean in those members of its frame which depend upon precise measurement and systematic calculation.

  12. Swedish Academy of Sciences
    • The city of Stockholm took over the Observatory building in the 1930s but it was acquired again by the Academy in 1999 and it is now a History of Science museum with emphasis on astronomy.
    • Astronomy has always been a major research area in the Academy and they built a new Observatory in Saltsjobaden, on the southeast edge of the city of Stockholm.
    • International awards include the Crafoord Prize established in 1980 and awarded every year (for research in mathematics, astronomy, geology, and biology) and the Rolf Schock Prizes awarded every second year (for logic and philosophy, mathematics, the visual arts, and music).

  13. Indonesian Academy of Sciences
    • Dr Hidayat has more than 40 scientific papers to his credit as well as a number of Astronomy textbooks.
    • He was the Chairman of the Indonesian-Dutch Astronomy Programme in 1982, Chairman of the Indonesian-Japan Astronomy Programme from 1980 until 1994 and the Vice-President of the International Astronomical Union from 1994-2000.

  14. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
    • He was professor of mathematics and astronomy at Vilnius University from 1764 and completed the construction of the Astronomical Observatory in Vilnius, becoming its first director.
    • In 1962 he began his career at the Institute of Physics and Technology at the newly established sector of physics, mathematics and astronomy.

  15. Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics
    • Initially there were three branches the Society: Physics and Chemistry; Mathematics and Engineering; and Astronomy, Meteorology and Geophysics.
    • The Astronomy, Meteorology and Geophysics branch was closed, while the Physics and Chemistry branch was split into two separate branches.

  16. Zurich Scientific Research Society
    • By 1859 the Vierteljahrsschrift was still edited by Rudolf Wolf, but with the designation Professor of Astronomy in Zurich.
    • By 1861 Rudolf Wolf has again become Professor of Mathematics in Zurich, while in 1862 he is again Professor of Astronomy in Zurich.

  17. References for Athens Academy
    • Research Centre for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens.
    • http://www.academyofathens.gr/en/research/centers/astronomy .

  18. Finnish Academy of Sciences
    • The science section contains the disciplines: Mathematics and Computer Science; Physics and Astronomy; Geosciences; Chemistry; Biology; Agriculture and Forestry; and Medicine.

  19. Estonian Academy of Sciences
    • At the same time the Academy changed its structure to that which it has today, namely four divisions (1) Division of Astronomy and Physics; (2) Division of Informatics and Engineering; (3) Division of Biology, Geology and Chemistry; (4) Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.

  20. Canadian Royal Society
    • The Medal is presented for outstanding research contributions to astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, or physics.

  21. Spitalfields Mathematical Society
    • 5 different lecturers delivered between them 22 lectures in all - 3 on mechanics, 2 on hydrostatics, 2 on pneumatics, 2 on optics, 3 on astronomy, 6 on chemistry, 1 on magnetism, 2 on electricity, and 1 on galvanism.

  22. Mexican Mathematical Society
    • To attempt to obtain the cooperation of all professors and intellectuals interested in the study of exact sciences and disciplines related to them, such as physics, astrophysics, astronomy, etc.

  23. References for IAU
    • Carte du Ciel, Royal Observatory of Belgium.http://www.astro.oma.be/en/scientific-research/astronomy-astrophysics/carte-du-ciel/ .

  24. London Royal Society
    • The first meeting of the founding twelve men was on Wednesday 28 November 1660 following Wren's astronomy lecture in Gresham College.

  25. Brazilian Academy of Sciences
    • The Mathematics Section comprised pure mathematics, astronomy and applied mathematics; the Physics and Chemistry section included physics, chemistry, mineralogy and geology; and the Biological Sciences Section covered biology, zoology, botany and anthropology.

  26. Danish Mathematical Society
    • All the three Board members were professors at the University of Copenhagen at the time the Society was created: Zeuthen had appointed as an extraordinary professor of mathematics in 1871; Petersen held the chair of mathematics; and Thiele was professor of astronomy.

  27. Mathematical Circle of Palermo
    • The goal was to stimulate the study of higher mathematics by means of original communications presented by the members of the society on the different branches of analysis and geometry, as well as on rational mechanics, mathematical physics, geodesy, and astronomy.

  28. Turin Mathematical Society
    • This paper contained equations which Laplace stated were important in mechanics and physical astronomy.

  29. Quaternion Association
    • This meeting elected the committee for the two years 1897-1898: President, Robert Stawell Ball, Lowndean Professor of Astronomy in the University of Cambridge; General Secretary, Alexander Macfarlane, Professor of Mathematical Physics at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; and Treasurer, Pieter Molenbroek.

  30. Argentina Mathematical Union
    • Since 1982 the Argentina Mathematical Union, together with the Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics and Computing of the National University of Cordoba, has published The Journal of Mathematical Education [',' Union Matematica Argentina website.','4]:- .


Honours

  1. Savilian Chairs
    • Savilian Chairs of Geometry and Astronomy .
    • Savilian Chair of Astronomy .
    • The Savilian Chair of Astronomy was also founded in 1619.

  2. Plumian chair
    • Plumian chair of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy .

  3. Lowndean chair
    • Lowndean chair of Astronomy and Geometry .

  4. Copley Medal
    • for his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy.
    • on the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy.
    • in recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy.

  5. Royal Medal
    • for investigations in astronomy, chiefly in the lunar theory .
    • for his distinguished work in geophysics and his important contributions to the astronomy of the solar system.

  6. Shaw Prize
    • The Shaw Prize consists of three annual prizes: Astronomy, Life Science and Medicine, and Mathematical Sciences, each bearing a monetary award of US $1,200,000.

  7. Jose Celestino Mutis Prize
    • During his stay in Madrid he taught anatomy at the Hospital de Madrid and studied mathematics, physics, astronomy and natural sciences, while working in the Botanical Garden of Soto de Migas, Madrid.

  8. Bruce Medallists
    • The highest honour of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal, for lifetime contributions to astronomy.


References

  1. References for William Herschel
    • A Berry, A Short History of Astronomy.
    • M Hoskin, William and Caroline Herschel: Pioneers in Late 18th-Century Astronomy (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel: pioneer of sidereal astronomy (Sheed and Ward, 1959).
    • C L Miller, William Herschel: Pioneer of Modern Stellar Astronomy (Tulane University, 1975).
    • J A Bennett, 'On the Power of Penetrating into Space': The Telescopes of William Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 7 (2) (1976), 75-108.
    • N Guicciardini, Stars and gravitation in eighteenth century Newtonian astronomy: the hypotheses of Benjamin Worster, 'Nicholas Saunderson, Gowin Knight, Roger Boscovich and William Herschel', in Luigi Pepe (ed.), Copernico e la questione copernicana in Italia dal XVI al XIX secolo (Leo S.
    • A Hanham and M Hoskin, The Herschel Knighthoods: Facts and Fiction, Journal of the History of Astronomy 44 (120) (2013), 149-164.
    • M Hoskin, Was William Herschel a deserter?, Journal of the History of Astronomy 35 (3) (2004), 356-358.
    • M Hoskin, Herschel's determination of the solar apex, Journal of the History of Astronomy 11 (1980), 153-163.
    • M Hoskin, George Ill's Purchase of Herschel Reflectors, Journal of the History of Astronomy 39 (2008), 121-124.
    • M Hoskin, Nebulae, Star Clusters and the Milky Way: From Galileo to Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 39 (2008), 363-396.
    • M Hoskin, Mary Herschel's Fortune: Origins and Impact, Journal of the History of Astronomy 41 (2010), 213-223.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel and the Southern Skies, Journal of the History of Astronomy 41 (2010), 503.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel and the Nebulae, Journal of the History of Astronomy 42 (2011), 177-192; 321-338.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel's Residence in Bath, 1799-1801, Journal of the History of Astronomy 43 (2012), 351-358.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel's Agenda for His Son John, Journal of the History of Astronomy 43 (2012), 439-454.
    • M Hoskin and D W Dewhirst, William Herschel and the Prehistory of Stellar Spectroscopy, Journal of the History of Astronomy 37 (2006), 393-403.
    • E J Hysom, Tests of the Shape of Mirrors by Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 27 (1996), 349-352.
    • S Schaffer, Herschel in Bedlam: natural history and stellar astronomy, British J.
    • S Schaffer, The Great Laboratories of the Universe: William Herschel on Matter Theory and Planetary Life, Journal of the History of Astronomy 11 (1980), 81-111.
    • S Schaffer, Uranus and the Establishment of Herschel's Astronomy, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981, 11-26.
    • J T Spaight, 'For the Good of Astronomy': The Manufacture, Sale, and Distant Use of William Herschel's Telescopes, Journal of the History of Astronomy 35 (2004), 45-69.

  2. References for Levi ben Gerson
    • B R Goldstein, The astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344).
    • B R Goldstein, Preliminary Remarks on Levi ben Gerson's Contributions to Astronomy, Proc.
    • B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson's analysis of precession, Journal for the History of Astronomy 6 (1975), 31-34.
    • B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson : On instrumental errors and the transversal scale, Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1977), 102-112.
    • B R Goldstein, The physical astronomy of Levi ben Gerson, Perspect.
    • B R Goldstein, The astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344), Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences 11 (New York-Berlin, 1985).
    • B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson's preliminary lunar model, in Theory and observation in ancient and medieval astronomy (London, 1985), 94-107.
    • B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson's contributions to astronomy, in G Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides : A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (E J Brill, Leiden, 1992), 3-19.
    • J L Mancha, Heuristic reasoning: approximation procedures in Levi ben Gerson's astronomy, Arch.
    • J D North, Levi's astronomical tables, Journal for the History of Astronomy 7 (1976), 212-213.

  3. References for Johannes Kepler
    • J L E Dreyer, A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (New York, 1953).
    • J Kepler (translated W Donahue), Astronomia nova: New Astronomy Cambridge, 1992) .
    • B Stephenson, Kepler's physical astronomy.
    • P Barker and B R Goldstein, Distance and velocity in Kepler's astronomy, Ann.
    • Four hundred years: Proceedings of conferences held in honour of Johannes Kepler, Vistas in Astronomy 18 (1975) .
    • W H Donahue, Kepler's fabricated figures : covering up the mess in the 'New astronomy', J.
    • S Drake, Galileo, Kepler, and the phases of Venus, Journal for the history of astronomy 15 (1984), 198-208.
    • O Gingerich, Johannes Kepler, in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics Part A (Cambridge, 1989), 54-78.
    • B Stephenson, Kepler's physical astronomy, Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences 13 (New York-Berlin, 1987).
    • S Straker, Kepler, Tycho, and the 'optical part of astronomy' : the genesis of Kepler's theory of pinhole images, Arch.

  4. References for Galileo Galilei
    • S Drake, Galileo's first telescopic observations, Journal for the history of astronomy 7 (1976), 153-168.
    • S Drake, Galileo, Kepler, and the phases of Venus, Journal for the history of astronomy 15 (1984), 198-208.
    • S Drake, Galileo and satellite prediction, Journal for the history of astronomy 10 (1979), 75-95.
    • W Hartner, Galileo's contribution to astronomy, in Vistas in astronomy 11 (Oxford, 1969), 31-43.
    • O Pedersen, Galileo and the Council of Trent : the Galileo affair revisited, Journal for the history of astronomy 14 (4) (1983), 1-29.
    • E A Whitaker, Galileo's lunar observations and the dating of the composition of 'Sidereus Nuncius', Journal for the history of astronomy 9 (1978), 155-169.
    • M G Winkler, and A Van Helden, Representing the heavens : Galileo and visual astronomy, Isis 83 (2) (1992), 195-217.

  5. References for Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
    • A E Bonnell, An eminent woman astronomer, Astronomy Now (January 1998), 52.
    • P A Kidwell, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Astronomy in the Family, Uneasy careers and intimate lives, in Pnina Abir-Am and Outram (eds), Women in Science, 1790-1979 (Rutgers University Press, 1987), 216-218.
    • P A Kidwell, Three Women of American Astronomy, American Scientist 78 (3) (1990), 244-251.
    • J Lankford and R L Slavings, Gender and Science: women in American astronomy, 1859-1940, Physics Today 43 (3) (1980), 58-65.
    • C Payne-Gaposchkin, Personal Memoire, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 16 (1978), 1.
    • V C Reddish, Review: Introduction to Astronomy, by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Science Progress (1933-) 50 (197) (1962), 114.
    • F G Watson, Review: Introduction to Astronomy, by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, The Science Teacher 22 (2) (1955), 109.
    • P A Wayman, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: astronomer extraordinaire, Astronomy & Geophysics 43 (1) (2002), 1.27-1.29.

  6. References for Al-Biruni
    • H U Sadykov, Biruni and his work on astronomy and mathematical geography (Russian) (Moscow, 1953).
    • A Ahmedov, Special questions of spherical astronomy and mathematics in al-Biruni's 'Canon Mas'uda' (Uzbek), in Collection dedicated to the 1000th anniversary of the birth of al-Biruni (Tashkent, 1973), 111-122.
    • P G Bulgakov, al-Biruni and al-Khwarizmi (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 117-122; 140.
    • A E-A Hatipov and A Pulatov, Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I, Trudy Samarkand.
    • M S Khan, An examination of al-Biruni's knowledge of Indian astronomy, in History of oriental astronomy (Cambridge, 1987), 139-145.
    • M A Sabirov and A Ahmedov, Certain achievements of al-Biruni in astronomy and mathematics (Russian), Taskent.

  7. References for Nicolaus Copernicus
    • A Armitage, Copernicus: The Founder of Modern Astronomy (1962).
    • J L E Dreyer, A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (1953).
    • N M Swerdlow and O Neugebauer, Mathematical astronomy in Copernicus's 'De revolutionibus.' Part 1, 2, Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences 10 (New York-Berlin, 1984).
    • J Dobrzycki, The astronomy of Copernicus, in Nicholas Copernicus : quincentenary celebrations (Wrocław, 1977), 153-157.
    • J V Narlikar, Copernicus and modern astronomy, Indian J.
    • O Neugebauer, On the planetary theory of Copernicus, in Vistas in astronomy 10 (Oxford, 1968), 89-103.
    • I N Veselovskii, Copernicus' first work in astronomy (Russian), Istor.-Astronom.

  8. References for Aryabhata
    • R Billard, Aryabhata and Indian astronomy, Indian J.
    • E G Forbes, Mesopotamian and Greek influences on ancient Indian astronomy and on the work of Aryabhata, Indian J.
    • B Ishwar, Development of Indian astronomy at the time of Aryabhata I, Ganita Bharati 6 (1-4) (1984), 19-24.
    • M L Sharma, Indian astronomy at the time of Aryabhata, Indian J.
    • M L Sharma, Aryabhata's contribution to Indian astronomy, Indian J.
    • K S Shukla, Aryabhata I's astronomy with midnight day-reckoning, Ganita 18 (1967), 83-105.

  9. References for Annie Jump Cannon
    • https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/science-and-technology/astronomy-biographies/annie-jump-cannon .
    • Annie Jump Cannon Award in Astronomy, American Astronomical Society.
    • https://aas.org/grants-and-prizes/annie-jump-cannon-award-astronomy .
    • L Campbell, Annie Jump Cannon,nPopular Astronomy 49 (August 1941), 345-347.
    • P A Kidwell, Three Women of American Astronomy, American Scientist 78 (3) (1990), 244-251.
    • P Mack, Straying from their orbits: Women in astronomy in America, in G Kass-Simon, P Farnes and D Nash (eds.),nWomen of Science: Righting the Record (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA, 1990), 72-116.

  10. References for Harlow Shapley
    • R W Smith, The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's Great Debate, 1900-1931 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982).
    • O Gingerich, How Shapley Came to Harvard or, Snatching the Prize from the Jaws of Debate, Journal for the History of Astronomy 19 (1988), 201-207.
    • O Gingerich, Through Rugged Ways to the Galaxies, Journal for the History of Astronomy 21 (1990), 77-88.
    • O Gingerich, Through Rugged Ways to the Galaxies, Journal for the History of Astronomy 21 (1990), 77-78.
    • M A Hoskin, The 'Great Debate': What Really Happened, Journal for the History of Astronomy 7 (1976), 169-182.
    • H Smith, Bailey, Shapley, and Variable Stars in Globular Clusters, Journal for the History of Astronomy 31 (2000), 185-201.

  11. References for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
    • F J Ragep, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's Memoir on Astronomy Vol I, Vol II (New York, 1993).
    • U Ataev, The commentary of Kazi -zade ar-Rumi on the astronomical treatise of Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I, Trudy Samarkand.
    • U Ataev, The mathematician and astronomer Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I, Trudy Samarkand.
    • G Saliba, The role of the 'Almagest' commentaries in medieval Arabic astronomy : a preliminary survey of Tusi's redaction of Ptolemy's 'Almagest', Arch.
    • Kh Kh Tllashev, Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi and his algebraic treatise (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 126-135, 157.

  12. References for Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian
    • Ambartsumian's view on astronomy of XX century, Ambartsumyan (2008).
    • A Blaauw, V A Ambartsumian (18 September 1908 - 12 August 1996), Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy.
    • A Boyarchuk, Influence of V A Ambartsumian on the Development of Astronomy, in Y Terzian, E Khachikian and D Weedman (eds.),nActive Galactic Nuclei and Related Phenomena, Proceedings of IAU Syposium 194, held 17-21 Aug.
    • S Chandrasekhar, To Victor Ambartsumian on His 80th Birthday, Astronomy and Astrophysics 18 (1997), 3-4.
    • R A McCutcheon, The Early Career of Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian: An Interview (2 October 1987), Astronomy Quarterly 7 (3) (1990), 143-176.

  13. References for Agnes Mary Clerke
    • M T Bruck, Agnes Mary Clerke, chronicler of astronomy, Quart.
    • B Lightman, Constructing Victorian heavens: Agnes Clerke and the 'new astronomy', in Natural eloquence: women reinscribe science (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997), 61-75.
    • H C Macpherson, Miss Agnes Mary Clerke, Popular astronomy 15 (1907), 165-168.
    • T J J See, Some recollections of Miss Agnes M Clerke, Popular astronomy 15 (1907), 323-326.

  14. References for Avicenna
    • S Kh Sirazhdinov (ed.), Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Russian) (Tashkent, 1981).
    • M A Akhadova, Some works of Ibn Sina in mathematics and physics (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 41-47; 156.
    • Z K Sokolovskaya, The scientific instruments of Ibn Sina (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 48-54; 156.
    • A U Usmanov, Ibn Sina and his contributions in the history of the development of the mathematical sciences (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 55-58; 156.

  15. References for Tycho Brahe
    • M De Bono, Tycho Brahe and astronomy : towards a new evaluation of the Danish astronomer (Italian), Physis - Riv.
    • S Straker, Kepler, Tycho, and the 'optical part of astronomy' : the genesis of Kepler's theory of pinhole images, Arch.
    • V E Thoren, Tycho Brahe, in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics A (Cambridge, 1989), 3-21.
    • W G Wesley, Tycho Brache's solar observations, Journal for the history of astronomy 10 (1979), 96-101.

  16. References for Philip van Lansberge
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2002).
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 by Rienk Vermij, The Observatory 123 (1174) (2003), 154.
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 by Rienk Vermij, Early Science and Medicine 9 (2) (2004), 172-174.
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 by Rienk Vermij, International Journal of the Classical Tradition 12 (4) (2006), 586-591.

  17. References for Ulugh Beg
    • T N Kary-Nijazov, The Ulugh Beg school of astronomy (Russian) (Tashkent, 1967).
    • H Hobden, Ulugh Beg and his Observatory in Samarkand, Astronomy Now 2 (1988), 32-36.
    • A U Usmanov, A short survey of the history of the development of astronomy in the medieval East up to the age of Ulugh Beg (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I, Trudy Samarkand.

  18. References for Annie Scott Dill Maunder
    • M Bailey, Women and the RAS: 100 Years of Fellowship, Astronomy & Geophysics 57 (1) (2016), 19-21.
    • S Dalla and L Fletcher, A pioneer of solar astronomy, Astronomy & Geophysics 57 (5) (2016), 5.21-5.23.
    • M B Ogilvie, Obligatory Amateurs: Annie Maunder (1868-1947) and British Women Astronomers at the Dawn of Professional Astronomy, British Journal for the History of Science 33 (2000), 67-84.

  19. References for Mansur
    • C Jensen, Abu Nasr Mansur's approach to spherical astronomy as developed in his treatise 'The table of minutes', Centaurus 16 (1) (1971/72), 1-19.
    • G P Matvievskaya and Kh Tllashev, The works of Abu Nasr ibn Iraq on spherics (Russian), in On the history of medieval Eastern mathematics and astronomy (Tashkent, 1983), 82-171.
    • G P Matvievskaya and Kh Tllashev, Abu Nasr ibn Iraq and his treatment of Menelaus' 'Spherics' (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 81-89; 139.
    • Kh Tllasev and S A Ramazanova, The treatises of Abu Nasr ibn 'Iraq on the astrolabe (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 89-97.

  20. References for Ptolemy
    • J L E Dreyer, A history of astronomy from Thales to Kepler (New York, 1953).
    • O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).
    • A Pannekoek, Ptolemy's precession, Vistas in Astronomy 1 (1955), 60-66.

  21. References for al-Karaji
    • M A Abrarova, The geometrical section of al-Karaji's treatise 'Comprehensive book of arithmetic' (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of Ibn Sina, his contemporaries and successors (Tashkent, 1981), 118-125.
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    • M A Abrarova, al-Karaji and his Universal book of arithmetic (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 107-113, 139.

  22. References for Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille
    • A Berry, A Short History of Astronomy (Dover Publications, New York, 1961).
    • D S Evans, Lacaille: astronomer, traveller; with a new translation of his journal (Pachart History of Astronomy Series, Tucson, 1992).
    • B Warner, Lacaille 250 years on, Astronomy & Geophysics 43 (2) (2002), 2.25-2.26.

  23. References for Isaac Newton
    • M Hoskin, Newton and the beginnings of stellar astronomy, in Newton and the new direction in science (Vatican City, 1988), 55-63.
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  24. References for John Herschel
    • A M Clerke, The Herschels and Modern Astronomy (1895).
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  28. References for Hipparchus
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  34. References for Euclid
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    • K V Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur, 1972).
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  45. References for Madhava
    • K V Sarma, A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur, 1972).
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  50. References for Ernst Öpik
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  52. References for Giovanni Battista Riccioli
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    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

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  63. References for Lyman Spitzer
    • G Gaham, The Crafoord Prize 1985 in Astronomy to Professor Lyman .

  64. References for Autolycus
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  65. References for Proclus
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  66. References for Marinus
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  67. References for Nicholas Saunderson
    • N Guicciardini, Stars and gravitation in eighteenth century Newtonian astronomy : the hypotheses of Benjamin Worster, Nicholas Saunderson, Gowin Knight, Roger Boscovich and William Herschel, in Copernicus and the Copernican question in Italy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century (Italian), Ferrara, 1993 (Florence, 1996), 263-280.

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    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

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    • K K Raja, Astronomy and mathematics in Kerala, Brahmavidya 27 (1963), 136-143.

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    • H D Howse, Navigation and astronomy - I: The first three thousand years, Journal of the British Astronomical Association 92 (1982), 53-60.

  72. References for John Couch Adams
    • N Foster, John Couch Adams, the astronomer, Astronomy Now 3 (1989), 34-37.

  73. References for Nevil Maskelyne
    • D B Herrmann, Some aspects of positional astronomy from Bradley to Bessel, The origins, achievement and influence of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich: 1675-1975, Vistas Astronom.

  74. References for Oenopides
    • D R Dicks, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle (London, 1970).

  75. References for Eratosthenes
    • D Rawlins, Eratosthenes' geodest unraveled : was there a high-accuracy Hellenistic astronomy, Isis 73 (1982), 259-265.

  76. References for Georg Joachim Rheticus
    • R Hooykaas, Rheticus's lost treatise on Holy Scripture and the motion of the Earth, Journal for the history of astronomy 15 (1984), 77-80.

  77. References for Georges Lemaître
    • M Heller, Lemaitre, big bang, and the quantum universe, Pachart History of Astronomy Series 10 (Pachart Publishing House, Tucson, AZ, 1996).

  78. References for Gerbert of Aurillac
    • A N Bogolyubov, Khwarizmi and Gerbert (Russian), in On the history of medieval Eastern mathematics and astronomy ('Fan', Tashkent, 1983), 23-37.

  79. References for Cleomedes
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  80. References for Heron of Alexandria
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  81. References for Theon of Alexandria
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  82. References for Guillaume Bigourdan
    • L Baillaud, The Chalon Astronomer Benjamin Baillaud, and a Short History of His Bust in the Public Garden of Chalon-sur-Saone, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma University.

  83. References for Rabbi Ben Ezra
    • B R Goldstein, Astronomy and astrology in the works of Abraham ibn Ezra, Arabic Sci.

  84. References for John Sacrobosco
    • O Pedersen, In Quest of Sacrobosco, Journal for the History of Astronomy 16 (1985), 175-221.

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    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  87. References for Jeremiah Horrocks
    • A Chapman, Jeremiah Horrocks, the transit of Venus, and the 'New Astronomy' in early seventeenth-century England, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 31 (1996), 333-357.

  88. References for Tadeusz Boleslaw lebarski
    • 75 years of observational astronomy at the University Observatory, St Andrews, Scotland.

  89. References for Wilhelm Bessel
    • A M Clerke, A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century (1902).

  90. References for Kamalakara
    • D Pingree, Islamic astronomy in Sanskrit, J.

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    • T M MacRobert, Mathematics (and Astronomy), in Fortuna Domus (1951).

  92. References for Bartel van der Waerden
    • J P Hogendijk, B L van der Waerden's detective work in ancient and medieval mathematical astronomy, Nieuw Arch.

  93. References for Callippus
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  94. References for Leonardo da Vinci
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  95. References for Aleksei Krylov
    • N I Idel'son, Works of A N Krylov in astronomy (Russian), Trudy Inst.

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    • Benno van Dalen), Islamic astronomy in China during the Yuan and Ming dynasties, Historia Sci.

  97. References for Qin Jiushao
    • J-C Martzloff, Chinese mathematical astronomy, in H Selin and U D'Ambrosio (eds.), Mathematics across cultures.

  98. References for Bertha Swirles Jeffreys
    • J A Hudson, Lady Bertha Swirles, 1903-1999, Astronomy & Geophysics 41 (3) (2000), 36-37.

  99. References for Christoph Scheiner
    • A van Helden, Galileo and Scheiner on Sunspots: A Case Study in the Visual Language of Astronomy, Proc.

  100. References for Menelaus
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  101. References for Mahendra Suri
    • D Pingree, Islamic astronomy in Sanskrit, J.

  102. References for John Jackson
    • P Moore and P Collins, Astronomy in Southern Africa.

  103. References for Thomas Digges
    • F R Johnson, The Influence of Thomas Digges on the Progress of Modern Astronomy in 16th Century Englsnd, Osiris 1 (1936), 390-410.

  104. References for Conon
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  105. References for Thabit
    • Qurra and Arab astronomy in the 9th century, Arabic Sci.

  106. References for Charles Babbage
    • W J Ashworth, The calculating eye : Baily, Herschel, Babbage and the business of astronomy, British J.

  107. References for Anaximander
    • C H Kahn, On Early Greek Astronomy, The Journal of Hellenic Studies 90 (1970), 99-116.

  108. References for Jean-Baptiste Biot
    • D Raina, Jean-Baptiste Biot on the history of Indian astronomy (1830-1860): the nation in the post-enlightenment historiography of science, Indian J.

  109. References for Posidonius
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  110. References for Arthur Milne
    • M C Johnson, Time, knowledge and the Nebulae : an introduction to the meanings of time in physics, astronomy, and philosophy, and the relativities of Einstein and of Milne (London, 1945).

  111. References for Monteiro da Rocha
    • F B Figueiredo and J Fernandes, Comparison between Monteiro da Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' methods for the determination of the orbits of comets, Past meets present in Astronomy and Astrophysics (World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2006), 85-89.

  112. References for Otto Yulyevich Schmidt
    • F A Tsitsin, On the history of O Yu Shmidt's planetary cosmogony: sources, problems, and prospects (Russian), in Research in the history of astronomy XXXIII (Russian) ('Nauka', Moscow, 2008), 83-150; 361.

  113. References for Anders Celsius
    • H C Stempels, Anders Celsius' contributions to meridian arc measurements and the establishment of an astronomical observatory in Uppsala, Baltic Astronomy 20 (2011), 179-85.

  114. References for Irving Segal
    • A H Taub, Review: Mathematical cosmology and extragalactic astronomy by Irving Ezra Segal, Bull.

  115. References for Jost Bürgi
    • O Gingerich, Jost Burgi at Kassel, Journal for the history of astronomy 11 (1980), 212-213.

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    • S R Filonovich, Astronomy in the work of Robert Hooke (on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of his birth) (Russian), Istor.-Astronom.

  117. References for Roger Bacon
    • J Hackett, Roger Bacon on astronomy-astrology: the sources of the scientia experimentalis, in J Hackett (ed.), Roger Bacon and the sciences : Commemorative essays (Leiden, 1997), 175-198.

  118. References for Christopher Wren
    • J A Bennett, Christopher Wren : astronomy, architecture, and the mathematical sciences, J.

  119. References for Pappus
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).

  120. References for Fritz Zwicky
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  121. References for Giovanni Cassini
    • S Debarbat and C Wilson, The Galilean satellites of Jupiter from Galileo to Cassini, Romer and Bradley, in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics Part A (Cambridge, 1989), 144-157.

  122. References for Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich
    • N Guicciardini, Stars and gravitation in eighteenth century Newtonian astronomy: the hypotheses of Benjamin Worster, Nicholas Saunderson, Gowin Knight, Roger Boscovich and William Herschel, in Copernicus and the Copernican question in Italy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, Ferrara, 1993 (Olschki, Florence, 1996), 263-280.

  123. References for Aristarchus
    • O Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (3 Vols.) (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1975).

  124. References for Zhang Qiujian
    • C Cullen, Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China (Cambridge, 1996).

  125. References for Finlay Freundlich
    • E F Freundlich, The educational value of the study of astronomy, The Alumnus Chronicle (University of St Andrews) 40 (1953), 2-14.

  126. References for Johann Franz Encke
    • J Dick (translated by C E Friese), The 250th anniversary of the Berlin Observatory, Popular Astronomy 59 (1951), 524-535.


Additional material

  1. Brinkley Astronomy
    • John Brinkley's 'Elements of Astronomy' .
    • In 1813 Brinkley published his textbook The Elements of Astronomy.
    • In 1871 John William Stubbs and Francis Brunnow published Brinkley's Astronomy which was a revised and partly rewritten version of Brinkley's original work.
    • We give below the Preface to Brinkley's second edition of 1819 and the Preface by John Stubbs to Brinkley's Astronomy (1871).
    • Preface to The Elements of Astronomy (1819).
    • A complete treatise on astronomy should abound with examples: but in a treatise merely designed to teach the outlines of the science, and to point out what may incite further inquiry, they are not required.
    • It is obvious that, in the necessarily restricted portion of time allotted to the science of Astronomy in the course of an University Education, a multitude of examples would, to the mass of students, be useless.
    • In his annual lectures, he has an opportunity of explaining and illustrating the uses of the different instruments used in the practice of Astronomy, to which lectures the students have free access; and the short preparatory account of the instruments to be found in these elements, enables him to give, with much greater effect, a more minute explanation.
    • The Student who looks for a more extended knowledge of plane Astronomy, and desires to familiarise himself with astronomical computations, cannot be at a loss for assistance.
    • The work of Professor Vince on practical Astronomy, and the complete system of Astronomy in three volumes, by the same author, will afford him ample information.
    • Mr Woodhouse has also recently published a treatise on Astronomy, in which the most interesting parts of plane Astronomy are minutely explained and illustrated by sufficient examples.
    • These works will |be found quite sufficient for obtaining the preparatory knowledge of Trigonometry necessary for the more difficult parts of Astronomy.
    • Mr Woodhouse has also lately published his second volume, containing physical Astronomy.
    • By this the student may easily become master of many of the important discoveries in physical Astronomy, and may easily prepare himself for the most abstruse investigations in that science.
    • Preface to Brinkley's Astronomy (1871).
    • The Elements of Astronomy of Bishop Brinkley has for more than sixty years been used as a textbook by the Students of the University of Dublin.
    • When Dr Brinkley held the office of Andrew's Professor of Astronomy, he delivered the substance of this work, in his public annual prelections to the Undergraduates, from the year 1799 to 1808.
    • For this purpose I placed myself in communication with my friend Dr Brunnow, the present eminent successor of Dr Brinkley in the chair of Astronomy; and the valuable assistance which he promptly afforded very much aided me in my attempt to produce a textbook which a long experience as College Tutor enabled me to see would meet the wants of the Students.
    • Dr Brunnow, besides giving general suggestions, has written new chapters on the physical constitutions of the sun and heavenly bodies, on the discoveries by means of the Spectroscope, on the proper motion of the fixed stars, on the recent methods of ascertaining the parallax of the fixed stars, and on the general advance of Stellar Astronomy.
    • He has also remodelled the portions of the work which treat of instruments, and made them suitable to the present improved condition of practical Astronomy.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Brinkley_Astronomy.html .

  2. Morphological astronomy
    • Fritz Zwicky: Morphological astronomy .
    • In 1957 Fritz Zwicky published Morphological astronomy (Springer-Verlag).
    • The present book is concerned in particular with some implications of morphological thinking in astronomy.
    • It will, of course, not be possible to carry through the morphological analysis in all fields of astronomy.
    • Morphological considerations have so far been applied intensively to three problems in astronomy.
    • In the course of my work I came to the conclusion that what is most lacking in astronomy is a sufficient record of the actual contents of the universe and of the nature of the physical laws which govern these contents.
    • The lack of a sufficiently complete record of what actually exists in our universe has led to some very unsatisfactory aspects of present day astronomy.
    • This program will also constitute a part of a morphology of poor weather astronomy.
    • The treatment of the tremendous field of the applications of astronomy to all other human activities has been omitted entirely since this subject could be treated adequately only in a separate book.
    • In conclusion we must emphasize that morphological astronomy concerns itself with the character and the interrelations of all phases of astronomical research, as well as with the relations of astronomy to all other fields of human endeavour.
    • The rise of observational astronomy in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Italy, England, France and Russia and its subsequent decline into mediocrity and decay in all of these countries must be closely studied.
    • My native country of Switzerland, in spite of the glorious achievements in theoretical astronomy by Euler, Ritz and others has never even had a start in observational astronomy.
    • Morphological astronomy is therefore vitally concerned with the study of the influences, good or bad, which individuals exert on the future of astronomy and it holds that all of these influences must be clearly pinpointed if we wish to forestall future disasters.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Morphological_astronomy.html .

  3. Finlay Freundlich's Inaugural Address
    • Phil., M.A., Napier Professor of Astronomy in the University of St Andrews delivered his Inaugural Address.
    • The Educational Value of the Study of Astronomy .
    • Astronomy has so far found only very limited acknowledgement at the Universities of Great Britain.
    • Only very few of the English Universities had, until a few years ago, a chair of Astronomy, or maintained research at an Observatory; Scotland is, in this respect, definitely further advanced; for now in three out of the four Scottish Universities Astronomy is represented.
    • This reluctance in admitting Astronomy into the academic circle is, to a certain extent, conditioned by the relatively low educational value that so far has been attached to the teaching of natural science.
    • As long as his attitude towards Nature was governed by fear and superstition, and science was not sufficiently advanced to outline clearly man's position in the Universe, the educational value of Astronomy remained limited.
    • After the first attempt by the Ionian philosophers to develop science on rational lines had failed, when the Platonic philosophy attributed divine character to the planets and thus transformed Astronomy, so to speak, into a branch of Humanities, it took nearly 2000 years before science recovered and could start once more its advance towards a rational interpretation of all phenomena in Nature.
    • This is particularly true with regard to Astronomy, because our knowledge of man's position in the Universe has been deeply changed.
    • Therefore, as far as Astronomy plays an important part in revealing the universal character of the laws of nature, in building up a consistent picture of the whole Universe, its educational value is, in a certain way, unparalleled.
    • In this lecture I would like to substantiate this view by three different but fundamentally important cases, which reveal the extent to which Astronomy is widening human knowledge, not by facts, which may perhaps only interest the star-gazer, but by knowledge which must affect every man's attitude towards human life.
    • The first case concerns a problem of physics, namely, the problem of gravitation, the universal character of which has been established by Astronomy.
    • The second case concerns the origin of the chemical elements, and illustrates how Astronomy promises to unveil from events that may have happened thousands of millions of years ago, the present state of the world.
    • (1) It is a fact of great significance that the conception of a gravitational force and the formulation of the first law measuring this force has been achieved by astronomy.
    • Now celestial bodies cannot be placed and weighed on scales; their masses, therefore, in Astronomy have to be measured according to other principles, for which Kepler laid the foundation.
    • Thus it was given to Astronomy to prove, for the first time, the universal character of one of the laws of Nature.
    • It can therefore be safely asserted that the complete knowledge which we have about gravitation as the universal force, which governs the motion of all celestial bodies in the Universe, rests on the observations provided by research in Astronomy.
    • (2) A very different situation opens up, if we enquire whether Astronomy is able to contribute essential knowledge concerning the nature of the matter which fills the Universe.
    • This opened to Astronomy the possibility of extending physical and chemical research to the farthest ends of the Universe, from where the powerful modem telescopes receive the light of distant stars and star systems which may have travelled millions of years before reaching the telescope.
    • Thus it is not surprising that Astrophysics, the branch of Astronomy which specialises in the physical and chemical study of celestial bodies, discovered chemical elements long before these elements were known to the chemists on the Earth.
    • But the most fundamental contribution which Astronomy promises to give to our chemical knowledge has only lately been revealed.
    • I only wish to show and emphasise that astronomy is no longer a removed branch of science, interesting only for the star-gazer.
    • Astronomy has, in many respects, conquered the key position for the most fundamental problems of physics and, as we have just seen, also of chemistry.

  4. J J Nassau - Practical Astronomy
    • Jason J Nassau: A Textbook of Practical Astronomy .
    • In 1932 Jason J Nassau's A Textbook of Practical Astronomy was published by the McGraw-Hill Book Company.
    • This text will doubtless be welcomed by many who teach astronomy to engineering students.
    • It furnishes a thorough grounding in the fundamentals of practical astronomy without presenting a bewildering variety of methods.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Nassau_Practical_Astronomy.html .

  5. Simplicius on astronomy and physics
    • Simplicius on astronomy and physics .
    • However, it consists almost entirely of writings of Geminus on the scope of astronomy contrasted with that of physics which Simplicius quotes at length:- .
    • It is the business of physical inquiry to consider the substance of the heaven and the stars, their force and quality, their coming into being and their destruction, nay, it is in a position even to prove the facts about their size, shape, and arrangement; astronomy, on the other hand, does not attempt to speak of anything of this kind, but proves the arrangement of the heavenly bodies by considerations based on the view that the heaven is a real cosmos, and further, it tells us of the shapes and sizes and distances of the earth, sun, and moon, and of eclipses and conjunctions of the stars, as well as of the quality and extent of their movements.
    • The things, then, of which alone astronomy claims to give an account it is able to establish by means of arithmetic and geometry.
    • Such is the account given by Geminus, or Posidonius in Geminus, of the distinction between physics and astronomy, wherein the commentator is inspired by the views of Aristotle.

  6. Euclid on elementary astronomy
    • Euclid on elementary astronomy .
    • Although Euclid wrote a text on elementary astronomy, it is simply a work on spherical geometry, justified by its application to astronomy.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Euclid_on_astronomy.html .

  7. Kepler's Planetary Laws
    • This account of Kepler's mathematical astronomy may well challenge some cherished and long-held beliefs, since most of what has been written about Kepler has either been based on secondary or tertiary sources, or has concentrated on his astronomical background and techniques.
    • These are found in Astronomia Nova (New Astronomy, 1609), underpinned by important work in Epitome (of Copernican Astronomy) Book V (1621).
    • Strongly influenced both by Plato and by his underlying belief in God, Kepler believed more intensely than his contemporaries in the power of mathematics to expose the order in the universe that lay behind apparent complication, and he applied this criterion of simplicity with great effect in his astronomy.
    • Tycho had amassed a vast store of observations extending over 30 years; these are probably the most accurate that would ever be made with the naked eye, since Galileo (1564-1642) had introduced the telescope into astronomy soon afterwards (in 1610).
    • Kepler's new astronomy was, indeed, founded on circles, but there was a different reason for this, as we shall explain in Section 5.
    • To provide the foundation for his new approach to astronomy, Kepler adopted the simplest geometrical structure consistent with observations.
    • In Kepler's day modern algebraic notation and techniques were just being developed, but for his approach to astronomy Kepler depended exclusively on the traditional geometry of Euclid in which he had been trained at the University of Tubingen, as part of the standard preparation for the ministry.
    • Sometime in the years 1594-1604, Kepler studied the Conics of Apollonius, and expressed great admiration for it, citing it throughout his optical and stereometrical work - yet he never referred to any of its propositions in connection with his astronomy.
    • This is because Conics is expressed in terms of an oblique (non-orthogonal) frame of reference (coordinate-system), which Kepler implicitly rejected as inappropriate for the study of astronomy (nor did he need any of its propositions, as we confirm in Section 6).
    • (This usage was authenticated by tradition, since in ancient astronomy motions consisted of combinations of rotations which were measured by the angles at the centres of their respective circles.) Then we have corresponding angles from the parallels AZ and BQ, so that: .
    • This angle β is called 'the eccentric anomaly' in both ancient and modern astronomy (though we shall avoid that name here).
    • Kepler had already invented the term 'focus' in Astronomiae Pars Optica (1604) in connection with his work on vision, though he did not realize its connection with his astronomy at that juncture - in Astronomia Nova he simply referred to the point A as punctum eccentricum, or eccentric point.
    • Incidentally, this provides additional confirmation of my contention (in Section 5) that Kepler did not rely on the Conics of Apollonius for his discovery of the ellipse - in his astronomy he simply did not need anything so sophisticated.
    • Incidentally, this provides additional confirmation of my contention (in Section 5) that Kepler did not rely on the Conics of Apollonius for his discovery of the ellipse - in his astronomy he simply did not need anything so sophisticated.

  8. NAS founders
    • He joined the faculty of the university as a professor of astronomy in 1840.
    • Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard was a notable nineteenth-century scientist who made contributions to the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, and chemistry and played a leading role in the development of modern higher education as president of Columbia University.
    • of a solar eclipse, and wrote textbooks on optics, acoustics, astronomy, and mechanics.
    • Nineteenth-century scientist Alexis Caswell made significant contributions to astronomy and to the then-nascent field of meteorology.
    • Mathematician William Chauvenet was a highly regarded scientist who made contributions in the areas of trigonometry and geometry and in the application of mathematical principals to astronomy and navigation.
    • His 1868 Navigation and Nautical Astronomy was for decades the textbook for navigation at the United States Naval Academy.
    • James Melville Gilliss was a naval officer who contributed significantly to the field of astronomy.
    • Among his contributions to astronomy were a variety of expeditions to Latin America that led to the documentation of tens of thousands of stars, in addition to the establishment of an observatory in Chile with the purpose of observing Mars and Venus.
    • Joseph Stillman Hubbard was an important figure in the field of astronomy.
    • He continued to attend lectures in anatomy and pharmacy, and when a school with an observatory was built near his home, Longstreth purchased a telescope and began studying astronomy during his leisure.
    • Longstreth remained in Delaware County for the rest of his life, practicing as a physician and continuing his studies of astronomy and languages, as well as his work at the college.
    • Upon returning to the United States, he became interested in astronomy and observing meteors.
    • He became interested in astronomy and physics while he was a student at Williams College.
    • Throughout the years of his legal practice, Rutherfurd continued to pursue astronomy during his leisure with an observatory he built on his own property.
    • Naval Academy, he moved to Harvard University and became the Phillips Professor of Astronomy and director of the Harvard Observatory.

  9. Payne-Gaposchkin introduction
    • Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Introduction to Astronomy .
    • Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin published Introduction to astronomy in 1964.
    • This book is intended to introduce the elements of astronomy to the student and to the general reader who may have little background to mathematics or physics.
    • The greater part of modern astronomy is concerned with stars, and even an introductory text should reflect this emphasis.
    • I hope that this book will serve the purpose, among other things, of introducing astronomy to the liberal arts student who is "fulfilling a science requirement." With this in mind, I have been at pains to point out associations with the fields of language, literature, and history.
    • Astronomy has played no small part in the cultural development of the human race.
    • Introduction: The Dawn of Astronomy .
    • Astronomy is certainly the oldest, yet perhaps the simplest, of the sciences.
    • Even astronomy, remote as it appears to be from everyday life, has practical applications to navigation, surveying, and the firing of projectiles.
    • Astronomy first revealed to man the existence of natural law, and development of the science has steadily broadened our horizons.

  10. Ptolemy's hypotheses of astronomy
    • Ptolemy's hypotheses of astronomy .
    • Near the beginning of Book I of the Almagest, Ptolemy sets out the hypotheses of Ptolemaic astronomy:- .

  11. Plato on Mathematics
    • For this, he believes, one must study the five mathematical disciplines, namely arithmetic, plane geometry, solid geometry, astronomy, and harmonics.
    • 'And suppose we make astronomy the third subject - what do you say?' .
    • 'You first placed astronomy next, and then you went back on what you had said?' .
    • 'In my hurry, the ludicrous state of solid geometry, which, in natural order, should have followed, made me pass over this branch and go on to astronomy, or the motion of solids.' .
    • 'Then assuming that the science now omitted would come into existence if encouraged by the State, let us go on to astronomy, which will be fourth subject.' .
    • Plato argues the merits of astronomy .
    • 'And now, Socrates, as you rebuked the vulgar manner in which I praised astronomy before, my praise shall now be given in your own spirit.
    • For everyone, I think, must see that astronomy compels the mind to look upwards and leads us from the earth to the heavens.' .
    • 'I should rather say that those who elevate astronomy into philosophy appear to me to make us look downwards and not upwards.' .
    • Still, I should like to ascertain how astronomy ought to be learned in any manner more pertaining to that knowledge of which we are speaking?' .
    • 'Then,' I said, 'in astronomy, as in geometry, we should set problems to be solved, and leave the visible heavens alone if we want to approach the subject in the right way and so to put the natural gift of reason to a real purpose.' .
    • Here Plato gives arguments similar to those employed when he discussed astronomy.
    • 'There is a level which all knowledge ought to reach, and which our pupils ought also to attain, and not to fall short of, as I was saying that they did in astronomy.

  12. NAS Memoir of Chauvenet
    • And here let me allude to another, who at that time was contributing so largely in awakening on this side of the Atlantic the interest in astronomy which resulted in the establishment of observatories, and from which have grown the many valuable observations and astronomical discussions which have given a high repute to American astronomers.
    • At first as professor of mathematics and astronomy, later of astronomy, navigation, and surveying, he was always the most prominent of the academic staff.
    • In 1855, he was offered the professorship of mathematics in Yale College, but he was not ready then to relinquish his work at the Naval Academy; and again the professorship of astronomy and natural philosophy in 1859.
    • While it contains everything useful to the mathematician and astronomer, the more elementary portions of the work are easily distinguished by the large type in which they are printed, and form of themselves a connected treatise, adapted to the wants of the young student." Yet it pursued the subject to its higher developments, supplying almost every want in astronomy and geodesy, and of those who required trigonometrical analysis in its varied forms as an instrument of investigation.
    • His manual of Spherical and Practical Astronomy was commenced at Annapolis, but completed at St Louis, and, through the commendable liberality and appreciation of his friends in that city, published in 1863.
    • In spherical astronomy it embraces all the topics which come up in the work of an observatory, or in astronomical work on land or at sea, and each is treated with the exhaustive generality and mathematical rigor of the German school.
    • As has been aptly said by one well able to judge, "It represents astronomy in its most modern and perfected forms of research.
    • The second volume on Practical Astronomy evinces the same completeness and thoroughness of analysis.
    • It is deeply to be regretted that failing health prevented his taking up another department of practical astronomy, which relates to the orbits and perturbations of the various bodies of our solar system.
    • The Astronomy is called for as much abroad as here.
    • The most noted is on lunar distances, subsequently incorporated in his Astronomy, which, while equally rigorous with that of Bessel, was adapted to the usual tables in the British and American Ephemerides, and so simply and admirably arranged, that the non-mathematical navigator could use his method with almost equal facility as the imperfect processes usually employed.

  13. Dahlin Extracts
    • The first of these professors would be a professor of astronomy, reading "prima et secunda mobilia" [astronomy was classified as prima mobilia and secunda mobilia or theory of the planet], trigonometry, teaching the youth astronomical calculations and publicly present "de Coelo" [the heavens].
    • The first of these teachers, the principal, should read physics and astronomy and the 4th, a colleague, mathematics and logic.
    • This proposal concerning the professors was approved, with the only alteration that the astronomy professor is to be 3rd, and the mathematics professor 4th in order, and the clergy was to give the professors their names.
    • He then proceeds to elaborate on this definition with reference to Scaliger, the Bible and Luther, but also Galileo, Tycho Brahe, Plato, Aristotle and Blebelius [Thomas Blebelius (1539-1596), schoolmaster and author of famous astronomy book].
    • The former included arithmetic and geometry, the latter music, stereometry, "Optica vel perspectiva", astronomy, astrology, geography and geodesy.
    • Astronomy is further classified as primum mobile and secunda mobilia or planet theory, and geodesy as cosmography or chorography.
    • Astronomy professor 1644.
    • Astronomy professor 1664-1679, succeeding Johannes Jacobi Bureus.
    • Was appointed extraordinary professor of astronomy in 1665, and ordinary mathematics professor in 1668.
    • Celsius became headmaster of the Uppsala school in 1656, adjunct in philosophy at the academy in 1663, extraordinary professor of astronomy in 1665, deputy judge in the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters in 1666, ordinary mathematics professor in 1668 - in the lecture catalogues he is referred to as inf.

  14. Brinkley Copley Medal
    • In 1824 the Royal Society of London awarded their Copley Medal, "To the Rev Dr Brinkley, now Bishop of Cloyne, for his mathematical and astronomical papers, published in the Philosophical Transactions." The President of the Royal Society, Sir Humphry Davy, described Brinkley's work which led to the award and also gave "views on some refined questions of astronomy, and on the general importance and sublime views of this science." We present below a version of Davy's address: .
    • Andrew's, Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, and President Royal Irish Academy, for his various communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions.
    • You well know, Gentlemen, that Dr Brinkley and the Astronomer Royal are at issue on two great and leading questions of Astronomy - first, the sensible parallax of some of the Fixed Stars, - and secondly, on the apparent southern motion or declination of parts of the sidereal system.
    • I again feel it my duty to make the same reservation on this occasion, and to state that the general labours of Dr Brinkley, on the most difficult parts of astronomy, and the approximation to the solution of a great problem, and the high merits of his philosophical inquiries, are the sole grounds on which the Copleian medal has been bestowed.
    • The Council could not with propriety form an opinion on these subjects, when two such astronomers, possessing such peculiar qualities for observation, and such varied and exalted resources, are at variance; and the difficulty and delicacy of the questions, will perhaps be fully perceived by the addition of some short details to those given last year on these obscure branches of sidereal astronomy.
    • No important changes can take place in the sidereal system without affecting the whole of astronomy: the fixed stars are, indeed, to space in the heavens, what land-marks or the extremities of base lines are to distances upon the earth; and all our conclusions upon the great problems of the system of the universe, have been formed upon the idea of the general permanency of their arrangements.
    • While such men as Brinkley observe at Dublin, Bessel at Konigsberg, Arago at Paris, Olbers at Bremen, Schumacher at Altona, and Gauss and Harding at Gottingen, astronomy must be progressive, her results cannot but become more refined.
    • With the increase of the popularity and the means of astronomy, facilities for procuring the necessary instruments, have likewise been greatly increased; and it must be a gratifying circumstance to the lovers of science to know, that even on the continent, extensive and accurate researches meet with no obstacle from the want of proper apparatus; and though Germany cannot boast of a Ramsden, a Troughton, or a Dollond, yet it possesses a Reichenbach, and a Fraunhofer, whose instruments even the Astronomer Royal, I am sure, would examine with pleasure.
    • There is no more gratifying subject of contemplation than the present state and future prospects of astronomy; and when it is recollected, what this science was two centuries ago, the contrast affords a sublime proof of the powers and resources of the human mind.
    • If it were necessary to fix upon the strongest characteristic of the superiority of modern over ancient times, I know not whether the changes in the art of war, from the application of gunpowder, or in literary resources, from the press, or even the wonderful power created by the steam-engine, could be chosen with so much propriety as the improved state of astronomy.
    • Assure him of our respect and admiration; inform him, that presiding, as he does, over another kindred scientific body, we receive his communications not merely with pleasure but with gratitude, and that we trust he will continue them, both for the advancement of astronomy, and for the increase of his own high reputation.

  15. Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905, Part 2
    • Observational astronomy continued its activity quite steadily, reinforced towards the end of the century by the first of the Herschels.
    • The science of mathematical (or theoretical) astronomy was created in a form that is used to this day; but before this creation could be effected, there had to be a development of mathematics suitable for the purpose.
    • The growth of astronomy has already occupied so large a share of my remarks that few more words can be spared here.
    • Not less, but more, remarkable than the preceding centuries in the actual exploration of the heavens, which has been facilitated so much by the improvements in instruments and is reinforced to such effect by the co-operation of an ever-growing band of American astronomers, the century has seen a new astronomy occupy regions undreamt of in the older days.
    • New methods have supplemented the old; spectroscopy has developed a science of physics within astronomy; and the unastronomical brain reels at the contents of the photographic chart of the heavens which is now being constructed by international co-operation and will, when completed, attempt to map ten million stars (more or less) for the human eye.
    • Nor has the progress of physics, alike on the mathematical side and the experimental side, been less remarkable or more restricted than that of astronomy.
    • There are great histories of mathematics and great histories of astronomy; I can find no history of physics on the grand scale.
    • But, as you hear me thus referring to astronomy and to physics, some of you may think of the old Roman proverb which bade the cobbler not to look above his last; so I take the opportunity of referring very briefly to my own subject.
    • It was pointed out, in connection with the growth of theoretical astronomy, that mathematics developed in the direction of its application to that subject.
    • You who are in South Africa have made an honourable and an honoured contribution to that growing knowledge, conspicuously in your astronomy and through a brilliant succession of astronomers.

  16. Ernest Hobson addresses the British Association in 1910
    • The names of the great departments of science, Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Meteorology, which are associated with Section A, are a sufficient indication of the vast range of investigation which comes under the purview of our Section.
    • An opinion has been strongly expressed in some quarters that the time has come for the erection of a separate Section for Astronomy and Meteorology, in order that fuller opportunities may be afforded than hitherto for the discussion of matters of special interest to those devoted to these departments of Science.
    • The close association of the older Astronomy with Mathematics, and of the newer Astronomy with Physics, form strong presumptions against the change that has been suggested.
    • Mathematics shares with the closely allied subject of Astronomy the honour of being the oldest of the sciences.
    • Mathematical contributions to Mechanics, Physics, and Astronomy would greatly swell the total.
    • It might perhaps be thought that a scheme of Mathematics on a frankly approximative basis would be sufficient for all the practical purposes of application in Physics, Engineering Science, and Astronomy; and no doubt it would be possible to develop, to some extent at least, a species of Mathematics on these lines.
    • Recently, the more refined mathematical methods which have been applied to gravitational Astronomy by Delaunay, G W Hill, Poineare, E W Brown, and others, have thrown much light on questions relating to the solar system, and have much increased the accuracy of cur knowledge of the motions of the moon and the planets.
    • In the classical period of the eighteenth century, the time of Lagrange and Laplace, the nature of the physical investigations, consisting largely of the detailed working out of problems of gravitational Astronomy in accordance with Newton's law, was such that the passage was easy from the concrete problems to the corresponding abstract mathematical ones.

  17. Finlay Freundlich's Inaugural Address, Part 2
    • Phil., M.A., Napier Professor of Astronomy in the University of St Andrews delivered his Inaugural Address.
    • The Educational Value of the Study of Astronomy .
    • Here astronomy is presented with a new problem, which may be of decisive influence upon the whole future development of physics.
    • Here again, astronomy holds the key position to a final solution.
    • I have deliberately discussed today only problems in which Astronomy appears intimately interlinked with neighbouring branches of science, with problems that concern the foundations of pure science, problems which arouse the interest of a much wider circle than those who study astronomy.
    • Astronomy is not only the pleasure-ground for star-gazers; the work of the Astronomer is not so secluded from the world as people usually believe.
    • The development of Astronomy in all its outlooks during the last decades has affected man's place in the Universe in an incomparably deeper and more revolutionary way than the transition from the antique view to the Copernican picture of the World.
    • In consequence we have not yet realized which educational values can be gained from the right approach to Nature, from the rich pattern of the laws that rule all phenomena and from a deep devotion to the mystery of the Universe which Astronomy is able to fathom to nearly infinite depths.

  18. Rose's Greek mathematical literature
    • It is a pretty bit of courtly astronomy; Konon the astronomer had identified a small group of stars near Leo as a new constellation, the Lock of Hair, and declared it must be a lock dedicated by the queen which had mysteriously disappeared from its place in the temple.] .
    • Mathematical knowledge was required, then as now, for any serious work on Astronomy.
    • It is very significant of the relative importance of literature and science for the succeeding generations that what we have left of Alexandrian astronomy concerns itself largely with Aratos' poem.
    • He would appear to have written a commentary on the astronomical work of Poseidonios, and is the author of a short handbook, the Introduction to Astronomy, which still survives.
    • Of his learning and many-sided industry there can be no doubt; besides treatises on epistemology, on ethics, the nature of the soul and the universe, astronomy, fate, divination, and the nature of the gods, he was the author of books on literary criticism and rhetoric, and finally of a long historical work in fifty-five books, beginning where Polybios had ended, and of dissertations on meteorology and on geographical subjects.
    • Poseidonios' own astronomical studies were probably the result of his interest in philosophy in general rather than this science in particular, but there seems little doubt that he wrote a considerable work, the 'Greek Title', besides some smaller essays; of the former we have perhaps a sort of synopsis in the compendium of astronomy by Kleomedes, a writer otherwise unknown.
    • But the most famous name in this connexion is that of Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus), a contemporary of Theon, whose works, through the fault chiefly of readers and not of himself, kept astronomy at a standstill for more than a millennium after his death.
    • It is a textbook of astronomy, with tables and diagrams suggestive of a modern author, although in some respects its contents were already antiquated when he wrote; especially, his firm upholding of the geocentric theory of the universe has caused that view to be called Ptolemaic in modem times.

  19. Herschel Museum
    • On a Saturday in August I [EFR] visited The Herschel Museum of Astronomy at 19 New King Street, Bath.
    • This article is not meant to be simply a guided tour of the Herschel Museum of Astronomy, rather it contains facts about the Herschels motivated by my visit to the Museum.
    • William had come to astronomy beginning with his deep interest in music.
    • Likewise in astronomy he constructed telescopes and the necessary tools, he was the expert user of these instruments as an observer, he interpreted his observations with theories and he taught astronomy.
    • He was driven both by his passion for music and his passion for astronomy.
    • Here is an example: on 29 March 1761, before he became interested in astronomy, William wrote to his brother Jacob about two young ladies who he was much attracted to: .
    • William's marriage to Mary Pitt, the widow of his friend John Pitt, is another example of his life away from music and astronomy.

  20. More Smith History books
    • The objective was now to give to those seeking it enough work in astronomy to predict an eclipse and to find the latitude of a ship at sea, and enough mensuration to undertake the ordinary survey of land.
    • The courses then began to include algebra, Euclid, trigonometry, calculus, conic sections (generally by the Greek method), astronomy, and "natural philosophy" (physics).
    • The prime objective was still astronomy.
    • The union of mathematics, astronomy, and natural philosophy was still strong, and the pursuit of mathematics for its own sake was still somewhat exceptional.
    • Mathematics tended to become a subject per se; it became "pure" mathematics instead of a minor topic taught with astronomy and physics as its prime objective.
    • Interest in the history of scientific thought in American colonies is notable, particularly in medicine, chemistry, astronomy and mathematics.
    • He had shown himself an indefatigable worker in all branches of mathematics - higher algebra, differential equations, the theory of probability, mathematics as applied to physics and astronomy, the calculus of variations, determinants, the foundations of mathematics, and the theory of functions.
    • It was in this period that Poincare was in his prime, and of him it could have been said, without too much exaggeration, that he knew the greatest branches of the subject, particularly as applied to astronomy and physics, more completely than any of his contemporaries.

  21. Dingle books
    • There are four chapters on physics, two each on chemistry and astronomy, single ones on geology, meteorology, evolution, genetics, histology and physiology, biochemistry, and medicine, two chapters, one of them short, on the coming of man and his subsequent development, and two on psychology.
    • With one exception the historical essays deal with classical astronomy and physics.
    • Professor Dingle's contribution in the historical essays (mainly on astronomy) is not original research but an organization of material into broad yet precise patterns.
    • The reader will learn much from his delineation of Aristotelian and Medieval cosmology, and the astronomy of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Kepler.
    • Copernicus's astronomy clearly emerges as half medieval-half modern (he never relinquished the old concept of concentric spheres) and as heliostatic rather than heliocentric.
    • Dingle devotes his history of modem observational astronomy to Tycho, Galileo, Flamsteed, Bessel (one of three who discovered stellar parallax, an important confirmation of Copernican theory), Adams and Leverrier (co-discoverers of Neptune), and Thomas Wright.
    • It discusses, among other things, astronomy in the 16th and 17th century, physics in the 18th century, cosmological theories, time measurement, the laws of nature, the rational and empirical elements in physics, the relation of science to ethics and religion.

  22. University of Glasgow Examinations
    • There are papers on Geometry, Algebra and Trigonometry, Dynamics, Astronomy, and Physics.
    • ASTRONOMY.

  23. Eulogy to Euler by Fuss
    • Practical astronomy struggled against the imperfections of telescopes and it can be said that hardly any rules existed for their construction.
    • Hydrography and parts of navigation including nautical astronomy had been studied by geometers jointly with nautical astronomers.
    • We will now see how closely physics, optics and astronomy owe to his theories of light and colors.
    • Dolland who had found two different types of glass in the meanwhile which were capable of examining in greater detail finally admitted to Euler's conjecture in 1757 by the invention of achromatic glasses which made considerable impression in both astronomy and dioptics.
    • It was through these discoveries which placed him in a position to bring the degree of perfection to the theory of motion of celestial bodies and through that to provide such great services to astronomy and to navigation.
    • Euler that astronomy is grateful due to the perfection that she evinced from the exact determination of the sun's parallax.

  24. Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904
    • In another province we have to record the loss of Dr Isaac Roberts, a distinguished example of the class of non-professional investigators who have left so deep a mark on British science, and on Astronomy in particular.
    • When the foundations of Analytical Dynamics had been laid by Euler and d'Alembert, the first important application was naturally to the problems of Gravitational Astronomy; this formed, of course, the chief work of Laplace, Lagrange, and others.
    • It has often been pointed out, as characteristic of the French school referred to, that their physical speculations were largely influenced by ideas transferred from Astronomy; as, for instance, in the conception of a solid body as made up of discrete particles acting on one another at a distance with forces in the lines joining them, which formed the basis of most of their work on Elasticity and Optics.
    • In the days when the chief applications of Mathematics were to the problems of Gravitational Astronomy, the mathematician might well take his materials at second hand; and in some respects the division of labour was, and still way be, of advantage.
    • It is conceivable that the modern analytical methods which have been developed in Astronomy may have an application to these questions.
    • The question proposed by him, the determination of the possible form of waves of permanent type, like the problem of periodic orbits in Astronomy, is very interesting mathematically, and forms a natural starting-point for investigation; but it does not exhaust what is most important for us to know in the matter.

  25. Mathematics at Aberdeen 1
    • The small amount of Mathematics given would probably include a little Arithmetic, the Sphere and Astronomy.
    • It finished with the motions of the planets and causes of eclipses and was used as an introduction to astronomy.
    • The Arts curriculum was to be widened with greater emphasis on Arithmetic and Geometry and to include teaching of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Physiology, Geography, Astronomy and History, whilst Philosophy played a more minor role.
    • He had to give instruction in Theology, Anatomy, the more difficult parts of Physiology, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy and Hebrew.
    • For a salary of 400 merks he was to instruct the third and fourth years in Astronomy, Trigonometry, Ecclesiastical and Geographical calculations and supervise the Pitmedden Bursars.
    • A section on the sphere preceded one on Astronomy.

  26. Petit thesis
    • A T Petit's Programme for his Astronomy thesis .

  27. Airy on Thales' eclipse
    • It shows in a remarkable degree the power of astronomy; for it is no small thing that we are able to go back so many centuries and confidently to describe a phenomenon which then occurred, almost to its minutest features.
    • But it shows also the weakness of astronomy.
    • Subsequently to the time of the calculations of Baily and Oltmanns, the improvements in astronomy haze been very great.
    • The Greenwich Lunar Observations from 1750 to 1830 (which are the foundation of Lunar Astronomy) have been completely reduced, on one uniform plan.
    • Upon the same principle by which it was shown that the track of shadow in one eclipse depends upon the track of shadow in another eclipse, it will be easily seen that the track of shadow in a distant eclipse will depend upon the observed elevation of the moon in the beginning of the modem period of comparatively accurate astronomy; (for that elevation determines the place of the node; and an error in the elevation produces an error in the computed place of the node for that time; and this exhibits an error in the annual motion of the node; and that error carried through the long period to a distant eclipse produces a very great error in the place of the node there, and consequently in the track of the shadow).
    • The fault in the principle of the Greenwich instrument used for observing the elevation of the moon (namely a quadrant, the use of which was for many years the bane of astronomy), and the slovenly way of using it in Bradley's time (no attention being given to the taking the elevation of the moon at the precise instant of her passing the meridian, though her elevation then changes rapidly) might well allow of this error.

  28. Mathematicians and Music 2.2
    • The seven liberal arts, divided into the Trivium (grammar, dialectic, rhetoric), and the more advanced Quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy), were an inheritance from a period at least as early as the second century before Christ; indeed the Quadrivium division of mathematical studies is Pythagorean.
    • Astronomy, with its practical applications to the calendar and sundial, was the most popular of the Quadrivium subjects but there was probably more of astrology in it than astronomy as we now understand the term.
    • It is in the fifth book of this work that one first finds the third fundamental law of modern astronomy, "The squares of the periodic times of the several planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun," demonstration of which furnished Newton with the basis for his theory of gravitation.
    • The fifth book to which I have referred is somewhat allied to the third, since in it the author endeavoured to establish curious analogies between the harmonic proportions of music and astronomy.
    • Mechanical Arts and Astronomy, without which Navigation can no more subsist, than they can without Geometry.

  29. Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905
    • The death of Mr Frank McClean has robbed astronomy of one of its most patient workers and actively creative investigators.
    • Years were to elapse before, by the ecclesiastical tyranny over thought, Galileo was forced to make a verbal disavowal of his adhesion to the Copernican system of astronomy of which he was still to be the protagonist in propounding any reasoned proof.
    • Those were the days when the applications of astronomy had become astrology.
    • Galileo was making discoveries in the mechanics of solids and fluids, and, specially, he was building on a firm foundation the fabric of the system of astronomy, hazarded nearly a century before by Copernicus; he still was to furnish, by bitter experience, one of the most striking examples in the history of the world that truth is stronger than dogma.
    • When a young man of twenty-one be left England for St Helena, and there, in the years 1676-1678, he laid the foundations of stellar astronomy for the Southern Hemisphere; moreover, in the course of his work he there succeeded in securing the first complete observation of a transit of Mercury.

  30. Mathematics at Aberdeen 4
    • Throughout he was concerned to emphasize the applications of mathematics to such practical matters as mensuration, surveying, navigation, astronomy and dialling.
    • It is perhaps surprising to find in the section on Astronomy 'There is much reason from analogy to believe that the Planets are inhabited'.
    • The trust was further augmented on Anne Cruickshank's death to support several other University institutions including a lectureship in Astronomy, the Science Library and a prize in the Faculty of Law.
    • The sub principal Roderick Macleod took the semis and Scott the tertians 'in which department shall be included the higher branches of Mathematics and the whole of natural and experimental Philosophy except Astronomy'.
    • Astronomy was taught in the magistrand year with the abstract sciences.

  31. Rudio's talk
    • Here Hipparchus, the actual originator of scientific astronomy to whom we owe the introduction of longitude and latitude in order to determine the position of a point on a sphere, conducted his famous observations of the moon in about the year 150 BC.
    • In drawing your attention, ladies and gentlemen, to this distinguished figure, I have also arrived at the topic that will conclude my talk and which I have therefore looked at in some detail at the beginning (not at all coincidentally): astronomy.
    • Born in 1436 in the Franconian town Konigsberg, Johannes Muller, known as Regiomontanus in the scientific world, went to Vienna as a fifteen-year old youth, in order to learn mathematics and astronomy from Peurbach.
    • And having said that, astrology often also motivated and encouraged research in astronomy.
    • Copernicus, whose favourite subject had always been astronomy, met this fine man, and soon a relationship akin to the one between Regiomontanus and Peurbach developed between them.

  32. Rhode Island College
    • Mathematics and Astronomy.
    • In applied mathematics the department offers a course in surveying and civil engineering, giving opportunity to students who have completed the required work to carry the subject farther; a course in analytical mechanics, open to students who have completed one term of the required work in calculus; a course in practical astronomy, in which the simpler problems of practical astronomy are discussed.
    • In astronomy, in addition to the course above mentioned, a lecture course in physical astronomy is offered in the spring term of the Senior year, the aim of which is to make the students familiar with the general characteristics of the various members of the solar system, and to emphasize the general laws which govern the universe.

  33. Proclus on pure and applied mathematics
    • Such is the doctrine of the Pythagoreans and their fourfold division of mathematics [arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy].
    • On the other hand, of that part of mathematics that devotes its attention to objects perceived by the senses they list six branches: mechanics, astronomy, optics, geodesy, canonics, and logistics.
    • For the importance of astronomy in medicine is made clear by Hippocrates and, in fact, by all who have discoursed on seasons and places.
    • There remains astronomy, which is concerned with cosmic motions, the sizes and forms of the heavenly bodies, their illumination, their distances from the earth, and all other subjects of this sort.
    • Its branches are: (a) gnomonics, which is concerned with the measuring of the hours by the proper placing of gnomons; (b) meteoroscopy, which investigates the different elevations and distances of stars, and sets forth numerous other theorems of various sorts in the field of astronomy; (c) the science of dioptrics, which, with the use of the proper instruments, investigates the positions of the sun, moon, and the other stars.

  34. IAU Presidential Message
    • if you look at the reproductions of stories in the 1967 International Astronomical Union General Assembly newspaper Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo II on the General Assembly web site you can appreciate the extraordinary developments that have occurred in astronomy over this short period.
    • Following the now established pattern we will have an extensive scientific programme of Symposia, Joint Discussions and six Special Sessions as well as four Invited Discourses, on essentially all topics of contemporary astronomy.
    • Its mission "to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation" is little changed since 1919.
    • The language of science binds IAU members, strengthened by a shared vision to better understand the universe and a love of astronomy.
    • A few years after the last Prague General Assembly at the IAU 50th anniversary, J H Dort said: "Looking over the entire time of my relations with the Union the most important aspects have been in the first place the many personal relations and often friendships which came about through these relations, and, in the second place, having become involved in building up international understanding and fertile contact between countries where sometimes relations outside astronomy were extremely poor.

  35. Bradley letter
    • The Progress of Astronomy indeed has always been found, to have so great a Dependence upon accurate Observations, that, till such were made, it advanced but slowly: For the first considerable Improvements that it received, in point of Theory, were owing to the renowned Tycho Brahe; who far exceeding those that had gone before him, in the Exactness of his Observations, enabled the sagacious Kepler to find out some of the principal Laws, relating to the Motion of the heavenly Bodies.
    • The Invention of Telescopes and Pendulum-Clocks affording proper Means of still farther improving the Praxis of Astronomy; and these being also soon succeeded by the wonderful Discoveries made by our Great Newton, as to its Theory; the Science, in both respects, had acquired such extraordinary Advancement, that future Ages seemed to have little room left, for making any great Improvements.
    • This Practice has, in an eminent manner, been lately recommended by your Lordship's noble Example; who having, out of a singular Regard for the Science of Astronomy, erected an Observatory, and furnished it with as complete an Apparatus of Instruments, as our best Artists could contrive; would not fully rely on their Exactness, till their Divisions had undergone the strictest Re-examination: whereby they are probably now rendered as perfect in their kind, as any extant, or as human Skill can at present produce.
    • For I am sensible, that if my own Endeavours have, in any respect, been effectual to the Advancement of Astronomy; it has principally been owing to the Advice and Assistance given me by our worthy Member Mr George Graham; whose great Skill and Judgment in Mechanics, joined with a complete and practical Knowledge of the Uses of Astronomical Instruments, enable him to contrive and execute them in the most perfect manner.

  36. James Clerk Maxwell on the nature of Saturn's rings
    • There are some questions in Astronomy, to which we are attracted rather on account of their peculiarity, as the possible illustration of some unknown principle, than from any direct advantage which their solution would afford to mankind.
    • The value of the labours of these men is recognized by all who are aware of the importance of such tables in Practical Astronomy and Navigation.
    • The questions which are suggested by the appearance of Saturn's Rings cannot, in the present state of Astronomy, call forth so great an amount of labour among mathematicians.
    • I am not aware that any practical use has been made of Saturn's Rings, either in Astronomy or in Navigation.

  37. Brinkley obituary
    • His character was now so high that when the Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, applied to Dr Maskelyne, the then Astronomer Royal, to name the best person he knew for the Professorship of Astronomy in that University, he at once selected Brinkley.
    • He vacated his Professorship of Astronomy in 1826, when appointed to the See of Cloyne, and from that time ceased from any active pursuit of Science, and devoted himself wholly to his Episcopal duties.
    • Late Bishop of Cloyne; previously Professor of Astronomy in Dublin College, and up to his death President of the Royal Irish Academy.
    • Though Bishop Brinkley's great talents were in constant exercise, his published works are not numerous: they consist of "The Elements of Astronomy," for the use of the Students of Trinity College; and several papers preserved in the "Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy." .

  38. Percy MacMahon addresses the British Association in 1901
    • The arrangements for the session 1822-23 included lectures in mechanics, hydrostatics and hydraulics, pneumatics, optics, astronomy, chemistry, electricity, galvanism, magnetism and botany, illustrated by experiments.
    • If we turn our eyes to the world of astronomy we find there a grand scheme of co-operation which other departments may indeed envy.
    • The gravitation formula has been recognised from the time of Newton as ruling the dynamics of the heavens, and the exact agreement of the facts derived from observation with the simple theory has established astronomy as the most exact of all the departments of applied science.
    • Other sciences are not so favourably circumstanced as is astronomy for work of a similar kind undertaken in a similar spirit.

  39. Hellman's books
    • The Comet of 1577: Its Place in the History of Astronomy, by C Doris Hellman (1944).
    • She placed herself under obligation by using the subtitle of the book, "Its Place in the History of Astronomy," to trace the impression produced by this comet on the successors of Tycho Brahe, but she did practically nothing about it.
    • Nevertheless the book is a very valuable contribution to the history of astronomy.
    • She had demonstrated her fitness for this task by her own independent contributions to our knowledge of sixteenth-century astronomy.

  40. Heavens and their story
    • 'ASTRONOMY WITHOUT A TELESCOPE, ' .
    • 'THE ASTRONOMY OF THE BIBLE' .
    • It is not intended as a text-book to teach astronomy; it has rather been written with the hope that the reader may be drawn by it to study astronomy for himself.

  41. Herschel William papers
    • I grant that there are more necessary and more useful objects of inquiry in the science of astronomy; but when we consider that the knowledge of the construction of the Moon leads us insensibly to several consequences, which might not appear at first; such as the great probability, not to say almost absolute certainty, of her being inhabited, we shall soon agree, that these researches are far from being trifling.
    • The names of Galileo, Hevellus, Kircher, and several more, will always deserve to be mentioned with particular respect for the eminent services they have rendered to astronomy; but as we know that their instruments were far from being arrived to that degree of perfection we have now obtained, I thought it by no means improper or useless to repeat their observations on the lunar mountains, and to extend them to other parts of the Moon's visible hemisphere, and thereby to establish this theory on the firmest evidence of a survey taken by a very excellent instrument.
    • This remarkable star, we are told [Ferguson, Astronomy], "was first observed by David Fabricius, the 13th of August, 1596, who called it the Stella Mira, or wonderful star: which has been since found to appear and disappear, periodically, 7 times in 6 years, continuing in the greatest lustre for 15 days together, and it is never quite extinguished." My own observations on this wonderful star, are but few, yet sufficiently verify the surprising appearances that have been ascribed to it.
    • And to the great honour of modem astronomers it must be confessed, that no science has ever made such considerable strides towards perfection in so short a time as astronomy has done since the invention of the telescope.

  42. J Ruska on Heinrich Suter
    • He is known to the readers of Isis, as well as to all those who participate in the study of the history of mathematics, as the best connoisseur of Islamic mathematics and astronomy.
    • In fact Suter might have been motivated by the example of the Zurich astronomer Rudolf Wolf, who prepared his history of astronomy at the same time.
    • From that time on there appeared minor or major works about the history of Arabian mathematics and astronomy yearly.
    • He further points out that his book has not been made redundant by C Brockelmann's Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, since that work is fragmentary in the chapters about mathematics and astronomy:- .

  43. Bradley works
    • Stephen Peter Rigaud (1774-1839), was Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University from 1810 to his death in 1839, and also worked at the Radcliffe Observatory from 1827.
    • Dr Bradley's Manuscripts were given by his son-in-law, the Rev Samuel Peach, to Lord North, who presented them to the University of Oxford, of which he was then Chancellor: they were placed in the hands of Dr Hornsby, Savilian Professor of Astronomy, with a view to publication; and the observations made with the new instruments at Greenwich, from 1750 to 1762, were printed at the University Press.
    • Archbishop Wake's papers are preserved in the library at Christ Church, and by the permission of the Dean and Canons the extracts were made from them respecting the election to the Savilian Professorship of Astronomy.
    • But there is no one to whom I am so much indebted as to the Bishop of Cloyne - I add no epithet to the advice which he gave me - the name of Dr Brinkley is sufficient to suggest its value to all who have any knowledge of astronomy; but I must express my deep sense of the kindness with which that advice was given, and which increased while it endeavoured to lighten the obligation.

  44. Encke Obituary
    • Notwithstanding, however, this early classical training, when the time came for his entrance at the University, Encke resolved henceforth to devote his attention mainly, if not exclusively, to the study of astronomy.
    • No wonder then that neither Gauss nor astronomy could retain the young student at his books, but, obeying the impulse which animated the whole heart of Germany, in the spring of 1813 he took up arms and marched to Hamburg for the rescue of his country from the domination of the French.
    • In 1824 the Council of our Society awarded to Encke their gold medal for what Mr Colebrooke, the President of that day, properly designated as "the greatest step that had been made in the astronomy of comets since the verification of Halley's Comet in 1759." Encke had long been on the track of his comet.
    • It is well known that great theological activity, not to say theological strife, surrounded Encke and every other intellectual thinker in Germany; it may not, perhaps, concern us, simply as students in Astronomy, but it cannot fail to interest us as men, to know what effect this independence of thought and boldness of expression had upon the spirit of a man, whose name will for ever be associated with some of the noblest and furthest-reaching efforts of the human mind.

  45. Edmund Whittaker: 'Physics and Philosophy
    • Physics and astronomy can lead us through the past to the beginning of things, and show that there must have been a Creation: but of the Creation itself, science can give no account." The birth and extinction of the universe can be understood only by bringing into consideration those aspects of reality which are ignored by science and interpreted by religion alone.
    • The development of the universe may be studied in the light of thermodynamics or of astronomy, or indeed by a combination of both as in the theory of the primeval atom.
    • These considerations provide no idea of the age of the universe, but this is given in several ways by astronomy.
    • In the argument from astronomy he opposes the view that matter existed in an inert state from all eternity and was at some instant galvanised into activity: "for what could have determined this instant rather than all the other instants of past eternity?" The Divine Will, of course, which is completely free in its operations with regard to created things.

  46. Edward Sang on his tables
    • Necessarily the first step was to construct a table of logarithms sufficiently extensive to satisfy all the wants of computers in trigonometry and astronomy; and having many times felt the inconvenience of the loss of the details of the calculations made on separate papers, I resolved to record from the very beginning every important step.
    • For all the ordinary operations of surveying and practical astronomy five-place logarithms, as M Lalande has stated, are perfectly sufficient; and for the higher branches of astronomy and geodetics the usual seven-place tables are enough.

  47. O'Brien papers
    • On certain formulae made use of in physical astronomy, Cambridge Mathematical Journal 3 (1843), 249-257.
    • On a new notation for expressing various conditions and equations in geometry, mechanics, and astronomy, Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 8 (1846), 415-428.
    • On a new notation for expressing various conditions and equations in geometry, mechanics and astronomy, Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 8 (1849), 415-428.

  48. Dahlin Introduction
    • Content that informs us of our ancestors' insights in mathematics, or more precisely, related topics such as astronomy and chronology, has of course a historical rather than mathematical value.
    • He was appointed professor of astronomy at Lund University soon after it was founded in 1666 by Charles XI.
    • He became professor of astronomy at Uppsala University in 1679.

  49. James Jeans: 'Physics and Philosophy' I
    • We are likely to think first of the results of replacing the geocentric astronomy of mediaeval times by the Copernican system - man saw that his home was not the majestic fixed centre of the universe round which all else had to revolve, but one of many fragments of matter which were themselves revolving round a very ordinary one of the myriads of stars in the sky.
    • Astronomy was beginning to move into the third stage, to which it has only recently fully attained.
    • mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology, .

  50. Graves on Hamilton
    • Gentlemen, - The death of Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Andrews' Professor of Astronomy, Astronomer Royal of Ireland, for thirty-eight years a most distinguished member of the Royal Irish Academy, and formerly its President, was an event which could not be allowed to pass without public notice in this place.
    • The Professorship of Astronomy in Trinity College became vacant in the year 1827, on the promotion of Dr Brinkley to the Bishopric of Cloyne.
    • As Professor of Astronomy, two spheres of exertion belonged to him - that of lecturer upon the science, and that connected with the practical working of the Observatory.

  51. Plato Mathematics
    • Every advance in geometry, in mathematical astronomy, in mathematical harmonics, even a medical theory which exhibits disease and health as resulting from the propositions between constituent elements of the body - each such step forward is further proof of something Plato cared deeply about, the idea that mathematical regularities and harmonics and proportions are what explains things.
    • Ptolemy's astronomy is the ultimate descendant of the astronomy done in the Academy with the backing of Plato's recommendations for the sciences.

  52. Who was who 1852
    • The nineteenth century starts out with Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), a giant in mathematics, astronomy, geodesy and magnetism, who got his doctor's degree in Helmstadt in 1799 and from 1807 on spent his life in Gottingen as director of the astronomical observatory.
    • Mobius (with the strip!) was professor of astronomy in Leipzig.
    • Sir William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) was professor of astronomy at Trinity College in Dublin, but is more famous for his work in optics and mechanics (the Hamiltonian equations) and as creator of vector analysis and the theory of quaternions.

  53. Ball papers
    • There was no "taking of heights and distances and measuring of planes and solids." There was nothing "of spherical trigonometry, though this was requisite for many problems in astronomy, geography, and navigation." Nothing was taught of "Mercator's chart" or "of computing the way of a ship," or "of longitude, amplitude azimuths, and variations of the compass." And, lastly, there was no "word of reasoning about force and motion, though it be the very life and soul of mechanical skill and manual operations." He continues, "by these defects it's plain that the old scheme wants not only methodizing, but also an enlargement of the learning." Of course the specific criticisms were made with reference to the fact that the boys looked to a career in connection with the sea.
    • The subjects of study were to be Arithmetic; Algebra; Plane and Solid Geometry, practical with rule and compass as well as theoretical; Plane Trigonometry; Drawing and Designing; Instruments and their use; Cosmography, including therein the rudiments of astronomy and the art of making maps and charts; the use of Spherical Triangles; and Mechanics.
    • There were already two professorships in mathematics: additional chairs were founded, one in 1749 by Thomas Lowndes in Astronomy and Geometry, and another in 1783 by Richard Jackson in Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry.

  54. David Hilbert: 'Mathematical Problems
    • The fruitful methods and the far-reaching principles which Poincare has brought into celestial mechanics and which are today recognized and applied in practical astronomy are due to the circumstance that he undertook to treat anew that difficult problem and to approach nearer a solution.
    • The two last mentioned problems - that of Fermat and the problem of the three bodies - seem to us almost like opposite poles - the former a free invention of pure reason, belonging to the region of abstract number theory, the latter forced upon us by astronomy and necessary to an understanding of the simplest fundamental phenomena of nature.
    • The same is true of the first problems of geometry, the problems bequeathed us by antiquity, such as the duplication of the cube, the squaring of the circle; also the oldest problems in the theory of the solution of numerical equations, in the theory of curves and the differential and integral calculus, in the calculus of variations, the theory of Fourier series and the theory of potential - to say nothing of the further abundance of problems properly belonging to mechanics, astronomy and physics.

  55. Two General Assemblies
    • I was strongly against the decision to have that latter meeting, not because I was too lazy for organizing two GA's, nor that I disliked Poland or Polish astronomy - on the contrary, I have many good friends there - but because I found it unfair against our Australian colleagues.
    • During the time of Heckmann's presidency it so happened that we got a request from and a visit by the grand old lady of Polish astronomy, Ms.
    • For many participants it was a good and for most of us the first opportunity to get acquainted with Australian astronomy.

  56. The St Andrews Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope
    • Sir Peter Redford Scott Lang who, from 1879 to 1921, was Regius Professor of Mathematics in St Andrews expressed the desire that a lectureship in astronomy should be founded at St Andrews, and that Baron Napier of Merchiston should be commemorated by the association of his name with the foundation.
    • A Chair of Astronomy has now been founded and, on Ist January 1951, Dr Freundlich became the first Napier Professor of Astronomy in the University of St Andrews.

  57. Atlas de la Lune
    • The second extract is an extract of from Popular Astronomy 10 (1902), 502, where an account of the project is given.
    • The current and past conditions of the lunar surface, which more or less exhibit the various manifestations of nature's forces, form a chapter of physical astronomy that has resulted in much research and has excited considerable and sustained public interest.
    • Popular Astronomy account of Maurice Loewy and Pierre Puiseux's work.

  58. Otto Neugebauer - a biographical sketch
    • A later paper covers formulas for the volume of a truncated pyramid in pre-Grecian mathematics (1933), followed by monographs on the origin of the sexagesimal system, the geometry of the circle, and the application of astronomy to chronology in Babylon.
    • Professor Neugebauer has announced a series of three volumes on the history of ancient astronomy and mathematics.
    • Volume two will treat "Grecian Mathematics" and volume three "Babylonian and Grecian Astronomy".

  59. Walk Around Paris
    • Joseph Jerome Lefrancais de Lalande (Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy), who mainly worked on the study of astronomy and the sky.
    • He also published a book stating that astronomy was not just for men, but would also interest women.

  60. Colin Maclaurin
    • To the second year he lectured on algebra, mensuration of solids, spherical trigonometry and the doctrine of the sphere, conics, with application to gunnery, and astronomy and optics.
    • To the third year he gave a course which included perspective, astronomy and optics, the Principia, and the direct and inverse method of fluxions.
    • In addition, thrice weekly from December to April, he gave demonstrations on experimental philosophy, and, from time to time, on practical astronomy.

  61. Students in 1711
    • Master Gregory desires you may send Ozanam's "Mathematical Course" for Alexander together with globes, since he is learning astronomy at present with him.
    • I am learning the Logics with Lawhill and Astronomy with Mr Gregory and am this day begun the third part of it which treats about the Theory of the Planets, and if you would be pleased to send our Globes, I should endeavour to understand how to make use of them.
    • With Mr Gregory I have learned his Doctrines of Astronomy his catoptrics and dioptrics, and a little before the end of the last quarter I began to Kyles Physics.

  62. The Dyers Hand
    • Her first love was botany, but she turned to astronomy at Cambridge.
    • In his introduction to this book, the astrophysicist Jesse Greenstein points to "her personal friendship with individual stars" and her fond description of "the eccentric behaviour of certain spectral lines in a southern supergiant." In her own words: "If I have made a contribution, it has been by collecting, turning over in my hands, comparing and classifying the data of astronomy." Surely she was too modest.
    • A little later, in the same vein, she evaluates her contributions as a scientist: "I have not been one who fashioned new theories, as I once dreamed of doing; if I have made a contribution, it has been by collecting, turning over in my hands, comparing and classifying the data of astronomy." But as I protest the waste of part of her talent, I want also to protest the willingness to accept a view of science in which the dream of fashioning new theories takes precedence over all other dreams Science grows out of many kinds of labour, many kinds of insight, and many kinds of dreams.

  63. Moran reviews
    • Kendall and Moran describe a great variety of topics, with applications in disciplines ranging from astronomy through forestry to molecular physics.
    • Probably the most famous application is to the field of atomic physics but the authors also include examples from those of astronomy, biology, crystallography and others.
    • Current applications extend over a very varied field: this book contains examples from and references to acoustics, astronomy, atomic physics, biology, bombing, botany, crystallography, ecology, epidemiology, forestry, geology, gravitational theory, haematology, harmonic analysis, molecular theory, Monte Carlo methods, numerical analysis, phytosociology, projectometry, sampling theory, sedimentation, theory of liquids and traffic studies; and this by no means exhausts the list of applications.

  64. A D Aleksandrov's view of Mathematics
    • The "exact sciences," mechanics, astronomy, physics, and to a great extent chemistry, express their laws, as every schoolboy knows, by means of formulas and make extensive use of mathematical apparatus in developing their theories.
    • For this reason the requirements of mechanics, astronomy, and physics have always exercised a direct and decisive influence on the development of mathematics.
    • This discovery was a triumph not only for mechanics and astronomy, and in particular for the system of Copernicus, but also for the powers of mathematical calculation.

  65. Aristotle on physics and mathematics
    • Further, is astronomy different from physics or a department of it? It seems absurd that the physicist should be supposed to know the nature of sun or moon, but not to know any of their essential attributes, particularly as the writers on physics obviously do discuss their shape also and whether the earth and the world are spherical or not.
    • Similar evidence is supplied by the more physical of the branches of mathematics, such as optics, harmonics, and astronomy.

  66. Teixeira on Rocha
    • Monteiro da Rocha and Olbers must therefore figure together in the history of astronomy, as the first inventors of a practical method for the determination of parabolic orbits of comets.
    • We do not know how he learnt mathematics; probably he studied Arithmetic, Elementary Geometry and the principles of Astronomy at the College of Baia, where he was educated, and then continued progress without a teacher in the study of the other branches of those sciences and in the improvement of the knowledge that he had received in that College.

  67. Savile on Euclid
    • Hic, annis fessus, cyclos artemque repono.' In spite of this discouraging result Savile hoped to make the study a permanent one, and in 1619 he founded two chairs, one of geometry and one of astronomy.
    • If Cambridge desired to retort upon her sister [to certain Oxford attacks on Newton] she might with advantage of truth on her side proclaim, that the learned and generous founder of the lectureships of geometry and astronomy at Oxford, the warden of Merton and provost of Eton, Sir Henry Savile, publicly confessed that a course of lectures on the definitions, postulates, axioms and first eight propositions of Euclid was a task which almost overwhelmed him.

  68. Mathematics at Aberdeen 2
    • The syllabus then included Arithmetic and Geometry in the second year, the Sphere and Astronomy in the fourth.
    • Chronology and Optics came in the third with Geography and Astronomy in the final year.

  69. Gibson History 9 - Colin Maclaurin
    • After this he gives the doctrine of the conic sections, with the theory of gunnery, and concludes this college with the elements of astronomy and optics.
    • He begins the third college with perspective; then treats more fully of the astronomy and optics.

  70. Magnus books
    • There exist hundreds of applications of Hill's equation to problems in engineering and physics, including problems in mechanics, astronomy, the theory of electric circuits, of the electric conductivity of metals, and of the cyclotron.
    • The hundreds of applications of Hill's equation in engineering and physics range from mechanics and astronomy to electric circuits, electric conductivity of metals, and the theory of the cyclotron.

  71. Mathematics in Aberdeen
    • The subjects treated in the Junior Class, together with Optics and Astronomy.
    • (For the last two subjects O Airy's Optics and Main's Introduction to Plane Astronomy are recommended.) .

  72. O'Brien Geometry
    • PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND ASTRONOMY IN KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON, .
    • The properties of Conjugate diameters are investigated means of the angle called the Eccentric Anomaly in Astronomy, but the same properties are deduced without making use of this angle in Chapter XI.

  73. Zwicky lecture
    • A review of the development of astronomy reveals a series of most entertaining adventures, errors and omissions in addition to great discoveries and achievements.
    • The subject matter of astronomy nonetheless is so vast that even the most prodigious individual efforts must fail to cover the whole accessible territory.

  74. Bessel and the Royal Astronomical Society
    • The figure of Bessel, loved and admired, has filled a prominent place in the development of astronomy; it will continue to do so; astronomy won him, with its peculiar appeal, in the first flush of his genius and strength, from his clerkship in a merchant's office.

  75. Zwicky books
    • Morphological Astronomy (1957), by F Zwicky.
    • Zwicky has been involved in many important scientific discoveries over a long period, even if he says it himself, and he convincingly illustrates the application of his principles to missile launching and astronomy-and much less convincingly to language teaching.

  76. Statistics Journal in Estonia
    • In these Proceedings there were published papers on astronomy (Tartu has traditionally been a famous centre for astronomy), meteorology (in Tartu the time series of weather observations has been continuous since the middle of the 19th century), medical and anthropological sciences, etc.

  77. D'Arcy Thompson on Plato and Planets
    • We might expect to elucidate the passage in two ways, either by literal interpretation of the Greek or by seeking a clue in the facts and language of Astronomy.
    • The spheres of Eudoxus have been described and explained by many astronomers and historians of astronomy, but best, and far best of all, by Schiaparelli.

  78. Somerville's Booklist
    • When Mary told Wallace that she wished to make a deep study of mathematics and astronomy he recommended her a small library of books.
    • Biot Analytic geometry and astronomy .

  79. Stringham address
    • The prehistoric period of mathematics belongs to the centuries immediately preceding the earliest development of Greek philosophy, and appears to have been first cultivated in connection with land surveying and astronomy in Egypt and Assyria.
    • Two great works on mathematics and astronomy attest this claim; one by Brahmagupta, written in 628, which expounds a complete system of algebraic analysis, the other by Bhaskara, in 1150, upon arithmetic and algebra, in which the Indian system of arithmetic - the one we ourselves use - is employed.

  80. Peres books
    • J Peres, a professor of mechanics at the University of Marseille, succeeded well in making in 180 pages the essence of the historical development of mathematics, and of mechanics; he speaks only incidentally of astronomy, of physics (here the principle of conservation of energy is not even mentioned) and of geodesy.
    • Although we already possess many histories of mathematics and astronomy, the work of M Peres is not superfluous, for, in brevity, it goes back very far and leads the exposition to the present day.

  81. Aubrey on Ward
    • The Astronomy Reader (Dr (John) Greaves) being sure to be ejected, Seth Ward, A.M.
    • recommended to Greaves, their common friend, Mr Seth Ward) was invited to succeed him, and came from Mr Freeman's to Oxford, had the Astronomy Professor's place, and lived at Wadham Colledge, where he conversed with the Warden, Dr John Wilkins.

  82. Gibson History 3 - Founding of the Universities
    • No mathematics appear in the first year, but in the second Alsted's Compendium of Arithmetic and Geometry is prescribed, while in the fourth year the De Caelo, de Ortu et Interitu and, as occasion permits, the Elements of Astronomy, Geography, Optics and Music from Alsted's Admiranda Mathematica are among the subjects of study.
    • In the Bajan or first year, no mathematics; in the Semi-Bajan or second year, towards the close of the session a compendium of Arithmetic was given to the students; in the Bachelor or third year there is no mention of mathematics while in the Magistrand or fourth year "the De Caelo of Aristotle and the Sphere of Johannes de Sacrobosco were read and demonstrations of Practical Astronomy were given.

  83. Laplace: 'Essay on probabilities
    • The human mind offers, in the perfection which it has been able to give to astronomy, a feeble idea of this intelligence.
    • The regularity which astronomy shows us in the movements of the comets doubtless exists also in all phenomena.

  84. Mathematics in Edinburgh
    • Plane and Physical Astronomy.
    • Herschel's Astronomy, in Lardner's Cyclopaedia, omitting the chapter on Perturbations.

  85. Maskelyne parallax proposal
    • The Royal Society having come to a resolution to send persons of ability to proper places, in order to observe the approaching passage of Venus over the Sun, the 6th of June next year; (which phenomenon was first proposed to this Society, by the late excellent Dr Halley, forty-four years ago, as a proper means of determining the Sun's parallax, to a great degree of exactness) I take this opportunity of recommending to the consideration of this learned body another very important object in astronomy, which, I apprehend, may be cleared up at the same time, by the astronomers sent to one of those places, which will probably be judged convenient for the observation of Venus's transit; I mean the island of St Helena.
    • remains then to be considered, what hope there is now left, after astronomy has been brought to such a great degree of perfection, of being able to find out an annual parallax in any of the fixed stars.

  86. Freeman Dyson: autobiographical notes
    • Started off with an appetite for mathematics and astronomy from the age of six.
    • Also encouraged to be a physicist by the discovery that physics was in more of a mess than mathematics or astronomy.

  87. Heinrich Weber's books
    • The original volume is divided into two; the present one, a treatise complete in itself on mathematical physics, and one to follow on graphics, probabilities, and astronomy.
    • The fourth book deals with spherical astronomy and the calculation of orbits.

  88. Mathematics in St Andrews
    • Astronomy; 8.
    • i.; Herschel's Astronomy.

  89. ELOGIUM OF EULER
    • He was able to provide an entirely new understanding to the part of analysis which concerns itself with the questions of Astronomy and Physics.
    • In the past Astronomy employed only geometrical methods, and M.

  90. Burntisland visit
    • I perceived, however, that astronomy did not consist in star-gazing, and as I persevered in studying the book for a time, I certainly got a dim view of several subjects which were useful to me afterwards.
    • There are two volumes, each in several sections called "Books." The first Book contains 'Arithmetic', the second Book 'Geometry', the third Book 'Plane trigonometry', the fourth Book 'Spherics', the fifth Book 'Astronomy', and the sixth Book 'Geography'.

  91. Smith's Obituaries and Biographies
    • The number of scholars who are proficient not only in mathematics and astronomy but also in the eastern languages has always been limited, even as it is today.
    • In the death of Professor Florian Cajori the world has lost one of the best-known of its recent historians of science, not merely in the domain of mathematics but in the contiguous domains of physics, geodesy, and to a certain extent astronomy.

  92. Maclaurin life
    • The second class studied Algebra, with the 11th and 12th books of Euclid, Spherical Trigonometry, Conic Sections, and the Principles of Astronomy.
    • The third went on in Astronomy and Perspective, read a part of Newton's Principia, and had performed a course of experiments for illustrating them: he afterwards read and demonstrated the Elements of Fluxions.

  93. Smith Autograph Papers
    • Although Pierre Gassendi was best known for his work in astronomy, he was one of the brilliant circle of mathematicians which was making France the scientific centre of the world in the first half of the seventeenth century.
    • Although we commonly think of Babbage with relation to his calculating engine (part of which, curiously enough, found its way to the Dudley Observatory at Albany), he held the chair of Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, and contributed worthily to the science of astronomy, to higher algebra, and to physics.

  94. Groups St Andrews proceedings
    • The lectures and talks were given in the Mathematical Institute and the School of Physics and Astronomy of the University of St Andrews.

  95. Lloyd Philosophy
    • Such was the acknowledged character of the manuals from which the students were to be instructed in this department of science: and the tutors, generally too much occupied in the discharge of their laborious duties to engage in a work for which some leisure was essentially requisite, contented themselves with supplying the deficiency of written treatises by the oral instruction of their pupils in their respective courses; until Doctor Robinson, Professor of Astronomy at Armagh, and late Fellow of Dublin College, in addition to his labours as a tutor, kindly suffered himself to be charged with the task of furnishing a Treatise suited to the wants of this Seminary.

  96. Pappus on mechanics
    • The theoretical part includes geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and physics, while the practical part consists of metal-working, architecture, carpentry, painting, and the manual activities connected with these arts.

  97. Muir on research in Scotland
    • In his evidence before the Royal Commission on the Advancement of Science, he says:- "I consider education to be quite a different thing from national research, that they should be kept as distinct as possible, and that one great evil now existing is the mixing up of those two things." Although Colonel Strange was not alone in holding this view, the great bulk of opinion, now at least, is in favour of it only so far as certain special subjects are concerned, the line being drawn so as to include such departments of science as Astronomy, Meteorology, Solar Physics, etc., which more immediately affect the national welfare, and for the pursuit of which extensive collections of apparatus are required at particular spots of the earth's surface.

  98. Righini's publications
    • Most of Guglielmo Righini's papers were on astronomy but, from 1962 onwards, he published some important material on the History of Science.

  99. Story Clark University
    • Astronomy, physics, and applied mechanics already have this foundation to a considerable extent, while the other sciences are still in the inductive stage, in which material is being collected with which, it is to be hoped, such foundation will ultimately be laid.

  100. Einstein: 'Geometry and Experience
    • I do not even consider it impossible that this question will be answered before long by astronomy.

  101. Payne-Gaposchkin on Eddington
    • Eddington lectured on the determination of orbits, on the application of statistics to astronomy, and on relativity.

  102. Grattan-Guinness books
    • Thus we get articles on aspects of geometry, calculus, functions and differential equations, algebras, number theory, real and complex analysis, set theory (and its foundations), mechanics, astronomy, probability and statistics, dynamics, mathematical physics and topology, as well as articles in the history of mathematics, including Jean-Etienne Montucla's 'Histoire des mathematiques' (1799-1802), and articles in the 'social and life sciences', including pieces on W S Jevons's 'Theory of Political Economy' (1871) and Vito Volterra's book on mathematical biology (1931).

  103. Art Mathematics Music.html
    • The subject of astronomy has always been dependent to a great extent on geometry.

  104. R L Wilder: 'Cultural Basis of Mathematics II
    • For example, in his introduction, Struik expresses regret that space limitations prevented sufficient "reference to the general cultural and sociological atmosphere in which the mathematics of a period matured - or was stifled." And he goes on to say "Mathematics has been influenced by agriculture, commerce and manufacture, by warfare, engineering and philosophy, by physics and by astronomy.

  105. American Academy memoirs
    • We list below the contents of this first volume relating to mathematics and astronomy.

  106. Teixeira on da Silva
    • The methods used by Daniel and Darboux to study Astronomy are different.

  107. Apostol Project
    • After an introduction and a brief survey of mathematical events up to the seventeenth century, the units describe topics in or about numeration systems, number theory, the Pythagorean theorem, irrational numbers, pi, the evolution of trigonometry from astronomy, simple analytic geometry, and some fundamental calculus.

  108. Mathematicians and Music
    • At different times William Herschel served as violinist, hautboyist, organist, conductor, and composer (one of his symphonies was published) before he gave himself up wholly to astronomy.

  109. John Couch Adams' account of the discovery of Neptune
    • My attention was first directed to this subject several years since, by reading Mr Airy's valuable Report on the recent progress of Astronomy.

  110. Hedrick papers
    • Computation has replaced conjecture, in business as well as in engineering; in insurance as well as in physics; in economics as well as in astronomy; in the arts of war (artillery, airplanes, maps) and in the arts of peace (automobiles, bond-issues, business forecasts).

  111. Hendricks Analyst
    • As the scientific character of The Analyst has not been fully explained by circular, we embrace this opportunity to state that, as its title imports, it is intended to afford a medium for the presentation and analysis of any and all questions of interest or importance in pure and applied Mathematics, embracing especially all new and interesting discoveries in theoretical and practical astronomy, mechanical philosophy, and engineering.

  112. Cotlar Master Class
    • observed that musical harmony, geometric entities and astronomical phenomena obeyed laws that were expressed through numbers; that numbers and their proportions ruled in such different and remote areas as geometry, music and astronomy.

  113. De Morgan 1859 Preface
    • In this language we find a system of logic and of metaphysics: an astronomy worthy of comparison with that of Greece in its best days; above comparison, if some books of Ptolemy's Syntaxis be removed.

  114. U N Singh
    • In those days, a lecturer had a very punishing schedule and was required to teach all kinds of subjects ranging from hydrostatics and astronomy to analysis and algebra.

  115. Segel books
    • Its three authors are internationally known leaders in their respective research communities, which span mathematical approaches in astronomy, biology, and continuum mechanics.

  116. Eddington: 'Mathematical Theory of Relativity' Preface
    • Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S., Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, University of Cambridge, wrote The Mathematical Theory of Relativity which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1923.

  117. Eddington: 'Mathematical Theory of Relativity' Introduction
    • Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S., Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, University of Cambridge, wrote The Mathematical Theory of Relativity which was published by Cambridge University Press in 1923.

  118. Ahrens book of quotes
    • In general, I would be tolerant of scientific fantasies and would merely argue against their inclusion in scientific astronomy, which must follow a completely different approach.

  119. Mathematics in Glasgow
    • (1.) Abstract Dynamics (including Elements of Physical Astronomy); .

  120. Kelvin on the sun, Part 2
    • In this connection it is most interesting to know from stellar astronomy, aided so splendidly as it has recently been by the spectroscope, that the relative motions of the visible stars and our sun are generally very small in comparison with the velocity (612 kilometres per second) which a body would acquire in falling into the sun, and are comparable with the moderate little velocity (29.5 kilometres per second) of the earth in her orbit round the sun.

  121. Ashour autobiography
    • We also studied astronomy in the third year as a side specialisation with Ibrahim Hilmi Abdel Rahman, and he had a very big influence on us.

  122. Kingman autobiography
    • The Master of Pembroke, Sir Sydney Roberts, retired and was succeeded by Sir William Hodge, the Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry.

  123. Hendricks autobiography
    • During the winter of l837-8 I taught the same school that I taught the preceding winter, and, by some means, I do not now remember how, or where, I obtained a copy of John Hamilton Moore's Navigation, and a copy of Ostrander's Astronomy, which contained the necessary tables for calculating eclipses of the sun and moon.

  124. Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904, Part 2
    • Thus, in Astronomy we replace a planet by a so-called material particle - i.e., a mathematical point associated with a suitable numerical coefficient.

  125. Mathematics at Aberdeen 3
    • A second mathematical course in that year covered Spherical Trigonometry, Conic Sections, Astronomy and Higher Algebra.

  126. Copernicus introduction I
    • The great astronomer, born in Torun, acquired his basic intellectual training at the University of Cracow, which was in those days one of the leading centres for the study of astronomy.

  127. Quaternion Presidential address
    • In 1901-02 Charles Jasper Joly, Andrews' Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, was President of the International Association for promoting the Study of Quaternions and Allied Systems of Mathematics.

  128. William Herschel music
    • In his honour, Burney wrote a long didactic poem entitled Poetical History of Astronomy, of which only a few lines have survived.

  129. Copernicus introduction II
    • As its contribution to this global commemoration of the founder of modem astronomy, the Polish Academy of Sciences undertook to publish his Complete Works for the first time.

  130. James Jeans addresses the British Association in 1934
    • Just as, in astronomy, the grain of our photographic plates prevents our ever fixing the position of a star with absolute precision, so in physics we can never say that an electron is here, at this precise spot, and is moving at just such and such a speed.

  131. W H Young addresses ICM 1928 Part 2
    • And although these have put in the shade for the moment the still more striking progress in Astronomy of an earlier age, we are expecting equally momentous consequences to the human race to emerge from the mathematical discussion of the electro-magnetic field of the sun, based on the joint work of astronomer and physicist.

  132. Valdivia aesthetic maths
    • Throughout the centuries, many have studied mathematics to know about astronomy and finally to devote themselves to astrology, animated by the conviction that stars, planets and comets influence human affairs.

  133. Science at St Andrews
    • This same year, too, the Napier lectureship has become a Chair of Astronomy, with Dr Freundlich as its first occupant.

  134. Eddington on the Expanding Universe
    • Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, University of Cambridge .

  135. Vailati Reviews
    • As scientist, to use the noble phrase, one can belong "to the masters of those who know," but as teacher, he must be the masters of those who know not." Dr Vailati points out that at the University of Berlin there are courses in the history of chemistry and of medicine; at Breslau, in the history of medicine, of mathematics and of botany; at Konigsberg, in the history of astronomy; at Graz, in the history of ancient Greek scientific literature; at Wittenberg a special course in the history of chemistry, gen, Bonn, Vienna and Turin, courses in the history At Vienna, too, Dr Mach gave a course on the history of the mechanical theory of heat.

  136. German syllabus
    • Applications to geodesy and astronomy.

  137. Hardy and Veblen on Max Newman
    • [H F Baker's successor as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in 1936 was Mr W V D Hodge, who had been elected Fellow, Lecturer, and Director of Mathematical Studies at Pembroke College, Cambridge the previous year.] .

  138. Dedekind on Gauss
    • On my way back and forward to the Observatory, where I took a course given by the excellent Professor Goldschmidt on popular astronomy, I occasionally met Gauss and was happy to observe his stately, awe-inspiring appearance, and very often I saw him close up at his usual place in the Literary Museum, which he regularly visited in order to read the newspapers.

  139. Laplace: 'Méchanique Céleste
    • Astronomy, considered in the most general manner, is a great problem of mechanics, in which the elements of the motions are the arbitrary constant quantities.

  140. Ashour memoriam
    • Astronomy, Space and Meteorology Dept.

  141. Analysis of Variance
    • The measurements or observations may be in an experimental science like genetics or a non-experimental one like astronomy.

  142. Muskhelisvili Academy President
    • Supervised by N I Muskhelishvili, the Academy of Sciences has achieved significant results in mathematics and mechanics, physics and astronomy, physiology and biology, chemistry and geology, linguistics and oriental studies, history and archaeology, philosophy and psychology and other fields of knowledge.

  143. Boole-Thomson correspondence
    • William Meikleham (1771-1846) was Regius Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow (1799-1803), then Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow from 1803 until his death in May 1846.

  144. William and Grace Young: 'Sets of Points
    • In subjects as wide apart as Projective Geometry, Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, the Expansions of Astronomy, Calculus of Variations, Differential Equations, mistakes have in fact been made by mathematicians of standing, which even a slender grasp of the Theory of Sets of Points would have enabled them to avoid.

  145. Olds' teaching articles
    • In many institutions of learning, business arithmetic, accounting, mechanics, descriptive geometry, statistics, astronomy are not classified with mathematics.

  146. Comments by Charlotte Angas Scott
    • The second review is of a book written by William Benjamin Smith, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy at the University of the State of Missouri.

  147. O'Brien Physics
    • The Principles of Statics established symbolically, by the Rev M O'Brien, M.A., late Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, and Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in King's College, London.

  148. Bell books
    • There is of course no stigma on either term." Numerology would seem to bear a relation to mathematics much like that of astrology to astronomy or of alchemy to chemistry.

  149. Pulkovo Observatory
    • The following is taken from three sources: A I Eremeeva, Political Repression and Personality: The History of Political Repression Against Soviet Astronomers, Journal for the History of Astronomy (1995), 297-324; R A McCutcheon, The 1936-37 Purge of Soviet Astronomers,nSlavic Reviewn50 (1) (1991), 100-117; and D Lynden-Bell and V Gurzadyan, Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 44 (1998), 23-34: .

  150. Calcutta Review 1859
    • Professor De Morgan states that he has no sympathy with those who forget "that there exists among the higher castes of this country" "a body of literature and science which might well be the nucleus of a new civilization, though every trace of Christian and Mahomedan civilization were blotted out of existence," - who forget that there exists in India the Sanscrit language with its systems of logic, metaphysics, astronomy, and mathematics, its poetry and drama.

  151. Booth Examinations
    • Nautical Astronomy.

  152. The Tercentenary of the birth of James Gregory
    • As he waited for Newton to break the silence Gregory turned once more to Astronomy.

  153. Cosmic Parade
    • Astronomy has progressed much in the 85 years since Shapley gave this address on 'The Cosmic Parade' but it is still an interesting talk given by one of the great communicators of his subject.

  154. Journal of the Statistical Society of London
    • Even Astronomy, by exhibiting the influence of the heavenly bodies upon the seasons, and Meteorology, by explaining the causes and chances of atmospheric changes, are connected with Statistics; since both the seasons and the atmosphere materially affect the employments and the physical condition of men.

  155. Muskhelishvili Academy President
    • Supervised by N I Muskhelishvili, the Academy of Sciences has achieved significant results in mathematics and mechanics, physics and astronomy, physiology and biology, chemistry and geology, linguistics and oriental studies, history and archaeology, philosophy and psychology and other fields of knowledge.

  156. J L Synge and Hamilton
    • It is by no means easy for the applied mathematician to decide how much importance he should attach to the more abstract and aesthetic side of his work and how much to the detailed applications to physics, astronomy, engineering or the design of instruments.

  157. Gregory-Collins correspondence
    • I must have my controversy ended before I publish my 'Optics and Astronomy'; for I have several things in my head, as yet only committed to memory, neither can I dispose of myself to write them in order and method till I have my mind free from other cares.

  158. Ward Cheney Memory
    • For example, in the third grade I became interested in astronomy and started to learn about the planets.

  159. Florian Cajori on William Oughtred
    • It was during the second half of the seventeenth century that Sir Isaac Newton, surrounded by a group of great men - Wallis, Hooke, Barrow, Halley, Cotes - carried on his epoch-making researches in mathematics, astronomy, and physics.

  160. Napier Tercentenary
    • Astronomy engineering, actuarial and statistical sciences, also send representatives.

  161. Rudio's Euler talk
    • He covers the most important aspects of astronomy, of mathematical and physical geography, of physics, and of philosophy in 234 mostly very short letters, using such a clear, lucid language -- I would almost go as far as to say pleasant -- that the letters may still be considered an exemplary popular presentation.

  162. Marcolongo books
    • Professor Marcolongo is well known as an authority in the field of dynamical systems, and this book from his pen will be welcomed by all who are interested in the development of mathematical astronomy.

  163. Gibson History 6 - More Gregorys
    • In 1692 he left Edinburgh to take up the position of Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford.

  164. Gibson History 2 - Mathematics in the schools
    • The oldest of these academies is Perth Academy, founded in 1760, and it began with a very ambitious programme in mathematics, viz., the higher branches of arithmetic; mathematical, physical and political geography; algebra, including the theory of equations, and the differential calculus; geometry, consisting of the first six books of Euclid; plane and spherical trigonometry; mensuration of surfaces and solids; navigation, fortification; analytical geometry and conic sections, natural philosophy, consisting of statics, dynamics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, optics and astronomy.

  165. Johnson pre1900 books
    • In the Chapter on the Hyperbola, the most useful properties and equations of the three conic sections have been generalized, with especial reference to the manner in which these curves present themselves in Astronomy.

  166. John Maynard Keynes: 'Newton, the Man
    • During these twenty-five years of intense study mathematics and astronomy were only a part, and perhaps not the most absorbing, of his occupations.

  167. R L Wilder: 'Cultural Basis of Mathematics I
    • Early in his civilized career, man studied astronomy and the other physical sciences, along with the mathematics these subjects suggested; but in regard to such subjects as anatomy, for example, it was not easy for him to be objective.

  168. Ayrton Hughes Medal
    • It is particularly generous of her, because she has done some splendid work in astronomy herself, with her husband, and has not had a bit of recognition for it just because no one will believe that if a man and a woman do a bit of work together the woman really does anything.

  169. Yung-Chow Wong
    • In 1931, I entered Sun Vat-Sen University to study mathematics in the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy.

  170. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture II
    • The extraordinary appeal of modern fluid dynamics is no doubt partly due to the fact that, so far from being just a topic in applied mathematics, it combines within itself some of the most exciting subjects in physics, chemistry, astronomy, and engineering, and demands some of the most recent techniques in pure mathematics.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Kepler
    • New Astronomy: Astronomia nova (Heidelberg, 1609) Introduction, second paragraph.
    • Now, because they could not be disregarded, these eight minutes alone will lead us along a path to the reform of the whole of Astronomy, and they are the matter for a great part of this work.
    • New Astronomy: Astronomia nova (Heidelberg, 1609) Chapter 19, 113 - 14, KGW 3 177 -78.
    • New Astronomy: Astronomia nova (Heidelberg, 1609) Chapter 58, 284 - 85, KGW 3 366.
    • Now, behold, God is praised by my work even in astronomy.
    • Now, because they could not be despised, these eight minutes, all alone, have opened up the road to reforming the whole of Astronomy, and they have become the material for a large part of this work.

  2. Quotations by Alfven
    • Every newspaper in the land has a section on astrology, yet few have anything at all on astronomy.
    • In 'Cosmology: Myth or Science?' Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy (1984) .

  3. Quotations by Ampere
    • Camille Flammarion in Popular Astronomy: a General Description of the Heavens (1884) .

  4. Quotations by Lanczos
    • Astronomy was the cradle of the natural sciences and the starting point of geometrical theories.

  5. Quotations by De Prony
    • [Lagrange's foundations of the calculus] is assuredly a very interesting part of what one might call purely philosophical study; but when it is a case of making transcendental analysis an instrument of exploration for questions presented by astronomy, marine, geodesy, and the different branches of the science of the engineer, the consideration of the infinitely small leads to the aim in a manner [which is] more felicitous, more prompt, and more immediately adapted to the nature of the questions, and this is why the Leibnizian method has, in general, prevailed in French schools.

  6. A quotation by Regiomontanus
    • Knowing these ideas will open the door to all of astronomy and to certain geometric problems.

  7. Quotations by Hubble
    • The history of astronomy is a history of receding horizons.

  8. A quotation by Neugebauer
    • It seems to me that all the evidence points to Apollonius as the founder of Greek mathematical astronomy.

  9. A quotation by Woodward
    • Though developed largely through the applications to the more precise sciences of astronomy, geodesy and physics, their range of applicability extends to all the sciences; and they are plainly destined to play an increasingly important role in the development and in the applications of the sciences of the future.

  10. Quotations by Cardan
    • Those arts which are, to be sure, not finite, as geometry and arithmetic, do not suffer adornment; others, contrarily, are rather subject to division and embellishment, such as astronomy and jurisprudence.


Famous Curves

  1. Kampyle
    • His main work was in astronomy.
    • He introduced the study of mathematical astronomy into Greece.

  2. Lissajous
    • Lissajous curves have applications in physics, astronomy and other sciences.


Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • They use Pythagoras's theorem and use mathematics to extend knowledge of astronomy.
    • It is written as an astronomy text.
    • Geminus writes a number of astronomy texts and The Theory of Mathematics.
    • Menelaus of Alexandria writes Sphaerica which deals with spherical triangles and their application to astronomy.
    • Ptolemy produces many important geometrical results with applications in astronomy.
    • His version of astronomy will be the accepted one for well over one thousand years.
    • Brahmagupta writes Brahmasphutasiddanta (The Opening of the Universe), a work on astronomy; on mathematics.
    • Alcuin of York writes elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
    • There Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works are translated into Arabic.
    • Al-Khwarizmi writes important works on arithmetic, algebra, geography, and astronomy.
    • Al-Battani writes Kitab al-Zij a major work on astronomy in 57 chapters.
    • Ibn al-Haytham (often called Alhazen) writes works on optics, including a theory of light and a theory of vision, astronomy, and mathematics, including geometry and number theory.
    • Ibn Sina (usually called Avicenna) writes on philosophy, medicine, psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
    • His important mathematical work Kitab al-Shifa' (The Book of Healing) divides mathematics into four major topics, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and music.
    • Shen Kua writes Meng ch'i pi t'an (Dream Pool Essays), which is a work on mathematics, astronomy, cartography, optics and medicine.
    • Jordanus Nemorarius writes on astronomy.
    • John of Holywood (sometimes called Johannes de Sacrobosco) writes on arithmetic, astronomy and calendar reform.
    • Campanus of Novara, chaplain to Pope Urban IV, writes on astronomy and publishes a Latin edition of Euclid's Elements which became the standard Euclid for the next 200 years.
    • Al-Kashi writes Compendium of the Science of Astronomy.
    • Regiomontanus publishes De triangulis planis et sphaericis (Concerning Plane and Spherical Triangles), which studies spherical trigonometry to apply it to astronomy.
    • Viete begins publishing the Canon Mathematicus which he intends as a mathematical introduction to his astronomy treatise.
    • Kepler publishes Astronomia nova (New Astronomy).
    • Nicolaus Mercator publishes three works on trigonometry and astronomy, Trigonometria sphaericorum logarithmica, Cosmographia and Astronomica sphaerica.

  2. Chronology for 900 to 1100
    • Al-Battani writes Kitab al-Zij a major work on astronomy in 57 chapters.
    • Ibn al-Haytham (often called Alhazen) writes works on optics, including a theory of light and a theory of vision, astronomy, and mathematics, including geometry and number theory.
    • Ibn Sina (usually called Avicenna) writes on philosophy, medicine, psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
    • His important mathematical work Kitab al-Shifa' (The Book of Healing) divides mathematics into four major topics, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and music.
    • Shen Kua writes Meng ch'i pi t'an (Dream Pool Essays), which is a work on mathematics, astronomy, cartography, optics and medicine.

  3. Chronology for 500 to 900
    • Brahmagupta writes Brahmasphutasiddanta (The Opening of the Universe), a work on astronomy; on mathematics.
    • Alcuin of York writes elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
    • There Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works are translated into Arabic.
    • Al-Khwarizmi writes important works on arithmetic, algebra, geography, and astronomy.

  4. Chronology for 1AD to 500
    • Geminus writes a number of astronomy texts and The Theory of Mathematics.
    • Menelaus of Alexandria writes Sphaerica which deals with spherical triangles and their application to astronomy.
    • Ptolemy produces many important geometrical results with applications in astronomy.
    • His version of astronomy will be the accepted one for well over one thousand years.

  5. Chronology for 1100 to 1300
    • Jordanus Nemorarius writes on astronomy.
    • John of Holywood (sometimes called Johannes de Sacrobosco) writes on arithmetic, astronomy and calendar reform.
    • Campanus of Novara, chaplain to Pope Urban IV, writes on astronomy and publishes a Latin edition of Euclid's Elements which became the standard Euclid for the next 200 years.

  6. Chronology for 1300 to 1500
    • Al-Kashi writes Compendium of the Science of Astronomy.
    • Regiomontanus publishes De triangulis planis et sphaericis (Concerning Plane and Spherical Triangles), which studies spherical trigonometry to apply it to astronomy.

  7. Chronology for 1500 to 1600
    • Viete begins publishing the Canon Mathematicus which he intends as a mathematical introduction to his astronomy treatise.

  8. Chronology for 1600 to 1625
    • Kepler publishes Astronomia nova (New Astronomy).

  9. Chronology for 1650 to 1675
    • Nicolaus Mercator publishes three works on trigonometry and astronomy, Trigonometria sphaericorum logarithmica, Cosmographia and Astronomica sphaerica.

  10. Chronology for 500BC to 1AD
    • It is written as an astronomy text.

  11. Chronology for 30000BC to 500BC
    • They use Pythagoras's theorem and use mathematics to extend knowledge of astronomy.


EMS Archive

  1. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • He worked on theoretical astronomy and stellar physics.
    • He left Germany to avoid Nazi rule and became the Napier Professor of Astronomy at St Andrews.
    • He became Professor of Astronomy in Edinburgh.
    • He worked on both theoretical and practical astronomy.
    • After some time at Bristol and in the USA he returned to Cambridge and became Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry.
    • Mohammed Reda Madwar graduated from Edinburgh University and after a period in Egypt returned to Edinburgh to gain his doctorate in Astronomy.
    • He went back to Egypt and became Professor of Astronomy at Cairo University.
    • He then held posts at Leeds, Edinburgh and London and became Professor of Astronomy at the University of Illinois.
    • He became Professor of Astronomy at Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland Ohio.
    • He published papers in both mathematics and astronomy.

  2. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • He became Professor of Astronomy at Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland Ohio.
    • He published papers in both mathematics and astronomy.
    • Mohammed Reda Madwar graduated from Edinburgh University and after a period in Egypt returned to Edinburgh to gain his doctorate in Astronomy.
    • He went back to Egypt and became Professor of Astronomy at Cairo University.
    • He then held posts at Leeds, Edinburgh and London and became Professor of Astronomy at the University of Illinois.
    • He worked on theoretical astronomy and stellar physics.
    • He left Germany to avoid Nazi rule and became the Napier Professor of Astronomy at St Andrews.
    • He became Professor of Astronomy in Edinburgh.
    • He worked on both theoretical and practical astronomy.
    • After some time at Bristol and in the USA he returned to Cambridge and became Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry.

  3. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • On the teaching of simple mathematical astronomy in schools; .
    • (St Andrews) The 2-body problem in modern astronomy .
    • (Regius Professor of Astronomy, Glasgow) Stellar systems .

  4. EMS 1930 Colloquium
    • Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge.
    • McCrea, who gave an excellent account of the recent work in Relativity and Astronomy.
    • The following will be the course of lectures and the lecturers:- "Rational Curves and Surfaces," by H F Baker, F.R.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge; "Arithmetical Properties of Curves and Surfaces," by H W Richmond, F.R.S., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; "The Wave Mechanics," by C G Darwin, F.R.S., Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh; "Elementary Mathematics from the Higher Standpoint," by H W Turnbull, M.A., Professor of Mathematics in the United College, St Andrews; "Recent Developments in Symmetric Functions, Determinants and Algebraic Equations," by A C Aitken, D.Sc., Lecturer in Actuarial Science, University of Edinburgh.

  5. EMS 1938 Colloquium
    • Mr Lawson regretted the lack of sincerity in much modern teaching, and urged the importance in teaching algebra of noticing its formal aspect algebra is the study of the forms in which numbers cooperate Professor Otto Neugebauer entertained us for half an hour on the subject of Babylonian astronomy, and on the differences between Babylonian and Egyptian science.

  6. EMS Freundlich
    • Dr E Finlay-Freundlich delivered a lecture on The two-body problem in modern astronomy.

  7. Napier Tercentenary
    • Astronomy engineering, actuarial and statistical sciences, also send representatives.

  8. EMS 1913 Colloquium
    • Professor Whittaker, whose topic was "Periodogram Analysis and Practical Harmonic Analysis," said that these methods of analysis were designed to deal with the results furnished by observation in Meteorology, Astronomy, and other sciences.

  9. EMS Members
    • BAKER, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University of Cambridge, 3 Storey's Way, Cambridge (Hon.


BMC Archive

No matches from this section


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Oxford individuals
    • Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) spent 1645-1646 at Oxford and became a member of Brasenose College and studied natural philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and astrology.
    • He was the first Savilian Professor of Astronomy in 1629-1642, He is buried in Merton Chapel - Eddie Mizzi has sent a photo of the gravestone.
    • He succeeded Keill as Savilian Professor of Astronomy (1721-1764).
    • John Greaves was Savilian Professor of Astronomy from 1643 and sub-warden of Merton.
    • He was Savilian Professor of Astronomy from 1691 to the time of his death in Maidenhead.
    • Studied astronomy with Pritchard.
    • He was Bradley's successor as Savilian Professor of Astronomy in 1762-1810.
    • He was then a senior student in astronomy at Balliol until 1936.
    • 1523), subject of one of Holbein's fine portraits, entered the new college of Corpus Christi in 1517 as Wolsey Lecturer - the first Oxford Professor of Astronomy.
    • William Parsons, later third Earl of Rosse, was a student at Magdalen, getting a first in mathematics in 1822 [The Astronomy of Birr Castle.
    • Charles Pritchard (1808-1893) was a notable schoolmaster in London who took up astronomy seriously after his retirement in 1862.
    • In 1870, he was elected Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford.
    • He was one of the first to recognise the advantages of photography in astronomy and applied it with success to carefully determine the parallax of nearby stars and hence their distance.
    • Savilian Professor of Astronomy in 1827-1839.
    • Seth Ward (1617-1689) was a Fellow of Wadham and Savilian Professor of Astronomy in 1649, later at Trinity, becoming President of Trinity in 1659.
    • He occupied the 'Astronomy Room' - the big room with the oriel window at the top of the tower over the College gate in Wadham, formerly occupied by Ward - so Wren was probably here from 1661 to 1673 and presumably produced many of his plans here.
    • All Souls also has Wren's pre-fire plans for St Paul's (drawn in the Astronomy Room at Wadham), the plans for the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge, the plans for the unbuilt mausoleum for Charles I at Windsor, and his death mask [Sir Christopher Wren.
    • In 1661-1673, he was Savilian Professor of Astronomy, but he spent most of a year in Paris during 1665-1666 and I suspect he didn't reside much in Oxford after the Great Fire of London in 1666 and even less after being appointed Surveyor of the King's Works in 1669.

  2. Astronomy
    • Astronomy .

  3. References
    • Vistas in Astronomy 17 (1975).
    • The Keats of English Astronomy.
    • Jewish mathematics & astronomy.
    • Astronomy 18:12 (Dec 1990) 28-35.
    • The Astronomy of Birr Castle.
    • Astronomy 2: Astronomical Telescopes.
    • Astronomy Now 6:11 (Nov 1992) 15.

  4. London Scientific Institutions
    • Henry Moseley was Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Astronomy in 1831-1844, as well as Chaplain in 1831-1833.
    • His will of 1575 provided for the establishment of a college in his house in Bishopsgate St, to be staffed by seven unmarried resident professors, including professors in astronomy and geometry.
    • Notable Professors of Astronomy have been: Edmund Gunter (1619/20-1626/7, died in the College); Henry Gellibrand (1626/7-1636/7, who completed Briggs' Trigonometrica Britannica); John Greaves (??-1643, a scholar of ancient astronomy who gave the first detailed description of the Great Pyramid, later Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford); Laurence Rooke (1652-1657); Christopher Wren (1657-1660/1); John Machin (1713-1751).
    • The painting includes pictures of Navigation, Astronomy, Geography, Archimedes consulting a globe, Galileo with a telescope, Brahe, Copernicus, Flamsteed and the latter's assistant Weston.

  5. London individuals H-M
    • About 1698, he started giving free public lectures on astronomy and mathematics at the Marine Coffee House, Birchin Lane, EC3.
    • He was one of the first writers of academic textbooks in mathematics and astronomy.
    • His paper "An improved solution of a problem in physical astronomy; by which swiftly converging series are obtained which are useful in computing the perturbations of the motions of the Earth, Mars and Venus ..
    • Popularised astronomy and the Copernican theory.
    • James Clerk Maxwell spent five years, 1860-1865, as Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Kings College London (Institute of Physics plaque in the courtyard).
    • Henry Moseley (1801-1872) came to London as first professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Astronomy at KCL in 1831-1844.

  6. Oxford professorships
    • The Savilian Professorships of Geometry and Astronomy (founded by Henry Savile, Warden of Merton College, in 1619) and the Sedleian Professorship of Natural Philosophy (1618 or 1621) (now devoted to mathematics) are the most interesting for us.
    • Savilian Professors of Astronomy .
    • Notable holders have been: John Bainbridge (1619-1643); John Greaves (1643-?), a scholar of ancient astronomy who gave the first detailed description of the Great Pyramid); Seth Ward (1649-1660); Wren (1661-1673); David Gregory (1691-1708, elected over Halley); John Keill (1712-1721, author of the first text based on Newton's physics) (A source says Halley held this post in 1708-1712 and another source says 1704-1721, but these seem definitely wrong.); James Bradley (1721-1762); Thomas Hornsby (1762-1810, who organized the Radcliffe Observatory); Stephen Peter Rigaud (1827-1839); H.
    • Stable Hall, at the end of the Cloisters, 7 New College Lane, was the residence of the Savilian Professors of Astronomy - Halley and Bradley lived here.
    • In 1721, a bequest from Nathaniel Crewe provided funds for a Reader in Experimental Philosophy, but the amount was so small that when the post was established in 1749, it was held in conjunction with the Savilian Professorship of Astronomy by Bradley, Hornsby and Rigaud.

  7. Oxford Institutions and Colleges
    • James Bradley gave his astronomy lectures here.
    • Astronomy is at about 7 o'clock, Arithmetic at about 4:30, Optics at about 4:00, Geometry at about 3:30.
    • Trinity College Gate Tower has statues of Geometry, Astronomy, etc.
    • The Museum had a small observatory for the professor of astronomy, but it was replaced by another Observatory in 1875, which is now the Department of Astrophysics [The Ashmolean Museum and Oxford Science 1683-1983.

  8. Other London Institutions outside the centre
    • Stephen Peter Rigaud (1774-1839), the son of Stephen Rigaud and Mary Demainbray, was Savilian professor of geometry, then astronomy, at Oxford; he succeeded his father as Observer in 1814 until his death in 1839.
    • Flamsteed's salary was so low (£100 per year, to cover costs of instruments and assistants) that he had to take in pupils and to serve as deputy for Walter Pope, Gresham Professor of Astronomy, from 1681, and to be rector of St Bartholomew's, Burstow, Surrey, in 1684-1719.
    • He also continued as Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford.
    • 1974 Nobel Physics Prize for radio astronomy work.

  9. Edinburgh
    • In 1691, David was elected Savilian Professor of Astronomy.
    • Charles Piazzi Smyth was Professor of Practical Astronomy and Director of the Edinburgh Observatory, and Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1845.
    • In 1856, he led an expedition to Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain to see if high altitude astronomy was significantly better than at low levels.

  10. St Andrews, Fife
    • However, [Astronomy Now 6:11 (Nov 1992) 15.
    • ',2)">Gilbert]; [Astronomy Now 6:11 (Nov 1992) 15.
    • A nephew, Charles Gregory was professor of mathematics here to 1739 and was succeeded by his son David Gregory (1712-1765) [Astronomy Now 6:11 (Nov 1992) 15.

  11. Cambridge Individuals
    • In the early 1960s, he established the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy and served as the first Director.
    • Wrote Navigation and Nautical Astronomy for the use of British Seamen.

  12. Bath
    • (His Sonata in D, Op 4 No 4, for harpsichord obbligato, violin and cello, is recorded by Invocation on Hyperion CDA66698, Enchanting Harmonist: a soiree with the Linleys of Bath (1994) - TM) In Feb 1772, he gave the only recorded performance on the 'Changeable Harpsichord' developed by Robert Smith, late Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and founder of the Smith's Prizes.
    • William began studying astronomy seriously in 1773, building his own telescopes because he could not afford to buy them--his brother was a good mechanic and helped build the telescopes.

  13. London individuals A-C
    • In 1815, he lectures on astronomy at the Royal Institution.
    • There are several references to astronomy in the Tales.

  14. London Museums
    • As you enter the Library you pass Bill Woodrow's Sitting on History (1995) (not particularly mathematical but fun nevertheless), and in the Piazza Antony Gormley's Planets (2002) has recently been installed: its "eight, one-tonne granite boulders carved with the outlines of a variety of human bodies in the act of clinging onto them" may allude to astronomy.
    • Some of the material from the Astronomy Gallery can be found in other galleries: Geophysics & Oceanography, George III, Navigation, Optics, Time Measurement, Surveying.

  15. Cambridge professorships
    • The Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy has often been of mathematical interest.
    • Another Cambridge chair of relevance is the Lowndean chair of astronomy and geometry, founded by Thomas Lowndes in 1749.

  16. Other Institutions in central London
    • The Landing shows the Muses, including Lydia Lopokova (the ballet dancer wife of John Maynard Keynes) as Terpsichore, the Muse of Dancing, at the far left and Urania, the Muse of Astronomy at the back right.
    • The West Vestibule shows the labours of Life, including depictions of Astronomy, Engineering and Science.

  17. Bridstow, Herefordshire
    • In any case, he was far more interested in astronomy than theology and resigned these posts to become Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford in 1721.

  18. Birr, Co. Offaly
    • Laurence Parsons (1840-1908), later fourth Earl of Rosse from 1867, took an active interest in astronomy from his teens.
    • A model of the 72 inch telescope, its mirror and some eyepieces are in the Science Museum, London, but the Astronomy Gallery has been closed for some time and these items were not on view in 1993.

  19. London individuals D-G
    • Flamsteed's salary was so low (100 per year, which had to cover costs of instruments and assistants) that he had to take in pupils and to serve as deputy for Walter Pope, Gresham Professor of Astronomy, from 1681, and to be rector of St Bartholomew's, Burstow, Surrey, in 1684-1719.
    • He was Gresham Professor of Astronomy from 1619 till his death in the College.

  20. Slough, Berkshire
    • (See London other institutions.) [Astronomy 2: Astronomical Telescopes.
    • item 9',4)">Thoday]; [The Astronomy of Birr Castle.

  21. London individuals S-Z
    • He came to London as Gresham Professor of Astronomy in 1657 at the age of 25 and lived at Gresham College until 1661.

  22. Thornhill, West Yorkshire
    • In 1784, he wrote on astronomy, deducing the existence of black holes from Newton's corpuscular theory of light and suggesting that some stars might have dark companions and how to detect these.

  23. Manchester
    • In 1942, Blackett and Lovell suggested how radar could be used in astronomy, leading to the building of Jodrell Bank.

  24. Nanmor, Gwynedd
    • Snowdon - he was a poet and "was fond of puzzles, astronomy, and grammar" [Companion Guide to North Wales.

  25. Dublin
    • The will of Provost Francis Andrews established the Andrews Professorship of Astronomy in 1774, including funds for an observatory, which was built at Dunsink.

  26. London Learned Societies
    • John Louis Emil Dreyer, the cataloguer of nebulae and clusters and historian of astronomy (particularly of Tycho Brahe), was President in 1923-1925.

  27. Durham
    • There is a portrait in the Hall of the Castle of Temple Chevallier (1793-1873), who was professor of mathematics from 1835 and also of astronomy from 1841 until 1871.

  28. South Shields, Tyne and Wear
    • [Astronomy Now 6:11 (Nov 1992) 15.

  29. Glasgow
    • Forsyth was born in Glasgow; Alexander Thom, the archaeo-astronomer, was a student and learned astronomy here; Horatio Scott Carslaw (1870-1954), Robert John Tainsh Bell (1877-1963) and James Morton Hyslop (1907-1984) were students who took up posts abroad and wrote books of some note.

  30. Halifax
    • Sir Thomas Savile, founder of the Savilian chairs of geometry and astronomy at Oxford, was born near Halifax, as was Henry Briggs (1561-1630) , first Savilian professor of geometry, and, earlier, first professor of geometry at Gresham College, London.

  31. Plymouth, Devon
    • On the back of the Guildhall are large figures representing various arts including one of geometry (or architecture?) and one of astronomy.

  32. Welney, Norfolk
    • He described these in his Zetetic Astronomy.


Astronomy section

  1. Astronomy in different cultures
    • Astronomy in different cultures .
    • Greek Astronomy .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/culture.html .

  2. Astronomy timeline from the 16th Century
    • Astronomy timeline from the 16th Century .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/timeline.html .

  3. Extras Index
    • Astronomy items in "Additional Material" .
    • Brinkley John Brinkley's 'Elements of Astronomy' .
    • GeminusSimplicius on astronomy and physics .
    • NassauJason J Nassau: A Textbook of Practical Astronomy .
    • ZwickyFritz Zwicky: Morphological astronomy .
    • Astronomy Index .

  4. The Dynamics of the Solar System
    • This conceptual shift led to dramatic changes in the field of astronomy, away from the ancient Greeks who tried to develop a geometric model that described the path of the planet.
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin A Very Short Introduction: The History of Astronomy (New York, 2003) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/dynamics.html .

  5. The Structure of the Solar System
    • Under the influence of Pythagoras, Aristotle and Plato, a key goal of Ancient Greek astronomy was to develop a geometric model of the universe which would allow them to predict the motions of the heavenly bodies.
    • While progress in Europe was slow, Islamic astronomy flourished.
    • This allowed astronomical works from a range of traditions such as Greek and Indian astronomy to be assimilated into Islamic thought (important Indian astronomers include Aryabhata, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta).
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/StructureOfSolarSystem.html .

  6. The Reaches of the Milky Way
    • The advent of spectroscopy which gave a way of investigating the chemical makeup of stars brought stellar composition into the scope of astronomy.
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Ch 8.
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/galaxy.html .

  7. A Brief History of Time and Calendars
    • Astronomy is at the heart of many early civilizations and one of its most important applications is that of time keeping.
    • Beyond the calendar, the study of time in astronomy played an important role in daily timekeeping such as sundials and also in navigation.
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/bhistory.html .

  8. The Infinite Universe
    • A plethora of astronomers, scientists and mathematicians have made progress on astronomy, from planetary orbits to stellar structure to the existence of black holes.
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Ch 8.
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/universe.html .

  9. List of astronomers

  10. Astronomical items in History Topics
    • Greek astronomy .
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/topics.html .

  11. List of astronomers
    • Astronomy Index .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/astronomers.html .

  12. Astronomical Societies
    • Astronomy Index .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/societies.html .


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