Search Results for Courant


Biographies

  1. Richard Courant (1888-1972)
    • Richard Courant .
    • Richard Courant's father was Siegmund Courant and his mother was Martha Freund.
    • Richard was the eldest of Siegmund and Martha Courant's children and soon after the birth of their second son Siegmund sold his share in the family business in Lublinitz and they bought a business in Glatz.
    • Although his original intention was to study physics, Courant found the teaching less satisfactory than that in mathematics.
    • Adolf Kneser, Georg Landsberg and Jakob Rosanes were among his mathematics teachers but Courant still found that, for him, their courses lacked excitement.
    • Courant had studied at Breslau with two fellow students Otto Toeplitz and Ernst Hellinger.
    • These two, several years older than Courant and further on with their education, were by this stage studying at Gottingen and wrote to Courant telling him how exciting it was there, particularly because of Hilbert.
    • In the spring of 1907 Courant left Breslau, spent a semester at Zurich, then began his studies at Gottingen on 1 November 1907.
    • At Gottingen Courant began by attending courses by Hilbert and Minkowski and he was also allowed to attend the joint seminar of the two mathematicians on mathematical physics.
    • Haar was Hilbert's assistant at this time but he completed his doctoral work in 1908 and in that year Courant became Hilbert's assistant.
    • Reid writes (see [',' C Reid, Hilbert-Courant ( New York, 1986).','3] or [',' C Reid, Courant (New York, 1996).','4]):- .
    • During the four semesters that Courant served as Hilbert's assistant, Hilbert was devoting himself almost exclusively to subjects in analysis ..
    • Courant took to analysis as if it were his natural element.
    • Courant obtained his doctorate from Gottingen in 1910 under Hilbert's supervision.
    • Courant began to tutor again to help out his finances.
    • For his habilitation thesis Courant again worked on the Dirichlet principle.
    • When war broke out Courant was drafted into the army.
    • Courant returned to his unit with his communications box.
    • On the 27 September 1915 Courant was wounded and received leave.
    • Although Courant returned to the front it is probably no exaggeration to say that his piece of communications equipment saved his life, for Courant spent time training men to use it and avoided the worst of the fighting.
    • Courant found time to carry on with his mathematics research too.
    • When Springer started the new journal Mathematische Zeitschrift in January 1918, one of Courant's papers, written while he was in the army, appeared in the second issue.
    • After the war, in December 1918, Courant returned to Gottingen.
    • This was a period of intense research activity for Courant.
    • In 1922 Courant founded the university's Mathematics Institute but at this stage it was only a concept with no special building - it was 1927 before the building was constructed.
    • In 1922 Courant published a book on function theory.
    • Based on Hurwitz's lectures, Courant added material of his own.
    • the Courant section, the third chapter - when I got hold of that chapter, I started reading one morning, I read morning and night without stopping.
    • Other important mathematics which Courant published around this time was work on eigenvalue, in particular proofs of existence.
    • Again Courant was the sole author and the contribution from Hilbert was in the form of lecture notes.
    • Hilbert's interests had moved away from mathematical physics by this time and he did not take any more than a passing interest that Courant was writing the text.
    • In 1925, with Friedrichs as his assistant, Courant began work on a second volume of Courant-Hilbert.
    • Invited to lecture in the United States in 1932 Courant visited the major universities there.
    • Courant was expelled from Gottingen when the Nazis came to power in 1933.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and in March Courant left Gottingen for his spring holiday in Arosa in Switzerland.
    • He had been hoping not only to have a holiday, but to complete the second volume of Courant-Hilbert when away from his duties in the Mathematics Institute.
    • Friedrichs was with Courant to help with the book.
    • Certainly Courant came under the exemption clause and he expected to be unaffected.
    • On 5 May Courant received an official letter telling him he was on forced leave.
    • Weyl was made director of the Mathematics Institute and he made every effort to have Courant reinstated.
    • Meanwhile attempts were made to offer Courant posts elsewhere.
    • His forced leave was changed to ordinary leave and Courant left for England, going to New York University the following year.
    • Courant built up an applied mathematics research centre in New York based on the Gottingen model, making many new appointments such as Friedrichs.
    • Numerous mathematicians who were forced to leave Germany in the years before the start of World War II, were given help by Courant to obtain positions in the United States.
    • This book was What is mathematics? and it records Courant's views of mathematics.
    • Perhaps one of Courant's most famous pieces of mathematics from around this time was his "finite element method".
    • In fact this method first appeared in an existence proof of a version of the Riemann mapping theorem in the Hurwitz-Courant book of 1922.
    • The idea appeared again as a footnote in the Courant-Hilbert publication Methoden der mathematischen Physik Ⓣ in 1924.
    • The first application as a numerical method, however, was given by Courant in 1943 in his solution of a torsion problem.
    • The name "finite element method" was not due to Courant, however, but appears only in the 1960s.
    • From 1947 until his death Courant visited Germany almost every summer.
    • From 1953 to 1958 he was director of his new Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, which in 1964 was named the Courant Institute after him.
    • It is fair to say that this was a far greater achievement for Courant than was the Mathematics Institute at Gottingen.
    • That he was able to create the Courant Institute starting from nothing is a quite phenomenal achievement.
    • A Poster of Richard Courant .
    • Richard Courant - Differential and Integral calculus - German edition .
    • Richard Courant - Differential and Integral calculus - English edition .
    • Courant's dissertation (1910 in German) .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Courant.html .

  2. Kurt Friedrichs (1901-1982)
    • But thinking how he would have appeared to a teacher, I think it took keen observation as well as a really intense human interest on Courant's part to see what was there.
    • Courant had just published a book on function theory with Hurwitz (Hurwitz had died in 1919 but his lectures formed part of the text).
    • the Courant section, the third chapter - when I got hold of that chapter, I started reading one morning, I read morning and night without stopping.
    • He had written his thesis under Courant's supervision and he then became Courant's assistant for two years helping with the Courant-Hilbert book.
    • He collaborated with Lewy on linear hyperbolic partial differential equations and they wrote a joint paper in 1927, and another joint paper, with Courant and Lewy, considered the stability of difference schemes for partial differential equations.
    • It was Courant who had set this up and leaving Gottingen was difficult for Friedrichs.
    • Courant forced him out into what at the time were unpleasant situations.
    • I think if it had not been for Courant he would have become a gymnasium teacher.
    • Lewy had left Germany as soon as Hitler came to power, and soon Courant was dismissed from his post and was forced to emigrate to the United States.
    • Friedrichs visited Courant in New York in the summer of 1935, officially to work with him on the second volume of Courant-Hilbert, but in fact mainly to see if it might be possible for him to emigrate.
    • Of course obtaining positions in the United States was not easy but Courant said he would do everything he could.
    • He had not been allowed to take any money out of Germany but Courant arranged accommodation for him.
    • Courant worked hard to find a post for Friedrichs for he certainly did not have the personality to push himself forward.
    • Due to Courant and to Nellie, his wife - and also due to Hitler probably - Friedrichs really blossomed.
    • In 1948 Courant and Friedrichs published the classic work Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves.
    • If Courant did it, then it went to Friedrichs.
    • Then Courant would take it and he would mumble and groan that it was much too complicated.
    • Then the next time Courant wouldn't take out so much.

  3. Anneli Lax (1922-1999)
    • and joined the faculty at New York; in 1950 and 1954 Anneli gave birth to two sons (John and James); in 1955 she finally received her own PhD completed under the supervision of Richard Courant.
    • By this time, Anneli had been part of the Courant 'family' at New York for some twelve years, and Peter's own distinguished career in mathematical research was well under way.
    • Perhaps, during her long association with various projects at the Courant Institute, Anneli never fully experienced the sense of independent achievement that boosts self-confidence and gives momentum to research.
    • She must have stood out from the other students desperate for Courant's tutoring and she ended up being his only female student.
    • Courant noticed Lax's editorial ability at a period during the 1950's when people who could carry out such 'mathematical copy-editing' were few and far-between.
    • Lax's gift for language had showed early in her career, and, among other projects, she helped translate into English Courant and Hilbert's Methods of Mathematical Physics.
    • Courant often asked me to edit things that other people had written.
    • Exceptions at the time were Poincare, Courant and Robbins who were all authors/writers of popular texts.
    • Lax became involved in mathematical education while she was working on her thesis with Courant.
    • Another one of Lax's former graduate students at the Courant Institute in 1986, was Edward Fernandez.
    • Anneli invited me to work with her on a professional development seminar on Problems in Mathematics and Its Learning and Teaching (sponsored by both the Courant Institute and the Faculty Resource Network of NYU.) The seminars participants were mathematics faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's).

  4. Louis Nirenberg (1925-)
    • At that time their research was on the atomic bomb project and one of the scientists there was Ernst Courant, Richard Courant's eldest son.
    • Ernst Courant had married a girl from Montreal who Nirenberg knew, so he asked her if, when she next visited him, she could ask Richard Courant for advice on the best place to study theoretical physics.
    • Nirenberg went for an interview with Courant and Friedrichs in New York and they offered him an assistantship.
    • After completing his doctorate in 1949, Nirenberg was appointed as a Research Assistant at New York University, becoming one of the early members of the Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Mechanics (it was renamed the Courant Institute in 1964).
    • He returned to New York and was promoted to Associate Professor before becoming a full professor at the Courant Institute in 1957.
    • This is Topics in non-linear functional analysis (1974) which is a record by Ralph A Artino of a lecture course given by Nirenberg at the Courant Institute in 1973-74 [',' S Abbott, Review: Topics in Non-Linear Functional Analysis by Louis Nirenberg, The Mathematical Gazette 86 (505) (2002), 190.','2]:- .
    • At the time of this most prestigious award, David W McLaughlin, the director of the Courant Institute, said [',' L Caffarelli and J J Kohn, Louis Nirenberg receives National Medal of Science, Notices Amer.
    • As a past director of Courant, he has demonstrated leadership and vision for the mathematical sciences community.

  5. Srinivasa Varadhan (1940-)
    • After the award of his doctorate, Varadhan went as a post-doctoral visitor to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, a position he held for three years (1963-66).
    • His destination was that famous institution with the modest name, The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, where, at the behest of Monroe Donsker, he had been given a postdoctoral fellowship.
    • On receiving the award Varadhan spoke about his colleagues and the environment at the Courant Institute in the 1960s [',' 1996 Steele Prizes, Notices Amer.
    • The Courant Institute, where most of the work was done, provided us with an ideal intellectual environment.
    • Varadhan is Frank J Gould Professor of Science and professor of mathematics at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.
    • Not only is he an outstanding scholar, he is also a kind and wonderful colleague, a devoted teacher, and an exemplary 'University citizen,' serving with dedication and professionalism as director of the Courant Institute and on such bodies as the University Senate.
    • Let us now say a little about some of the books written by Varadhan, many of which have been based on lecture notes of graduate courses he has given at the Courant Institute.
    • These are lecture notes of a course on stochastic processes given at the Courant Institute during 1967-68.
    • The 2001 book Probability theory (2001) was based on a first year graduate course given from 1996 to 1999 at the Courant Institute.
    • The material presented in this highly successful book was continued in Stochastic processes (2007), also based on courses at the Courant Institute.

  6. Morris Kline (1908-1992)
    • After spending these two years at the Institute for Advanced Study, Kline returned to New York University where Richard Courant had been appointed as a professor [',' G L Alexanderson and M Kline, An Interview with Morris Kline: Part 2, The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal 10 (4) (1979), 259-264.','2]:- .
    • when I returned to New York University to work for Courant, he convinced me that the greatest contribution mathematicians had made and should continue to make was to help man understand the world about him.
    • Courant was the wisest and most able administrator I have ever met and ..
    • However, as he explained in the above quotation, after returning to New York University to work for Courant he changed his research topics to work on applied mathematics.
    • The expertise he gained in this work led to him founding the Division of Electromagnetic Research at the Courant Institute in 1946 when he returned to New York University.
    • Army on applications during World War II, and then founded the Division of Electromagnetic Research at the Courant Institute, I still believed that teaching was at least as important, and I continued to pursue teaching interests.
    • Fortunately Courant was sympathetic and in fact appreciated teaching, and so I did not have to face personal hardships at New York University.
    • In 1953 he published the remarkable book Mathematics in Western Culture which has a Foreword written by Richard Courant who states clearly that the book is intended to be read by intelligent non-mathematicians.

  7. Cathleen Morawetz (1923-2017)
    • She was asked to edit Courant and Friedrichs Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves and, by the time this task was completed, she was fascinated by transonic flow and associated phenomena.
    • She was a research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a short spell but returned to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University in 1952 as a research associate.
    • In 1978 Morawetz became the associate director of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences a position which she held until 1984 when she was appointed Director of the Courant Institute.
    • On the announcement that she would become President the Courant Institute issued a press release saying:- .
    • Morawetz is an outstanding mathematician, and has lond been one of the leading lights at our prestigious Courant Institute.
    • That person was Richard Courant, the creator of the Courant Institute at New York University, where I have been a professor ever since.

  8. Fritz John (1910-1994)
    • He studied mathematics from 1929 to 1933 in Gottingen where he was most influenced by Gustav Herglotz, Richard Courant and Hans Lewy.
    • After receiving the doctoral degree in 1934 from Gottingen, John was assisted by Richard Courant to go with his wife to Cambridge, England.
    • In 1950-51 the National Bureau of Standards appointed him as Director of research for the Institute of Numerical Analysis while at New York University he became involved with the Courant Group, an applied mathematics research team which Richard Courant was building based on the Gottingen model.
    • John was promoted to professor at New York University in 1951 and continued his association with the Institute of Mathematical Sciences which was set up under Courant's leadership in 1953.
    • John was appointed to the Courant Chair at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University in 1978.
    • I was able to spend most of my mathematical life in the stimulating atmosphere of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, where I could draw freely on the knowledge and experience of my colleagues.

  9. Herbert Robbins (1915-2001)
    • During that year Richard Courant contacted Morse asking if he could recommend someone for the position of Instructor in Mathematics at New York University (NYU) - Morse recommended Robbins and he began work at NYU in 1939 [',' W Page, Herbert Robbins, in D J Albers, G L Alexanderson (eds.), Mathematical People (Birkhauser, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart, 1985), 283-297.','4] or [',' W Page and H Robbins, An Interview with Herbert Robbins, The College Mathematics Journal 15 (1) (1984), 2-24.','5]:- .
    • Some time during the beginning of my first year at NYU, Courant said to me: "I've been given a little money to work up some old course material into a book on mathematics for the general public.
    • The collaboration between Courant and Robbins on What is Mathematics? was a close one, and at one stage Robbins moved near to Courant's home in New Rochelle so that they could work whenever Courant had some free time.
    • Despite having done a large part of the writing, he had quite a battle to have his name included as a joint author and, even after he succeeded, Courant held the copyright for the book and forwarded some money to Robbins each year as his share of the royalties although he never knew how many copies had sold and whether what he received was fair.
    • Courant invited William Feller to give a course on probability and statistics at NYU and, at the last minute, after the course was advertised, Feller was unable to come.
    • Courant asked Robbins to give the course [',' W Page, Herbert Robbins, in D J Albers, G L Alexanderson (eds.), Mathematical People (Birkhauser, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart, 1985), 283-297.','4] or [',' W Page and H Robbins, An Interview with Herbert Robbins, The College Mathematics Journal 15 (1) (1984), 2-24.','5]:- .

  10. Franz Rellich (1906-1955)
    • He undertook research for his doctorate with Richard Courant as his advisor and, in 1929, he was awarded the degree for his thesis Verallgemeinerung der Riemannschen Integrationsmethode auf Differentialgleichungen n-ter Ordnung in zwei Veranderlichen Ⓣ.
    • Courant was able to write in Rellich's obituary with great authority about his time as a research student in Gotttingen [',' R Courant, Franz Rellich zum Gedachtnis, Math.
    • As well as being Courant's student, Rellich was also his assistant at Gottingen, and he habilitated there in 1933.
    • Despite producing outstanding mathematics, Oswald Teichmuller and Erhard Tornier (1894-1982) considered Rellich part of the 'Courant clique' at Gottingen and, for that political (or, perhaps more accurately, racist) reason, had driven him out.
    • Courant explains the important role that Rellich played in restoring Gottingen to a world-class mathematical centre [',' R Courant, Franz Rellich zum Gedachtnis, Math.

  11. Peter Lax (1926-)
    • His wife Anneli was also a mathematician and she studied at New York University where her doctorate was supervised by Courant.
    • When Courant nominated Lax for membership of the National Academy of Sciences (United States) in 1962 he described him as:- .
    • Lax thrived in the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York University where applied mathematics was studied alongside relevant pure mathematics in an exciting mix of ideas which led to great progress.
    • It was a particularly difficult time to take on this role since New York University had just closed down their School of Engineering, moving the mathematicians from that School into the Courant Institute.
    • This book is based on a lecture course designed for entering graduate students and given over a number of years at the Courant Institute of New York University.
    • A fairly recent book by Lax is Functional analysis (2002) which, like the linear algebra text, grew out of graduate lectures that Lax gave at the Courant Institute over many years.

  12. William Birnbaum (1903-2000)
    • After arriving in Gottingen, Edmund Landau became his advisor, and he attended several lecture courses: differential equations given by Courant; calculus of variations given by Courant; power series given by Landau; higher geometry given by Herglotz; probability calculus given by Bernays; analysis of infinitely many variables given by Wegner; and attended the mathematical seminar directed by Courant and Herglotz.
    • He made contact with Otto Neugebauer at Brown University and Richard Courant in New York.
    • Courant was helpful but had nothing to offer Birnbaum while Neugebauer was keen that he wrote reviews for Mathematical Reviews which he was on the point of founding.
    • Birnbaum got Richard Courant, Edmund Landau and Albert Einstein to act as his referees and, after an interview in New York by the president of the New School for Social research and by the chief executive of the Sun Oil Company, he was offered an assistant professor position at the University of Washington.

  13. Olga Taussky-Todd (1906-1995)
    • At one of these meetings Hahn recommended her to Courant and, in 1931 she was appointed as assistant at Gottingen.
    • Courant had been looking for someone to work with Wilhelm Magnus and Helmut Ulm editing the first volume of Hilbert's complete works on number theory and Taussky fitted the bill perfectly.
    • While in Gottingen Taussky also edited Artin's lectures in class field theory (1932), assisted Emmy Noether in her class field theory and Courant with his differential equations course.
    • Leaving Gottingen in the summer of 1932, she received a letter from Courant before the new academic year started advising her not to return to Gottingen due to unrest at the university caused by the deteriotating political situation.
    • For the first time I realised the beauty of research on differential equations - something that my former boss, Professor Courant, had not been able to instil in me.
    • In 1955 Taussky-Todd and her husband spent a year's leave at the Courant Institute in New York where she taught a matrix theory course and her husband taught a numerical analysis course.

  14. Jürgen Moser (1928-1999)
    • He spent the year at the Courant Institute and Peter Lax, who was working there at the time, wrote this:- .
    • After working for a year at the Courant Institute he returned to Germany where he was an assistant to Carl Siegel at Gottingen in the academic year 1954-55.
    • He had experienced a mathematically stimulating year in New York, but he had another reason to return there, namely Richard Courant's daughter Gertrude.
    • He married Gertrude Courant on 10 September 1955; they had two children Nina and Lucy.
    • He spent 1961 as a Sloan Fellow and, from 1967 to 1970, he served as Director of the Courant Institute.
    • The Courant Institute was taken over by demonstrators protesting against the Vietnam war in 1970.

  15. Bill Morton (1930-)
    • As a consequence of his contributions to this area, Morton was invited by the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York to spend some time there.
    • He took sabbatical leave from the Atomic Energy Authority in 1959 and went to the Courant Institute.
    • After spending time there, he was invited by the Courant Institute to undertake graduate studies there.
    • at the Courant Institute while employed there as a Research Scientist.
    • His thesis advisor was Harold Grad (1923-1986) who had been a student of Richard Courant.
    • Grad was Head of the Magnetohydrodynamics Department at the Courant Institute and was a leading expert on applications of statistical mechanics to magnetohydrodynamics and to plasma physics.

  16. Udo Wegner (1902-June1989)
    • During the years 1929-31 at Gottingen, Wegner was Richard Courant's assistant.
    • Richard Courant was forced out of Gottingen in May 1933 and his chair had to be filled.
    • Wegner wrote two letters to Richard Courant in 1949 (quoted in [',' S L Segal, Mathematicians under the Nazis (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2014).','4]):- .
    • I allow myself to ask this question, because I know that you, dear Herr Courant, always have good advice, for you have helped me in all life situations in the most touching way.
    • Courant replied saying he could not be of any help to Wegner, adding:- .
    • In 1957, when Courant was asked for a reference for Wegner to join an aeronautical institute in Brazil, he highly praised his mathematical abilities and added:- .

  17. Pascual Jordan (1902-1980)
    • In particular he enrolled in Richard Courant's differential equations course and Courant quickly realised that he had an exceptionally talented student.
    • He helped Courant with the writing of Courant and Hilbert's Methoden der mathematischen Physik Ⓣ (1924).
    • The two would meet daily to discuss problems and Courant expressed his thanks to Jordan in the Foreword of the book.

  18. Joseph Keller (1923-2016)
    • attended Courant's initial lecture on 'Methods of Mathematical Physics'.
    • However, Primakoff was appointed to Washington University, St Louis in 1946 and so for the final part of Keller's research he was nominally advised by Richard Courant.
    • Richard Courant started the task of building up what is now named the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University in 1935.
    • Keller was appointed as an Assistant in the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in 1948.

  19. William Feller (1906-1970)
    • His thesis advisor was Richard Courant.
    • He completed work on his thesis in 1926 and his oral examination was held on 3 November of that year with examiners Richard Courant, Gustav Herglotz and James Franck.
    • At Gottingen, in addition to Courant, Feller was also strongly influenced by David Hilbert.
    • After completing work on his thesis, he spent another two years at Gottingen as an assistant of Richard Courant before he accepted an appointment as head of the applied mathematics laboratory at the University of Kiel where he worked until 1933.

  20. Lipman Bers (1914-1993)
    • Courant writes:- .
    • In 1951 Bers went to the Courant Institute in New York, where he was a full professor, and remained there for 13 years.
    • From 1959 until he left the Courant Institute in 1964, Bers was Chairman of the Graduate Department of Mathematics.

  21. Otto Neugebauer (1899-1990)
    • He settled in Gottingen in 1922 where he began a serious study of mathematics having become friends with Courant, Harald Bohr, and Aleksandrov.
    • He approached Courant and Hilbert to see if he could work for his doctorate on the history of Egyptian unit fractions.
    • This was completed in 1929, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, and Courant and Neugebauer jointly directed the Institute until 1932.

  22. Luis Caffarelli (1948-)
    • Although Caffarelli continued to hold his professorship at the University of Minnesota until 1983, he spent the two years 1980-82 as a Professor at the Courant Institute.
    • In 1980 I was invited to join the faculty at the Courant Institute, where I developed new interests: fluid dynamics and fully nonlinear equations under the advice and in collaboration with Louis Nirenberg.
    • For ten years Caffarelli worked at the Institute for Advanced Study, then in 1994 he returned to the Courant Institute when he spent three years.

  23. Carlos Benjamin de Lyra (1927-1974)
    • Although this must have been, at least in part, due to his studies of the topic at school, it seems that one of the main reasons was that he came to know Richard Courant.
    • Both Courant and Lyra lived in the New York suburbs and they travelled into the city on the same train every day.
    • Courant had published his classic book, co-authored with Herbert Robbins, What is mathematics? in 1941, shortly before getting to know Lyra on the train journeys.

  24. Friedrich Karl Schmidt (1901-1977)
    • Also in 1933, F-K Schmidt succeeded Richard Courant as editor of Springer-Verlag's famous "Yellow Series" of mathematical monographs when Courant was dismissed because he was Jewish.
    • F-K Schmidt was a Roman Catholic, and not Jewish, but he was quickly out of favour with the Nazis when he refused to remove Richard Courant's name from the title page of the Springer series.

  25. Carl Boyer (1906-1976)
    • One of the wisest mathematicians of recent times, Richard Courant, gladly endorsed Carl's initial work by writing a Preface to the second (1949) edition [of 'The Concepts of the Calculus'] and at the same time endorsed Carl's activity with the words, "Teachers, students, and scholars who really want to comprehend the forces and appearances of science must have some understanding of the present aspect of knowledge as a result of historical evolutions." .
    • As we all know, a second edition was demanded in 1949 and was introduced by Richard Courant, and the book has often been reprinted.
    • Richard Courant wrote in his Foreword to the Second Edition:- .

  26. Hans Reichardt (1908-1991)
    • Schmidt had held a temporary post in Gottingen in 1933 and, in the same year succeeded Richard Courant as editor of Springer-Verlag's famous "Yellow Series" of mathematical monographs when Courant was dismissed because he was Jewish.
    • Schmidt was a Roman Catholic, and not Jewish, but he was quickly out of favour with the Nazis when he refused to remove Richard Courant's name from the title page of the Springer series.

  27. Madan Lal Puri (1929-)
    • After the award of his Ph.D., Puri was appointed as an assistant professor at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.
    • In 1965 he was promoted to associate professor at the Courant Institute, then three years later he became a full professor at the Indiana University at Bloomington.
    • He supervised his first doctoral student at New York University while working at the Courant Institute, then went on to supervise a further fifteen Ph.D.

  28. Edna Kramer (1902-1984)
    • Years later she returned to formal studies as a post-graduate student at the Courant Institute of New York University (1939-1940, 1965-1969) and the University of Chicago in 1941.
    • She helped Edward Kasner to prepare Mathematics and the Imagination and she served as an advisor to Richard Courant in the writing of What is Mathematics? .
    • She attended classes at the Courant Institute from 1965 to 1969, and in 1973 she travelled to Singapore where she gave an invited lecture entitled: The Contributions of Women Past and Present to the Development of Mathematics, at Nanyang University.

  29. Wilhelm Cauer (1900-1945)
    • Interested in using computers to solve systems of linear equations, he contacted Richard Courant at Gottingen and Vannevar Bush who was developing mechanical computers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    • However, there were difficulties regarding him submitting it to the Berlin-Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule so Courant suggested that Cauer transfer to Gottingen.
    • He registered at Gottingen on 1 April 1928 and became a research assistant at Courant's Institute of Mathematics at the University of Gottingen.

  30. Martin Kruskal (1925-2006)
    • There was a famous mathematician living in New Rochelle who was a near neighbour, namely Richard Courant.
    • At this time Courant was in the process of building his new Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University and was very keen to attract high quality graduate students.
    • He then undertook research advised by Richard Courant and Bernard Friedman.

  31. Felix Hausdorff (1868-1942)
    • Certainly he wanted to continue research and wished to emigrate for in 1939 he wrote to Courant asking if he could find a research fellowship for him.
    • Sadly Courant could not do so.

  32. Philip Franklin (1898-1965)
    • Let us here quote from Richard Courant's review of A Treatise on Advanced Calculus [',' R Courant, Review: A Treatise on Advanced Calculus by Philip Franklin, Science 94 (2448) (1941), 518.

  33. Linda Goldway Keen (1940-)
    • at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
    • Her doctoral supervisor was Lipa Bers who had worked at the Courant Institute for about 10 years before he began to supervise Keen.

  34. John Synge (1897-1995)
    • Thirdly we mention Cathleen Synge Morawetz, Professor of Mathematics at the New York Courant Institute, who is John Lighton Synge's daughter.
    • She was the first woman to hold the Directorship of the Courant Institute and she was President of the American Mathematical Society in 1995-96.

  35. Johannes Boersma (1937-2004)
    • After the award of his doctorate Boersma went in 1965 to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.
    • He worked as a Research Associate at the Courant Institute in the Division of Electromagnetic Research.

  36. Wilhelm Magnus (1907-1990)
    • In 1950 Magnus went to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
    • He spent 23 years at the Courant Institute before moving to a chair at the Polytechnic Institute of New York in 1973.

  37. Ola Bratteli (1946-2015)
    • After working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for eight years, Glimm had been appointed as a professor at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, part of New York University, in 1968.
    • This research was carried out at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, with support from Norwegian Research Council for Science and Humanities, Norway.

  38. Hans Lewy (1904-1988)
    • His research work was supervised at Gottingen by Richard Courant and he was awarded his doctorate in 1926 for his thesis Uber einen Ansatz zur numerischen Losung von Randwertproblem Ⓣ.
    • With Courant and Friedrichs he wrote Uber die partiellen Differentialgleichungen der mathematischen Physik Ⓣ which appeared in Mathematische Annalen in 1928.

  39. Gottfried Köthe (1905-1989)
    • Personally, this hasn't bothered or disappointed me a bit, but Courant just couldn't get over his "Austrian slovenliness".
    • Thus he's probably not high on the list of those whom Courant, who is after all always asked, recommends for university positions.

  40. Abraham Plessner (1900-1961)
    • In 1921 Plessner went to the University of Gottingen where, between May and August, he took courses on Dirichlet series and Galois theory by Edmund Landau; algebraic number fields by Emmy Noether; and the calculus of variations by Richard Courant.
    • He also attended Courant's seminar and Landau's seminar.

  41. Dirk Struik (1894-2000)
    • Klein, a great mathematical hero of Struik's, died only days after Struik arrived in Gottingen to work with Courant.
    • Courant approached Struik to prepare an edition of Klein's lectures on the history of 19th century mathematics for publication.

  42. Lars Hörmander (1931-2012)
    • He also visited the Institute for Mathematical Sciences (now the Courant Institute) which was directed at that time by Richard Courant.

  43. Sijue Wu (1964-)
    • After the award of her doctorate, Wu was appointed as Courant Instructor at the Courant Institute, New York University.

  44. Alberto Dou (1915-2009)
    • In 1959-60 he made a research visit to the Courant Institute of the University of New York and, in the same year, took the opportunity to visit the University of Chicago where he established a close relation with Antoni Zygmund and Alberto Calderon.
    • In 1969-70 he visited the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, while in 1974 he returned to the Courant Institute to spend a semester there.

  45. Edith Hirsch Luchins (1921-2002)
    • undertaking research under Kurt Friedrichs and Richard Courant.
    • A second child born in 1948 meant that she never completed her doctorate under Friedrichs and Courant for in 1949 Abraham Luchins was appointed to a post in McGill University in Montreal, Canada.

  46. Demetrios Magiros (1912-1982)
    • In 1949 Magiros went to the United States where he studied applied mathematics at Brown University, then the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York, and finally at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    • His next position was with the Republic Aviation Corporation and at the Courant Institute.

  47. Douglas Jones (1922-2013)
    • In 1956 Jones spent time in New York at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences where he was a visiting professor.
    • The visit that Jones had made to the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York in 1956 had been very successful and, in 1962-63 he made a second, equally successful, visit.

  48. Saunders Mac Lane (1909-2005)
    • Richard Courant, administrative head of the Institute, lectured and managed the many assistants working on the manuscript of the Courant-Hilbert book.

  49. Neil Trudinger (1942-)
    • After the award of his doctorate from Stanford University, Trudinger became a Courant Instructor at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University during the academic year 1966-67.

  50. Lothar Collatz (1910-1990)
    • He often told how much he had been impressed by the lectures of Hilbert, Courant, von Mises, Schur, and other famous mathematicians of that period.

  51. Nassim Taleb (1960-)
    • Taleb was appointed as a Fellow in the Mathematics Finance Program and an AdjunctnProfessor of Mathematics at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University in December 1999 and he continued in this post until December 2005.

  52. George Pólya (1887-1985)
    • He then spent much of 1912 and 1913 at Gottingen where he mixed with a whole host of leading mathematicians such as Klein, Caratheodory, Hilbert, Runge, Edmund Landau, Weyl, Hecke, Courant and Toeplitz.

  53. Andreas Floer (1956-1991)
    • Floer obtained a postdoctoral fellowship in mathematical physics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook where he worked for a year before being appointed Courant Instructor at New York University where he spent the following two years.

  54. Joan Sylvia Lyttle Birman (1927-)
    • In January 1961, immediately after Carl David was born, she registered for a part-time Master's Degree in mathematics at New York University's Courant Institute.

  55. Lai-Sang Young (1952-)
    • Young, who is currently Henry & Lucy Moses Professor of Science at New York University's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2004.

  56. Howard Percy Robertson (1903-1961)
    • This was an important time for Robertson who met Hilbert, Courant, Schwarzschild, von Neumann, Wigner, Schrodinger, Heisenberg and Einstein.

  57. David Enskog (1884-1947)
    • He had been awarded a scholarship for 1922-23 which had funded a trip to Gottingen and Munich in Germany where he attended lectures by Niels Bohr, David Hilbert, Arnold Sommerfeld, Richard Courant and Max Born.

  58. Hubert Wall (1902-1971)
    • In anticipation of Hellinger's arrival, Wall started studying differential equations from Hellinger's point of view (which was similar to the point of view of Hilbert and Courant).

  59. Tom Apostol (1923-2016)
    • I was asked to teach the advanced calculus course, which had been using volume two of Courant's 'Differential and Integral Calculus' from the 1920s.

  60. André Weil (1906-1998)
    • In Gottingen he met Richard Courant, Emmy Noether and others, profiting from discussions with them.

  61. Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (1966-)
    • In 1992 Perelman was invited to spend the autumn semester at the Courant Institute, New York University, on a postdoctoral fellowship, and the spring 1993 semester at Stony Brook, a campus of the State University of New York, again funded by a fellowship.

  62. Fritz Ursell (1923-2012)
    • A visit to the United States in 1951 was important, for at this time he made contact with, among other, Richard Courant and Kurt Friedrichs in New York, and Garrett Birkhoff at Harvard.

  63. Michael Artin (1934-)
    • They sailed on the steamship 'New York' on 21 October 1937, arriving in New York one week later where they were met by Richard Courant, Hermann Weyl and Naum Jasny who had escaped from Germany earlier.

  64. Louis de Branges (1932-)
    • He was appointed for the year 1960-61 as a lecturer at Bryn Mawr College following which he spent the year 1961-62 at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.

  65. Gerhard Gentzen (1909-1945)
    • He was taught by Bernays, Caratheodory, Courant, Hilbert, Kneser, Edmund Landau and, of course, his supervisor Weyl.

  66. Mikhail Krawtchouk (1892-1942)
    • Krawtchouk's contacts with other mathematicians were extremely valuable, particularly those with Hadamard, Hilbert, Courant and Tricomi.

  67. Hans Schwerdtfeger (1902-1990)
    • At Gottingen University Schwerdtfeger attended lectures by David Hilbert, Gustav Herglotz, Richard Courant, James Franck, Max Born and Bartel van der Waerden.

  68. Richard Schoen (1950-)
    • In addition to the visiting positions which we mentioned above, Schoen was a Visiting Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, in the Spring of 1984, a Visiting Professor at the Courant Institute, New York University in academic year 1989-90, Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, in academic year 1992-93, and a Visiting Professor at Harvard University in the autumn of 1999.

  69. Ernst Hellinger (1883-1950)
    • In Gottingen Hellinger was a student of Hilbert and, not long after he began his studies there, he was joined by Courant and Toeplitz who had been his fellow students at Breslau.

  70. Donald C Spencer (1912-2001)
    • There he was influenced by Courant and Spencer's work took a new direction, applying variational methods to the coefficient problem for univalent functions.

  71. Carlo Cercignani (1939-2010)
    • Returning to Carlo Cercignani's career, he was appointed as a teaching and research assistant at the University of Milan, but over the following few years spent time at a number of foreign institutions, in particular at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.

  72. Marion Walter (1928-)
    • When she was offered a research assistant position at the Institute for Mathematics and Mechanics of New York University (now the Courant Institute) she accepted despite being reluctant to give up teaching.

  73. George Forsythe (1917-1972)
    • He spent 1955-56 at the Courant Institute in New York, then, in September 1957, he left Los Angeles and returned to Stanford University where he was appointed as professor in the Mathematics Department.

  74. P G Tait (1831-1901)
    • When the Edinburgh paper, the Courant, reported the result it noted that Tait had been chosen in preference to Maxwell since:- .

  75. Hanna Neumann (1914-1971)
    • The year 1961-62 she spent with Bernhard at the Courant Institute in New York where she was a Visiting Research Scientist.

  76. Uriel Rothblum (1947-2012)
    • In the summer of 1974, Rothblum worked as a consultant at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, before taking up the position of Postdoctoral Fellow and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Computer Sciences at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.

  77. Hugo Steinhaus (1887-1972)
    • There he was influenced by an amazingly strong group of mathematicians including Felix Bernstein, Caratheodory, Courant, Herglotz, Hilbert, Klein, Koebe, Edmund Landau Landau (although he only arrived in Gottingen after Steinhaus had been there three years), Runge, Toeplitz, and Zermelo.

  78. Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
    • The pair married on 1 August 1912 and Richard Courant, speaking after Bohr's death, had this to say of their marriage:- .

  79. Charles Fefferman (1949-)
    • He has held Visiting Positions at many institutions including: Wilson Elkins Visiting Professorship, University of Maryland; California Institute of Technology; Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University; University of Paris, France; Mittag-Leffler Institute, Djursholm, Sweden; Weitzmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel; Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; and University of Madrid, Spain.

  80. Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925)
    • Courant from Gottingen got interested in Tamarkin's work.

  81. Edmund Landau (1877-1938)
    • Landau worked hard to have Schur fill the chair but, against Landau's wishes, Courant was appointed.

  82. László Kovács (1936-2013)
    • He accepted and took up the appointment in the following year after spending 1961-62 at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York.

  83. Bartel van der Waerden (1903-1996)
    • He returned to Gottingen as a visiting professor in 1929 and in July of that year he met Camilla Rellich, sister of the Franz Rellich who was completing his doctoral thesis under Richard Courant.

  84. Gene Golub (1932-2007)
    • He was invited by Eugene Isaacson to spend the year 1965-66 at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University where he was an Adjunct Assistant Professor.

  85. Erich Hans Rothe (1895-1988)
    • Also in this volume are papers by Constantin Caratheodory, Richard von Mises, Gabor Szegő, Karl Lowner, Ludwig Bieberbach, Hans Rademacher, and Richard Courant.

  86. Guido Stampacchia (1922-1978)
    • He spent the period March to May of 1977 at the Courant Institute in New York and at the School of Mathematics of the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis.

  87. Brian Griffiths (1927-2008)
    • Before this book was published, Griffiths spent the year 1963-64 at the Courant Institute in New York.

  88. Gian-Carlo Rota (1932-1999)
    • In this same year that he was awarded his doctorate, Rota married Teresa Rondon and he received a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to undertake research at the Courant Institute at New York University.

  89. Leon Lichtenstein (1878-1933)
    • He also suggested possible authors for these areas including Otto Blumenthal, Harald Bohr, Richard Courant, Issai Schur, and Hermann Weyl.

  90. Hitoshi Kumano-Go (1935-1982)
    • Kumano-Go spent the two academic years 1967-69 visiting the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.

  91. Steven Vajda (1901-1995)
    • After the award of his doctorate, Vajda spend one semester at Gottingen attending lectures by David Hilbert, Richard Courant, Emmy Noether, Bartel van der Waerden and others.

  92. Martin Davis (1928-)
    • The second of these consists of notes of lectures given during 1973-1974 at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.

  93. Jakob Rosanes (1842-1922)
    • Richard Courant, for example, described Rosanes' lecturing as follows:- .

  94. Harold Davenport (1907-1969)
    • Those who interacted with Davenport included Richard Rado, Hirsch, Courant, Taussky (later Taussky-Todd), Kober and Mahler.

  95. Hans Rademacher (1892-1969)
    • In fact it was philosophy that he intended to take as his main university subject when he entered the university of Gottingen in 1911, but he was persuaded to study mathematics by Courant after having enjoyed the excellent mathematics teaching of Hecke and Weyl.

  96. Jacob T Schwartz (1930-2009)
    • For 42 years he was professor at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.

  97. Rolf Nevanlinna (1895-1980)
    • In addition to Landau he met Hilbert, Courant and Emmy Noether in Gottingen and, while in Germany he also met Pavel Sergeevich Aleksandrov, Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn, and Constantin Caratheodory in Munich.

  98. Elliott Montroll (1916-1983)
    • In 1950 he was appointed as a research fellow at the Courant Institute in New York.

  99. Kurt Mahler (1903-1988)
    • In 1925 Siegel left Frankfurt for a period of overseas visits, and Mahler moved to Gottingen where he attended lectures by Emmy Noether, Richard Courant, Edmund Landau, Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, David Hilbert and Alexander Ostrowski, and acted as an unpaid assistant to Norbert Wiener.

  100. Pavel Aleksandrov (1896-1982)
    • In the summers of 1923 and 1924 Aleksandrov and Urysohn visited Gottingen and impressed Emmy Noether, Courant and Hilbert with their results.

  101. Shanti Swarup Gupta (1925-2002)
    • Gupta held academic posts at universities such as the University of Alberta and New York University where he worked at the Courant Institute.

  102. Frank Smithies (1912-2002)
    • He was influenced, by reading books by Banach and Stone, and attending lectures by Courant and von Neumann, to become interested in functional analysis despite Hardy's dislike of abstract mathematics.

  103. Robert Remak (1888-1942)
    • Courant waited for the opportunity to be able to say: "Mr Remak, I have explained that already while you were still sleeping." ..

  104. Juha Heinonen (1960-2007)
    • He also gave invited addresses at the XVIIth Geometry Festival at the Courant Institute in New York in 2002 and at the American Mathematical Society meeting in Boulder, Colorado in 2003.

  105. Leonard Jimmie Savage (1917-1971)
    • Following the end of World War II in 1945, Savage spent a year working with Richard Courant at the Institute of Applied Mathematics at New York University and then he was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship to spend time at the Institute of Radiobiology and Biophysics at the University of Chicago.

  106. Donald Ornstein (1934-)
    • During the academic year 1967-68 he was a visiting professor at Cornell University and at New York University's Courant Institute.

  107. Max Born (1882-1970)
    • In addition to the mathematicians mentioned above, Born was in contact with Courant, Schmidt and Caratheodory around this period.

  108. Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov (1943-)
    • He was Professor of Mathematics at University of Maryland, College Park from 1991 to 1996, and then Jay Gould Professor of Mathematics at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University from 1996.

  109. Erich Hecke (1887-1947)
    • Courant then accepted the offer of Hecke's chair at Gottingen while Berlin, having been refused by their third choice Herglotz, tried to entice Hecke to leave Hamburg and accept the chair at Berlin.

  110. Julius Schauder (1899-1943)
    • His last work was to generalise results of Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy on hyperbolic partial differential equations.

  111. Krystyna Kuperberg (1944-)
    • While on the Faculty at Auburn she has held a number of visiting positions: Oklahoma State University (1982-83); the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (1987); the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley (1994-95); and the University of Paris at Orsay (summer 1995).

  112. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
    • When the Edinburgh paper, the Courant, reported the result it noted that:- .

  113. Mary Taylor (1898-1984)
    • She was awarded her doctorate by the University of Gottingen in 1926 and was awarded a Yarrow Research Fellowship which enabled her to remain at Gottingen undertaking research with Courant.

  114. Joseph Pérčs (1890-1962)
    • They began publishing joint papers in 1932, for example their joint papers Sur les analogies electrique en hydrodynamique Ⓣ (1932), Trace des lignes de courant dans l'ecoulement d'Oseen autour d'un cercle Ⓣ (1932), Application de la methode electrique a un probleme concernant laile d'envergure finie Ⓣ (1932), and Sur un probleme concernant la theorie de l'aile d'envergure finie Ⓣ (1932) were all published in that year.

  115. Wolfgang Hahn (1911-1998)
    • He spent two semesters at the University of Gottingen where he attended lectures by Richard Courant, Edmund Landau and Gustav Herglotz.

  116. Georges de Rham (1903-1990)
    • He spent the winter term of 1930-31 at the University of Gottingen where he met, among others, Pavel Aleksandrov, Richard Courant, Charles Ehresmann, Gustav Herglotz, Andrey Kolmogorov, Edmund Landau, Emmy Noether and Hermann Weyl.

  117. Olga Alexandrovna Ladyzhenskaya (1922-2004)
    • She became interested in the theory of partial differential equations due to the influence of Petrovsky as well as the book by Hilbert and Courant.

  118. David Hilbert (1862-1943)
    • But the list includes many other famour names including Wilhelm Ackermann, Felix Bernstein, Otto Blumenthal, Richard Courant, Haskell Curry, Max Dehn, Rudolf Fueter, Alfred Haar, Georg Hamel, Erich Hecke, Earle Hedrick, Ernst Hellinger, Edward Kasner, Oliver Kellogg, Hellmuth Kneser, Otto Neugebauer, Erhard Schmidt, Hugo Steinhaus, and Teiji Takagi.

  119. Karen Uhlenbeck (1942-)
    • After graduating from the University of Michigan, Uhlenbeck continued her studies at the Courant Institute in New York.

  120. Stefan Warschawski (1904-1989)
    • Although the university was staffed by leading mathematicians like Landau, Courant, and Herglotz, whose courses he took, it was Alexander Ostrowski, at that time a privatdozent, who supervised Warschawski's research.

  121. Erich Bessel-Hagen (1898-1946)
    • Also, in collaboration with Neugebauer and Courant, he helped prepare Klein's lectures on the development of mathematics in the 19th century for publication.


History Topics

  1. Tait's scrapbook
    • When the Edinburgh paper, the Courant, reported the result it noted that Tait had been chosen in preference to Maxwell since:- .


Societies etc

  1. References for NAS
    • Meeting of the National Academy Of Sciences, The College Courant 3 (9) (1868), 134.

  2. National Academy of Sciences
    • A report on the young Academy, written five years after its founding, states [',' Meeting of the National Academy Of Sciences, The College Courant 3 (9) (1868), 134.','2]:- .

  3. Icelandic Mathematical Society
    • Leifur Asgeirsson (born 25 May 1903, died 19 August 1990) graduated from the University of Reykjavik in 1927 and then undertook research at the University of Gottingen with Richard Courant as his supervisor.


Honours

  1. MAA Hedrick Lecturer
    • 1972 Peter D Lax, New York University, Courant Institute .
    • 1976 Martin D Davis, New York University, Courant Institute .


References

  1. References for Richard Courant
    • References for Richard Courant .
    • http://www.britannica.com/biography/Richard-Courant .
    • C Reid, Courant in Gottingen and New York : the story of an improbable mathematician ( New York, 1976).
    • C Reid, Hilbert-Courant ( New York, 1986).
    • C Reid, Courant (New York, 1996).
    • P S Aleksandrov and O A Oleinik, In memoriam Richard Courant (Russian), Uspekhi Mat.
    • Professor Richard Courant: A biographical note, J.
    • Richard Courant (1888-1972) (Bulgarian), Fiz.-Mat.
    • C A Felippa, 50 year classic reprint : an appreciation of R Courant's 'Variational methods for the solution of problems of equilibrium and vibrations', Internat.
    • F Williamson Jr., Richard Courant and the finite element method : a further look, Historia Mathematica 7 (4) (1980), 369-378.
    • F Williamson Jr., Direct methods in the calculus of variations : the rediscovery of Richard Courant's work on the finite element method, in Global analysis - analysis on manifolds (Leipzig, 1983), 350-364.

  2. References for David Hilbert
    • C Reid, Hilbert-Courant ( New York, 1986).
    • I, by R Courant and D Hilbert, The Mathematical Gazette 39 (328) (1955), 175.
    • II: Partial Differential Equations, by R Courant and D Hilbert, The American Mathematical Monthly 71 (3) (1964), 338.
    • H A Bethe, Review: Methods of Mathematical Physics, by R Courant and D Hilbert, Science, New Series 119 (3080) (1954), 75-76.
    • G Birkhoff, Review: Methoden der Mathematischen Physik, by R Courant and D Hilbert, Science, New Series 99 (2573) (1944), 322.
    • II, by R Courant and D Hilbert, The Mathematical Gazette 22 (250) (1938), 302-306.
    • R Courant, Reminiscences from Hilbert's Gottingen, Math.
    • J B Diaz, Review: Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II, by R Courant and D Hilbert, SIAM Review 6 (4) (1964), 463-466.
    • Courant and D.
    • P-L Lions, Du Courant & Hilbert Methoden der mathematischen Physik aux simulations numeriques, Gaz.
    • 2, Partial Differential Equations, by R Courant and D Hilbert, Science, New Series 137 (3527) (1962), 334.

  3. References for Philip Franklin
    • R Courant, Review: A Treatise on Advanced Calculus by Philip Franklin, Science 94 (2448) (1941), 518.

  4. References for Felix Klein
    • R Courant, Felix Klein, Jahresberichte der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 34 (1925), 197-213.

  5. References for Kurt Reidemeister
    • Richard Courant, Heinz Hopf, Siegfried Heller, Kurt Reidemeister zum Gedachtnis, Math.-Phys.

  6. References for Franz Rellich
    • R Courant, Franz Rellich zum Gedachtnis, Math.


Additional material

  1. Richard Courant: 'Differential and Integral calculus' English edition
    • Richard Courant: Differential and Integral calculus English edition .
    • In 1934 Richard Courant published an English edition of his German text Differential and Integral calculus.
    • In a Preface to the English edition, Courant explains how the English edition came to be published.
    • We also give the Preface to Courant's German edition at this link.
    • Differential and Integral calculus by Richard Courant .
    • R Courant .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Courant_calculus_english.html .

  2. Richard Courant: 'Differential and Integral calculus' German edition
    • Richard Courant: Differential and Integral calculus German edition .
    • In 1934 Richard Courant published an English edition of his German text Differential and Integral calculus.
    • We also give the Preface to Courant's English edition at this link.
    • Differential and Integral calculus by Richard Courant .
    • R Courant .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Courant_calculus_german.html .

  3. Hilbert reviews
    • Methoden der Mathematischen Physik Volume I (1924), by Richard Courant and David Hilbert.
    • The book is obviously and avowedly written by Courant.
    • This English language version of the well-known "Courant-Hilbert" will be very much welcomed, especially by younger physicists in all fields; the older generation will, of course, already have on their shelves a very familiar and much-used copy of the former German edition.
    • The mathematical event of 1924 was, possibly, the publication of the first edition of Volume I of " Courant-Hilbert ".
    • Some mathematical physicists may have opened their eyes widely at the emphasis on what we now call linear analysis and on the connection of eigenvalues with variational principles; but the prescience of the authors was fully justified by succeeding developments, so that now "Courant-Hilbert " is not a survey preliminary to exploitation but a map of an organised and settled domain.
    • Courant himself has prepared the translation and has made some additions and improvements, but the book is substantially the equivalent of the second (1931) German edition.
    • Methoden der Mathematischen Physik Volume II (1937), by Richard Courant and David Hilbert.
    • The first volume of "Courant-Hilbert" was published in 1924, and proved so successful that a second edition was brought out in 1931.
    • Publication had to be delayed owing to the unsatisfactory state of the theory in 1924, a state since rectified mainly by the work of Professor Courant and his pupils.
    • The two volumes by Courant and Hilbert are already widely known among mathematicians and physicists for their clarity, rigor and breadth of view.
    • The two volumes of Courant and Hilbert's "Methoden der mathematischen Physik" have been regarded, since their appearance, as standard source books for applied mathematicians.
    • The preface, by Professor Courant, explains the genesis of the book; this English version is said to have been in preparation ever since the appearance during the last war (1943) of the Interscience Publishers reprint of volume II of the German edition, under license of the United States Government.
    • The second volume of the mathematical classic, the Courant-Hilbert Methoden der Mathematischen Physik appeared in 1937, and it is still an indispensible handbook for anyone who has to deal with partial differential equations.
    • The seventh chapter, which deals with existence proofs for elliptical methods, has been omitted in this translation, and will form the nucleus of a projected third volume of Courant-Hilbert.
    • Rather, it represents a new edition, prepared by Professor Courant during the past two decades, and available in English as the original language.
    • the "Courant-Hilbert" is not primarily a textbook to be studied cover-to-cover, nor is it a handbook in which to look up a forgotten numerical constant; a very detailed table of contents, a good index, and an extensive bibliography, which includes both research papers and conference proceedings, as well as a few monographs, help the reader to discover any particular item within the context in which he might study it and understand the underlying grand design.

  4. Weyl on Hilbert
    • In it he mentions that the initial idea was due to Felix Klein, but it was Richard Courant who brought the idea to fruition: .
    • Hilbert on the Mathematical Institute and Courant .
    • it is our dear friend and colleague Richard Courant.
    • The idea of this institute, cherished and nurtured by Felix Klein, lived once upon a time and was charming and lovely, like Sleeping Beauty, and we who have been here a while took proud pleasure from it; but the Wicked Witch of inflation put this Sleeping Beauty into a sleep so deep that all forgot about her until Prince Charming Courant awakened her to new life.
    • Courant treated each of these with the same love and devotion, always knowing how to find and cajole the most suitable and understanding man for the task - never taking the stage himself but remaining in the background, so that in many circles his efforts were hardly noticed while each one of those mobilised for the work contributed his share with the same joy as though he had set himself the task.

  5. Gottingen chairs
    • I carefully worked out the whole course, including these private appendices, and my notebook was used by Courant when he, may years later and after Hurwitz's death, published his well-known book on analytic functions, the so-called Courant-Hurwitz.

  6. Otto Neugebauer - a biographical sketch
    • Moving on to Gottingen the following year, he studied mathematics under Professors Richard Courant, Edmund Georg Hermann Landau, and the late Emmy Noether, Egyptian under Professors Hermann Kees and the late Kurt Sethe.
    • At the University of Gottingen, Neugebauer became an assistant in the department of mathematics in the fall of 1923, the following October (1924) special assistant to Courant, at that time head of the department.

  7. Peres publications
    • Lucien Malavard and Joseph Peres, Trace des lignes de courant dans l'ecoulement d'Oseen autour d'un cercle, Comptes Rendus Acad.

  8. Todd and Erdélyi on Practical Mathematics
    • This theoretical conclusion is borne out by practice in the United States, where such post-graduate courses have been given, for example, at Brown and New York University, in such as the Courant Institute, for several years and have proved a great success.

  9. Hille publications
    • I, by R Courant and D Hilbert, Bull.

  10. Kline's books
    • This might be relatively easy if the author were writing for mathematicians; but the foreword by Professor Courant implies that the book is addressed to the group of intelligent people who do not have a background of mathematical knowledge, and this makes the undertaking a formidable one.

  11. C Chevalley: 'On Herbrand's thought
    • Here is an extract from a letter of Professor Courant to Herbrand's father:- .

  12. Blumenthal on Annalen
    • And we can't foresee what will happen to Courant.

  13. Samarskii's books
    • The book was written as a textbook, and is there fore, more expository and requires less mathematical sophistication than Courant-Hilbert (Volume II), which covers much of the same material.

  14. Speiser books
    • On the whole, the volume under review furnishes a very attractive introduction into some of the most modern developments of the theory of groups of finite order, with emphasis on its applications, and we can only wish it success along with the other volumes of the interesting series to which it belongs now being published under the general editorship of R Courant of the University of Gottingen.

  15. Apostol books
    • This book is perhaps most nearly a 1961 counterpart of R Courant's still classic text of 1934.

  16. Hilbert PhD students
    • 1910 Richard Courant.

  17. Peter Lax's student years
    • He later became head of the Courant Institute and President of the American Mathematical Society.

  18. Friedrich Hirzebruch addresses the 1998 ICM
    • Not until many years after the first world war, after Felix Klein had gone and Richard Courant had succeeded him, towards the end of the sadly brief period of the German Republic, did Klein's dream of the Mathematical Institute at Gottingen come true.

  19. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture II
    • According to Courant and the New York school of applied mathematicians the two indispensable prerequisites for a study of theoretical physics are the theory of linear algebra and the theory of distributions.

  20. Franklin's textbooks
    • In his review in Science 94 (2448) (1941), 518, Richard Courant writes: .

  21. Hilbert quotes
    • With the exception of two books published alone (Grundlagen der Geometrie and Grundzuge einer allgemeinen Theorie der linearen Integralgleichungen), four more published with the collaboration of others (R Courant on mathematical physics, W Ackermann on logic, S Cohn-Vossen on geometry, and P Bernays on mathematical foundations), and about twenty papers, most of which would have meant duplication, Hilbert's monumental collected works were first published in three volumes between 1932 and 1935.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Courant
    • Quotations by Richard Courant .

  2. A quotation by Gelfand
    • Lecture to Courant Institute (1990) .


Famous Curves

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Chronology

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EMS Archive

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BMC Archive

  1. BMC Report
    • The plenary speakers were Hugh Montgomery (Ann Arbor), Tony Joseph (Weizmann Institute), Stanislav Smirnov (Geneva), and Akshay Venkatesh (Courant).

  2. Report2015.html
    • Sylvia Serfaty (Courant & Paris 6, Crystallization questions for systems ( with Coulomb and Riesz interactions) .

  3. Minutes for 1999
    • In PDEs, names suggested were C Kenig (Chicago), V Maz'ya (Linkoping, Sweden), P Lax (NYU Courant), J Moser (ETH), with S B Kuksin to be asked for further names.

  4. Report2014.html
    • Tim Austin (Courant Institute) .


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Cambridge Individuals
    • Richard Courant was here for some time in the 1930s before going to the US.


Astronomy section

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JOC/BS August 2001