Search Results for Latin


Biographies

  1. Piero della Francesca (1420-1492)
    • He wrote his mathematics books in Italian rather than Latin, suggesting that he probably did not learn Latin at school.
    • This suggests that Piero did not spend that long at school and it confirms his lack of Latin since those who could write fluent Latin developed a style when writing Italian that reflected Latin structure.
    • However, as an adult he had read Euclid's Elements and had some knowledge of the works of Archimedes and, since no Italian versions were available in Piero's day, he must have learnt enough Latin in later life to read these works.
    • The adult Piero may have learned enough Latin to enable him to read Latin mathematical texts with their specialised vocabulary.

  2. Maria Agnesi (1718-1799)
    • She showed remarkable talents and mastered many languages such as Latin, Greek and Hebrew at an early age.
    • At the age of 9 she published a Latin discourse in defence of higher education for women.
    • He began with a fine discourse in Latin to this young girl, that it might be understood by all.
    • Yet however much I was amazed at her learning, I was perhaps more amazed to hear her speak Latin with such purity, ease and accuracy..
    • In 1718 Grandi gave it the Latin name 'versoria' which means 'rope that turns a sail' and he so named it because of its shape.
    • Grandi gave the Italian 'versiera' for the Latin 'versoria' and indeed Agnesi quite correctly states in her book that the curve was called 'la versiera'.
    • John Colson, who had translated Newton's De Methodis Serierum et Fluxionum Ⓣ from Latin to English for publication in 1736, translated Agnesi's Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventu italiana Ⓣ into English before 1760 (the year of Colson's death) although his English translation was not published until 1801.

  3. Elisabetha Koopman (1647-1693)
    • We know, for example, that she wrote Latin since we have copies of letters she wrote to other scientists in Latin.
    • Hevelius wrote Latin, but one has to say that Elisabetha writes with more style than her husband.
    • The question is, then, when did she learn Latin? It would be extremely unusual if she had learnt it as a child before marrying Hevelius but this must remain a possibility.
    • If she learnt Latin to help her husband, this also would be surprising and one would have to ask quite why the effort of learning Latin would have been a priority for her at that time.
    • In March 1680, Elisabetha Hevelius wrote a letter in Latin, almost certainly to Halley, asking for the name of a doctor who he had recommended, when living in their home, as knowing of a diet that would cure arthritis.

  4. Al-Khwarizmi (about 790-about 850)
    • The Arabic text is lost but a Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum in English Al-Khwarizmi on the Hindu Art of Reckoning gave rise to the word algorithm deriving from his name in the title.
    • Unfortunately the Latin translation (translated into English in [',' J N Crossley and A S Henry, Thus spake al-Khwarizmi : a translation of the text of Cambridge University Library ms.
    • Methods for arithmetical calculation are given, and a method to find square roots is known to have been in the Arabic original although it is missing from the Latin version.
    • Seven twelfth century Latin treatises based on this lost Arabic treatise by al-Khwarizmi on arithmetic are discussed in [',' A Allard, La diffusion en occident des premieres oeuvres latines issues de l’arithmetique perdue d’al-Khwarizmi, J.
    • In the tenth century al-Majriti made a critical revision of the shorter version and this was translated into Latin by Adelard of Bath.
    • There is also a Latin version of the longer version and both these Latin works have survived.

  5. Gherard (1114-1187)
    • After being educated in Italy, he realised that European education was narrow and that he decided that he would try to make the riches of Arabic science available to European scholars through Latin translations of the major works in Arabic.
    • For this reason Gherard went to Toledo in Spain where his intention was to learn Arabic so he could read Ptolemy's Almagest Ⓣ since no Latin translations existed at that time.
    • In all over a period of forty years, Gherard translated around eighty works from Arabic to Latin.
    • Gherard is mentioned in the archive as the translator of (i) works by the Banu Musa brothers, (ii) the Tabulae Jahen (to give them the Latin name as translated by Gherard) of al-Jayyani, (iii) al-Nayrizi's commentary on Euclid's Elements which themselves were based on al-Hajjaj's Arabic translation of the Elements from the Greek, (iv) work by Thabit ibn Qurra, (v) work by Abu Kamil, and (vi) Ahmed ibn Yusuf's work on ratio and proportion.
    • One of the decisions made by Gherard in his translating was to render the Arabic word for sine into the Latin sinus, from where our sine function comes.
    • Because of the abundance and systematic nature of his production, his thoroughly critical approach to textual tradition, and his faithful adherence to literalness, together with a steady flow of the twelfth century, Gerard's translations soon came to obtain the preference of Latin scholars through the succeeding centuries.

  6. Guido Grandi (1671-1742)
    • At the College he studied rhetoric and Latin.
    • Saccheri was teaching Latin but, Grandi wrote, that:- .
    • Poetry, especially Latin poetry, was a favourite with Grandi throughout his life.
    • Grandi contributed to it a "Note on the Treatise of Galileo Concerning Natural Motion," in which he gave the first definition of a curve he called the 'versiera' (from the latin 'sinus versus').
    • Rodonea is the Latin for rose and Grandi first defined these curves in December 1713 in a letter he wrote to Leibniz.
    • The Flores geometrici Ⓣ was, as can be seen from the title, a Latin text.

  7. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
    • Nicolaus Copernicus is the Latin version of the famous astronomer's name which he chose later in his life.
    • There he studied Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
    • While a student in Krakow, Copernicus purchased a copy of the Latin translation of Euclid's Elements published in Venice in 1482, a copy of the second edition of the Alfonsine Tables (which gives planetary theory and eclipses) printed in Venice in 1492, and Regiomontanus's Tables of Directions (a work on spherical astronomy) published in Augsburg in 1490.
    • It was while he was a student at Krakow that Copernicus began to use this Latin version of his name rather than Kopernik or Koppernigk.
    • In 1509 Copernicus published a work, which was properly printed, giving Latin translations of Greek poetry by the obscure poet Theophylactus Simocattes.
    • Copernicus is said to have received a copy of the printed book, consisting of about 200 pages written in Latin, for the first time on his deathbed.

  8. Frederico Commandino (1506-1575)
    • There is little information about Commandino's youth and all we know of his early education is that he studied Latin and Greek at Fano under the humanist G Torelli.
    • Already when he lived in Rome he had begun the task of editing Ptolemy's Planisphere and from that point on he spent the rest of his life publishing translations (mostly Greek into Latin), with commentaries, of the classic texts of Archimedes, Ptolemy, Euclid, Aristarchus, Pappus, Apollonius, Eutocius, Heron and Serenus.
    • In fact Commandino had only a manuscript of a Latin translation of an Arabic version of this book by Ptolemy to work from.
    • However the son of the Duke requested that Commandino prepare a Latin translation of Euclid's Elements and he set to work enthusiastically on this major task.
    • In the same year he published his Latin edition of Aristarchus's Sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon again with commentary.
    • We say last complete work since he left an incomplete Latin translation of Books III to VIII of Pappus's Collection.

  9. Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344)
    • This may at first look unlikely since only Latin versions of many of his works survive.
    • He certainly refers to Latin as the "language of Christians," and almost all historians believe that he could not read Latin.
    • Whenever he quotes from Latin works by authors such as Aristotle, he always gives the quotation in Hebrew.
    • The astronomy part was translated into Latin at the request of Pope Clement VI in 1340 but this translation includes later revisions of the work by Levi.
    • This is the first edition of any of Levi's astronomical writings in Hebrew; as the editor points out, because of the author's critical attitude towards Ptolemy his work did not find many readers who were willing to acknowledge that they had read it (which was translated into Latin at the papal court of Avignon).

  10. Johann Castillon (1704-1791)
    • His mother had admonished him not to dishonour the family name, so he took the name 'Castiglione' (in Italian; 'Castilloneus' in Latin and 'Castillon' in French) after 'Castiglion Fiorentino', the location of the family home.
    • During this period he published two mathematical papers, written in Latin giving his name as J Castillioneus, in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
    • The first volume contains Newton's mathematical essays, the second volume contains the philosophical treatises which mainly consist of Newton's "Optical Lectures", which were originally delivered in Latin at Cambridge in 1669, 1670, and 1671.
    • He wrote a detailed commentary on Newton's Arithmetica universalis Ⓣ publishing a Latin edition of the work with his commentary in Amsterdam in 1761.
    • In [',' J C Laursen, Cicero in the Prussian Academy: Castillon’s translation of the ’Academica’, History of European Ideas 23 (24) (1997), 117-126.','6] John Laursen argues that Castillon's translation from Latin into French of Cicero's Academica, published in 1779, was again required by Frederick 'intended to mortify the pious'.

  11. Benjamin Osgood Peirce (1854-1914)
    • The two spoke Latin when they went on long walks.
    • At this time he did read a lot, kept up his Latin and his love of music began to play an even greater part in his life when he joined the Salem Oratorio Society where his fine voice was greatly appreciated.
    • When this young man appeared he tried Peirce in Latin.
    • Now, if ever there went to Germany an American student of physics who could speak Latin, Peirce was that student; but the German pronunciation of this language was unfamiliar to him; so again there was difficulty, and the other young man, losing patience, exclaimed, "Have you never been to school?" .
    • Later in 1880 he returned to the United States where he was appointed as a mathematics teacher at the Boston Latin School.

  12. Dorothea Beale (1831-1906)
    • Her aunt, Mary Cornwallis, wrote devotional books and Mary's daughter, Caroline Frances Cornwallis (1786-1858), was a student of Latin, Greek and Hebrew who wrote several books on Christianity, education and law.
    • suffered much from the unintelligent teaching prevalent in the boys' school of that day, and received help in their Latin and Mathematics from their clever elder sister.
    • She also qualified to teach English, Latin, French, German and Geography.
    • Later she also taught Latin and was appointed as head teacher of the school attached to the College.
    • She was required to provide lessons in the Bible and Church history, ancient and modern history, physical and political geography, grammar and composition, English literature, Latin, French, German, and Italian.

  13. Claude Hardy (1598-1678)
    • composed in Latin by Erasmus; translated into French by Claude Hardy, Parisian, aged nine years.
    • Although it might seem impossible for so young a child to translate from Latin to French, we do know that Hardy had the reputation for being a remarkable linguist with knowledge of thirty-six languages.
    • The poetry was translated from Latin to French by Hardy and published as a prose work Les Distique Moraux de Michel Verin Ⓣ.
    • He edited the Greek edition of Euclid and provided a Latin translation of the work and the commentary by Marin Mersenne.
    • A translation into French of Viete's book on algebra, originally written in Latin, appeared around 1630 with Antoine Vasset as the translator.

  14. Johannes Campanus (1220-1296)
    • Campanus wrote a Latin edition of Euclid's Elements in 15 books around 1260 and it was the standard Euclid for 200 years.
    • Most significant of these is his Latin edition of Euclid's Elements which we have already mentioned above.
    • The edition by Campanus relied to some extent on Adelard of Bath's Latin translations of Euclid's Elements from Arabic sources.
    • Another Latin Euclid by Robert of Chester was a compilation of writings by commentators on Euclid and did not contain a translation of the text as such.
    • Campanus shows that he is familiar with the work of Arab mathematicians and, in Book V, he quotes from Gherard of Cremona's Latin translation of Ahmed ibn Yusuf's treatise on ratio and proportion.

  15. William Oughtred (1574-1660)
    • Oughtred, of course, was also a Latin scholar and, as others of this period, would write his works in Latin.
    • He taught Latin to a member of the family of George Duncombe (1563-1660), who was one of his parishioners.
    • In fact one of his pupils at Albury, William Forster, spent the summer of 1630 living in Oughtred's home and was so impressed with Oughtred's mathematical instruments that he persuaded Oughtred to let him publish an English translation of Oughtred's unpublished Latin description.
    • Both invented, and the uses of both written in Latin by Mr William Oughtred.

  16. Johann Rahn (1622-1676)
    • in the preceding summer he met at the watering place, Taynach, a nobleman, Leonard Weiss, with whom he discussed algebra and to whom he promised to prepare a work in the German language which should contain the advances due to Vieta, Descartes and others, which were at that time accessible only in the Latin and French languages.
    • Two translations into English of Rahn's text were started, neither aware that the other was happening, and at the same time Rahn was translating his German text into Latin.
    • His Latin translation had the title Algebra Speciosa seu Introductio in Geometriam Universalem Ⓣ and in the Preface Rahn explains that he chose not to publish the translation since he had, by this time, learnt that an English translation was about to be published.
    • He completed it in 1667 and intended it as a companion volume to the Latin translation he had made of his Teutsche Algebra.
    • Quite independently, both the English translation and Latin translation had doubled in length.

  17. Thomas Fincke (1561-1656)
    • Thomas Fincke's name appears with a variety of different spellings, the commonest is the one we have adopted but Finke, Finck, or Fink are sometimes used in addition to the Latin versions of Finchius and Finckius.
    • Thomas attended a newly founded Lutheran Latin school in Flensburg from 1570 to 1577 when he was 16 years old.
    • He received a good broad education at this school, being taught Luther's religious ideas, mainly from textbooks written by Philipp Melanchthon, and taught the ancient languages of Greek, Latin and Hebrew.
    • The work, written in Latin, is divided into 14 Books but it would be more appropriate to think of them as chapters.

  18. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716)
    • Although he was taught Latin at school, Leibniz had taught himself far more advanced Latin and some Greek by the age of 12.
    • Among the other topics which were included in this two year general degree course were rhetoric, Latin, Greek and Hebrew.
    • All his life he prided himself on his poetry (mostly Latin), and boasted that he could recite the bulk of Virgil's "Aeneid" by heart.

  19. Pierre Hérigone (1580-1643)
    • The work is a compendium of elementary mathematics written in both French and Latin.
    • A full recognition of the importance of notation and an almost reckless eagerness to introduce an exhaustive set of symbols is exhibited in the 'Cursus mathematicus' Ⓣ of Pierre Herigone, in six volumes, in Latin and French ,..
    • The original text was written in Latin and published in London in 1594.
    • The translation into French by Denis Henrion was published as Traite des Globes et de Leur Usage, traduit du Latin de Robert Hues, et Augmente de plusieurs nottes et operations du Compas de proportion par D Henrion, mathematicien Ⓣ in Paris in 1618.

  20. Isaac Barrow (1630-1677)
    • At Felstead Barrow learnt Greek, Latin, Hebrew and logic in preparation for University.
    • Under Duport, Barrow studied Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French, Spanish, Italian, literature, chronology, geography and theology.
    • In 1654 he defended the University in a speech in which he spoke of the importance of learning Greek, Latin and literature for the purpose of acquiring a firm basis for learning.
    • At Gresham he taught geometry for two hours a week, one hour in English and the other in Latin.

  21. Georg Vega (1754-1802)
    • The Latin version of his name is Georgius Bartholomaei Vecha and he was baptised with this Latin version of his name on 24 March 1754 in Moravce.
    • In addition to mathematics, he also studied Latin, Greek, religion, German, history, geography and science as this school.
    • Logarithmisch trigonometrisches Handbuch Ⓣ was published in 1793 in both German and Latin.

  22. Claude Gaspar Bachet (1581-1638)
    • Twenty years before Bachet was born, Emmanuel Philibert duke of Savoy moved the capital of Savoy to Turin and made Italian the official language (before this it had been Latin).
    • He composed poems in French, Italian and Latin between 1614 and 1628, published religious works such as translations of the psalms, translated seven of Ovid's Epistulae heroidum Ⓣ and published an anthology of French poems entitled Delices Ⓣ.
    • He is most famous for his Latin translation of Diophantus's Greek text Arithmetica (1621) in which Fermat wrote his famous 'Last Theorem' marginal note.
    • In fact the work contains relatively little original material by Bachet who based his text on the problems of Diophantus which appeared in Bombelli's Algebra and on a complete Latin translation by Wilhelm Holzmann (also known as Xylander) in 1575.

  23. Emilie Martin (1869-1936)
    • She entered Bryn Mawr College in 1890 and, after majoring in mathematics and Latin, she graduated with a B.A.
    • In 1893, while she was a student at Bryn Mawr College, Martin started to act as a private tutor in mathematics and Latin.
    • After one semester of graduate study, Martin spent the second semester of 1894-95 as a teacher of Latin in the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore.
    • This was the school where Martin taught Latin.

  24. Philip van Lansberge (1561-1632)
    • This collection of 52 sermons on the Calvinist catechism, dedicated to the States of Zeeland, was written in Latin.
    • However, when he was joined by an enthusiastic young astronomer Maarten van der Hove (who is better known by the Latin version of his name, Martinus Hortensius) in 1628, he quickly started publishing again.
    • Hortensius translated this text into Latin and published it under the title Commentationes in motum terrae diurnum, et annuum (1630).
    • The Dutch edition, written for those without mathematical skills, made quite an impact in Holland while the Latin translation was widely read and this soon led to Lansberge being strongly attacked by those opposed to the heliocentric theory.

  25. Jost Bürgi (1552-1632)
    • Jost Burgi's first name is sometime written as Joost, Jobst or Justus while his second name is sometime written in a Latin form Byrgius.
    • Although Burgi never learnt Latin (the language of science at this time), he was very knowledgeable in mathematics and astronomy with skills compatible with having been immersed in the scientific circle in Strasbourg, but certainly not as part of a university course.
    • One could reasonably ask how Burgi, who knew no Latin, could have known the details of the Copernican system and here we can give a clear answer since Nicolaus Reimers worked at the Observatory in Kassel in 1586-87 and made a translation of Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium from Latin to German for Burgi to study.

  26. John Colson (1680-1760)
    • In 1736, he published an English version of Newton's 'Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series' originally written in Latin.
    • In 1761, an edition of Newton's 'Arithmetica universalis' was published in Latin with Colson's commentary, also in Latin.
    • Colson had published Newton's (Latin) Fluxions in English, in 1736.

  27. Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
    • At Westminster Hooke learnt Latin and Greek but, although he enjoyed speaking Latin, unlike his contemporaries he never wrote in Latin.
    • The lecture had to be given in Latin and subsequently repeated in English.

  28. Christopher Wren (1632-1723)
    • At this school Christopher quickly became proficient in Latin and this is shown by letters he wrote in Latin to his father which still survive.
    • After this, and still before entering university, Wren was recommended to Oughtred as an appropriate person to translate into Latin his work on the mathematics of sundials.
    • Wren, despite the tragedy in his personal life at this time and his great disappointment at the reaction to his plans for St Paul's, set to work again and produced a third design based on a Latin Cross with a large dome.

  29. Tom Whiteside (1932-2008)
    • Despite this love of mathematics, his main subjects at school were history, French, and Latin.
    • with First Class Honours in French and Latin in July 1954.
    • Volume 2: This volume, provided like the former with a general introduction as well as introductions and numerous notes to each section, English translations of Newton's Latin pieces, facsimiles, an analytical table of contents and an index of names, was again prepared with the greatest care and competence.
    • Volume 7: As customary, in this magnificent edition of Newton's mathematical papers, all Latin pieces (except for secondary texts of minor importance) have been translated into English on facing pages.

  30. Archibald Milne (1875-1958)
    • He took the Edinburgh University Preliminary Examination, passing Latin and Greek at the Lower level and English, Mathematics, and Dynamics at the Higher level in October 1894, and then Higher Latin in April 1895.
    • Between 1894 and 1897 he took courses in English, Latin, Education, Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy at the Ordinary level.
    • It was doubtless true that the day had passed when Latin and Greek quotations were used in speeches in the House of Commons, but he hoped that they would never come to the day when they might doubt the words of Bacon:- "Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man." .

  31. Ludolph Van Ceulen (1540-1610)
    • This made his mathematical studies much harder since he could not read Latin or Greek so had to rely on friends to make translations of important texts for him.
    • However, he now had a problem since he felt he could not openly criticise Scaliger, given his position, and he also he had the problem that Scaliger's book was in Latin which he could not read (a friend must have translated the relevant parts).
    • Van Ceulen never did so, perhaps because he felt he could not enter a public dispute with a leading professor at the university, perhaps also because his inability to write Latin would have meant that he could not take part in the dispute on the usual terms.
    • Snell translated two of Van Ceulen's works into Latin to make them more accessible to the world-wide mathematical community.

  32. Bernhard Neumann (1909-2002)
    • He found the teaching at the Herderschule rather uninspiring particularly the lessons on French and Latin.
    • However, later in his school career things changed and Latin in particular became one of his favourite subjects.
    • He began reading Latin for pleasure and found some Latin texts on scientific topics of particular interest.

  33. Robert Recorde (1510-1558)
    • It was a course of study which he wanted to be available to everyone, not just the few educated men who could read Latin or Greek.
    • In order to do this he had to introduce many new English words to be the equivalent of the Latin or Greek terms in use at that time.
    • Cosa is Latin for a 'thing' which was used for the unknown in early algebra.
    • The word cos is Latin for whetstone, a stone for sharpening razors and tools.

  34. William Chauvenet (1820-1870)
    • Although William was extremely good at mathematics and this was the natural subject for him to study at university, he had to also be knowledgeable in Latin and Greek in order to be accepted onto a degree course.
    • He did not find this too much trouble and after one year of study he was proficient at Latin and Greek when he entered Yale University in 1836.
    • One might imagine that getting up to scratch in Latin to meet the entrance requirement would have been difficult enough, but he achieved far more than just the minimum level for he studied classics at Yale as well as mathematics and was awarded first prize for Latin composition at the end of his first year of study.

  35. Frans van Schooten (1615-1660)
    • Sometimes the Latin version Franciscus van Schooten is used.
    • Van Schooten Junior had been taught by his father and had studied mathematics, French and Latin before he enrolled at the University of Leiden on 15 May 1631.
    • He printed the first Latin version of Descartes' La geometrie Ⓣ in 1649.
    • He translated the 'Geometrie' into Latin (1649, second edition 1659-61), he wrote comments and explanations to it, transformed it into a systematic theory, and took it as a starting point for further exploration.

  36. Francesco Barozzi (1537-1604)
    • Francesco Barozzi (who also used the Latin form of his name Franciscus Barocius) was born to a wealthy patrician family on the Island of Crete.
    • Francesco attended school in Padua where he learnt Greek and Latin, then he studied at the University of Padua where mathematics was part of his course.
    • For example Heronis mechanici liber (1572) is a Latin translation of Heron's book on machines of war.
    • Among his many books is one on 13 ways to draw two parallel lines Admirandum illud geometricum problema tredecim modis demonstratum quod docet duas lineas in eodem plano designare, quae nunquam invicem coincidant, etiam si in infinitum protrahantur: et quanto longius producuntur, tanto sibiinuicem propiores euadant (1586) written in Latin.

  37. Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813)
    • He studied at the College of Turin and his favourite subject was classical Latin.
    • Before writing the paper in Italian for publication, Lagrange had sent the results to Euler, who at this time was working in Berlin, in a letter written in Latin.
    • One of the major roles of this new Society was to publish a scientific journal the Melanges de Turin which published articles in French or Latin.

  38. Marino Ghetaldi (1568-1626)
    • Let us also give the Latin version of his name, Marinus Ghetaldus, since his scholarly work was written in Latin and appeared under this name.
    • He learnt Latin to such a high level that he spoke and wrote in that language as easily as in his mother tongue.

  39. Nicholas Saunderson (1682-1739)
    • He attended the free school in the nearby small town of Penniston where he learnt Latin, Greek, French, and mathematics.
    • in very elegant Latin and a style truly Ciceronian.
    • Although the main text is in English, there are included at the end Latin explanations of the main results from Newton's Principia.

  40. Robert Simson (1687-1768)
    • Simson's lectures were delivered in Latin, at any rate at the beginning of his career.
    • His most important writings were written in that language, however, his edition of Euclid, after its first publication in Latin, appeared in English, as did a treatise on conic sections that he wrote for the benefit of his students.
    • Robert Simson died in his eight-first year and was buried in the neighbouring Blackfriars burial ground, where a marble tombstone, bearing a long laudatory Latin inscription, was raised in his memory.

  41. Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
    • Also around this time he wrote a comedy Philodoxius (Lover of Glory, 1424), composed in Latin verse.
    • In 1432 he began following a literary career as a secretary in the Papal Chancery in Rome writing biographies of the saints in elegant Latin.
    • This was first published in Latin but in the following year Alberti published an Italian version under the title Della pittura.

  42. Nicholas Kryffs (1401-1464)
    • His name often appears as Nikolaus Cusanus, following the usual practice in the Latin speaking church environment, from the Latin name of the town.
    • Nicholas studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and, in later years, Arabic, though he was not a lover of rhetoric and poetry.

  43. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)
    • Whitehead's father taught him Latin from the age of ten and Greek from the age of twelve.
    • There was little choice of subjects and all the boys studied as their major subjects Latin, Greek and English, with the minor subjects of mathematics, physical sciences, history, geography and modern languages receiving less attention.
    • Whitehead showed a special gift for mathematics and was allowed to devote extra time to that subject in his final school year, dropping composition and reading of Latin poetry to make way for the extra mathematics.

  44. Robert Philip (1854-1913)
    • In his first year of study he took English Literature, Greek 1, Latin 1, and Mathematics 1.
    • In the following year, 1870-71, he took Logic, Latin 2, Mathematics 2, Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene, Natural History and Comparative Anatomy.
    • In session 1871-72 he studied Moral Philosophy, Political Economy, Greek 2, and Latin 3.

  45. Laurent Lafforgue (1966-)
    • My specific interest in the topic of education began a few years ago when I signed a petition defending Greek and Latin as academic subjects, as they were in grave danger.
    • This reading shook me profoundly - Latin and Greek are just the tip of the iceberg! In France, even the teaching of the French language itself was at risk.
    • On 15 May 2004, Lafforgue gave the address A mathematician and the classics to a conference organised to support the teaching of Latin and Greek in secondary schools.

  46. Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932)
    • The pamphlet was written in Latin and nobody has been able to give a good reason for this, other than [',' H C Kennedy, Peano : Life and Works of Giuseppe Peano (Dordrecht, 1980).','5]:- .
    • In 1903 Peano expressed interest in finding a universal, or international, language and proposed an artificial language "Latino sine flexione" based on Latin but stripped of all grammar.
    • He compiled the vocabulary by taking words from English, French, German and Latin.

  47. Tommaso Ceva (1648-1737)
    • However, in many ways Tommaso Ceva was more of a Jesuit humanist than a mathematician, spending more time producing Latin prose than he did mathematics.
    • He was a noted poet, his Latin poem Jesus Puer, dedicated to the Holy Roman emperor Joseph I, being translated into many languages including German and Italian.
    • She read Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, English, German, and Arabic, and was so learned that a medal with the inscription "Gloria Genuensium" ("Glory of the Genoese") was struck in her honour.

  48. Michael Stifel (1487-1567)
    • The versions Styfel, Styffel, Stieffell, Stieffel are all used, as is the Latin version of his name Stifelius.
    • Unable to read Greek, he studied Euclid's Elements in the Latin translation by Campanus of Novara.
    • Stifel wrote Arithmetica integra in Latin but his next publication Deutsche arithmetica (1545) was written in German and was clearly designed to make algebra more widely understandable to a wide range of people.

  49. Vojtch Jarník (1897-1970)
    • He graduated from the Real Gymnasium on 7 July 1915, but without having studied Latin.
    • Latin was necessary for admission as a student at the Charles University in Prague where he wished to go to study mathematics and physics.
    • However, he was admitted in 1915 as an extraordinary student, only becoming a properly registered student three semesters later after passing a Latin examination.

  50. Adelard (1075-1160)
    • one of the translators who made the first wholesale conversion of Arabo-Greek learning from Arabic into Latin.
    • Adelard made Latin translations of Euclid's Elements from Arabic sources which were for centuries the chief geometry textbooks in the West.
    • We should make some further comments on his translation of al-Khwarizmi's tables which became the first Latin astronomical tables of the Arabic type with their Greek influences and Indian symbols.

  51. Wang Yuan (1930-)
    • Also in 1964 he published two papers on orthogonal Latin squares: A note on the maximal number of pairwise orthogonal Latin squares of a given order; and On the maximal number of pairwise orthogonal latin squares of order s, an application of the sieve method.

  52. William Watson (1884-1952)
    • He excelled at the school and, after coming top in Latin, Greek and Mathematics in every class he took, he completed his school education in 1902 being the dux and gold medallist.
    • He passed the Leaving Certificate examinations in Higher French in June 1901, then in Higher Latin, Greek, Mathematics, English, and Dynamics in June 1902.
    • In his first year he took the Ordinary classes in Latin and Greek but he certainly did not change course because of poor results since he achieved 75% in both coures.

  53. Giuseppe Biancani (1566-1624)
    • Giuseppe Biancani's name also appears in its Latin version of Josephus Blancanus; in fact his books were published under this Latin version of his name.
    • Finally, we note that Biancani's writings on history, poetry and classical Greek and Latin have not survived.

  54. William James Macdonald (1851-1941)
    • After completing his school education, Macdonald entered the University of St Andrews, giving the Latin version of his name "Gulielmus Jacobus Macdonald" when he matriculated.
    • In his first year 1868-9 he studied English Literature, Greek 1, Latin 1, and Mathematics 1; in 1869-70 he studied Logic, Greek 2, Latin 2, and Mathematics 2; in 1870-71 he studied Moral Philosophy, Political Economy and Mathematics 3; in 1871-72 he studied Natural Philosophy and Chemistry; finally in 1872-73 he studied Natural Philosophy and Mathematics 3.

  55. Willem 'sGravesande (1688-1742)
    • The Latin text, however, enhanced his reputation as a teacher and was translated into Dutch and English.
    • The book was written in Latin and entitled Physices elementa mathematica, experimentis confirmata, Sive introductio ad philosophiam Newtonianam Ⓣ but an English translation was quickly made by Desaguliers and the two volumes were each published in the same year as their Latin original.

  56. Carl Jacobi (1804-1851)
    • He received the highest awards for Latin, Greek and history but it was the study of mathematics which he took furthest.
    • By the end of academic year 1823-24 Jacobi had passed the examinations necessary for him to be able to teach mathematics, Greek, and Latin in secondary schools.
    • On 11 September 1831 Jacobi married Marie Schwinck then, a few months later in May 1832, he was promoted to full professor after being subjected to a four hour disputation in Latin.

  57. Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754)
    • He published The Doctrine of Chance: A method of calculating the probabilities of events in play in 1718 although a Latin version had been presented to the Royal Society and published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1711.
    • De Moivre first published this result in a Latin pamphlet dated 13 November 1733 (see [',' R H Daw and E S Pearson, Studies in the history of probability and statistics XXX : Abraham de Moivre’s 1733 derivation of the normal curve : a bibliographical note, Biometrika 59 (1972), 677-680.','4] for an interesting discussion) aiming to improve on Jacob Bernoulli's law of large numbers.
    • Indeed de Moivre revised the Latin translation of Newton's Optics and dedicated The Doctrine of Chance to him.

  58. Christoff Rudolff (1499-1543)
    • His teacher there was Heinrich Schreyber from Erfurt, who is better known by his Latin name Henricus Grammateus.
    • From this quote we see that he must have read the Latin Regensburg algebra of 1461 for in that work the solution to all problems begin with the words 'Pono quod lucrum sit una res'.
    • It is reasonable to believe that Rudolff's fellow mathematicians were upset at this book because it was written in German rather than Latin.

  59. Monteiro da Rocha (1734-1819)
    • Letters involved the study of Latin, Greek, History, geography, poetry and oratory.
    • his ability is good, judgement and understanding are sufficient; progresses well in Latin; in Philosophy, which he has only just begun, he makes good progress; not yet much experience; all goes well; melancholic.
    • Returning to the secular life, da Rocha remained in Sao Salvador where he applied for positions teaching Latin Grammar and Rhetoric.

  60. William Oughter Lonie (1822-1894)
    • 1836-37 Junior Latin, Junior Greek .
    • 1838-39 Greek Provectior, Latin Provectior, Ethics, Mathematics 2 .
    • 1839-40 Latin Provectior, Greek Provectior, Mathematics 3, Physics, Philosophy of the Senses .

  61. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944)
    • Mary Elizabeth Smith taught her son David Latin, Greek and other topics so that he had a superb education in addition to his elementary schooling in Cortland [',' W D Reeve, Editorial: David Eugene Smith, The Mathematics Teacher 37 (6) (1944), 278-279.','11]:- .
    • he could speak both Latin and Greek as a boy, and much preferred studying the Classics to weeding the garden or other chores assigned him by his father.
    • He studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew and took courses such as elocution and rhetoric [',' W D Reeve, Editorial: David Eugene Smith, The Mathematics Teacher 37 (6) (1944), 278-279.','11]:- .

  62. Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002)
    • At the lycee he attended in Paris, Schwartz excelled at both mathematics and the classical languages of Greek and Latin.
    • He was faced with a difficult choice, particularly after he was placed first in the national 'concours general' in Latin, and fourth in translating.
    • This, together with the same opinions from his teachers at the lycee, led Schwartz to decide that he would drop Latin, study both mathematics and philosophy and take the baccalaureate in both subjects.

  63. John Napier (1550-1617)
    • Two years later an English translation of Napier's original Latin text was published, translated by Edward Wright.
    • In the preface of the book Napier explains his thinking behind his great discovery (we quote from the English translation of 1616 of the original Latin of 1614):- .
    • Briggs read Napier's 1614 Latin text and, on the 10 March 1615 wrote in a letter to a friend:- .

  64. Geminus (about 10 BC-about 60)
    • It may be surprising that Geminus's name seems to be Latin rather than Greek but as Heath writes [',' T L Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics (2 Vols.) (Oxford, 1921).','3]:- .
    • The occurrence of a Latin name in a centre of Greek culture need not surprise us, since Romans settled in such centres in large numbers during the last century BC.
    • The recent article [',' A C Bowen and B R Goldstein, Geminus and the concept of mean motion in Greco-Latin astronomy, Arch.

  65. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750)
    • He used his language skills to translate a number of texts on astronomy, geography and scientific instrument into German or Latin.
    • For example he translated the English text Astronomia Carolina: A New Theorie of the Coelestial Motions by Thomas Streete into Latin, publishing his translation of the 1665 original in 1705.
    • The full Latin title is closer to a summary of the text than to a title so let us quote it in full: Atlas Coelestis in quo Mundus Spectabilis et in eodem Stellarum omnium Phoenomena notabilia, circa ipsarum Lumen, Figuram, Faciem, Motum, Eclipses, Occultationes, Transitus, Magnitudines, Distantias, aliaque secundum Nic.

  66. Willebrord Snell (1580-1626)
    • It is also commonly given as Willebrordus Snellius, the Latin version of Willebrord Snell, which he used for all his publications.
    • He had taught Greek, Latin, Hebrew and the liberal arts in a high school earlier in his career and he had studied medicine and Aristotle's works.
    • His schooling was from his father who taught him Latin, Greek and philosophy.

  67. Abraham bar Hiyya (1070-1136)
    • In the Hebrew of his time 'Ha-Nasi' meant 'the leader' but he is also known by the Latin name Savasorda which comes from his 'job description' showing that he held an official position in the administration in Barcelona.
    • Abraham bar Hiyya is famed for his book Hibbur ha-Meshihah ve-ha-Tishboret (Treatise on Measurement and Calculation), translated into Latin by Plato of Tivoli as Liber embadorum in 1145.
    • works into Latin..

  68. Gerard Mercator (1512-1594)
    • At school he studied Latin, religion and arithmetic.
    • By the time he was seven years old he was able to speak and to read Latin fluently.
    • As a new name he chose Mercator, the Latin for 'merchant' and gave himself the full name of Gerardus Mercator de Rupelmonde.

  69. Roger Bacon (1214-1292)
    • Although there is no record of Roger's education before he entered Oxford University it is likely that he would have been taught Latin and arithmetic by the local priest to prepare him for university studies (where all teaching was carried out in Latin).
    • This was only an administrative set-up and in no way indicated the language of teaching which, like Oxford, was Latin.

  70. Thomas Clausen (1801-1885)
    • Holst was an amateur astronomer and mathematician and was able to teach Clausen these subjects as well as Latin and Greek.
    • On 10 August 1842, Schumacher wrote to Gauss saying that Clausen had proved the nonexistence of orthogonal Latin squares of order 6 by dividing such Latin squares into 17 families.

  71. Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)
    • There he learnt Latin and arithmetic and, except for a year spent at school in Riez, he remained in Digne until 1607 [',' H Jones, Pierre Gassendi, 1592-1655: An Intellectual Biography (Graaf, 1981).','5]:- .
    • At the age of eleven he so impressed the Bishop of Digne with an oration delivered in Latin at the church in Champtercier that the Bishop is said to have declared that "this child will one day be the marvel of his century." On the secular side, during his last two years at school in Digne the young Gassendi composed prosimetric farces in Latin for his fellow schoolboys to perform in the large houses of the town.

  72. Nathan Mendelsohn (1917-2006)
    • In 1961 he published, with Diane M Johnson and A L Dulmage, the paper Orthomorphisms of groups and orthogonal latin squares.
    • he constructed five pairwise orthogonal 12×12 latin squares.
    • Over the past fifteen years or so, he has turned out a steady stream of extraordinarily innovative papers on Steiner systems and generalizations, orthogonal and perpendicular latin squares, all sorts of block designs, and varieties of groupoids and quasigroups.

  73. Jacob ben Tibbon (1236-1305)
    • Jacob ben Tibbon is also known by the Latin version of his name, Prophatius Judaeus, and in Provence he is known by the name Don Pro Fiat.
    • in the introduction to the Latin version of the Almanach [it is written] that the author had based his work on the Toledan tables.
    • Since all mention of the Toledan tables is absent from the Hebrew version, I had previously supposed that this was a mistaken interpolation by the person responsible for the Latin version.

  74. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
    • Hobbes showed his brilliance at this school and was an outstanding Greek and Latin scholar by the time he left this school at age fourteen, having already translated Euripides' Medea from Greek into Latin iambics.
    • On his return Hobbes took up studying Greek and Latin again.

  75. Regiomontanus (1436-1476)
    • The Latin version of Konigsberg (meaning King's mountain) is Regio Monte or, as it later became, Regiomontanus.
    • He matriculated at university as Johannes Molitoris de Kunigsperg, using 'Molitoris' which is a Latin form of 'Muller'.
    • One astrolabe in the group is of particular historical significance because it was presented at Rome in 1462, with a dedicatory inscription, to Cardinal Bessarion, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople from 1463, and one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the fifteenth century.

  76. Donald Knuth (1938-)
    • These were An imaginary number system and On methods of constructing sets of mutually orthogonal Latin squares using a computer I the latter paper being written jointly with R C Bose and I M Chakravarti.
    • In the second paper Knuth and his co-authors give two sets of five mutually orthogonal Latin squares of order 12.
    • In the 17th century a mathematician would have written a letter to another mathematician and they would discuss their everyday lives in English, French or German, say, but whenever they came to explain a piece of mathematics they would use Latin.

  77. Jacob Gool (1596-1667)
    • Jacob Gool is better known by the Latin version of his name, Jacobus Golius.
    • However, what Golius produced with his translation of Jouhari was a lexicon in which the definition of an Arabic word was given in Latin.
    • Although we have called this a translation, in fact it is not really a translation since Golius was able to use many other sources to help him define the Arabic words in Latin.

  78. David Gregory (1659-1708)
    • He suggested that teaching be in English rather than Latin, and emphasized practical knowledge.
    • Originally published in Latin with a preface by Newton, the book was brought out in an English version in 1715.
    • It continued to be influential well after Gregory's death and second editions of both the English and Latin versions were published in 1726.

  79. Ahmed ibn Yusuf (835-912)
    • Ahmed's work on ratio and proportion was translated into Latin by Gherard of Cremona.
    • The book On similar arcs was also translated into Latin and influenced European mathematicians.

  80. Adam Ries (1492-1559)
    • In 1509, at the age of sixteen, he was living with his younger brother Conradus in Zwickau where Conradus was attending the Latin school.
    • Ries's Coss, which, contrary to contemporary custom, was not written in Latin, but in German, is a link between the medieval descriptive algebra and the analytical algebra of modern days.

  81. George Pólya (1887-1985)
    • Following this he entered the Daniel Berzsenyi Gymnasium studying the classical languages of Greek and Latin as well as the modern language of German and of course Hungarian.
    • He then studied his favourite school subjects of languages and literature for two years, gaining his certificate which allowed him to teach Latin and Hungarian in a gymnasium.

  82. David J Tweedie (1870-1926)
    • Tweedie obtained passes at Higher level in Latin, Greek, and Mathematics.
    • He seems to have set out on a course studying classics for he took courses in English, Latin and Greek during his first three years of university study.

  83. Oronce Fine (1494-1555)
    • Briancon, the town of Fine's birth, was in the Dauphine so Fine wrote under the Latin name Orontius Finaeus Delphinatus, the last of these names indicating that he came from the Dauphine.
    • We are certain of the Latin form of Fine's name since this name is on his written works, but we are less certain of the French form of his name "Fine".

  84. Al-Battani (about 868-929)
    • Al-Battani's Kitab al-Zij was translated into Latin as De motu stellarum Ⓣ by Plato of Tivoli.
    • A Spanish translation was made in the 13th century and both it and Plato of Tivoli's Latin translation have survived.

  85. Christian Goldbach (1690-1764)
    • Both correspondents wrote in Latin.
    • a superb command of Latin style and equal fluency in German and French.

  86. René de Sluze (1622-1685)
    • Perhaps the most common French form of his name is 'Sluse', but the Latin version 'Slusius' is the one form which is always used in his scientific international correspondence.
    • His literary work also included a defence of the Latin language ..

  87. Lászlo Rátz (1863-1930)
    • At the Lyceum, in the first of his two years, he was taught history by Samuel Feher, Hungarian language by Imre Gobi, German and Latin by J P Kiraly, logic by Sandor Malatides, German by Gusztav Poszvek, religion by Sandor Poszvek, mathematics and physics by Janos Renner, and Greek by Karoly Thiering.
    • However, he had two new teachers, namely Miklos Gombocz who taught him psychology and history, and Matyas Mullner who taught him Latin.

  88. George Carse (1880-1950)
    • In June 1898 he passed Mathematics, French, Latin, and English at the Higher level in the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations.
    • In 1898-99 he took the Ordinary Classes in Senior Mathematics and Political Economy; in session 1899-1900, Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and Latin; then in 1900-01 and 1901-02 he took the Intermediate Honours Classes in Natural Philosophy and in Mathematics; taking the Advanced Honours Classes in the same two subjects in 1901-02 and 1902-03.

  89. Hermann Grassmann (1809-1877)
    • A new school, the Otto Schule, had just opened and Grassmann was appointed to teach mathematics, physics, German, Latin, and religious studies.
    • He wrote a number of textbooks, two of which were published in 1842: one was on spoken German, the other on Latin.

  90. Joachim Jungius (1587-1657)
    • Joachim Jungius was given the name Joachim Junge (or Jung) when he was born; Jungius is the Latin version of Junge which he used in all his publications.
    • He became Rector of the Gymnasium and also of the Johanneum, a Latin school which shared the same premises as the Akademisches Gymnasium.

  91. Maria Cunitz (about 1607-1664)
    • It is a little difficult now to assess exactly how far her education took her, but Johann Kaspar Eberti, writing in Educated Silesian Women and Female Poets in 1727 long after her death, claimed that Cunitz mastered many languages, in particular Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, Polish, Italian, and French.
    • Cunitz's introduction which follows was written in both Latin and German.

  92. Louis Antoine (1888-1971)
    • In Paris, Antoine was awarded a baccalaureate in Latin and Sciences in 1905 and, in the following year, a baccalaureate in mathematics.
    • Good father, he watched over the upbringing of his children, speaking in French, in Latin, in Greek, teaching physics and mathematics well ..

  93. Charles de Bouvelles (1471-1553)
    • In 1503 he published Geometricae introductionis in Latin.
    • We noted that Geometricae introductionis was first published in Latin but the work proved quite popular and so translations were in order.

  94. Nora Calderwood (1896-1985)
    • In March 1913 she passed Lower Drawing and Higher English in the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations, passing Mathematics, French, Latin, and Science at Higher level in the following March.
    • She took the following courses: 1914-15 - 1st Mathematics, and Latin; 1915-16 - 2nd Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry; 1916-17 - Intermediate Honours Mathematics; 1917-18 - Intermediate Honours Natural Philosophy, and Advanced Honours Mathematics; 1918-19 - Advanced Honours Mathematics.

  95. John Wallis (1616-1703)
    • However he spent 1631-32 at Martin Holbeach's school in Felsted, Essex, where he became proficient in Latin, Greek and Hebrew.
    • He was withal a good divine, and no mean critic in the Greek and Latin tongues.

  96. Gilles Roberval (1602-1675)
    • The parish priest was actually the chaplain to the queen, Marie de Medici, and he not only instructed Gilles Personne in mathematics but also in Latin and probably Greek.
    • He had several dictionaries, books on grammar, and (despite not being a religious man) a Latin Bible.

  97. Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698)
    • Erasmus received his first education from private tutors, then he attended a Latin school.
    • Bartholin edited Introduction to the geometry of Descartes by van Schooten and also translated Optics of Larissa into Latin.

  98. Nicomachus (about 60-about 120)
    • On the other hand Apuleius, the Platonic philosopher, rhetorician and author whose dates are 124 AD to about 175 AD, translated Nicomachus's Introduction to Arithmetic into Latin so this gives an upper limit on his dates.
    • However, several people including Boethius translated Introduction to Arithmetic into Latin and it was used as a school book.

  99. Dunham Jackson (1888-1946)
    • He excelled in high school, not only in science subjects but also in English literature, Latin, Greek and German.
    • He loved poetry and learnt a wide range of English poetry by heart and, perhaps even more remarkably, also poetry in Latin and German.

  100. Agner Erlang (1878-1929)
    • He continued his education during these years, however, being tutored in French and Latin.
    • Among these schools we mention three in Copenhagen, the Gammelholms Latin-& Realskole, the Femmers Kvindeseminarium and the Lang & Hjorts Kursus, and we also mention the Vamdrup Realskole in South Jutland [',' A K Erlang, + Plus Magazine (May 1997).','3]:- .

  101. Ole Jacob Broch (1818-1889)
    • However, Broch resigned from his position quickly, in order to found Nissen's Latin and Science School in 1843 with his friend Hartvig Nissen (1815-1874).
    • At Nissen's Latin and Science School [',' A Stubhaug, The Mathematician Sophus Lie: It was the Audacity of My Thinking (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).','2]:- .

  102. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    • Teaching was in Latin.
    • Before he departed he had his wife's body moved into the son's grave, and wrote a Latin epitaph for them.

  103. Gabriel Cramer (1704-1752)
    • He proposed a major innovation, which the Academy accepted, which was that he taught his courses in French instead of Latin, the traditional language of scholars at that time:- .
    • in order that persons who had a taste for these sciences but no Latin could profit.

  104. Alexander Brown (1877-1947)
    • He sat the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations and passed Higher English, Mathematics, Latin, and Greek in June 1893.
    • He then entered the University of Edinburgh, studying Latin, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Ordinary level in 1893-94.

  105. Samuel Clarke (1675-1729)
    • One of the tasks he undertook at this time was a Latin translation of Rohault's Traite de physique Ⓣ which was a physics text based on the physics of Descartes.
    • In 1706 Newton asked Clarke to translate his Opticks into Latin.

  106. Lipman Bers (1914-1993)
    • A human rights activist who hates and fears communism must also care about the human rights of Latin American leftists.
    • A human rights activist who sympathises with the revolutionary movement in Latin America must also be concerned about human rights abuses in Cuba and Nicaragua.

  107. Boethius (about 480-524)
    • He did, however, make Latin translations of Aristotle's Categories and De interpretatione and of Porphyry's Isagoge Ⓣ with two commentaries, which were widely used throughout the Middle Ages.
    • The work was originally written in Latin but it was later translated into many different languages.

  108. Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827)
    • Laplace's first paper which was to appear in print was one on the integral calculus which he translated into Latin and published at Leipzig in the Nova acta eruditorum in 1771.
    • Laplace also translated the paper on maxima and minima into Latin and published it in the Nova acta eruditorum in 1774.

  109. Pierre Wantzel (1814-1848)
    • Unhappy with the less academic nature of the school in 1828, Wantzel entered the College Charlemagne after being coached in Latin and Greek by a M Lievyns (whose daughter he was later to marry).
    • In 1831, the first prize of French dissertation from the College Charlemagne was awarded to him, and better yet, first prize in Latin dissertation, acquired in open contest, attested with splendour to the universality of Wantzel's aptitude.

  110. William Emerson (1701-1782)
    • He educated his son William, the subject of this biography, teaching him reading, writing and mathematics, as well as a little Latin.
    • His gravestone was inscribed in Hebrew and Latin with words written by Emerson himself:- .

  111. Florian Cajori (1859-1930)
    • Cajori makes very clear his aim in producing this edition of Newton's Principia which was to make the text readable to modern readers by replacing the archaic language used in the existing English translations of Newton's Latin text.
    • His "improved" language was based on a modernisation of the 1729 Motte translation - without reference to Newton's Latin edition - and contains numerous errors and deviations from the original meaning.

  112. Heinrich Suter (1848-1922)
    • In 1863 Suter entered the high school for Zurich Canton where he studied Latin and Greek.
    • A Latin translation of one version has survived and was published by Suter in 1914 in Die astronomischen Tafeln des Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi.

  113. John Pullar (1860-1940)
    • In his first year of study he took classes in Greek 1, Latin 1, and Mathematics 1.
    • In 1879-80, his second year of study, Pullar took the courses Logic, Greek 2, and Latin 2.

  114. Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553)
    • In 1549, he published the first book of Ptolemy's Almagest in Greek with a Latin translation, under the title Ptolomaei Mathematicae constructionis liber primus Ⓣ.
    • Still, since beginners are not yet conversant with the Greek language, I have added a Latin translation, for whose inaccuracy I beg the pardon of the experts.

  115. Nicolaus Mercator (1620-1687)
    • He later changed his family name, which was a common thing to do at this time, to Mercator which was the Latin form of 'merchant'.
    • In the following year of 1669, at the request of Collins and Seth Ward, Mercator translated the Dutch text Algebra ofte Stel-konst Ⓣ by Kinckhuysen into Latin.

  116. Frank Yates (1902-1994)
    • Together they proved a longstanding conjecture on 6 × 6 Latin squares in 1934.
    • A survey Yates wrote in 1951 on the design of experiments Quelques developpements modernes dans la planification des experiences discussed topics such as: factorial experiments, including a discussion of the weighing problem; the theory of confounding in factorial experiments; fractional replications; split plot designs; balanced and partially balanced incomplete block designs; lattices; lattice squares; and quasi-Latin squares.

  117. Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749)
    • made her learn Latin, which she knew as well as Mme Dacier; she knew the finest passages of Horace, Virgil and Lucretius by heart; all the works on philosophy by Cicero were familiar to her.
    • She used the third Latin edition of Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica Ⓣ, edited by H Pemberton under Newton's supervision, which had been published in London in 1726.

  118. Fritz Ursell (1923-2012)
    • At the Comenius Gymnasium, Fritz learnt Greek and Latin.
    • Ursell did well at Clifton College partly, he believed, because of his good grounding in Latin gained in Dusseldorf.

  119. William Brash (1888-1962)
    • He had been awarded the following Highers in the Leaving Certificate Examination: Mathematics (1903), Latin (1904), and English, German, Dynamics in 1905.
    • At University, Brash studied Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and Latin in session 1905-06.

  120. Olga Taussky-Todd (1906-1995)
    • At this stage she was still interested in writing and poetry, and initially the Latin that she began to study at the Gymnasium fascinated her, particularly Latin grammar.

  121. John Pell (1611-1685)
    • He was by this time an expert in Latin and Greek and, although we know little of his training in mathematics, we do know that he corresponded with Briggs about logarithms in the year in which he graduated with his B.A.
    • Pell published a number of works, for example Idea of Mathematics (1638) and the two page A Refutation of Longomontanus's Pretended Quadrature of the Circle (1644) (reprinted in Latin as Controversiae de vera circuli mensura (1647)).

  122. Albertus (about 1200-1280)
    • (New York, 1960), 554-566.','7] J E Hofmann examines a manuscript in the Dominikaner-Bibliothek Vienna which contains a treatment of the books I to IV of Euclid's Elements in Latin by Albertus.
    • The text shows that Albertus was familiar with the Latin translations from Arabic of Euclid's Elements by Boethius and Adelard of Bath.

  123. August Gutzmer (1860-1924)
    • During this time he also studied Latin with a private teacher to obtain the necessary qualifications to matriculate.
    • On 3 April 1884 he took the Latin examination at the Sophien Realgymnasium in Berlin and, having obtained the necessary pass, he registered as a student at Berlin University on 27th of that month.

  124. Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
    • Bessel attended the Gymnasium in Minden for four years but he did not appear to be very talented, finding Latin difficult.
    • The fact that he later became proficient in Latin, teaching himself the language, probably suggests that the Gymnasium failed to inspire Bessel.

  125. Walter Rouse Ball (1850-1925)
    • It taught Classical Greek, Latin, French, German, Mathematics, Chemistry, and English.
    • At Trinity there is a memorial with a Latin inscription which, in translation, reads:- .

  126. Sophus Lie (1842-1899)
    • In 1857 he entered Nissen's Private Latin School in Christiania (the city which became Kristiania, then Oslo in 1925) .
    • In 1871 Lie became an assistant at Christiania, having obtained a scholarship, and he also taught at Nissen's Private Latin School in Christiania where he had been a pupil himself.

  127. Jabir ibn Aflah (about 1100-about 1160)
    • Although not he was not in the first rank of Arabic mathematicians, he is important in the development of mathematics since his works were translated into Latin, and so became available to European mathematicians, whereas the work of some of the top rank Arabic mathematicians such as Abu'l-Wafa were not translated into Latin.

  128. K K Weatherhead (1898-1979)
    • He obtained passes in the Leaving Certificate examination at the Higher level in Latin, Mathematics, English, and French in 1915.
    • In his first year he took courses at the Ordinary level in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Latin.

  129. George Boole (1815-1864)
    • His interests turned to languages and his father arranged that he receive instruction in Latin from a local bookseller.
    • Having learnt Latin from a tutor, George went on to teach himself Greek.

  130. Alexander Barrie Grieve (1886-1952)
    • Barrie was educated at Breadalbane Academy and passed English, Mathematics, Latin, Greek, and French at the Higher grade in the Leaving Certificate examinations.
    • During his first year of study he took Latin and Greek at Ordinary level, then in the following session, 1904-05, he studied Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry at Ordinary level.

  131. Christopher Clavius (1538-1612)
    • Christopher Clavius was born in a German region and must have had a German name before adopting the Latin 'Clavius'.
    • Several guesses such as 'Clau' or 'Klau', or even 'Schlussel' which means 'key' so might have led to him taking the Latin 'Clavius' which also means 'key', have been made but none have ever been substantiated with any evidence.

  132. Friedrich Horn (1927-1978)
    • However, he could not study Latin at technical school so was unable to enter the University of Vienna to study mathematics since Latin was a prerequisite.

  133. Thomas Kirkman (1806-1895)
    • Thomas attended the grammar school in Bolton where he was taught Greek and Latin but no mathematics.
    • He worked in his father's office, continuing his study of Greek and Latin in his own time and extending his knowledge of languages by also learning French and German.

  134. Pierre Duhem (1861-1916)
    • Leaving the College Stanislas with outstanding achievements in Latin, Greek, science, mathematics and other subjects, he had to choose between studying at the Ecole Polytechnique which, in principle, prepared one to be an engineer, and the Ecole Normale, the more academic of the two.
    • Duhem's mother, on the other hand, wanted him to study Latin and Greek at the Ecole Normale, principally because she feared that a study of science would turn him away from the Roman Catholic beliefs that she had instilled in her children.

  135. Ernesto Pascal (1865-1940)
    • Carlo studied Latin at the University of Naples and became a professor of Latin literature at the universities of Catania, Pavia and Milan.

  136. Maxime Bôcher (1867-1918)
    • His final preparation for university was at the Cambridge Latin School from which he graduated in 1883.
    • His course at Harvard was a broad one for, in addition to mathematics, he studied a remarkably wide range of topics including Latin, chemistry, philosophy, zoology, geography, geology, meteorology, Roman and mediaeval art, and music.

  137. Vincenzo Viviani (1622-1703)
    • Viviani had in mind a grand edition of Galileo's works, in which the Latin works would be translated into Italian and vice versa, and throughout his life he collected an enormous quantity of material related to Galileo ..
    • Borelli took the manuscript to Rome where it was translated into Latin by Abrahamus Ecchellensis.

  138. Simon Stevin (1548-1620)
    • After this he moved to Leiden in 1581 where he first attended the Latin school, then he entered the University of Leiden in 1583 (at the age of 35).
    • It was written in Latin, and is the only one of his books to be first published in that language.

  139. Wilhelm Killing (1847-1923)
    • The first subjects to attract Killing at the Gymnasium were the classical languages of Greek, Latin and Hebrew.
    • After completing his doctorate Killing trained to become a Gymnasium teacher of mathematics and physics, also qualifying to teach Greek and Latin at a lower level.

  140. Ernst Straus (1922-1983)
    • In On the maximal number of pairwise orthogonal Latin squares of a given order (1960) Straus, together with Erdős and Chowla, showed that the number of pairwise orthogonal Latin squares of order n is greater than (1/3)n1/91.

  141. Louis Karpinski (1878-1956)
    • She graduated from Cornell in 1904 and, during 1904-05, she taught physics, chemistry, Greek and Latin at a school in New Jersey.
    • he located and studied manuscripts and early printed arithmetics of Spain, Italy, Provencal, and England, the latter culminated in the book "Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khwarizmi" (1915), which together with his extensive work on the algebra of Abu-Kamil is internationally known and cited.

  142. George Green (1793-1841)
    • He probably learnt a little of Latin, Greek and French at school but it is hard to see how even a bright eight year old boy in a good school could learn more than the briefest of introductions to these subjects.
    • The mathematics examinations did not prove hard for Green, but the other topics such as Latin and Greek proved much harder for someone with only four terms of school education.

  143. Tobias Mayer (1723-1762)
    • His address, given in Latin, was entitled 'De transmutatione figurarum rectilinearum in triangula' Ⓣ.
    • Bearing in mind that the publication of the Gottingen Commentarii had been suspended owing to an unfortunate dispute with the printer, and that Mayer spoke Latin eloquently, it is not unreasonable to conjecture that he may have decided to base his talk upon [a] German tract preserved among his unpublished writings in the Gottingen University Library.

  144. Kelly Miller (1863-1939)
    • Miller was awarded a scholarship to study there but had to take a 3-year Preparatory Course covering Latin, Greek, and mathematics before attending the College of Arts and Sciences at Howard.
    • There he studied Latin and mathematics, taught by James Monroe Gregory (1849-1915), who was himself a graduate of Howard.

  145. Ralph Boas (1912-1992)
    • At Junior High School he learnt Latin and, in mathematics, became skilled at algebraic manipulation.
    • He was very much following his parents love of arts subjects and expected that he would study French, German, Latin and Greek which his parents knew, then later go on to study more "exotic" languages.

  146. David Drysdale (1877-1946)
    • Drysdale passed English at Higer level in the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations in June 1894, then, also at the Higher grade, Mathematics, Latin, and Greek in June of the following year.
    • In the following session, from October 1896 to March 1897 he studied Logic, Psychology and Chemistry at the Ordinary level, then from May to July of 1897 he studied Latin, also at the Ordinary level.

  147. William B Coutts (1885-1946)
    • He passed Higher English in June 1903, then Higher Latin, Mathematics, and French in June of the following year.
    • In his first year he took Latin and Mathematics, failing both subjects in April 1905, but passing them in the October resits.

  148. Peter Comrie (1868-1944)
    • He first matriculated at the University of St Andrews in 1888 and in his first session he studied Greek 2, Latin 2, and Mathematics 2.
    • In his second year he studied Natural Philosophy, Logic, English Literature, and Latin 2.

  149. Jacob Bernoulli (1655-1705)
    • During this period he studied the leading mathematical works of his time including Descartes' Geometrie and van Schooten's additional material in the Latin edition.
    • Jacob had always found the properties of the logarithmic spiral to be almost magical and he had requested that it be carved on his tombstone with the Latin inscription Eadem Mutata Resurgo meaning "I shall arise the same though changed".

  150. Francesco Severi (1879-1961)
    • Severi had not studied Latin at secondary school and now required that subject to enrol for a degree in pure mathematics.
    • He overcame this problem by learning Latin on his own.

  151. Henry Briggs (1561-1630)
    • Henry Briggs attended a grammar school near Warley Wood where he became highly proficient at Greek and Latin.
    • Briggs read Napier's 1614 Latin text on logarithms and, on the 10 March 1615, wrote in a letter to his friend James Ussher that he was:- .

  152. Doris Schattschneider (1939-)
    • She taught Latin at several High Schools on Staten Island and had authored a popular Latin textbook.

  153. David Johnstone (1877-1935)
    • At George Heriot's, Johnstone sat the Leaving Certificate examinations and passed at Higher level English, Mathematics, French, and Latin (some in June 1894, some in June 1895).
    • He studied Latin during the summer of 1896 and 1897.

  154. Eugen Netto (1846-1919)
    • It was in fact Weierstrass who examined his final 20-page doctoral dissertation, written in Latin, De transformatione aequationis yn = R(x), designante R(x) functionem integram rationalem variabilis x in aequationem η2 = R1(xi) n = R (x) designating \R (x) as a rational function of the variable x in the equation \ η2 = R1 (xi)',5725)">Ⓣ.
    • These, again written in Latin, were: .

  155. Adriaan van Roomen (1561-1615)
    • Adriaan van Roomen is often known by his Latin name Adrianus Romanus.
    • The first part contains a Latin translation by van Roomen of the Greek text of Archimedes' On the measurement of the circle.

  156. Christoph Scheiner (1573-1650)
    • Nothing is known of Scheiner's early life before he entered the Jesuit Latin School of St Salvator in Augsburg in May 1591.
    • Welser was a scholar of Greek and Latin with a passion for history and philology who corresponded with many Jesuit scholars, including Christopher Clavius.

  157. William Youden (1900-1971)
    • Some balanced Graeco-Latin designs that incorporate Youden squares are discussed; these have statistical interest because of their potential for use as designs for orchard experiments, and some have mathematical interest because of their role in the construction of Graeco-Latin squares.

  158. David Kennedy Fraser (1888-1962)
    • Fraser passed Latin at Higer level in the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations in 1903, then, also at the Higher grade, Mathematics (Honours), Dynamics, and English in the following year.
    • In 1904-05, his first year of study, he took classes at Ordinary level in Mathematics, Latin, and Natural Philosophy.

  159. James Booth (1806-1878)
    • This classical school specialised in teaching Greek and Latin.
    • The subjects of the examination were pure and applied mathematics, experimental physics, mental and moral philosophy, Greek language and literature, Latin language and literature, and Hebrew and cognate languages.

  160. Paolo Frisi (1728-1784)
    • He studied the classics with father Onofrio Branda and poetry in Italian and Latin.
    • a scientific authority and [he] was also well known abroad, so much so that his major works (which he wrote in Latin) were translated into French and English.

  161. Francesco Maurolico (1494-1575)
    • He used a Latin form of his name in his publications, giving again different forms: Maurolycus, Maurolicus or Maurolycius.
    • It includes humanistic works, two libelli of carmina and epigrams, and his Latin verse translation from the Greek, Poemata Phocylidis et Pythagorae Moralia, as well as six books of Diodorus Siculus and six books of the elements of grammar.

  162. Bernard Lamy (1640-1715)
    • By the time he was twelve years old he was already an expert in Latin and he parents then sent him to study at the Oratorian college in his home town of Le Mans.
    • While teaching literature, grammar, Latin, Greek, history and geography at Juilly, Lamy was ordained to the priesthood in 1667.

  163. John Collins (1624-1683)
    • Being a poor minister's son born within three miles of Oxford, and a while instructed in the Grammar school I went out betimes, my parents being dead, apprentice to a bookseller in Oxford, who failing I lived three years at Court and in that space forgot the Latin I had..
    • the wars here breaking out, I went seven years to sea, most of it in the Venetian service against the Turk, wherein my hazard was almost as various as those of Dr Johnson set out in his sermon in print; and enjoying some leisure I recovered so much Latin that in 1646 I translated some books into English.

  164. Mary Somerville (1780-1872)
    • When visiting her uncle in Jedburgh Mary told him that she had been teaching herself Latin.
    • Far from being cross, her uncle encouraged her and the two would read Latin before breakfast while Mary stayed in the Jedburgh manse.

  165. John Jackson (1887-1958)
    • At this stage he was not aiming at a university education so, although he took a broad range of science subjects and modern languages, he did not take Latin or Greek one of which was compulsory at this time to enter university.
    • He now decided that he did want to enter university so spent the summer making good his lack of Latin so that he could sit the entrance examinations of the University of Glasgow.

  166. Giovanni Magini (1555-1617)
    • He published Ephemerides coelestium motuum, a major treatise on astronomy, in 1582 and in the following year he published an Italian version of the original Latin text.
    • At last, in 1602, he received materials for the formation of the maps of the kingdom of Naples; and in 1604 nearly the whole atlas was ready, and an index of it appeared in the Latin edition of his astronomical work, the 'Tavole del Primo Mobile'.

  167. David Gibb (1883-1946)
    • He also sat the University Preliminary Examination, passing Higher Latin in October 1900.
    • In his second year he studied Latin which he failed in April 1902, failed again in October 1904, but finally passed in October 1905.

  168. John Meiklejohn (1872-1951)
    • He sat the Preliminary Examinations of Thurso School Board obtaining passes in Higher Mathematics, Latin, and English in 1892, also passing Lower Greek in the same year.
    • He went to the University of Edinburgh to study classics and in his first session studied Ordinary Latin and Greek.

  169. Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039)
    • It was translated into Latin as Opticae thesaurus Alhazeni in 1270.
    • See [',' G Federici Vescovini, La fortune de l’optique d’ibn al-Haitham : le livre ’De aspectibus (Kitab al-Manazir)’ dans le moyen-age latin, Arch.

  170. Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615)
    • Although written in Latin, the work was later translated into French, Italian and German and so became a popular read widely book.
    • These works are judged rather by the universal applause of learned men of all nations; for they are seen printed in all parts of the world and translated into Latin, French, Spanish and various other languages; and the more they are heard and read, the more they please and are reprinted.

  171. Oskar Perron (1880-1975)
    • Oskar began his schooling at the Volksschule in 1886 before moving to the Latin School in the autumn of 1889.
    • The Latin school should have provided five years of schooling but in 1893 it was extended to six years of study.

  172. Gemma Frisius (1508-1555)
    • He was born Regnier Gemma and only adopted the name Frisius when he later became a scholar for, like many scholars from his country, he adopted a Latin version of his name.
    • The full Latin title of this work translates to On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography, with Instruction for the Use of Globes, and Information on the World and on Islands and Other Places Recently Discovered.

  173. Diophantus (about 200-about 284)
    • No one has yet translated from the Greek into Latin the thirteen Books of Diophantus, in which the very flower of the whole of arithmetic lies hid..
    • The most famous Latin translation of the Diophantus's Arithmetica is due to Bachet in 1621 and it is that edition which Fermat studied.

  174. Alexander Merriles (1880-1950)
    • He took the Leaving certificate examinations, passing at Higher grade in English and Mathematics in 1896, and at Higher grade in French and Latin in the following year.
    • At Edinburgh University, among the courses Merriles took at Ordinary level were Latin, Education, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and English.

  175. Robert Dunbar (1889-1959)
    • He sat examinations in the Scottish Leaving Certificate in 1905 and 1906 and was awarded Higher passes in English, Mathematics, Latin, and Greek, with Lower passes in Dynamics, and French.
    • He first matriculated in 1907 and his course of study included Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Intermediate Honours Mathematics, Thermodynamics, Intermediate Physics, Advanced Natural Philosophy, Advanced Mathematics, and Function Theory.

  176. G Leslie Frewin (1902-1999)
    • He studied for twelve years at the school obtaining passes in the Scottish Higher Leaving Certificate examinations in Latin, French, English, Mathematics, Analytical Geometry, and Geometry of Conics.
    • In his first session Frewin studied Second Ordinary Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Latin.

  177. Michael Scot (1175-1235)
    • The earliest documented record of his life and work is dated 18 August 1217 in Toledo Spain, where Michael Scot completed the translation from Arabic into Latin of al-Bitruji's Alpetragius the first work to present a non-Ptolemaic astronomical system.
    • His very meticulous description in Latin concerning the medical case of "Mary of Bologna" dismissed as a "calcified fibroid tumor", was realized in the 1970s to be the description of a very rare case of miscarriage or "spontaneous abortion", not followed by immediate expulsion, of twin embryos, dead at different dates and calcified.

  178. Douglas Jones (1922-2013)
    • Douglas excelled in Latin and Greek at the Grammar School and was advised to enter the Civil Service.
    • Competition for this was great and Douglas was not at all confident that he would make the grade so he decided to change from the Latin and Greek that he loved to mathematics.

  179. Cuthbert Tunstall (1474-1559)
    • Certainly here he gained two degrees and achieved an outstanding reputation as a scholar of great proficiency in Greek, Latin, and mathematics.
    • besides a knowledge of Latin and Greek second to none among his countrymen, he has also a seasoned judgment and exquisite taste and, more than that, unheard-of modesty and, last but not least, a lively manner which is amusing with no loss of serious worth.

  180. Gertrude Cox (1900-1978)
    • Then follows a detailed presentation of all the important designs: randomized blocks, Latin and Greco-Latin squares, factorial designs, balanced and partially balanced incomplete blocks, lattices and lattice squares, together with various combinations of these designs using different methods of confounding.

  181. John Mackie (1888-1955)
    • He taught at Leith Academy but continued to study there passing French in 1904, and Latin in 1905, both at the Higher level, in the Leaving Certificate examination.
    • He took Mathematics at Ordinary level in his first session at university, then Chemistry, Latin, Natural Philosophy, and Education all at Ordinary level in session 1907-08.

  182. Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky (1669-1739)
    • He studied at the Slavo-Greco-Latin Academy in Moscow from 1685 until 1694 and there became fluent in Latin, Greek, German and Italian.

  183. Raj Chandra Bose (1901-1987)
    • Bose made important contributions to a number of areas of geometry including hyperbolic geometry and its application to statistics, multivariate statistical analysis, finite geometries, orthogonal Latin squares, experimental designs, balanced and partially balanced designs and association schemes, difference sets, orthogonal arrays, factorial designs, rotatable designs, coding theory, information theory, graph theory, projective geometry, partial geometries, characterization and embedding problems in designs and geometries, file organization, and additive number theory.
    • The proof of falsity of a conjecture of Euler about the non-existence of two mutually orthogonal latin squares of order 2 modulo 4 by Bose and his co-workers, Parker and Shrikhande made it to the front page of the Sunday Edition of the 'New York Times' of April 26, 1959! This result earned them the nickname "Euler Spoilers." .

  184. Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921)
    • Before being accepted, she was tested on her knowledge of classic literature, she had to write a short composition, was tested on her language skills in Latin, Greek and German, was tested on her knowledge of history and of mathematics, physics and astronomy.
    • She took language courses on Latin, Greek, English, German, French, and Italian.

  185. George Uhlenbeck (1900-1988)
    • Although Uhlenbeck performed extremely well in his final school examinations in July 1918, he was not allowed to enter a university since his studies had not included Greek and Latin.
    • He chose to study chemical engineering there but shortly after, when the rules were changed by the Dutch government so that Greek and Latin were no longer required for university entrance, he left the Institute of Technology.

  186. J Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
    • In 1854 he entered Yale College where he won prizes for excellence in Latin and Mathematics.
    • After this he served as a tutor at Yale for three years, teaching Latin for the first two years and then Natural Philosophy in the third year.

  187. Alexander Burgess (1872-1932)
    • In his first year of study Burgess took courses in Latin, Greek and Mathematics.
    • In session 1891-92 he studied Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy.

  188. Félix Pollaczek (1892-1981)
    • Felix attended the Akademie Gymnasium, the Latin High School, in Vienna.

  189. Michelangelo Ricci (1619-1682)
    • Michelangelo quickly profited by these educational opportunities, quickly mastering Latin and Greek.

  190. Paul Stäckel (1862-1919)
    • He was also a real polyglot, able to write Latin, speak French and Spanish, and understand basic Italian, English and Russian.

  191. William Gentle (1877-1964)
    • He took the Edinburgh University Leaving Certificate examinations in 1896, passing Mathematics, English, and Dynamics at the Higher level, and Latin at Lower level.

  192. Roberto Marcolongo (1862-1943)
    • The purpose of the exhibition is to celebrate the universal and unequalled genius of Leonardo da Vinci, assumed as practically the symbol of all Latin and Christian, and therefore Roman, civilization, and to highlight the spiritual connections uniting this great man of accomplishments and creator with the realizations of Mussolinian and Imperial Italy.

  193. Agnes Scott (1894-)
    • She took the Leaving Certificate examinations and passed Drawing and Science at the Lower level in April 1912 and, at the same sitting, English, Latin, French, and Mathematics at Higher grade.

  194. Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838)
    • He learnt calculus so that he might study Newton's Principia and in 1790 he learnt Latin which was also necessary to enable him to read Newton's famous work.

  195. Frederick Atkinson (1916-2002)
    • He also was proficient in Latin and Ancient Greek, and had some knowledge of French, Italian, and Spanish.

  196. Joseph Bertrand (1822-1900)
    • Joseph showed remarkable talents as a child and by the age of nine he understood algebra and elementary geometry, as well as being able to speak Latin fluently.

  197. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • Although Tycho's father Otte considered learning Latin a waste of time, his foster parents were much keener that he should receive this type of education.

  198. Reinher of Paderborn (about 1140-about 1190)
    • (When naming the numbers we use mostly of the other characters than Latin because of the advantage of writing and arithmetic.) .

  199. Avicenna (980-1037)
    • Ibn Sina is often known by his Latin name of Avicenna, although most references to him today have reverted to using the correct version of ibn Sina.

  200. William Spence (1777-1815)
    • His progress in Latin was not remarkable; and, incredible as it may now appear, he certainly did not evince any uncommon capacity for arithmetical calculations: but still, such was the originality of his character, that he was undoubtedly considered by his companions as "no vulgar boy." .

  201. Pedro Nunes (1502-1578)
    • Pedro Nunes or Nunez wrote under the Latin name of Petrus Nonius Salaciensis.

  202. L E J Brouwer (1881-1966)
    • He had not studied Greek or Latin at high school but both were required for entry into university, so Brouwer spent the next two years studying these topics.

  203. Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)
    • Certainly the subject of this biography was the first to use this particular Latin form of his name.

  204. Aleksei Krylov (1863-1945)
    • In fact Krylov published the first Russian translation from Latin of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1915.

  205. John Alison (1861-1952)
    • In 1879 he entered Edinburgh University, and during the sessions from 1879 to 1884 gained distinction in Latin, Greek, logic, and mathematics.

  206. Howard Van Amringe (1835-1915)
    • So brilliant and many-sided were his native powers and his attainments that even before graduation he had been tendered an instructorship in no fewer than five widely diverse departments: Greek, Latin, history, chemistry, mathematics.

  207. Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253)
    • Grosseteste also made Latin translations of many Greek and Arabic scientific writings.

  208. Yvonne Bruhat (1923-)
    • The Pierre and Marie Curie University was largely the old Faculty of Sciences, on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of Paris.

  209. Balfour Lockhart (1886-1969)
    • He passed examinations of the Edinburgh University Preliminary Board, namely Higher Latin in September 1911, then Lower Dynamics, Higher English, Mathematics, and French in April 1912.

  210. Charles-François Sturm (1803-1855)
    • Charles-Francois's parents gave him a good education and at school he showed great promise, particularly in Greek and Latin poetry for which he had a remarkable talent.

  211. Évariste Galois (1811-1832)
    • She taught him Greek, Latin and religion where she imparted her own scepticism to her son.

  212. Jack Todd (1911-2007)
    • He wished to take the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge but, because he had chosen a course relevant to engineering when at school, he had no Latin qualification so could not enter Cambridge as an undergraduate.

  213. Saunders Mac Lane (1909-2005)
    • Winifred was a graduate of Mount Holyoke College and taught English, Latin and Mathematics at High School before her marriage.

  214. Marion Gray (1902-1979)
    • She passed the Scottish Leaving Certificate examination in Latin at Lower level in 1916, then at Higher level English, Mathematics, French, and Science in 1918 and Dynamics in 1919.

  215. Peter Turner (1586-1652)
    • Turner's quality as a mathematician cannot be judged as he left no mathematical publications but we know he wrote very stylish Latin! One might reasonably ask how someone who left behind no evidence of mathematical ability came to hold two of the major mathematical chairs in England.

  216. Daniel Gorenstein (1923-1992)
    • His secondary schooling was at Boston Latin School from which he graduated, entering Harvard University.

  217. Ivo Lah (1896-1979)
    • Because of a quote in Latin: Natura non facit saltus Ⓣ the book was proclaimed "antimarxist", taken out of circulation and later, in 1951, was mostly destroyed.

  218. Jan Tinbergen (1903-1994)
    • These schools allowed entry to the university system after passing additional examinations in Latin and Greek and this Tinbergen did.

  219. Luther Eisenhart (1876-1965)
    • He attended York High School but took the final year off school to prepare for entry to College undertaking independent study of Latin and Greek.

  220. Thomas Arnold Brown (1893-1965)
    • He passed the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations in English, Latin, French, and Mathematics in 1910.

  221. Fernando Pio Rosellini (1814-1872)
    • He perfected his knowledge of French, Latin and Greek, with the help of his brother Ippolito, who by then was professor of Oriental Languages at the University of Pisa.

  222. Hans Reichardt (1908-1991)
    • Hans attended the Humanistic Gymnasium in Altenburg where he learnt the three ancient languages of Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

  223. John McCowan (1863-1900)
    • John McCowan attended the University of Glasgow, taking classes in Latin and Greek in Session 1879-80.

  224. Paul Painlevé (1863-1933)
    • It was the year in which he was elected to the Government as a Paris Deputy for the fifth arrondissement, the Latin Quarter [',' Paroles et ecrits de Paul Painleve (Paris, 1936).','3]:- .

  225. Martin Gardner (1914-2010)
    • I flunked a class in Latin and had to take it over.

  226. Émile Mathieu (1835-1890)
    • He excelled at school, first in classical studies showing remarkable abilities in Latin and Greek compositions.

  227. Griffith Evans (1887-1973)
    • It was a family in which mathematics played a major role for George Evans was a mathematics teacher at the English and Latin High School in Boston.

  228. William Osgood (1864-1943)
    • He studied at the Boston Latin School where Benjamin Osgood Peirce taught mathematics for the year 1880-81 but at this stage Osgood was interested in studying the classics.

  229. Alexander Durie Russell (1872-1955)
    • He attended George Heriot's School in Edinburgh and passed the Preliminary Examinations of the Scottish Educational Department in English, Mathematics, Latin, Dynamics, French, and German in June 1889 and June 1890.

  230. Rafael Laguardia (1906-1980)
    • He was awarded a Guggenheim Foundation Scholarship in 1942 becoming a Latin American Exchange Fellow with a project to study the general theory of orbits.

  231. Edmund Stone (about 1700-1768)
    • He mastered both French and Latin in order to read mathematical works.

  232. Johann Hudde (1628-1704)
    • Van Schooten edited and published a Latin translation of Descartes' La Geometrie in 1649.

  233. Otto Schreier (1901-1929)
    • This school, which was excellent for mathematics and science, took a new approach emphasising English rather than Latin, Greek and French.

  234. Gabriele Manfredi (1681-1761)
    • However, they learnt from their brothers and became very knowledgeable in astronomy, mathematics and Latin.

  235. Eugene Lukacs (1906-1987)
    • He was appointed to teach Latin and advanced mathematics but, after a short time he moved to another college.

  236. Jules Tannery (1848-1910)
    • In particular he admired the ideas of Lucretius, a Latin poet and philosopher who lived in the first century BC.

  237. Donald Eperson (1904-2001)
    • enjoyed writing Latin and Greek verses.

  238. William Threlfall (1888-1949)
    • Both were unhappy about Nazi policies and they put a Latin epigraph by Johannes Kepler into Variationsrechnung im grossen Ⓣ which, in translation, reads:- .

  239. Georg Klügel (1739-1812)
    • K Volkert Klugel's thesis (in Latin and German) .

  240. Emory McClintock (1840-1916)
    • As well as being a clergyman in the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Reverend McClintock taught mathematics, Greek, and Latin at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

  241. Louis Couturat (1868-1914)
    • For his doctorate he worked on two theses, one being a Latin thesis which made a scientific study of the myths of Plato in the Dialogues, the other being a mathematical thesis on infinity.

  242. Johann Benedict Listing (1808-1882)
    • He mastered English, French, Italian and Latin and well as increasing his knowledge of mathematics and science at this school.

  243. Édouard Zeckendorf (1901-1983)
    • There he studied the classical languages of Greek and Latin, and the modern languages of English and German.

  244. João Delgado (1553-1612)
    • Francesco Barozzi (better known by the Latin form of his name Franciscus Barocius) published Opusculum, in quo una Oratio, et duae Quaestiones: altera de certitudine, et altera de medietate Mathematicarum continentur Ⓣ in 1560.

  245. Alberto Calderón (1920-1998)
    • Calderon was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1957), the National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina (1959), the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (1968), the Royal Academy of Sciences of Spain (1970), The Latin American Academy of Sciences of Venezuela (1983), the French Academy of Sciences (1984) and the Third World Academy of Sciences (1984).

  246. Joséphine Guidy-Wandja (1945-)
    • The Lycee Fenelon was the first girls' high school in Paris founded in the Latin Quarter in 1892 and prepared girls to enter the Ecole Normale Superieure in Fontenay-aux-Roses.

  247. Naum Il'ich Akhiezer (1901-1980)
    • To this same period dates his first enthusiasm for the theory of elliptic functions, which he studied from the original memoirs of Jacobi in Latin.

  248. Eustachio Manfredi (1674-1739)
    • However, they learnt from their brothers and became very knowledgeable in astronomy, mathematics and Latin.

  249. Pierre Verhulst (1804-1849)
    • Verhulst excelled in science but had other talents too, twice winning a Latin poetry prize.

  250. Banu Musa brothers (about 800-about 860)
    • This work became well known through the translation into Latin by Gherard of Cremona entitled Liber trium fratum de geometria Ⓣ.

  251. John Miller (1871-1956)
    • He had taken a range of subjects including Latin, Greek, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy and his degree was awarded with First Class Honours in Mathematics and Physics.

  252. Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708)
    • While in Paris, Tschirnhaus taught one of Jean-Baptiste Colbert's sons but, as Tschirnhaus did not know French, the lessons had to be in Latin.

  253. Gerbert of Aurillac (946-1003)
    • At Rheims Gerbert also taught his students how to use astronomical instruments and, with a breadth of learning which covered the full range of academic subjects, he taught his students the classic Latin authors Terence, Cicero, Virgil, Lucan, Persius, Juvenal and Statius.

  254. Albert Tucker (1905-1995)
    • He repeated his final year at high school so that he could obtain a scholarship to enter the University of Toronto, coming first in the provincial scholarship examinations in both mathematics and Latin.

  255. Paul Koebe (1882-1945)
    • He entered this school in 1891 and there he studied religion, Latin and modern languages, history and geography, and mathematics and science.

  256. Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671)
    • This two-volume treatise (Volume 1, 1639; Volume 2, 1640) showed the range of Riccioli's expertise for this book was on metrics and Latin prose style.

  257. Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865)
    • At this College, then under the directorship of Johannes Gurlitt (1754-1827), who enjoyed a high reputation for classical learning, the boy-student rapidly advanced, and in addition to considerable ability in Latin composition, his knowledge of Greek was sufficient to enable him to translate and enjoy the Lyrics of Pindar.

  258. Manuel Valdivia (1928-2014)
    • In another way he returned to describing this idea in the speech he gave at the opening lecture of the 1986-87 course at the University of Valencia when he told us that he felt he identified with the philosophical spirit of the Latin poet Virgil when faced with the attempt of his friends to dissuade him from studying Greek in the last years of his life responded bluntly: "You have to work, you have to study as if you are never going to die." In that same lecture another facet of his spirit could be seen when he stated that in difficult moments, or when the means to work that were within his reach were meagre, he had never allowed the sadness of prevent him using all possibilities, quoting the phrase of the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore: "If you cry at night because you can not see the sun, tears will prevent you from looking at the stars." .

  259. Franc Mocnik (1814-1892)
    • He spent three years at this school before his parents decided that he showed such promise that he should study at a "Latin school".

  260. James Cassels (1891-)
    • In 1910 he passed Lower Latin and Analytical Geometry in the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations, and Mathematics, English, and French at Higher level.

  261. William Rankine (1820-1872)
    • At first he was strongly attracted to number theory but when he was 14 years old one of his uncles gave him a Latin edition of Newton's Principia which he read eagerly.

  262. Karl von Staudt (1798-1867)
    • Johann Christian became the legal council for the city but major changes to the education system after the annexation saw the creation of the four-year Latin school in Rothenburg (now the Reichsstadt Gymnasium) which Karl attended.

  263. Paul Halmos (1916-2006)
    • On his first day he managed to work out where to go by exchanging a few words with a teacher in Latin and French.

  264. Alec Aitken (1895-1967)
    • The following year he returned to his university studies, graduating in 1920 with First Class Honours in French and Latin but only Second Class Honours in mathematics in which he had no proper instruction.

  265. Carl Friedrich Hindenburg (1741-1808)
    • he took courses in medicine, philosophy, Latin, Greek, physics, mathematics, and aesthetics.

  266. Simon Lhuilier (1750-1840)
    • In that year an improved version of his prize-winning essay on limits was published in Latin in Tubingen.

  267. Éamon de Valera (1882-1975)
    • The results he obtained were a pass with honours in all the subjects he had taken, namely: Greek, Latin, English, French, Arithmetic, Euclid and Algebra.

  268. Dirk Struik (1894-2000)
    • He turned his attention to a number of topics of special interest to him, in particular to promoting the history of the sciences, especially mathematics, in Latin America.

  269. George Stokes (1819-1903)
    • In particular, having studied at Trinity College Dublin, he was able to teach George Latin grammar.

  270. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978)
    • At the time it was rumoured that in the whole of his time at High School not only was his work in Latin always given the top marks but that he had made not a single grammatical error.

  271. Samuel Haughton (1821-1897)
    • The subjects of the examination were pure and applied mathematics, experimental physics, mental and moral philosophy, Greek language and literature, Latin language and literature, and Hebrew and cognate languages.

  272. James Taylor (1851-1910)
    • This involved compulsory papers on Mathematics, Latin and English.

  273. Simon Mayr (1573-1624)
    • I speak of Simon Mayr of Gunzenhausen; he it was in Padua, where I resided at the time, who set forth in Latin the use of the said compass of mine and, appropriating it to himself, had one of his pupils print this under his name.

  274. Richard Delamain (1600-1644)
    • It would appear that Delamain was not familiar with languages other than English, and his education had not given him Latin or French.

  275. Estienne de la Roche (about 1470-about 1530)
    • After it had been in the possession of de la Roche, it was bought by an Italian, Leonardo de Villa, according to a note written in Latin at the beginning of the work.

  276. James MacCullagh (1809-1847)
    • MacCullagh entered for the highly competitive fellowship examination, conducted orally in Latin.

  277. Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574)
    • After his father's execution, Rheticus studied at the Latin school in Feldkirch, then went to Zurich where he studied at the Frauenmuensterschule from 1528 to 1531.

  278. Mary Newson (1869-1959)
    • She was taught at home by her mother, who taught herself Latin and Greek so that she could prepare her children for a university education.

  279. Edgar Raymond Lorch (1907-1990)
    • She was a professor of Latin and Greek at the Liceo Virgilio in Rome, before emigrating to the United States in 1947.

  280. Leslie Woods (1922-2007)
    • used to boast that he was the only fisherman in Auckland with a knowledge of Latin and Greek, and he was certainly not going to let his son waste time learning such useless dead languages! .

  281. Hermann of Reichenau (1013-1054)
    • In other words he published in Latin much scientific work which before this time had been only available in Arabic.

  282. Hanno Rund (1925-1993)
    • Although he was interested in science, and in mathematics in particular, he won a King's Entrance Scholarship to the University of Cape Town for his performance in Latin and English.

  283. Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859)
    • Although Dirichlet could easily submit an habilitation thesis, this was not allowed since he did not hold a doctorate, nor could he speak Latin, a requirement in the early nineteenth century.

  284. Percy MacMahon (1854-1929)
    • This study of symmetric functions led MacMahon to study partitions and Latin squares, and for many years he was considered the leading worker in this area.

  285. David Cariolaro (1969-2014)
    • Andersen's doctoral thesis of 1979 was Latin squares and their generalizations.

  286. Clarence Lewis (1883-1964)
    • There he studied Latin, Greek, French, mathematics and physics.

  287. Laurence Chisholm Young (1905-2000)
    • In addition to English he read French, Italian, German, Russian, Danish, Polish, Latin and Greek.

  288. John Hammersley (1920-2004)
    • In 1929, his last year at this elementary school, he was taught Latin and algebra.

  289. Luca Pacioli (1445-1517)
    • In 1509 he published the three volume work Divina proportione and also a Latin translation of Euclid's Elements.

  290. Moritz Abraham Stern (1807-1894)
    • He had a particular talent for languages, learning Hebrew, Yiddish, Latin and Greek to perfection, as well as ancient oriental languages such as Chaldean and Syriac.

  291. William Hamilton (1788-1856)
    • William was educated at a variety of Scottish and English schools before entering the University of Glasgow when he was 12 years old to study Greek and Latin.

  292. William Jones (1675-1749)
    • Jones made a copy of the original Latin, giving it the title Artis analyticae specimina sive geometria analytic Ⓣ and it was this version which was eventually published.

  293. Xu Guang-qi (1562-1633)
    • They took the Latin commentary on Euclid's Elements first published by Clavius in 1574.

  294. Charles Graves (1812-1899)
    • The subjects of the examination were pure and applied mathematics, experimental physics, mental and moral philosophy, Greek language and literature, Latin language and literature, and Hebrew and cognate languages.

  295. William Braikenridge (1700-1762)
    • After quoting from his own Latin Preface to the Exercitatio geometrica of which we gave an English translation above, Braikenridge continues:- .

  296. Diocles (about 240 BC-about 180 BC)
    • Latin translations from about 1200 of the writings of al-Haytham brought the properties of parabolic mirrors discovered by Diocles to European mathematicians.

  297. Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576)
    • Girolamo or Hieronimo Cardano's name was Hieronymus Cardanus in Latin and he is sometimes known by the English version of his name Jerome Cardan.

  298. Petre Sergescu (1893-1954)
    • He graduated with a baccalaureate in science and a second baccalaureate in Latin.

  299. Jakob Nielsen (1890-1959)
    • There he studied religion, Latin and modern languages, history and geography, and mathematics and science.

  300. James Mitchell (1871-1959)
    • He won medals or prizes in a wide range of subjects: mathematics, natural philosophy, Latin, Greek, logic, and psychology.

  301. Gino Loria (1862-1954)
    • I was then ignorant of the maxim, formed by Cicero in the most high sounding togaed Latin, according to which 'history is the master of life,' just as I was ignorant of the disrespectful ironic reply of Hegel, according to which instead 'history teaches only that men have never learned anything about it.' But I felt, however dimly, that, although, just as there do not exist two individuals perfectly equal physically or morally, so there never unfold two existences identical in everything, still the spectacle offered by the evidence of the life of one person might suggest, by way of generalization, some directives of universal character by which I might launch my own career in the world.

  302. Bartholomeo Pitiscus (1561-1613)
    • First written in Latin, by Bartholomew Pitiscus of Grunberg in Silesia, and now translated into English by Ralph Handson.

  303. Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)
    • There Joseph studied Latin and French and showed great promise.

  304. Ptolemy (about 85-about 165)
    • This was translated into Arabic as "al-majisti" and from this the title Almagest was given to the work when it was translated from Arabic to Latin.

  305. John Dee (1527-1609)
    • There he studied Greek, Latin, philosophy, geometry, arithmetic and astronomy.

  306. Gaston Tarry (1843-1913)
    • Tarry also solved Euler's 36 Officer Problem, proving that two orthogonal Latin squares of order 6 do not exist.

  307. Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877)
    • She was very interested in politics and fluent in French, Latin, and Greek.

  308. Gregory of Saint-Vincent (1584-1667)
    • Gregory of Saint-Vincent was known as Gregoire and also by the Latin version of his name, Gregorius a Sancto Vincentio.

  309. James Hutton (1726-1797)
    • There he studied Latin, Greek and mathematics, and in November 1740, at the age of fourteen, he entered the University of Edinburgh.

  310. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
    • In 1788 Gauss began his education at the Gymnasium with the help of Buttner and Bartels, where he learnt High German and Latin.

  311. Pietro Cataldi (1548-1626)
    • Note that of particular significance is the fact that he chose to teach in the local dialect of Italian rather than in Latin as was the custom in those days.

  312. John Kerr (1853-1932)
    • Latin plays an unimportant part in the training and Greek, by regulations of the school, is expressly excluded.

  313. Paul Mansion (1844-1919)
    • Mansion was particularly grateful to three teachers at the College for the positive influence they had on him, namely J Poumay, who taught him French and German, G Smiet, who taught him mathematics, and J Kunders , who taught him Latin and Greek.

  314. James Wiegold (1934-2009)
    • At the grammar school, the educationally deprived child's world opened up: many times he has recalled the day he brought home his Latin books and peeped awestruck into this brave new world.

  315. Eduard Study (1862-1930)
    • Eduard Study was the son of Carl Traugott Wilhelm Study, a teacher of Latin, Greek, German and history at the Coburg Gymnasium, and Caroline Therese Henriette von Langsdorff.

  316. Nicholas Oresme (1323-1382)
    • From 1370 he lived mainly in Paris, advising Charles on financial matters as well as translating from Latin into French Aristotle's Ethics, Politics and On the Heavens and the Aristotle style work Economics.

  317. Wilhelm Klingenberg (1924-2010)
    • Wilhelm attended schools in Berlin where he learnt Latin, Greek and French but he had to study mathematics on his own.

  318. Francesco Grimaldi (1618-1663)
    • The name diffraction was chosen by Grimaldi because the effect reminded him of how a flowing fluid splits apart when a thin stick is placed in its path - the Latin diffractio means to "break apart".

  319. Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746)
    • after studying Latin, Greek, Logic, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy and Mathematics.

  320. Dmitrii Menshov (1892-1988)
    • He went on to study French, German, English, Latin, and Armenian at school.

  321. Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1787)
    • Two less common forms are the French version Roger Joseph Boskovic and the Latin version Rogerio Josepho Boscovich.

  322. Annibale Giordano (1769-1835)
    • From an early age Giordano showed that he has a great inclination to study and he later related that at by the time he was ten years old he already knew sufficient history, Latin and Greek that his teachers told him that they could not teach him any more.

  323. Eleanor Pairman (1896-1973)
    • Pairman sat the Scottish Leaving Certificate examinations passing Lower Dynamics and Lower Science, with Higher passes in English, French, Latin, Mathematics, and Analytical Geometry.

  324. Anna Johnson Wheeler (1883-1966)
    • In 1899 Anna Johnson entered the University of South Dakota where she showed great promise in mathematics but also studied English, Physical Culture, History, German, Latin, French, Physics and Chemistry.

  325. David Hilbert (1862-1943)
    • Although this was reputed to be the best school in Konigsberg, the emphasis was on Latin and Greek with mathematics considered as less important.

  326. Paul Wittich (1546-1586)
    • On Saturday 29 October 1580 Tycho wrote the following inscription in Latin on the title page of Peter Apian's Astronomicum Caesareum, then gave the book to Wittich: .

  327. Ernst Schröder (1841-1902)
    • The Rev Walther gave his grandson an exceptionally good basic education with particular emphasis on the study of Latin.

  328. Georg Peurbach (1423-1461)
    • went into at least fifty-six printed editions between 1472 and 1653 (counting translations and commentaries as well as editions of the original Latin text).

  329. Bernt Holmboe (1795-1850)
    • All teaching had been in Latin but a few years before Holmboe studied there major changes had taken place: teaching was in Norwegian and specialist subject teachers were employed.

  330. Adolph Pavlovich Yushkevich (1906-1993)
    • He spoke many languages, including Latin, and was well acquainted with literature, particularly the works of Russian writers.

  331. Georges de Rham (1903-1990)
    • The Gymnase classique in Lausanne specialised in Greek and Latin and taught little in the way of mathematics.

  332. Otton Nikodym (1887-1974)
    • He prepared himself for the exams in Latin and Greek and also obtained a classical high school diploma.

  333. Henryk Zygalski (1908-1978)
    • The examining committee was chaired by the Director of the Gymnasium, Dezydery Ostrowski and the committee consisted of Julian Janicki, Mieczysław Michałkiewicz (who examined Polish), Kazimierz Pertek (who examined the Latin language), Jan Odroń (who examined the Greek language), Aleksander Tarnawski (who examined history), and Jozef Huss (who examined mathematics and physics).

  334. Mark Kac (1914-1984)
    • Kac studied Latin and Greek at school as well as mathematics, physics and chemistry.

  335. Georg Zehfuss (1832-1901)
    • At the age of fifteen, he entered the Polytechnic in Darmstadt, where he devoted himself to the study of mathematics, mechanics, physics and chemistry, encouraged by his teacher Strecker, but continued to attend classes in Latin, French as well as German history and literature.

  336. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1979)
    • At 12 I could speak French and German, had a basic knowledge of Latin and a full command of arithmetic.

  337. Joseph Raphson (1668-1712)
    • He translated Newton's algebraic work from Latin to English.

  338. Tjalling Charles Koopmans (1910-1985)
    • There he learnt mathematics, physics, chemistry, Latin, Greek, and three modern languages.

  339. George Lawson (1870-1941)
    • In session 1887-88 he took the classes Greek 2, Latin 2, and Mathematics 1; in 1888-89 he took Logic, English Literature, and Mathematics 2; in session 1889-90 he took Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy and Political Economy, English Literature, Advanced Metaphysics, and Mathematics 3; in session 1890-91 he took Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Natural History, and Physiology.

  340. Tadeusz Banachiewicz (1882-1954)
    • Other minor planets named by Banachiewicz include: Lorcia (discovered 1933 and named in honour of his wife); Wawel (discovered in 1935 and named after the castle in Krakow); and Varsavia (discovered in 1933 and named after the Latin name for Warsaw).

  341. Jacques Ozanam (1640-1718)
    • Ozanam's original edition contained an early example of a problem about orthogonal Latin squares:- .

  342. Sarvadaman Chowla (1907-1995)
    • He wrote on additive number theory (lattice points, partitions, Waring's problem), analysis, Bernoulli numbers, class invariants, definite integrals, elliptic integrals, infinite series, the Weierstrass approximation theorem), analytic number theory (Dirichlet L-functions, primes, Riemann and Epstein zeta functions), binary quadratic forms and class numbers, combinatorial problems (block designs, difference sets, Latin squares), Diophantine equations and Diophantine approximation, elementary number theory (arithmetic functions, continued fractions, and Ramanujan's tau function), and exponential and character sums (Gauss sums, Kloosterman sums, trigonometric sums).

  343. Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854-1923)
    • From them she learnt mathematics, science and Latin.

  344. Otto Yulyevich Schmidt (1891-1956)
    • His passion for learning is illustrated by the fact that he approached the headmaster of the school in Odessa wanting to learn ancient Greek (he was already fluent in Latin).

  345. Vincenzo Riccati (1707-1775)
    • At the College of Santa Caterina he taught Italian literature and Latin but from 1735 he began to study theology.

  346. Raymond Archibald (1875-1955)
    • He was brought up in the classical tradition with much emphasis on Latin and Greek.

  347. Abraham Sharp (1653-1742)
    • An English translation of the Latin inscription reads:- .

  348. Andrew Young (1891-1968)
    • He passed the Leaving Certificate examinations at Higher level in English, Latin, Greek, and Mathematics in 1907.

  349. Laura Bassi (1711-1778)
    • She is said to have studied anatomy, natural history, logic, metaphysics, philosophy, chemistry, hydraulics, mechanics, algebra, geometry, ancient Greek, Latin, French, and Italian.

  350. Pierre Rémond de Montmort (1678-1719)
    • He became friendly with these mathematicians even though he suspected de Moivre of plagiarism with his De Mensura Sortis Ⓣ (the Latin precursor of Doctrine of Chance).

  351. Dougald Mcquistan (1879-1946)
    • After winning a Marshall Bursary, he entered the University of Glasgow in the same year and, after obtaining honours in Greek and Latin in April 1899, he graduated M.A.

  352. Thabit (836-901)
    • It was translated into Latin by Gherard of Cremona and became a popular work on mechanics.

  353. Émile Picard (1856-1941)
    • Strangely he was a brilliant pupil at almost all his subjects, particularly in translating Greek and Latin poetry, but he disliked mathematics.

  354. Nicola Fergola (1753-1824)
    • Fergola studied Latin literature at the Dominican school of Thomas Aquinas and here, for the first time, he came across geometry taught by an excellent teacher.

  355. Jack Kiefer (1924-1981)
    • Extending rather special results due to A Wald and S Ehrenfeld he shows that many commonly employed symmetrical designs (such as balanced incomplete block designs, Latin squares, Youden squares, etc.) possess optimum properties among the class of non-randomized designs.

  356. Thomas Lumsden (1895-1944)
    • He passed the Leaving Certificate and Edinburgh University Preliminary Examinations in Latin at Lower level and English at Higher level in April 1911, then Mathematics at Higher level in April 1912, passing Dynamics, and Science (also at Higher level) in September of that year.

  357. Isaac Todhunter (1820-1884)
    • His sustained industry and methodical distribution of his time enabled him to acquire a wide acquaintance with general and foreign literature; and besides being a sound Latin and Greek scholar, he was familiar with French, German, Spanish, Italian, and also Russian, Hebrew, and Sanscrit.

  358. Franz Aepinus (1724-1802)
    • 15 (1) (1988), 9-31.','4] relate that in 1763 Aepinus published in Latin in the Commentaries of the St Petersburg Academy a proof of the binomial theorem for real values of the exponent.

  359. Jacqueline Ferrand (1918-2014)
    • Her father, Auguste, was a school teacher of Latin and Greek.

  360. Edward Blades (1875-1953)
    • In session 1895-1896 he took courses in Latin, Natural Philosophy, and Education; in session 1896-1897 he took courses in English, and Mathematics; in session 1897-1898 he took courses in Natural Philosophy (Intermediate), and Mathematics (Intermediate); and in session 1899-1900 he took courses in Natural Philosophy (Advanced), and Mathematics (Advanced).

  361. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
    • He headed the text with a Latin statement meaning "Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth" showing himself a free thinker from an early stage.

  362. Anders Celsius (1701-1744)
    • He wrote Swedish and Latin verses.

  363. Alfred Tarski (1901-1983)
    • He studied subjects such as Russian, German, French, Greek and Latin in addition to the standard school topics.

  364. Honoré Fabri (1608-1688)
    • Honore Fabri's name sometime appears with the spelling Fabry, and sometimes in the Latin form Honoratus Fabrius.

  365. Albrecht Fröhlich (1916-2001)
    • He certainly did well in mathematics and science but he was awarded poor marks for languages such as English and Latin.

  366. Norman Routledge (1928-2013)
    • His background in Latin was good enough to allow him to read it in the original.

  367. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865)
    • By the age of five, William had already learned Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.

  368. George Airy (1801-1892)
    • noted for his memory, repeating in one examination 2394 lines of Latin verse.

  369. Thomas Young (1773-1829)
    • By the time he left this school in 1786 he was knowledgeable in many languages, including ancient Greek, Latin and Hebrew, as well as French and Italian.

  370. Leopold Infeld (1898-1968)
    • Subjects like Latin were not covered at all at the commercial school so he had to learn that without any support from teachers.

  371. J C Burkill (1900-1993)
    • Three years later he entered St Paul's School, London, where he was an outstanding scholar of classical Greek and Latin as well as showing considerable talent for mathematics.

  372. Walter Ledermann (1911-2009)
    • There he learnt classics, studying Latin for nine years and Greek for six years.

  373. Matteo Ricci (1552-1610)
    • The First Six Books of Euclid was based on Clavius's Latin version of Euclid's Elements which Ricci had studied under Clavius's guidance while in Rome.

  374. George Mathews (1861-1922)
    • Mathews was an accomplished classical scholar; and besides Latin and Greek he was proficient in Hebrew, Sanskrit and Arabic.

  375. Francis Maseres (1731-1824)
    • Hale's latin treatise on fluxions (1800); and .

  376. Ernst Specker (1920-2011)
    • Examples of his later papers are The fundamental theorem of algebra in recursive analysis (1969), Die Entwicklung der axiomatischen Mengenlehre Ⓣ (1978), (with H Kull) Direct construction of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (1987), Application of logic and combinatorics to enumeration problems (1988).

  377. Hermann Brück (1905-2000)
    • The school specialised in Latin, Greek and mathematics.

  378. John Williamson (1901-1949)
    • He sat the Leaving Certificate examinations passing Mathematics, Latin, Greek, French, and English at Higher grade.

  379. Edward Titchmarsh (1899-1963)
    • I learnt enough Latin to pass and enough Greek to fail.

  380. Empedocles (about 492 BC-about 432 BC)
    • The name Acragas is Greek, while the Latin name for the town was Agrigentum.

  381. Julius Petersen (1839-1910)
    • In the last part of his career, from 1888 to 1909, Petersen worked on function theory, latin squares, and number theory.

  382. Harlow Shapley (1885-1972)
    • The most reliable sources of information relating to the popular astronomical notions of the Romans are those found in Latin literature.

  383. Al-Nayrizi (about 875-about 940)
    • The paper [',' H L L Busard, Einiges uber die Handschrift Leiden 399, 1 und die arabisch-lateinische ubersetzung von Gerhard von Cremona, in History of mathematics (San Diego, CA, 1996), 173-205.','4] looks at different manuscripts containing versions of al-Nayrizi's commentary, some in Arabic, one a Latin version.

  384. Grace Hopper (1906-1992)
    • Intending to enter Vassar College in 1923 she failed a Latin examination and was required to wait another year.

  385. Gladys Mackenzie (1903-1972)
    • Gladys attended Craigmount School, Edinburgh, from 1913 to 1919 and, in passing, we note a news item which tell us that in 1914 she took part in "a fancy dress frolic for children under twelve dressed as a Normandy Peasant." She sat the Scottish Leaving Certificate Examinations and obtained passes at Higher level in English, French, Latin, and Mathematics, having obtained a pass in Lower mathematics in the previous year.

  386. William Hodge (1903-1975)
    • He opted to take optional courses on Latin and Greek instead of science.

  387. Paul Dirac (1902-1984)
    • There was no Latin or Greek, something of which I was rather glad, because I did not appreciate the value of old cultures.

  388. Jean-Charles de Borda (1733-1799)
    • In the College he studied Greek, Latin until he reached the age of eleven but he learnt little of mathematics or science from the Barnabites.

  389. Florimond de Beaune (1601-1652)
    • He wrote Notes brieves Ⓣ which was published in 1649 as part of the first Latin edition of Descartes' La Geometrie.

  390. Theodor Estermann (1902-1991)
    • In addition, he knew some French and Latin, and studied Swedish in preparation for the Stockholm ICM.

  391. Tosio Kato (1917-1999)
    • He could identify a large number of plants and trees and knew the Latin names as well He had a great respect for the classification system introduced in the eighteenth century by the Swedish botanist Carl von Linne.

  392. Werner Rogosinski (1894-1964)
    • This was a humanistic gymnasium with strong emphasis on Latin and Greek at which Werner excelled.

  393. Euclid (about 325 BC-about 265 BC)
    • The first page of The Elements published in 1505 (This was the first Latin translation directly from the Greek.) .

  394. Sophie Willock Bryant (1850-1922)
    • Her education had been highly non-standard and she had never studied Latin, a subject which was now required for admission.

  395. Andrea Tacquet (1612-1660)
    • In March, 1702/3, I published my third book, which was Tacquet's 'Euclid, with select theorems of Archimedes, and with the addition of practical corollaries, in Latin for the Use of young Students in the University'.

  396. John Wilkins (1614-1672)
    • He was taught his Latin and Greek by Edward Sylvester, a noted Grecian, who kept a Private School in the Parish of All Saints in Oxford: His Proficiency was such, that at Thirteen Years of Age he entered a Student in New-Inn, in Easter-Term 1627.

  397. James Thomson (1786-1849)
    • I was teaching eight hours a day at Dr Edgar's, and during the extra hours - often fagged and comparatively listless - I was reading Greek and Latin to prepare me for entering College, which I did not do till nearly two years after.

  398. Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953)
    • He excelled at Latin, Greek and particularly natural sciences.

  399. André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836)
    • His father, who had never ceased to cultivate Latin and French literature, as well as several branches of science, raised him himself in the country near the city where he was born.

  400. Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924-)
    • I believe that math is in grave danger of joining Latin and Greek on the heap of subjects which were once deemed essential but are now, at least in America, regarded as relics of an obsolete, intellectual tradition ..

  401. Egnatio Danti (1536-1586)
    • Danti designed the church as a Latin cross with a dome over the crossing.

  402. Gianfrancesco Malfatti (1731-1807)
    • Malfatti strongly supported writing papers in Italian rather than Latin and from 1779 he wrote all his papers in Italian.

  403. Jordanus Nemorarius (1225-1260)
    • Geometry is developed in the work Liber phylotegni de triangulis Ⓣ which is an excellent example of a Middle Ages Latin geometry text.

  404. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
    • He was also taught Latin privately by a local minister so he was well prepared for his secondary schooling.

  405. Hendrik van Heuraet (1634-1660)
    • Van Schooten edited and published a Latin translation of Descartes' La Geometrie in 1649.

  406. Jérôme Lalande (1732-1807)
    • He made other forward looking moves too, such as stopping Latin citations for prize winners.

  407. Max Born (1882-1970)
    • Max attended the Konig Wilhelm Gymnasium in Breslau, studying a wide range of subjects such as mathematics, physics, history, modern languages, Latin, Greek, and German.

  408. Carruthers Beattie (1866-1946)
    • He took the Preliminary Examinations of the Educational Institute of Scotland, passing English, History, Geography, Latin, Arithmetic, Algebra, Euclid I II III, Mechanics, Logic, and Natural Philosophy.

  409. Sophie Germain (1776-1831)
    • Sophie pursued her studies, teaching herself Latin and Greek.

  410. Cora Sadosky (1940-2010)
    • She also served as a member of the American Mathematical Society Committee on Cooperation with Latin American Mathematicians (1990-1992), the American Mathematical Society Committee on Human Rights of Mathematicians (1990-1996), the American Mathematical Society Committee on Science Policy (1996-1998) and a member of the Human Rights Advisory Committee of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, Berkeley (2002-2005).

  411. Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
    • In Geneva Boyle studied with a private tutor French, Latin, rhetoric and religion.

  412. Anders Wiman (1865-1959)
    • He entered the University of Lund in the autumn of 1885 and, as well as mathematics, he studied botany and Latin for his first degree.

  413. John Hellins (1749-1827)
    • While his nights were engaged at [the Royal Observatory at Greenwich] in stargazing for Dr Maskelyne, he was employed by day in studying Latin and Greek, which at length enabled him to get into holy orders.

  414. John Arbuthnot (1667-1735)
    • He probably gave his son John a good grounding in Latin and Greek.

  415. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-1898)
    • Dodgson wrote mathematical works under his own name but for his children's books he invented the pen name "Lewis Carroll" by translating his first two names "Charles Lutwidge" into Latin as "Carolus Lodovicus", then anglicising and reversing their order.

  416. János Apáczai (1625-1659)
    • He made it clear in the Latin Preface what his purpose was (see for example [',' I Ban, Apaczai Csere Janos (Hungarian) (Budapest, 1958).','1] or [',' B Szenassy, History of Mathematics in Hungary until the 20th Century (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1992).

  417. G de B Robinson (1906-1992)
    • At the Prize Giving on 30 November 1923, Robinson was ranked 1st in the Upper VI, won the Governor General's Medal, the Headmaster's Medal, the Wyld Prize in Latin, and the Christie Cup for proficiency in shooting.

  418. Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757)
    • When he was thirteen years old he composed a Latin poem but he put aside much that he loved in the way of learning in order to follow his family's wishes and train for the law.

  419. Józeph Petzval (1807-1891)
    • At first his best subjects were Latin and religious studies while he performed badly in mathematics having no interest in the topic.

  420. Adriaan Vlacq (1600-1667)
    • Vlacq worked with de Decker and translated Latin books written by Napier and Briggs into Dutch for him.

  421. Irmgard Flügge-Lotz (1903-1974)
    • By this time Irmgard was studying at a Girls' Gymnasium in Hanover but in order to help out with money to support herself, her mother and younger sister, she began to tutor mathematics and Latin to bring in some much needed cash.

  422. Juan Caramuel (1606-1682)
    • He was a brilliant scholar with an amazing flair for languages; he learnt to speak twenty languages including Latin, Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew and Chinese.

  423. Leopold Schmetterer (1919-2004)
    • At the Gymnasium he showed his outstanding talents, not only for mathematics but also for Latin and music.

  424. Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)
    • This was a good school of its type for there he learnt a little Latin and was introduced to some science subjects such as chemistry and physiology.

  425. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759)
    • On the one hand he did not speak German, and although the official business of the Academy was conducted in French or Latin, Maupertuis was rather cut off from the day to day administration which was conducted in German.

  426. Jacques Hadamard (1865-1963)
    • He excelled in particular in Greek and Latin.

  427. Wilbur Knorr (1945-1997)
    • During this time he worked on his next book Ancient Sources of the Medieval Tradition of Mechanics: Greek, Arabic, and Latin studies of the balance (1982).

  428. Johann Karl Burckhardt (1773-1825)
    • However, Burckhardt was sent to a high quality Latin school and his talents were soon recognised by the mathematics master who was able to support his pupil's education to a much higher level than would have been possible had he been totally dependent on family financial support.

  429. Charles-Marie de La Condamine (1701-1774)
    • Neil Safier writes in [',' N Safier, Myths and measurements, in Jordana Dym and Karl Offen (eds.), Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader (University of Chicago Press, 2011), 107-109.','17]:- .

  430. Howard Aiken (1900-1973)
    • His wife Agnes Montgomery, known as Monty, was a high school teacher who taught Latin and French.

  431. Alicia Boole Stott (1860-1940)
    • [James] Hinton's son Howard, brought a lot of small wooden cubes, and set the youngest three girls the task of memorising the arbitrary list of Latin words by which he named them, and piling them into shapes.

  432. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
    • Heinrich attended school in Mulhouse, receiving a reasonably good education up to the age of twelve, studying French and Latin in addition to elementary subjects.

  433. Julio Rey Pastor (1888-1962)
    • This was of great importance since it would transcend to Latin America through mathematicians such as Rey Pastor, Esteban Terradas and many others.

  434. Ellen Hayes (1851-1930)
    • She took a range of subjects at Oberlin College; mathematics and science were her major topics but she also studied arts type subjects such as history, English literature, Greek and Latin.

  435. Hugh MacColl (1837-1909)
    • John MacColl was an educated man who taught his older children some Latin, Greek and mathematics.

  436. Guido Fubini (1879-1943)
    • one hundred percent racism: Against everything and everyone: Yesterday against Christian civilisation, today against Latin civilisation, tomorrow, who knows, against the civilisation of the whole world.

  437. Pietro Mengoli (1626-1686)
    • He did not subscribe to the innovations of Torricelli, and his own discoveries were set out in abstruse Latin that made his works laborious to read.

  438. François Budan (1761-1840)
    • He also contributed to law, medicine and poetry, writing a Latin ode on the birth of the son of the Duke of Burgundy.

  439. Yakov Grigorevich Sinai (1935-)
    • Sinai has also been invited to give many prestigious lectures or lecture courses including: Loeb Lecturer, Harvard University (1978); Plenary Speaker at the International Congress on Mathematical Physics in Berlin (1981); Plenary Speaker at the International Congress on Mathematical Physics in Marseilles (1986); Distinguished Lecturer, Israel (1989); Solomon Lefschetz Lectures, Mexico (1990); Plenary Speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians, Kyoto (1990); Landau Lectures, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1993); Plenary Speaker at the First Latin American Congress in Mathematics (2000); Plenary Speaker at the American Mathematical Society Meeting "Challenges in Mathematics" (2000); Andreevski Lectures, Berlin, Germany (2001); Bowen Lectures, University of California at Berkeley (2001); Leonidas Alaoglu Memorial Lecture, California Institute of Technology (2002); Joseph Fels Ritt Lectures, Columbia University (2004); Leonardo da Vinci Lecture, Milan, Italy (2006); Galileo Chair, Pisa, Italy (2006); John T Lewis Lecture Series, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies and the Hamilton Mathematics Institute, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland (2007); and Milton Brockett Porter Lecture Series, Rice University, Houston, Texas (2007).

  440. Henry Smith (1826-1883)
    • We learn much of Smith from the following comment from John Conington, the professor of Latin at Oxford, (see for example [',' J W L Glaisher (ed.), Biographical sketches, in The collected mathematical papers of H J S Smith (1894).','3]):- .

  441. Tartaglia (1500-1557)
    • Tartaglia also published Latin editions of Archimedes' works.

  442. José Sebastiao e Silva (1914-1972)
    • The paper has a Latin summary which translated in English reads:- .

  443. Anton Dimitrija Bilimovic (1879-1970)
    • He completed his training in 1896 before moving to St Petersburg where he studied Latin and Greek at the Nikolayevsky engineering academy, named after Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia.

  444. Clifford Ambrose Truesdell III (1919-2000)
    • He studied Latin and Ancient Greek and, using his time in various countries to acquire language skills, became proficient in German, French and Italian.

  445. Guillaume Bigourdan (1851-1932)
    • He began learning Latin and his performance in all his subjects was excellent.

  446. Edward Routh (1831-1907)
    • Edward Airy Routh served as a lieutenant in the royal artillery, George Richard Randolph Routh became an inspector of schools, Arthur Lionel Routh served as a lieutenant in the royal artillery, Harold Victor Routh became professor of Latin in Toronto, and Rupert John Routh served in the Indian civil service.

  447. Joseph Boussinesq (1842-1929)
    • From this uncle he learnt Latin and Greek as well as how to study on his own.

  448. Wilhelm Magnus (1907-1990)
    • He had studied Latin throughout the nine years at the Gymnasium but his favourite subjects were mathematics and physics.

  449. Horatio Carslaw (1870-1954)
    • The breadth of his course in comparison to courses of today is shown by the fact that he also studied Latin, Greek, Moral Philosophy and Logic.

  450. Jacques Dixmier (1924-)
    • His father taught languages, French, Latin and Greek.

  451. André Weil (1906-1998)
    • He had taught himself classical Greek, read Homer and Plato in Greek, and had also taught himself Latin.

  452. James Stirling (1692-1770)
    • The Jacobite cause was that of the Stuart king, James II (of Britain -- James VII of Scotland: Jacobus in Latin), exiled after the Revolution of 1688, and his descendants.

  453. Jonas Kubilius (1921-2011)
    • a school of classical type, [which] gave good education in the humanities, including basic Latin and abilities to speak fluent German and French.

  454. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626)
    • This was a Latin text but an English translation with title Canon of Triangles: or Tables of Artificial Sines and Tangents was published in the same year.

  455. Guillaume de l'Hôpital (1661-1704)
    • As a child, l'Hopital had no talent for subjects like Latin, but he developed strong mathematical abilities and a real passion for the subject.

  456. Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635)
    • It was a German text despite the Latin title.

  457. George Gibson (1858-1930)
    • Robert Gibson had taught himself Latin to be able to carry out research for a book he wrote on the history of Greenlaw.

  458. Henri Andoyer (1862-1929)
    • Andoyer's secondary education came at first at Harcourt College and then at the lycee St Louis, a secondary school located in the Latin Quarter of Paris, which he entered in 1872.

  459. Thomas Lancaster Wren (1889-1972)
    • Mr T L Wren very kindly looked into this matter, and told me that while Newman was Professor of Latin from 1846 to 1863, there is no evidence that he held the chair of mathematics, though of course it is possible that he had occasionally given lectures on mathematics [as indeed he did].

  460. Wilhelm Ahrens (1872-1927)
    • In 1901 and 1902 he published mathematical chess puzzles; for the 100th anniversary of Carl Jacobi's birth in 1904 he wrote a biography; in 1905 he published a paper on Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet; in 1906 he published letters between Carl Jacobi and his brother Moritz Jacobi concerning Carl Jacobi's unsuccessful attempt in 1848 to become a member of the National Assembly; also in 1906 he published a paper on Jacobi and Steiner; in 1908 he published sketches from the life of Weierstrass; he also wrote several papers discussing whether Euler's works should be published in German or Latin; in 1914 he wrote a couple of papers on one of his favourite topics, namely magic squares, and in the following year on the magic square in Albrecht Durer's painting Melancholia.

  461. Antonio Mario Lorgna (1735-1796)
    • Lorgna learnt both practical and theoretical aspects of hydraulics and general engineering and also, at this time, he acquired an thorough knowledge of the Croatian and French languages, as well as studying classical Latin and Greek.

  462. Herbert Seifert (1907-1996)
    • The book was accepted by Blaschke for the Hamburg monograph series but the two authors ran into problems with a Latin epigraph which they wished to put at the beginning.

  463. Andrew Hart (1811-1890)
    • The subjects of the examination were pure and applied mathematics, experimental physics, mental and moral philosophy, Greek language and literature, Latin language and literature, and Hebrew and cognate languages.

  464. Johann Segner (1704-1777)
    • The proofs of several theorems of algebra and geometry have been adopted by subsequent textbooks and some of his Latin and German technical terms ..


History Topics

  1. Ledermann interview
    • Latin started at age 9, then Greek came later on but mathematics at age 11.
    • His Latin was so good.
    • In those days doctors would use Latin phrases when conversing with other doctors so that patients would not understand.
    • They would meet, two doctors, and discuss a case and speak in Latin.
    • JJO'C: Even until comparatively recent times they would write prescriptions in Latin.
    • When my father went to the war in 1915/16, and I was already starting school, he wrote me letters in Latin.
    • He was very fluent with his Latin.
    • So, at age 9 we started 6 lessons a week in Latin.
    • I remember one day the Latin teacher couldn't come and we were taken by the deputy headmaster, who was an old professor, and he said he would not teach us anymore but he would tell us some fairy tales, the seven dwarfs or that type of thing, but he would tell us them in Latin.
    • He told us these fairy tales, which we knew, Cinderella etc in Latin.
    • I was good at mathematics and also good at Latin, so good at Latin that I skipped a whole semester and when I left school, with my certificate of maturity, I was only 17.

  2. Greek sources I
    • vi) The first versions of the Elements to appear in Europe in the Middle Ages were not translations of any of any of these Greek texts into Latin.
    • Gherard of Cremona translated the Thabit version into Latin in the 12th century.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • An earlier Latin translation from Arabic by Adelard of Bath around 1120 survives.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • William of Moerbeke (1215-1286) was archbishop of Corinth and a classical scholar whose Latin translations of Greek works played an important role in the transmission of Greek knowledge to medieval Europe.
    • He had two Greek manuscripts of the works of Archimedes and he made his Latin translations from these manuscripts.
    • In the years between the time when William of Moerbeke made his Latin translation and its disappearance this second manuscript was copied several times and some of these copies survive.
    • Up until 1899 Heiberg had found no sources of Archimedes' works which were not based on the Latin translations by William of Moerbeke or on the copies of the second Greek manuscript which he used in his translation.
    • What did Heiberg find? The palimpsest contained four of Archimedes' works which were already known, but the versions on the palimpsest were independent of the two lost manuscripts used by William of Moerbeke in his Latin translations.
    • Better still the palimpsest also contained a text of On floating bodies which up until that time was only known through Latin translations.

  3. Water-clocks
    • More complex variations soon arose, which Vitruvius attributes to Ctesibius of Alexandria [',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • Examination shows that its overflow pipe was used to feed the several fountains that decorated the tower.[',' Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • Vitruvius gives several solutions, the simplest being as follows [',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • The size of the wedges and what days, weeks, or months they corresponded to (depending on the desired accuracy) would need to be calibrated with a sundial or a half year of observation.[',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • Again, this method would need to be calibrated by a sundial or careful observation.[',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • The column could then be rotated periodically keeping the clock accurate.[',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.

  4. Measurement
    • Part of the problem was that Greek and Latin prefixes like kilo- and centi- had been proposed to help make the new system internationally acceptable but were strongly disliked in France.
    • In November 1800 an attempt was made to make the system more acceptable by dropping the Greek and Latin prefixes and reinstating the older names for measures but with new metric values.
    • In 1830 Belgium became independent of Holland and made the metric system, together with its former Greek and Latin prefixes, the only legal measurement system.

  5. Cartography
    • The first steps involved the translation of Ptolemy's Geography into Latin which was begun by Emmanuel Chrysoloras and completed in 1410 by Jacobus Angelus.
    • The first printed version of Ptolemy's Geography appeared in 1475 being the Latin translation referred to above.
    • He studied Greek, Latin and mathematics and, strongly influenced by Gerardus Mercator, went on to open a map making business.

  6. Newton poetry
    • Originally Halley's poem was written in Latin for The Principia, and was published as a Preface to the first edition.
    • The poem has been translated from Latin to English by Otto Steinmayer: .
    • Originally published in Latin, this poem was translated into English by George Canning and published in 1766.

  7. Trigonometric functions
    • When European authors translated the Arabic mathematical works into Latin they translated jaib into the word sinus meaning fold in Latin.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • The first known tables of shadows were produced by the Arabs around 860 and used two measures translated into Latin as umbra recta and umbra versa.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  8. Ptolemy Manuscript
    • (Latin manuscripts are not the focus of this discussion.
    • However, as a point of reference, it should be noted that there was no Medieval Latin manuscript tradition of the Geography.
    • Latin texts first appeared in the Renaissance, no doubt translated from the Greek manuscripts of the day.) [',' Diller, A., Review of Geography of Claudius Ptolemy by Edward Luther Stevenson.

  9. Galileo's Difesa
    • In early 1607 a Latin version of Galileo's instruction manual entitled Usus et Fabrica Circini Cuiusdam Proportionis Ⓣ appeared under Capra's name.
    • The fact that Galileo's manual had been translated into Latin by Mayr (under Capra's name) was significant, for it clearly meant that they were thinking of selling their version of the instrument on a much wider European scale.
    • I speak of Simon Mayr of Gunzenhausen; he it was in Padua, where I resided at the time, who set forth in Latin the use of the said compass of mine and, appropriating it to himself, had one of his pupils print this under his name.

  10. Arabic numerals
    • The Arabic text is lost but a twelfth century Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum Ⓣ gave rise to the word algorithm deriving from his name in the title.
    • Unfortunately the Latin translation is known to be much changed from al-Khwarizmi's original text (of which even the title is unknown).
    • The Latin text certainly describes the Indian place-value system of numerals based on 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0.

  11. Quadratic etc equations
    • Abraham bar Hiyya Ha-Nasi, often known by the Latin name Savasorda, is famed for his book Liber embadorum Ⓣ published in 1145 which is the first book published in Europe to give the complete solution of the quadratic equation.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • In 1545 he published Ars Magna the first Latin treatise on algebra.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  12. Mathematics and Art
    • Now in fact Alberti wrote two treatises, the first was written in Latin in 1435 and entitled De pictura Ⓣ while the second, dedicated to Brunelleschi, was an Italian work written in the following year entitled Della pittura Ⓣ.
    • Rather Alberti addresses the books to different audiences, the Latin book is much more technical and addressed to scholars while his Italian version is aimed at a general audience.

  13. Tait's scrapbook
    • Greek - Latin - Mathematics - English and French - Geography, History and Scripture; and printed Examination Papers, containing questions and exercises on each of these, were successively put into the hands of the Competitors, who returned written answers, without leaving the school-room, and without any assistance of any kind.
    • Tait also gained distinction in Latin (Maxwell didn't), Lewis Campbell came second in Greek despite going on to have a distinguished career as a professor of Greek, Tait and Maxwell both achieved distinctions in English and French and in Geography, History and Scripture.

  14. Sundials
    • In Book 9, Vitruvius gives a list of a variety of dials and their inventors [',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.
    • After describing how the equinoctial line can be found, as well as the point of noon on the solstices, Vitruvius closes his thoughts on the analemma as follows [',' Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.

  15. EMS History
    • Up to 1860 an undergraduate in a Scottish university (St Andrews (founded 1411), Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen (1494), and Edinburgh (1582)) studied for an M.A., essentially a set course consisting of English, Latin, Greek, Mental Philosophy, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy.
    • The Oxford scholars of the eighteenth century had neglected him, and a sixteenth-century Latin translation, together with a bare reprint of a small part of his text by a French editor, was all that was extant.

  16. Kepler's Laws
    • But Kepler was a highly-talented geometer, and until now has there been no investigation of his work (derived from the original Latin) which has highlighted the mathematical aspect of his brilliance.

  17. Mathematics and Architecture
    • This is a Latin work on architecture in ten books, dedicated to Octavianus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, shortly before 27 BC.

  18. Alcuin's book
    • It was written in Latin, so it was clearly intended as an amusement for the well-educated.

  19. References for Sundials
    • Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.

  20. Copernicus autograph
    • Latin and Greek.

  21. Maxwell's House
    • Then it became obvious that this boy had a brain for mathematics, and his self-confidence grew so much that he also began to do well in Latin and Greek.

  22. Hirst's diary
    • The reason is clear: firstly he does not know Latin, and that among German professors is held as a necessity; secondly he is so terribly one-sided on the question of synthetic geometry that as an examiner he would not be liked.

  23. Calculus history
    • The Latin original was not published until much later.

  24. References for Water-clocks
    • Vitruvius, Vitruvius : ten books on architecture / translation [from the Latin] by Ingrid D Rowland ; commentary and illustrations by Thomas Noble Howe ; with additional commentary by Ingrid D Rowland and Michael J Dewar, ed.

  25. Brachistochrone problem
    • The May 1697 publication of Acta Eruditorum Ⓣ contained Leibniz's solution to the brachistochrone problem on page 205, Johann Bernoulli's solution on pages 206 to 211, Jacob Bernoulli's solution on pages 211 to 214, and a Latin translation of Newton's solution on page 223.

  26. Weil family
    • preferred topics of conversation at the Weils dinner table - music, literature, and Andre's favourite hobby, the collecting rare editions of Greek and Latin texts - were occasionally held in the family's second languages, German and English.

  27. Forgery 2
    • Leibniz and Hermann did correspond, but in Latin, so the quotation was in the wrong language and, moreover, given the date suggested by Konig it did not fit into the rest of their correspondence over that period.

  28. Matrices and determinants
    • For example de Witt in Elements of curves, published as a part of the commentaries on the 1660 Latin version of Descartes' Geometrie , showed how a transformation of the axes reduces a given equation for a conic to canonical form.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  29. Science in the 17th century
    • It has been speculated that despite the existence of different vernacular, the use of a common language in Europe, Latin, acted as a lingua franca facilitating the exchange of ideas and the access to written texts.


Societies etc

  1. Mexican Academy of Sciences
    • Because the competition has proved to be well-organised and reliable, the Mexican Academy of Sciences has received two permanent invitations to participate in international contests: (i) The May Olympiad, organized by the Latin American Federation of Math Competitions, is held by correspondence simultaneously in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries.
    • This competition is for Latin American countries.

  2. Chilean Mathematical Society
    • The Mathematical Society of Chile was a founding member of the Mathematical Union of Latin America and the Caribbean.

  3. Turin Mathematical Society
    • In this case they produced Miscellanea Taurinensio ou Melanges de Turin which contained papers written in both French and Latin.

  4. Luxembourg Mathematical Society
    • It involved mainly mathematicians from neo-Latin speaking countries (French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian).

  5. Slovenian Academy of Sciences
    • These discussions were held in German or Latin, even those discussing the Slovenian language.

  6. Swiss Mathematical Society
    • A Latin title was chosen because Switzerland had no national language and Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici was formally approved at a meeting of the Society on 20 May 1928.

  7. Argentina Mathematical Union
    • and to coordinate the work of diverse groups of scholars who in this country study higher mathematics, and of the dispersed investigators in the Latin nations of America.


Honours

  1. Paris street names
    • A Walk around the the Latin Quarter of Paris is available at THIS LINK.


References

  1. References for Euclid
    • H L L Busard, The Latin translation of the Arabic version of Euclid's 'Elements' commonly ascribed to Gerard of Cremona (Leiden, 1984).
    • H L L Busard (ed.), The Mediaeval Latin translation of Euclid's 'Elements' : Made directly from the Greek (Wiesbaden, 1987).
    • S Ito, The medieval Latin translation of the 'Data' of Euclid (Boston, Mass., 1980).
    • G Arrighi, Some indirect Latin versions of Euclid's 'Elements' (Italian), Rend.
    • H L L Busard, The translation of the 'Elements' of Euclid from the Arabic into Latin by Hermann of Carinthia (?), Janus 54 (1967), 1-140.
    • R Lorch, Some remarks on the Arabic-Latin Euclid, in Adelard of Bath (London, 1987), 45-54.

  2. References for Steven Vajda
    • D A Preece, Review: Patterns and Configurations in Finite Spaces, by S Vajda; The Mathematics of Experimental Design; Incomplete Block Designs and Latin Squares, by S Vajda, J.
    • B Schoner, Review: The Mathematics of Experimental Design: Incomplete Designs and Latin Squares, by S Vajda, J.

  3. References for Johannes Campanus
    • M Clagett, The Medieval Latin Translations from the Arabic of the Elements of Euclid, with Special Emphasis on the Versions of Adelard of Bath, Isis 44 (1-2) (1953), 16-42.
    • E Grant, Celestial Orbs in the Latin Middle Ages, Isis 78 (2) (1987), 153-173.

  4. References for Leonhard Euler
    • H H Frisinger, The solution of a famous two-centuries-old problem : The Leonhard Euler Latin square conjecture, Historia Math.
    • A E Malykh, Euler's creation of the combinatorial theory of Latin squares (Russian), Istor.-Mat.

  5. References for Ibn al-Haytham
    • G Federici Vescovini, La fortune de l'optique d'ibn al-Haitham : le livre 'De aspectibus (Kitab al-Manazir)' dans le moyen-age latin, Arch.
    • J L Mancha, Ibn al-Haytham's homocentric epicycles in Latin astronomical texts of the XIVth and XVth centuries, Centaurus 33 (1) (1990), 70-89.

  6. References for Adelard
    • M Clagett, The medieval Latin translations from the Arabic of the Elements of Euclid, with special emphasis on the versions of Adelard of Bath, Isis 44 (1953), 16-42.
    • R Lorch, Some remarks on the Arabic-Latin Euclid, in Adelard of Bath (London, 1987), 45-54.

  7. References for Girolamo Cardano
    • G Kouskoff, Quelques aspects du vocabulaire mathematique de Jerome Cardan, in Proceedings of the Tours Conference on Neo-Latin Studies (Paris, 1980), 661-674.

  8. References for Ptolemy
    • P Kunitzsch, Fragments of Ptolemy's 'Planisphaerium' in an early Latin translation, Centaurus 36 (2) (1993), 97-101.

  9. References for Thabit
    • Qurra, Four Astronomical Tracts in Latin (Berkeley, Calif., 1941).

  10. References for Roger Bacon
    • R Lemay, Roger Bacon's attitude toward the Latin translations and translators of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, in J Hackett (ed.), Roger Bacon and the sciences : Commemorative essays (Leiden, 1997), 25-47.

  11. References for Al-Khwarizmi
    • B B Hughes, Robert of Chester's Latin translation of al-Khwarizmi's 'al-Jabr', Boethius : Texts and Essays on the History of the Exact Sciences XIV (Stuttgart, 1989).

  12. References for Charles-Marie de La Condamine
    • N Safier, Myths and measurements, in Jordana Dym and Karl Offen (eds.), Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader (University of Chicago Press, 2011), 107-109.

  13. References for Geminus
    • A C Bowen and B R Goldstein, Geminus and the concept of mean motion in Greco-Latin astronomy, Arch.

  14. References for Reinher of Paderborn
    • L Thorndike and P Kibre, A catalogue of incipits of mediaeval scientific writings in Latin - Rev.

  15. References for Gherard
    • H L L Busard, The Latin translation of the Arabic version of Euclid's 'Elements' commonly ascribed to Gerard of Cremona : Introduction, edition and critical apparatus (Leiden, 1984).

  16. References for John Thompson
    • G W Bond, Eulogy : John G Thompson (Latin-English), Bull.

  17. References for Thomas Clausen
    • D Klyve and L Stemkoski, Graeco-Latin Squares and a Mistaken Conjecture of Euler, The College Mathematics Journal 37 (1) (2006), 2-15.

  18. References for Willebrord Snell
    • L C de Wreede, Willebrord Snellius: A Humanist Mathematician, in R Schnur and P Galland-Hallyn (eds.), Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bonnensis Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Neo-Latin Studies, Bonn 3-9 August 2003 (Tempe, Arizona, 2006), 277-286.


Additional material

  1. Centenary of John Leslie
    • He was then sent to school at Leven, three miles off, where Latin was taught.
    • To Latin he took a violent dislike, of long duration.
    • It will be remembered that Latin - that great relic of the Roman Empire - had been till recently the language of international communication, and was still being used as such in science.
    • Medical students were questioned in Latin in their degree examinations in Edinburgh even during the first quarter of the nineteenth century.
    • The boy was hardly strong enough for the walk to Leven, so, as his hatred of Latin continued, he was withdrawn after six weeks.
    • But school did not supply all his training, as the kindly minister of Largo lent him some scientific works, when he was about eleven or twelve years old, and urged him to study Latin, adding by way of encouragement that he himself had acquired it in seven years.
    • But, as he paid the fees, he insisted that Leslie should learn Latin.
    • This argument, known among jocular logicians as "argumentum ad crumenam," is irresistible, and Leslie learnt Latin after all.
    • It is interesting to know that he grew to like Latin, and his standard of scholarship was so good that he could enjoy Lucretius.
    • He quoted Latin, and even Greek, copiously in later life.

  2. Knorr's books
    • Ancient Sources of the Medieval Tradition of Mechanics: Greek, Arabic, and Latin studies of the balance (1982).
    • Beginning from the 12th century, it exercised a major influence on mechanical studies in the Latin West, through the translation as the Liber Karastonis made by Gerard of Cremona.
    • Through a close examination of the Arabic and Latin versions now extant I propose to reveal the pattern of their complex interrelation and to discover the nature of the connections between this work and similar writings from this period.
    • Among the ancient authors who are discussed and studied, are fragments of Euclid, Archimedes, Menelaus, Philon of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria, Pappus and Eutocius; among the medieval, especially the Arabic versions of Greek authors and the 'Liber de canonio', an anonymous treatise of the XII/XIII century, the Latin version of an original Greek text which is lost.
    • The eight appendices which conclude the volume examine particular aspects of traditional Arab and Latin versions of 'Liber Karastonis' with particular attention to their interrelations.
    • The author has also provided a companion volume, containing only the textual studies, which also includes some medieval Latin texts (Wilbur Knorr, Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Geometry (1989)).
    • Knorr ranges chronologically from late antiquity to medieval Europe and deals with texts in Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin.
    • In the main it is a minute examination of the writings concerned with the three classic problems of ancient Greek mathematicians - the doubling of the cube, the trisection of an angle, and the squaring of the circle, and not merely the ancient Greek writings but the Arabic, Latin and Hebrew translations.
    • It is entitled "The Textual Tradition of Archimedes' Dimension of the Circle" and traces the fortuna of this short work (or rather the Archimedean prototype from which, Knorr holds, the extant Greek text derives at some remove) in Greek, Arabic, and medieval Latin, although ranging rather more widely than the part's title would suggest.
    • It was thus bound to suffer most modification in the light of the instructional aim of editors." Knorr discusses numerous Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew versions of this work and of related texts.

  3. Percy MacMahon addresses the British Association in 1901, Part 2
    • The problem of the Latin Square is concerned with a square of order n and n different quantities which have to be placed one in each of the n2 compartments in such wise that each row and each column contains each of the quantities.
    • Such multiplication tables are necessarily Latin Squares, though it is not conversely true that every Latin Square corresponds to a multiplication table.
    • One of the most important questions awaiting solution in connection with the theory of finite discontinuous groups is the enumeration of the types of groups of given order, or of Latin Squares which satisfy additional conditions.
    • It thus comes about that the subject of Latin Squares is important in mathematics, and some new method of dealing with them seems imperative.
    • A fundamental idea was that it might be possible to find some mathematical operation of which a particular Latin Square might be the diagrammatic representative.
    • If, then, a one-to-one correspondence could be established between such mathematical operations and the Latin Squares, the enumeration might conceivably follow.
    • The difficulties connected with the Latin Square and with other more general questions have in this way been completely overcome.

  4. De Coste on Mersenne
    • Thus he devoted the best part of his life to this holy exercise, having never let a day pass without reading the Bible and some Greek or Latin Father.
    • Furthermore, seeing that impiety was growing steadily in that unhappy age and that God was greatly dishonoured by certain young Libertines, he was inspired to refute their detestable maxims in French, as he had already done in Latin in his commentary on Genesis.
    • He also gave to the public his book De la Verite des Sciences, in which he refuted the opinions of the Sceptics and Pyrrhonists; and also two small volumes in Latin for Mathematicians called De l'Abrege ou Inventaire de la Mathematique and another book in French called De l'Harmonie Universelle.
    • He wrote Douze Livres de l'Harmonie in Latin, which he revised and augmented in a second edition a few months before his death.
    • Three Volumes in quarto written in Latin, of which the first contained the following Treatises, entitled .
    • We must not omit here that our Reverend Father Mersenne took the trouble to revise the Latin and French book Thaumaturgue Optique by the Reverend Father Jean Francois Niceron the Parisian, a Religious of our Order; after writing his book this Religious had died at the Convent of Aix-en-Provence on the 22nd of September, 1646, aged only thirty-three, to the great sorrow of the scholars and intellectuals who knew him and who loved him for his great knowledge of Theology, Philosophy and Mathematics and for his other excellent qualities.
    • He often sang the first verses of Psalm 22: Dominus regit me, etc., or some paraphrase in Latin or French verse of this same Psalm, or he sang the last verse of the last Psalm: Omnis spiritus laudet Dominum, or the whole of this Psalm which contains an exhortation to praise the Holiness of God in His Saints and His power in His visible works with all manner of harmonious instruments.

  5. Pandrosion man woman
    • In Friedrich Otto Hultsch's 1878 edition which gives the Greek original with a Latin translation opposite, then Pandrosion is a man.
    • The result of this is that the gender of Pandrosion fluctuates depending on which edition or translation the reader consults; and the reader must be fairly fluent in Greek, Latin, and French in order to compare the standard versions available.
    • Likewise in Hultsch's edition, where the Greek original has a Latin translation opposite it as was the norm, Pandrosion is male: κρατiστε Πανδρoσioν | clarissime Pandrosio.
    • Hultsch explicated the Greek in Latin which I translate as follows: 'Pandrosion, the name of a man, a mathematician apparently, to whom Pappus dedicated the third book of his work'.
    • On what grounds did Hultsch therefore alter the feminine form in the manuscript tradition to what appears in his primed text? After all, despite the plea to analogy advocated by Hultsch in his index, a principle in editing ancient Greek and Latin texts is that a more difficult or less likely reading (lectio difficilior) is to be preferred by editors to an easier or more obvious one (lectio facilior), given that scribes are inclined to simplify what is in front of them, thereby moving further away from the original form of the text.
    • (R Huygens, Ars Edendi: A practical introduction to editing medieval Latin texts (Brepols, Turnhout, 2000), 49) .
    • Pappus's Pandrosion has suffered strange indignities from Pappus's editors: in Commandino's Latin translation her name vanishes, leaving the absurdity of the polite epithet κρατiστη being treated as a name, 'Cratiste'; while for no good reason Hultsch alters the text to make the name masculine.

  6. A N Whitehead: 'Autobiographical Notes
    • Latin began at the age of ten years, and Greek at twelve.
    • Holidays excepted, my recollection is that daily, up to the age of nineteen and a half years, some pages of Latin and Greek authors were construed, and their grammar examined.
    • Before going to school pages of rules of Latin grammar could be repeated, all in Latin, and exemplified by quotations.
    • I was excused in the composition of Latin Verse and the reading of some Latin poetry, in order to give more time for mathematics.

  7. Copernicus introduction II
    • This project is planned as a set of three volumes, each set being presented in one of the six following languages: Latin, Polish, Russian, English, French, German (in cooperation with the appropriate national authorities in the last two cases).
    • Volume II, in Latin, has presented a critical edition of the text of the Revolutions, together with an extensive commentary, also in Latin.
    • In keeping with the almost universal practice of his age, Copernicus penned his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in Latin.
    • For, orbium, the third word in the Latin title of the Revolutions, does not there denote the Weltkorper or cosmic bodies, as Menzzer mistakenly thought, but rather the (imaginary) invisible spheres which moved the visible heavenly bodies, according to the cosmological ideas propounded in Greek antiquity and still accepted by Copernicus and his contemporaries.
    • From the labours of these notable predecessors and contemporaries, in particular Aleksander Birkenmajer and Jerzy Dobrzycki in the parallel Latin edition, the present translator and commentator has drawn whatever seemed to be of the greatest possible benefit to the modern reader.

  8. Walk Around Paris
    • We decided to take a walk in Paris and more specifically around the Latin Quarter, as it is home to many illustrious institutions in France and is rich in history and culture.
    • It originated in 1530 when Francis I was advised to start the creation of a school that would teach topics to royal scholars, that were not taught at the Sorbonne, originally greek, hebrew and mathematics, and then later, French law, latin and medicine.
    • He entered the middle school in the autumn of 1823, at twelve, one year early and quickly won prizes in Latin and greek.
    • It therefore created new laboratories and decided to accept more students per year group, which motivated the board to move the location of the school from the Latin Quarter (in the middle of Paris), to Palaiseau, which was inaugurated in 1976.
    • This concludes our walk in the streets of the Quartier Latin, having looked at many historical places, important in the study of mathematics and the discovery of notions.

  9. Mathematics at Aberdeen 1
    • The Arts curriculum was to be widened with greater emphasis on Arithmetic and Geometry and to include teaching of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Physiology, Geography, Astronomy and History, whilst Philosophy played a more minor role.
    • The first year was occupied by Latin, Elementary Greek and Logic; the second mainly Logic with the writing and declaiming of Latin and Greek.
    • Dr William Johnstone of Caskieben, a brother of the Latin poet Arthur Johnstone was appointed to the Chair at a salary of 800 merks.
    • Johnstone, a mathematician and physician who also wrote good Latin poetry, came to Marischal College from Sedan where he had been teaching Philosophy.

  10. Adelard: 'Euclid
    • (Latin), was edited by Hubert L L Busard and Menso Folkerts and published by Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.
    • The Latin 'version II', till now attributed to Adelard of Bath, is edited here for the first time.
    • It was the most influential Euclid text in the Latin West in the 12th and 13th centuries.
    • Version II became the basis of later reworkings, in which the enunciations were taken over, but new proofs supplied; the most important text of this kind is the redaction made by Campanus in the late 1250s, which became the standard Latin Euclid in the later Middle Ages.
    • To facilitate further research on the style of version II and its author, an index of Latin words is added.

  11. Rose's Greek mathematical literature
    • In more serious mood he wrote a work On Spirals, another on equilibrium, in other words on statics, yet another, preserved complete in a Latin translation of 1543 from a manuscript now lost, partly in a palimpsest discovered by Heiberg, on hydrostatics (literally On things carried, sc., on water or other fluid, i.e., floating).
    • The one poet of any merit astrology produced was the Latin Manilius.
    • Among these are Philon of Byzantion, of whom we have a certain amount left, partly in the original and partly in Arabic and Latin versions, and Heron (about 50 B.C.?), who was concerned less with mechanical theory than with practical, and often very ingenious, methods of constructing machines great and small, from war engines to toys of various sorts, including puppet-theatres and one or two rudimentary applications of the power of steam.
    • The Byzantine schools seized upon this work - its 1187 hexameters are not an impossible amount to learn by heart - and consequently we have a mass of scholia, also a commentary of portentous length by Eustathios, bishop of Thessalonike (Saloniki); but that it was popular in the West also is indicated by the fact that Avienus, in the fourth century, turned it into Latin verse.

  12. Mathematicians and Music 2.2
    • He should be taught also a good hand-writing, astrology, and when he is older, Greek and Latin.
    • The first of these is a Greek and Latin edition of Ptolemy's Harmony, and Porphyry's third century commentary on the same, with an extensive appendix by Wallis on ancient and modern music.
    • Then comes the only published text, with Latin translation, of a musical work by Manuel Bryenne, a fourteenth century Greek, four manuscripts of whose work are to be found at the Bodleian.
    • Three years later it appeared simultaneously in Latin and English and is an exceedingly entertaining work.

  13. Knorr's papers
    • It was cited frequently by the ancient mathematical commentators, was known in the Latin Middle Ages in translations both from the Arabic and directly from the Greek, and remains prominent in all general discussions of Archimedes' geometry to this day.
    • In 1953 Marshall Clagett presented a preliminary scheme of the medieval Latin versions of Euclid's 'Elements'.
    • Intercultural transmission of scientific knowledge in the middle ages: Graeco-Arabic-Latin, Berlin, 1996, Sci.

  14. NAS Memoir of Chauvenet
    • At the age of fifteen he had no knowledge of Latin or Greek, yet in one year he finished his preparation in these languages, with such success that he passed readily the examinations for admission, and at the end of his first college year took the first prize for Latin composition.
    • It introduced the American student to the methods of the German school, noted for the rigour and generalization and exhaustive character of its discussions, and to many topics wanting in all the text-books in the highest colleges in this country and in England, and found by our mathematical students only in German, French or Latin.

  15. Mathematics in Chile
    • It now doubles that of its nearest Latin American competitor.
    • The corresponding figure for Uruguay, its nearest Latin American competitor under this measure, was nine.
    • For 2013 Chile's figure has risen to nearly 25, setting its activity level at nearly twice the nearest Latin American country.

  16. James Gregory's manuscripts
    • Gregory writes his mathematical argument in Latin.
    • In a Latin note David Gregory comments on this proposed general method of his uncle.
    • As to this Gregory added a significant remark, which is here rendered from the Latin into English: .

  17. Marshall Hall books
    • There are extensive discussions of difference sets, finite geometries, orthogonal Latin squares (an example of order ten is illustrated on the dust jacket), Hadamard matrices, and completion and embedding theorems.
    • Combinatorial theory encompasses a wide variety of topics, from simple counting of permutations and use of the pigeonhole principle to partitions, map colourings, latin squares, rook polynomials, design of experiments and Ramsey theory.
    • The major part of the book concentrates on experimental designs, with chapters on block designs, difference sets, finite geometries, latin squares, Hadamard matrices, theorems on completion and embedding, and coding theory.

  18. Vajda books
    • The Mathematics of Experimental Design; Incomplete Block Designs and Latin Squares (1967), by S Vajda.
    • This book, after a short review of algebraic facts, deals in detail with balanced incomplete block designs, Latin squares and orthogonal arrays, and partially balanced incomplete block designs; the last chapter is on group-divisible, triangular, and Latin square type partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes.

  19. Heath: Everyman's Library 'Euclid' Introduction
    • Simson's Euclid, which was published simultaneously in Latin and English, did not appear till 1756 (i.e., when he was about 69), so that the edition must have represented his most mature thought on the subject.
    • " Apart from this, the security for the general excellence of his version was the fact that it was made from the Latin translation of Commandinus (1572).
    • has now been given its proper weight, and it is among the main sources of the authoritative text of the Elements published, with Latin translation, critical notes, and prolegomena, in five volumes between 1883 and 1888 (Teubner), by J L Heiberg.

  20. Leonard J Savage: 'Foundations of Statistics
    • (Translation from Latin by A Borsch and P Simon.)','7], but Neyman brought it forward with particular explicitness in 1938 [',' Jerzy Neyman, L’estimation statistique, traitee comme un probleme classique de probabilite, in Actualites scientifiques et industrielles no.
    • (Translation from Latin by A Borsch and P Simon.)','7].
    • (Translation from Latin by A Borsch and P Simon.) .

  21. Savile on Euclid
    • In a footnote, Wordsworth quotes precisely the same Latin sentences as Ball.
    • When we refer to Savile's published lectures (Prealectiones tresdecim in principium elementorum Euclidis, Oxonii habitae MDCXX, Oxford 1621), from which the above Latin quotation is taken, it is at once apparent that they were a set of lectures given in 1620 (when Savile was 70) to inaugurate the Savilian chair of geometry.
    • (Our rendering does not do his sonorous and moving Latin full justice.) .

  22. Gibson History 2 - Mathematics in the schools
    • Schools were, at first, under the control of the Church and the all important subject of instruction was "grammar" - a term, which in those days had a much wider connotation than now and was practically equivalent to Latin literature.
    • In fact down to the 18th century Latin dominated the schools to a degree that is hard for us to realise.
    • In many of the parish schools the schoolmasters were competent to impart advanced instruction in Latin, Greek and Mathematics and were proud of such pupils as took advantage of the opportunities offered.

  23. Smith's Obituaries and Biographies
    • This is due to the fact that modern mathematics makes use of terms and methods unknown to ancient writers, whereas the terminology used by the latter is like medieval Latin words to a modern student of analysis.
    • In this field he wrote upon physical sciences ("De Natura Rerum,") his material being chiefly gathered from such writers as Isidore of Seville who, in turn, had depended largely upon various earlier Latin writers.

  24. Berge books
    • The jargon of the theory includes such words and phrases as: arc, edge, path, chain, Hamiltonian circuit [named after William Rowan Hamilton], tree, node, function of Grundy [named after Patrick Michael Grundy (1917-1959)], latin square, incidence matrix, totally unimodular matrix, chromatic class, cyclomatic number, semi-factor, capacity, coupling, network.
    • Matching on a simple graph (assignment problem, Latin squares); 11.

  25. Madras College exams
    • The Greek and Latin classes of Dr Woodford occupied the visitors during the greater part of Wednesday.
    • The five classes for Latin and the three for Greek were put through a very searching examination, being questioned not only by the master, but repeatedly and severely by Professors Pillans and Dunbar.

  26. Students in 1711
    • Latin was studied in the first year, then, in their second year, they also studied logic.
    • He wrote in Latin (with some Greek) clearly thinking his father would be more likely to send the sporting equipment if he showed good scholarship.

  27. Kepler's 'Foundations of modern optics' Preface to a translation
    • In 1980 Catherine Chevalley, Claude Chevalley's daughter, published a French translation from the Latin of Johannes Kepler's The foundations of modern optics: Paralipomena to Vitellius which was originally published in 1604.
    • But Kepler's text is not only a Latin text of the late sixteenth century written by an author from the Germanic cultural sphere, it is a technical text in which numerous passages - notably Chapter IV - testify more to a pure and simple transcription of personal notes than to a patiently executed draft.

  28. Rudio's talk
    • In the 12th and 13th centuries scholars from all over Europe flocked to the academies in Toledo, Seville, Cordoba and Granada to study the Greek classics and, most importantly, to translate them from Arabic to Latin.
    • He plunged into the study of the Greek mathematicians with enthusiasm; as we know, these had only been known through translations from Arabic to Latin up until then, but now they were available to him in the original.

  29. Ernest Hobson addresses the British Association in 1910, Part 3
    • A striking example of this species of immanent identity of mathematical form was exhibited by the discovery of that distinguished mathematician, our General Secretary, Major MacMahon, that all possible Latin squares are capable of enumeration by the consideration of certain differential operators.
    • Here we have a case in which an enumeration, which appears to be not amenable to direct treatment, can actually be carried out in a simple manner when the underlying identity of the operation is recognised with that involved in certain operations due to differential operators, the calculus of which belongs superficially to a wholly different region of thought from that relating to Latin squares.

  30. Gilberte Pascal: 'The life of Pascal
    • [My father Etienne knew] mathematics fills and satisfies the soul, [so] he did not want my brother to learn anything about it, so that he would not neglect Latin and other languages.
    • He used only his hours of recreation on this study, since he was learning Latin according to the rules my father had laid down for him.

  31. Gentry Berlin
    • Miss Street is still pursuing higher studies in the West, and Miss Young is Instructor of Latin at Wellesley College.
    • of Boston University and Professor of Latin in Carleton College, Minnesota.

  32. Ward Cheney Memory
    • His engineering degree from New York University prepared him for mining ventures in Latin America.
    • Unlike the Latin requiem mass, which is for the repose of the departed soul, Brahms' German Requiem opens with the words from the Beatitudes, "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." .

  33. Weil on history
    • Latin translation and an extensive commentary.
    • Arabic and Latin medieval manuscripts by the score await identification, even in well-explored libraries.

  34. Education in St Andrews in 1849
    • The eight professorships are devoted to the inculcating of Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Logic and Rhetoric, Medicine, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, and Civil History.
    • At each side of the area, fronting the street, are houses for the teachers of English and Latin; the other masters are not provided with official residences.

  35. NAS founders
    • Among his contributions to astronomy were a variety of expeditions to Latin America that led to the documentation of tens of thousands of stars, in addition to the establishment of an observatory in Chile with the purpose of observing Mars and Venus.
    • Born in Philadelphia to a Quaker family, Longstreth studied French, Spanish, and Latin as a young man before leaving school to enter business in a hardware store, becoming a partial owner of the enterprise in 1840.

  36. Inaugural Discourse by Julio Rey Pastor
    • "Everything was reduced", according to the erudite Vicuna, "so that any serious father, or curious layman, could read a book in Latin concerning mathematical or physical matters.

  37. Olunloyo interview
    • In Latin, they are two different words.

  38. Gibson History 6 - More Gregorys
    • A manuscript in Latin of a course on Practical Geometry was left in Edinburgh and was used by his successor in class teaching.

  39. Smith's History Papers
    • Few of the older mathematicians had abiding places on the right bank of the Seine, most of them, as already seen, preferring the Quartier Latin.

  40. Mac Lane books
    • Quite the opposite: Mac Lane's autobiography stands as a final testimony to a man who embodied the Latin phrase 'Carpe diem'.

  41. Herivel's books
    • In each case the text is followed by two sets of notes, one textual, the other explanatory, and where the original is in Latin, a translation is provided.

  42. Dahlin Extracts
    • As a payment for the publication of the first six books by Euclid in Latin in 1637, in the following year he was ensured tithes in Viksta for three years.

  43. J Ruska on Heinrich Suter
    • Therefore he already decided while on the "Zuricher Industrieschule" to privately learn Latin and Greek; this was necessary since the school offered modern languages only.

  44. Minding papers
    • The papers are mostly in German or French but there are a couple in Latin.

  45. Smith Major History books
    • The numerous notes not only point out the significant features of the specimens under discussion, but they form a comparative study of the subject from many points of view, for example, the comparison of the arithmetic of the Latin schools with that of the trade schools, the comparison of the arithmetics of different nations, and the relation of abacus reckoning to figure reckoning.

  46. Graves's papers
    • (date of paper 1852) On the Affinities of Certain Irish and Latin Words, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1836-1869) 5 (1850-1853), 337-339.

  47. Olunloyo interview
    • Dr Olunloyo told us that the late sage, Chief Obafemi Awolowo taught his father Latin.

  48. Encke Obituary
    • At this College, then under the directorship of Johannes Gurlitt (1754-1827), who enjoyed a high reputation for classical learning, the boy-student rapidly advanced, and in addition to considerable ability in Latin composition, his knowledge of Greek was sufficient to enable him to translate and enjoy the Lyrics of Pindar.

  49. Bolyai house and grave
    • Jozsef Benkő chirurgus (surgeon in latin) and Julia Bachmann had six children, four sons and two daughters, Julianna and Zsuzsanna.

  50. Vanstone obituary
    • He was interested in ancient cultures and ancient languages (such as Latin and Sanskrit).

  51. Barlow Numbers
    • After Diophantus, the subject remained unnoticed, or at least unimproved, till Bachet, a French analyst of considerable reputation, undertook the translation of the abovementioned work into Latin, retaining also the Greek text, which was published by him in 1621, interspersed with many marginal notes of his own, and which may be considered as containing the first germ of our present theory.

  52. V Lebesgue publications
    • Victor Amedee Lebesgue, De la composition des formes binaires du second degre, par M G Lejeune-Dirichlet; traduit du latin, par V-A Le Besgue, Journal de Mathematique pures et appliquees.

  53. Dr W O Lonie by Thomas Brown
    • I remember sitting one day in the Latin class, when Provost Playfair entered in company with a young man whom he introduced to Dr Woodford, and the whisper circled round the class that this was the new Mathematical Master.

  54. Tverberg Bergen institute
    • He had a good memory, so he learned both Greek and Latin and otherwise had great general knowledge, which led to him, at one of our Christmas parties, winning a guessing competition where he was one team and the rest of the institute the other.

  55. John Walsh's delusions
    • Though so illiterate that even in Ireland he never picked up anything more Latin than Irelandus, he was a very pretty mathematician spoiled in the making by intense self-opinion.

  56. Mathematics at Aberdeen 2
    • The Foundation had recognized their lack of opportunity to acquire fluent Latin, the language of instruction, by providing a grammarian.

  57. Value of Mathematics
    • It is a proven fact that Mathematics, as well as Latin and other disciplines, can leave no formative trace or leave very different traces according to the teacher and according to the methods that have served as a guide.

  58. Smith Autograph Papers
    • Professor Alexander Macfarlane tells us of his considerable advancement in arithmetic at the age of three, of his ability to read Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at the age of five, and of his intimate familiarity with Italian, Sanskrit, and Arabic at the age of ten.

  59. Heath: 'The thirteen books of Euclid's Elements' Preface
    • In the matter of notes, the edition of the first six Books in Greek and Latin with notes by Camerer and Hauber (Berlin, 1824-5) is a perfect mine of information.

  60. Adam Ries: 'Coss
    • Ries's Coss, which, contrary to contemporary custom, was not written in Latin, but in German, is a link between the medieval descriptive algebra and the analytical algebra of modern days.

  61. Colin Maclaurin
    • At the age of 11 Colin, already proficient in Latin and Greek, entered Glasgow University, and graduated M.A.

  62. Political difficulties
    • Then I made another proposal to the IAU, to have Regional Meetings in Europe and in other parts of the World (Latin America, Asia and the Pacific).

  63. Galois Sainte Pelagie preface
    • Again, it would have been so easy to substitute successively all the letters of the alphabet into each equation, numbering them in order so as to be able to recognise to which combination of letters subsequent equations belong; which would have multiplied infinitely the number of equations, if one reflects that after the Latin alphabet there is still the Greek, that, once the latter was exhausted there remain German characters, that nothing stops one from using Syriac letters, and if need be Chinese letters! It would have been so easy to transform each sentence ten times, taking care to precede each transformation with the solemn word theorem; or indeed to get by our analysis to results known since the good Euclid; or finally precede and follow each proposition with a redoubtable line of particular examples.

  64. Somerville's Booklist
    • EulerIsoperimetrical problems (in Latin) .

  65. Mirsky books
    • Latin rectangles .

  66. George Chrystal's Third Promoter's Address
    • This was a very restricted test; the main thing was to string together snippets from a Latin phrase book, without any very obvious violation of the rules of syntax; so as to produce what was called a "version" of an easy piece of English prose.

  67. Newton by his contemporaries
    • Dr Halley, whose profound skill in mathematics has not hindered his being a good poet, says in the Latin verses prefixed to the Principia: .

  68. A de Lapparent: 'Wantzel
    • In 1831, the first prize of French dissertation from the College Charlemagne was awarded to him, and better yet, first prize in Latin dissertation, acquired in an open contest, attested with splendour to the universality of Wantzel's aptitude.

  69. De Thou on François Viète
    • Jacques-Auguste De Thou (1553-1617) was a French historian famed for his work Historia sui temporis written in Latin.

  70. Mark Kac on education, physics and mathematics
    • you had to take six years of Latin and four years of Greek and no nonsense about taking soul courses or folk music, or all that.

  71. Smith Overview
    • For example he translated (with Marcia Lutham) Rene Descartes' La Geometrie from the Latin and French and (with W W Beman) Felix Klein's Vortrage uber ausgewahlte Fragen Elementar-geometrie under the title Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry.

  72. Fields Medal Letter
    • Because of the international character the language to be employed it would seem should be Latin or Greek? The design has still to be definitely determined.

  73. Hellman's books
    • Pleased as Miss Hellman's readers will surely be to have her English rendering of Caspar's German, they would be even happier if she had not left much of Kepler's Latin untranslated.

  74. Science at St Andrews
    • What was to be taught, first as a general foundation and then in particular subjects such as law and mathematics, was laid down by Act of Parliament, when in 1579 it was declared that after a prescribed course in Latin, Greek, and elocution "the fourth Regent sall teach in Greek samekle of the phisikis as is neidfull in the spheir," and that "the mathematician now in St Salvator's college sall reid within the same four lessons ouklie in the mathematick sciences in sic dayis and houres as sall be appointed." It would seem that the allusion is to Homer Blair, who entered the college as a fellow-bejant with John Napier and later became a lecturer in mathematics.

  75. Netto books
    • 74) that the treatment of Latin squares has not yet left "das Stadium der Spielerei" is no longer justified in view of MacMahon's investigations.

  76. Cotlar obituary
    • Venerated by his disciples, and admired for his generosity and great humanism, the great mathematician Mischa Cotlar passed away yesterday, who, despite being born in Ukraine, had lived and worked most of his life in Latin America.

  77. Collins and Gregory discuss Tschirnhaus
    • this Gent is going to Paris to reside there for a year where he intends to publish a treatise of 'Algebra et de Locis' in Latin, the rough draft of which he showed me, wherein he had explained all Hudde's reductions etc, amplified the doctrine of tangents both as to geometrical and mechanical curves, affirming that Hudde never thoroughly understood the doctrine of maxima and minima.

  78. Galois family
    • Typically punishment would last for four days during which time the boy was given long passages of Greek and Latin to translate.

  79. D'Arcy Thompson's family
    • Thompson gained a medal for Latin verse in 1849 with an ode 'Maurorum in Hispania Imperium,' and was placed sixth in the first class in the classical tripos of 1852 ..

  80. Analysis of Variance
    • The author explains in the first part, the case of non-random effects and organizing experiments, Latin squares, incomplete block designs, etc., and in the second part, the case of random effects and mixed models.

  81. Mordell reminiscences
    • The subjects of the examination were Greek and Latin, an English set book, elementary algebra and geometry (for all of which my High School training was adequate), and also Paley's evidences of Christianity.

  82. Gibson History 7 - Robert Simson
    • This was published in 1756, separate editions in Latin and in English being issued; a second edition in English, along with a translation of Euclid's Data, appeared in 1762.

  83. Raphson books
    • The original works were written by Raphson in Latin, but the reviews are in English.

  84. History in mathematical education
    • In fact, for the areas of mathematics with which this volume deals, much of the original material and the best historical literature was and is written in Latin, Russian, French and German.

  85. De Montmort: 'Essai d'Analyse
    • The words from "Huygens" onwards are translated by the present writer from the Latin of De Mensura Sortis and they are not fair comment.

  86. Kepler's Planetary Laws
    • But Kepler was a highly-talented geometer, and until now has there been no investigation of his work (derived from the original Latin) which has highlighted the mathematical aspect of his brilliance.

  87. Napier's rods
    • The Rabdologia was translated into Italian and Dutch, and the original Latin text was republished in Leiden.

  88. Ledermann D'Arcy Thompson
    • His masterpiece On Growth and Form was a classic; in it he used quite sophisticated mathematical methods to elucidate the shapes that occur in the living world and bearing witness to his linguistic prowess the book is replete with long quotations in French, German, Latin and classical Greek (with no English translation).


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Kepler
    • Latin text has been given only when an English translation of the complete work is not available in print.


Famous Curves

  1. Limacon
    • The name 'limacon' comes from the Latin limax meaning 'a snail'.

  2. Lemniscate
    • which he called by the Latin word lemniscus ('a pendant ribbon').

  3. Lissajous
    • He learnt Latin to study Newton's Principia and later other languages to study mathematics in these languages.


Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Jabir ibn Aflah writes works on mathematics which, although not as good as many other Arabic works, are important since they will be translated into Latin and become available to European mathematicians.
    • Gherard of Cremona begins translating Arabic works (and Arabic translations of Greek works) into Latin.
    • Campanus of Novara, chaplain to Pope Urban IV, writes on astronomy and publishes a Latin edition of Euclid's Elements which became the standard Euclid for the next 200 years.
    • Richard of Wallingford writes Quadripartitum de sinibus demonstratis, the first original Latin treatise on trigonometry.
    • He publishes Hypomnemata mathematica (Mathematical Memoranda) which is a Latin translation of Stevin's work on mechanics.
    • Bachet publishes his Latin translation of Diophantus's Greek text Arithmetica.
    • Van Schooten publishes the first Latin version of Descartes' La geometrie.

  2. Chronology for 1100 to 1300
    • Jabir ibn Aflah writes works on mathematics which, although not as good as many other Arabic works, are important since they will be translated into Latin and become available to European mathematicians.
    • Gherard of Cremona begins translating Arabic works (and Arabic translations of Greek works) into Latin.
    • Campanus of Novara, chaplain to Pope Urban IV, writes on astronomy and publishes a Latin edition of Euclid's Elements which became the standard Euclid for the next 200 years.

  3. Chronology for 1600 to 1625
    • He publishes Hypomnemata mathematica (Mathematical Memoranda) which is a Latin translation of Stevin's work on mechanics.
    • Bachet publishes his Latin translation of Diophantus's Greek text Arithmetica.

  4. Chronology for 1625 to 1650
    • Van Schooten publishes the first Latin version of Descartes' La geometrie.

  5. Chronology for 1300 to 1500
    • Richard of Wallingford writes Quadripartitum de sinibus demonstratis, the first original Latin treatise on trigonometry.


EMS Archive

  1. EMS honours James Leslie
    • Some eight months' schooling, marked by his violent antipathy to Latin - perhaps still the universal language - was all he ever had in his life, but the kindly minister of Largo lent him some scientific books.
    • His early ambition was to attend the class of Natural Philosophy, but this was made contingent on his learning the hated language, Latin.
    • In the end he did learn it, and took to it, and used to quote Latin frequently in his many writings.

  2. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • (StnAndrews) Determinants and Latin squares .
    • (Goldsmiths' College, London) Latin cubes .

  3. 1930-31 Jan meeting
    • Turnbull, Herbert Westren: "Determinants and Latin squares", [Not printed in an EMS publication.] .


BMC Archive

  1. BMC 2018


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Meneage, Cornwall
    • 1708, with one of the earliest western examples of a Latin square.
    • Though Latin Squares were known in the medieval Arabic world, this is the second oldest European example I know of (the oldest is in an Italian book of 1541; one author asserts Latin Squares were invented in 1710; Euler's paper, often cited as the beginning of the subject, doesn't appear until 1782).

  2. Cambridge Individuals
    • In 1706, he translated Newton's Opticks into Latin.
    • Following on suggestions from Anthony Edwards, Caius installed a handsome modern stained glass window in the Hall to celebrate his centenary, showing the 7 by 7 Latin square from the dust-jacket ofhis The Design of Experiments of 1935.

  3. London Schools
    • The Professor of Latin reported taking a knife from him which Sylvester had intended to use on another student.

  4. London individuals D-G
    • One of his students was Willem 's Gravesande who later produced a standard text which Desaguliers translated from Latin as Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy.

  5. London individuals N-R
    • He was a good linguist and translated to and from English or Latin for both RS members and their overseas correspondents.

  6. Other Institutions in central London
    • (The sources vary - there may be one Latin inscription and the above are parts of it, with varying translations in the different sources.) There are also epitaphs which were proposed or written much later and are not actually on the tomb, such as Alexander Pope's: .

  7. Cambridge Colleges
    • A book of all the Latin inscriptions, with English translations, was produced in 1990 by James Clackson and can be purchased here.

  8. Oxford Institutions and Colleges
    • The word 'museum' was simply the Latin translation of the English 'repository' rather than a conscious derivation from past usages [The Ashmolean Museum and Oxford Science 1683-1983.


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