Search Results for Poisson


Biographies

  1. Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781-1840)
    • Simeon Denis Poisson .
    • Simeon-Denis Poisson's parents were not from the nobility and, although it was becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between the nobility and the bourgeoisie in France in the years prior to the Revolution, nevertheless the French class system still had a major influence on his early years.
    • The main reason for this was that the army was one of the few occupations where the nobility enjoyed significant institutional privileges and Poisson's father had been a soldier.
    • Certainly Poisson's father was discriminated against by the nobility in the upper ranks of the army and this made a large impression on him.
    • As might be expected of someone who had suffered discrimination at the hands of the nobility, Poisson senior was enthusiastic about the political turn of events.
    • Poisson's father decided that the medical profession would provide a secure future for his son.
    • An uncle of Poisson's was a surgeon in Fontainebleau and Poisson was sent there to become an apprentice surgeon.
    • However, Poisson found that he was ill suited to be a surgeon.
    • Poisson returned home from Fontainebleau having essentially failed to make the grade in his apprenticeship and his father had to think again to find a career for him.
    • In 1796 Poisson was sent back to Fontainebleau by his father, this time to enrol in the Ecole Centrale there.
    • Few people can have achieved academic success as quickly as Poisson did.
    • A memoir on finite differences, written when Poisson was 18, attracted the attention of Legendre.
    • However, Poisson found that descriptive geometry, an important topic at the Ecole Polytechnique because of Monge, was impossible for him to succeed with because of his inability to draw diagrams.
    • This would have been an insurmountable problem had he been going into public service, but those aiming at a career in pure science could be excused the drawing requirements, and Poisson was not held back.
    • Poisson was named deputy professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1802, a position he held until 1806 when he was appointed to the professorship at the Ecole Polytechnique which Fourier had vacated when he had been sent by Napoleon to Grenoble.
    • In fact Poisson had little time for politics for rather his whole energies were directed to support mathematics, science, education and the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • When the students at the Ecole had been about to publish an attack on Napoleon's ideas for the Grand Empire in 1804, Poisson had managed to stop them, not because he supported Napoleon's views but rather because he saw that the students would damage the Ecole Polytechnique by their actions.
    • Poisson's motives were not understood by Napoleon's administration, however, and they saw Poisson as a supporter which did his career no harm at all.
    • During this period Poisson studied problems relating to ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations.
    • His studies were purely theoretical, however, for as we mentioned above, he was extremely clumsy with his hands [',' J R Hofman, Poisson’s 1812 Electricity Memoir, in Andre-Marie Ampere (Cambridge, 1995), 113-118.','19]:- .
    • Poisson ..
    • Bossut was 76 years old at the time and, had he died, Poisson would have gained a place.
    • However Bossut lived for another seven years so there was no route into the mathematics section for Poisson.
    • In addition to his professorship at the Ecole Polytechnique, in 1808 Poisson became an astronomer at Bureau des Longitudes.
    • In 1808 and 1809 Poisson published three important papers with the Academy of Sciences.
    • In 1809 he published two papers, the first Sur le mouvement de rotation de la terre Ⓣ and the second, Sur la variation des constantes arbitraires dans les questions de mecanique Ⓣ was a direct consequence of developments in Lagrange's method of variation of arbitrary constants which had been inspired by Poisson's 1808 paper.
    • In 1811 Poisson published his two volume treatise Traite de mecanique Ⓣ which was an exceptionally clear treatment based on his course notes at the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • The mathematicians, aiming to have Poisson fill that vacancy when it occurred, set the topic for the Grand Prix on electricity so as to maximise Poisson's chances.
    • The topic for the prize was as follows (see for example [',' R W Home, Poisson’s memoirs on electricity: academic politics and a new style in physics, British J.
    • Poisson had made considerable progress with the problem before Malus died on 24 February 1812.
    • Poisson submitted the first part of his solution to the Academy on 9 March entitled Sur la distribution de l'electricite a la surface des corps conducteurs Ⓣ.
    • As the mathematicians had intended, this was the deciding factor in Poisson being elected to the physics section of the Institute to replace Malus.
    • Poisson continued to add various responsibilities to his already busy life.
    • It is remarkable how much work Poisson put in; to his research, to his teaching and to playing an ever increasingly important role in the organisation of mathematics in France.
    • In 1813 Poisson studied the potential in the interior of attracting masses, producing results which would find application in electrostatics.
    • Poisson has too much talent to apply it to the work of others.
    • Fourier went on to make valid objections to Poisson's arguments which he corrected in later memoirs of 1820 and 1821.
    • In 1823 Poisson published on heat, producing results which influenced Sadi Carnot.
    • Much of Poisson's work was motivated by results of Laplace, in particular his work on the relative velocity of sound and his work on attractive forces.
    • Poisson's work on attractive forces was itself a major influence on Green's major paper of 1828 although Poisson never seems to have discovered that Green was inspired by his formulations.
    • In Recherches sur la probabilite des jugements en matiere criminelle et matiere civile Ⓣ, an important work on probability published in 1837, the Poisson distribution first appears.
    • The Poisson distribution describes the probability that a random event will occur in a time or space interval under the conditions that the probability of the event occurring is very small, but the number of trials is very large so that the event actually occurs a few times.
    • It is interesting that Poisson did not exhibit the chauvinistic attitude of many scientists of his day.
    • Lagrange and Laplace recognised Fermat as the inventor of the differential and integral calculus; he was French after all, while neither Leibniz nor Newton were! Poisson, however, wrote in 1831:- .
    • Poisson never wished to occupy himself with two things at the same time; when, in the course of his labours, a research project crossed his mind that did not form any immediate connection with what he was doing at the time, he contented himself with writing a few words in his little wallet.
    • Poisson's name is attached to a wide variety of ideas, for example:- Poisson's integral, Poisson's equation in potential theory, Poisson brackets in differential equations, Poisson's ratio in elasticity, and Poisson's constant in electricity.
    • Poisson himself was completely dedicated to mathematics.
    • Arago reported that Poisson frequently said:- .
    • A Poster of Simeon-Denis Poisson .
    • Honours awarded to Simeon-Denis Poisson .
    • 4.nLunar featuresnCrater Poisson .
    • 5.nParis street namesnRue Denis Poisson (17th Arrondissement) .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Poisson.html .

  2. François Arago (1786-1853)
    • This friend introduced Arago to Poisson who was five years older than Arago and had been appointed at an assistant professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in the year before Arago entered the school.
    • Arago and Poisson became friends, not really behaving as student and teacher.
    • Poisson would frequently visit Arago in his apartment in the evenings and the two would discuss politics and mathematics.
    • Although, as we have said, the two were not like student and teacher, nevertheless Poisson did influence his younger friend very considerably.
    • In 1805 Poisson was able to offer Arago a task of far more importance than one would have expected a young student to be asked to undertake.
    • Laplace asked Poisson to find someone who would continue the work, and Poisson proposed his young friend Arago.
    • Arago smiled at the beautiful experiment [of Fizeau and Foucault] which, with its well deserved praise, brought back pleasant memories of his own glory days when he beat Laplace, Poisson, and Biot, to gain his place in the Academy of Sciences.

  3. Jacques Binet (1786-1856)
    • After schooling in Rennes, he entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1798 in the same class as Simeon-Denis Poisson.
    • He graduated in 1801 while Poisson had graduated in the previous year.
    • He succeeded Simeon-Denis Poisson as professor of mechanics in 1815.
    • In particular he quoted Poisson who had written in an article published in the Journal de l'Ecole Polytechnique in 1837 (quoted in [',' A D Aczel, Pendulum: Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science (Simon and Schuster, 2007).
    • Foucault's experiment clearly showed that Poisson was wrong but Binet was reluctant to say so.
    • He tried to give Poisson the benefit of the doubt by writing (quoted in [',' A D Aczel, Pendulum: Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science (Simon and Schuster, 2007).
    • But the passage just cited permits a doubt: Poisson doesn't report a calculation of the force of which he speaks, and thus it is insufficient to allow us to know whether the perturbing force is very small, to conclude that it will only produce an imperceptible effect after a large number of oscillations.

  4. Victor Amédée Lebesgue (1791-1875)
    • Alexandre was a friend of Simeon-Denis Poisson who, at this time, was a member of the Royal Council of Public Instruction, of the Directorate General of Mathematical Education.
    • Alexandre asked Poisson if he could arrange a position for Lebesgue, giving him an excellent recommendation.
    • Poisson arranged for Lebesgue to obtain a position as a lecturer at the Royal College of Nantes, then in the following year as professor at the college of Epinal, where he remained for two years.
    • He corresponded with Poisson, who was very impressed by the quality and depth of Lebesgue's work.
    • Antoine Cournot had obtained a position with the Academy of Sciences in 1833, arranged by Poisson.
    • Again it was due to Poisson's recommendation that Cournot was appointed to a newly created chair in analysis at Lyon in 1834.

  5. Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827)
    • In 1819 the committee to judge the Grand Prix of the Academie des Sciences, with Arago as chairman, and including Poisson, Biot and Laplace, met to consider Fresnel's submission.
    • However Poisson was fascinated by the mathematical model which Fresnel proposed and succeeded in computing some of the integrals to find further consequences beyond those which Fresnel had deduced.
    • Poisson wrote [',' P Blaise, Augustin Fresnel [article] : a l’occasion du 200e anniversaire de sa naissance 10 mai 1788-14 juillet 1827, Annales des ponts et chaussees 46 (1988), 22-25.','3]:- .
    • This was a remarkable prediction, but Arago asked that Poisson's predictions based on Fresnel's mathematical model be tested.
    • One of your commissioners, M Poisson, had deduced from the integrals reported by [Fresnel] the singular result that the centre of the shadow of an opaque circular screen must, when the rays penetrate there at incidences which are only a little more oblique, be just as illuminated as if the screen did not exist.

  6. Antoine Cournot (1801-1877)
    • Poisson was impressed with Cournot and, in 1833, he obtained a position for him with the Academy in Paris.
    • Again with Poisson's recommendation, Cournot was appointed to a newly created chair in analysis at Lyon in 1834.
    • In [',' A A Cournot, Souvenirs (Paris, 1913).','6] Cournot writes of Poisson's opinion of his first papers in mechanics:- .
    • Poisson discovered in them a philosophical depth - and, I must honestly say, he was not altogether wrong.
    • He, as Poisson and Condorcet did, applied probability to legal statistics.

  7. Jules Bienaymé (1796-1878)
    • There do seem to be more reasons why he left and one seems related to Simeon Denis Poisson, who had chosen him for the post, for from that time on Bienayme became openly hostile to him.
    • In fact the jury system in France at that time was based on Laplace's conclusions but it was under attack by Poisson.
    • On the other side, there were a number of mathematicians who Bienayme seems particularly keen to criticise, such as Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Simeon Poisson and Joseph Bertrand.
    • He argued with Cauchy over the least squares method and, in 1842, he criticised Poisson's law of large numbers.
    • Bienayme was quite wrong in his criticism of Poisson but in general he was years ahead of his time in the depth of his statistical ideas.

  8. Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)
    • Laplace, and later Poisson, had similar objections.
    • Poisson, however, attacked both Fourier's mathematical techniques and also claimed to have an alternative theory.
    • Fourier's views on the claims of Biot and Poisson are given in the following, see [',' J Herivel, Joseph Fourier.
    • Having contested the various results [Biot and Poisson] now recognise that they are exact but they protest that they have invented another method of expounding them and that this method is excellent and the true one.

  9. Ladislaus Bortkiewicz (1868-1931)
    • Good, in [',' I J Good, Some statistical applications of Poisson’s work, Statist.
    • 1 (2) (1986), 157-180.','5], argues that the Poisson distribution should have been named the von Bortkiewicz distribution.
    • In this he was the first to note that events with low frequency in a large population followed a Poisson distribution even when the probabilities of the events varied.
    • Presumably the risk of lethal horse kicks varied over years and corps, yet the over-all distribution was remarkably well fitted by a Poisson distribution.

  10. Charles-François Sturm (1803-1855)
    • As for M Arago, I have two or three times been among the group of scientists he invites to his house every Thursday, and there I have seen the leading scientists, Laplace, Poisson, Fourier, Gay-Lussac, Ampere, etc.
    • Sturm became interested in obtaining results on specific differential equations which occurred in Poisson's theory of heat.
    • In the same year he succeeded Poisson in the chair of mechanics in the Faculte des Sciences, Paris.

  11. Wilhelm Cauer (1900-1945)
    • While in the United States he published The Poisson integral for functions with positive real part in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.
    • This is an exposition of the theory of the Poisson integral, especially designed to exhibit those properties which find immediate application in electrical network theory.
    • The importance of the Poisson integral in this field is largely due to the possibility of the representation in this integral form of positive real functions (functions which are regular in the right-hand half-plane, with non-negative real parts in that half-plane, and with real values on the real axis), as previously discussed by the author ..

  12. Bronius Grigelionis (1935-2014)
    • His second paper written in 1962 was titled On the asymptotic expansion of the remainder term in case of convergence to the Poisson law (Russian).
    • In total Bronius published five papers that year, all written in Russian, on topics such as the limit theorem and Poisson processes.
    • As an application, the problem of testing a simple hypothesis against a simple alternative in a Poisson process is considered.

  13. André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836)
    • Another who worked on magnetism at this time was Poisson who insisted on treating magnetism without any reference to electricity.
    • Poisson had already written two important memoirs on electricity and he published two on magnetism in 1826.

  14. Pierre Cartier (1932-)
    • They published jointly authored papers such as A new perspective on functional integration, Poisson processes in probability and quantum physics (1996), A rigorous mathematical foundation of functional integration (1997), and Physics on and near caustics (1997).
    • Poisson processes, solutions of stochastic differential equations and an introduction to quantum field theory ..

  15. Étienne Bobillier (1798-1840)
    • He had been taught by Simeon-Denis Poisson who was impressed with his enthusiastic student.
    • In 1829 he was recommended by Poisson for the post of professor of mathematics at the College Royal in Amiens.

  16. George Green (1793-1841)
    • There is no proof that John Toplis was George Green's mentor but circumstantial evidence suggests strongly that he was guiding him in the new mathematics and helping him with the French he undoubtedly acquired in order to read the works of other French mathematicians, such as Lacroix, Poisson and Biot.
    • Among them are Cavendish's single-fluid theoretical study of electricity of 1771, two memoirs by Poisson of 1812 on surface electricity and three on magnetism (1821-1823), and contributions by Arago, Laplace, Fourier, Cauchy, and T Young.

  17. Sophie Germain (1776-1831)
    • Certainly Poisson, her chief rival on the subject of elasticity and also a judge of the contest, sent a laconic and formal acknowledgement of her work, avoided any serious discussion with her and ignored her in public.
    • Germain attempted to extend her research, in a paper submitted in 1825 to a commission of the Institut de France, whose members included Poisson, Gaspard de Prony and Laplace.

  18. John Walsh (1786-1847)
    • The most interesting of these conveys a report by Poisson and Cauchy on one of his papers submitted to the Academy of Sciences.
    • In a subsequent report by Poisson upon another communication, that great analyst, referring to the former one, stated explicitly that Mr Walsh's papers did not merit the attention of the Academy.

  19. Hermann Kober (1888-1973)
    • In the 1970s, although by that time in his 80s, Kober published: New properties of the Weyl extended integral (1970); Some new properties of the Poisson operator (1971); and The infinite strip in the complex plane and Poisson's operator (1972).

  20. Wim Cohen (1923-2000)
    • A group of N trunks handles traffic from two sources described by independent Poisson processes.
    • It is said that the trunk holding-times have a Poisson distribution, but from the (correct) results of the paper it is clear that the author meant negative exponential.

  21. Alfred Tauber (1866-1942)
    • He published papers such as Uber die Neumann'sche Methode des arithmetischen Mittels Ⓣ (1894), Uber das Poisson'sche und das demselben conjugierte Integral Ⓣ (1895), Uber die Newton'sche Naherungsmethode Ⓣ (1895), and Druckfehlerberichtigung: uber das Poisson'sche und das demselben conjugierte Integral Ⓣ (1895).

  22. Karl Sundman (1873-1949)
    • He published La gravitationuniverselle et sa vitesse de propogation Ⓣ (1929), Demonstration nouvelle du theoreme de Poisson sur l'invariabilite des grands axes Ⓣ (1940), and The Motions of the Moon and the Sun at the Solar Eclipse of 1945, July 9th (1948).
    • In the 1940 paper Sundman gave a new and elegant demonstration of the theorem of Poisson on the invariability of the major axes of the planetary orbits which had been demonstrated in several ways.

  23. Julius Plücker (1801-1868)
    • He attended lectures by, among others, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Sylvestre Lacroix and Simeon Poisson.
    • He based the Mathematical Physics courses on Elementary Mechanics by Louis Poinsot, and Mechanics by Simeon-Denis Poisson.

  24. Noel Slater (1912-1973)
    • Each customer type has its own Poisson arrival rate and exponential service rate not dependent on the particular desk (server) providing the service.
    • Also in 1973, in another joint work with T C T Kotiah, Slater published On two-server Poisson queues with two types of customers.

  25. Johann Karl Burckhardt (1773-1825)
    • The Bureau des Longitudes had to chose the best lunar tables for their astronomical almanac, the Connaissance des Temps Ⓣ, so they appointed a committee consisting of Laplace, Delambre, Bouvard, Arago and Poisson to compare Burckhardt's tables with those of Johann Tobias Burg, an astronomer working in Vienna, that were the most accurate available at the time.
    • On the same occasion Delambre, Poisson and Burg were elected to the American Academy.

  26. John T Graves (1806-1870)
    • Bartholomew Lloyd had become professor of mathematics at Trinity in 1813 and, taking over a department in which the teaching had been very old-fashioned with no calculus taught, he had quickly introduced the continental approach to calculus teaching from Lacroix's textbook Traite elementaire de calcul differentiel et du calcul integral, from Poisson's Traite de mecanique, and from Laplace's Mecanique Celeste.
    • From the recent researches of MM Poisson and Poinsot on angular section, and their discovery of error in trigonometrical formulae usually considered complete, my attention has been drawn to analogous incorrectness in logarithmic series.

  27. Osip Somov (1815-1876)
    • He studied the rotation of a solid body about a point, studying examples arising from the work of Euler, Poinsot, Lagrange and Poisson.
    • In the theory of elliptical functions and their application to mechanics, he completed the solution of the problem concerning the rotation of a solid body around an immobile point in the Euler-Poinsot and Lagrange-Poisson examples.

  28. Maxim Kontsevich (1964-)
    • Calculus of differential forms, symplectic forms, Hamiltonian vector fields and Poisson brackets in noncommutative geometry are sketched.
    • He then proved that any Poisson manifold admits a formal quantization and gave an explicit formula for the flat case.

  29. Bartholomew Lloyd (1772-1837)
    • In 1811 Poisson had published a two volume treatise Traite de mecanique which gave an exceptionally clear treatment based on his course notes at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.
    • Among the undergraduates, those who now look for high academical honours read the works of Cagnoli and Woodhouse on Trigonometry, Brinkley's Astronomy, a course of Algebraic geometry, equivalent to the extent of the first part of the present treatise, the Elementary Treatise of Lacroix on the Differential, and part of that on the Integral Calculus; with Peacock's examples as a praxis; a selection from the 'Mecanique' of Poisson, including the Statics, the Dynamical principle of D'Alembert, with its various applications; the theory of the moments of inertia, the motion of a body round a fixed axis, and most of the Hydrodynamics; also the subject of the first seventeen propositions, and the seventh section of the 'Principia', and the theory of projectiles 'in vacuo', all treated analytically.

  30. Jacob Amsler (1823-1912)
    • That was the problem of the attraction of an ellipsoid, which was first studied in depth by Ivory whose solution was later generalised by Poisson.
    • Amsler extended the theorems of both Ivory and Poisson on this topic.

  31. Frantisek Wolf (1904-1989)
    • Wolf's paper The Poisson integral.
    • [Wolf's] paper is a study of the restrictions on the order of growth of a harmonic function, as a function of r, which are sufficient to insure uniqueness, and, in particular, uniqueness of representation in terms of the Poisson integral.

  32. Joseph Liouville (1809-1882)
    • Liouville graduated in 1827 with de Prony and Poisson among his examiners.
    • In 1840, after a vacancy resulting from the death of Poisson, Liouville was elected to the Bureau des Longitudes.

  33. Leslie Woods (1922-2007)
    • Woods own description of his 1953 paper The relaxation treatment of singular points in Poisson's equation states:- .
    • If F is harmonic or is a solution to Poisson's equation, it may have singular points in the field or on the boundary at which it (a) has finite values, but has infinite derivatives, (b) has logarithmic infinities, or (c) has simple discontinuities.

  34. Antoni Zygmund (1900-1992)
    • For example in 1926 he published six papers in Mathematische Zeitschrift in French: Contribution a l'unicite du developpement trigonometrique Ⓣ; Sur la theorie riemannienne des series trigonometriques Ⓣ; Sur la possibilite d'appliquer la methode de Riemann aux series trigonometriques sommables par le procede de Poisson Ⓣ; Sur les series trigonometriques sommables par le procede de Poisson Ⓣ; Sur un theoreme de la theorie de la sommabilite Ⓣ and Une remarque sur un theoreme de M Kaczmarz Ⓣ.

  35. George Olatokunbo Okikiolu (1941-)
    • Notable cases of such operators include the Dirichlet integrals which are connected with the semi-group of Poisson operators innLp.nIn the main conclusions of this paper, there is an exposition of the connexion between classes of uniformly bounded projections and semi-groups of operators.
    • The two volumes, of around 300 and 500 pages respectively, are subtitled Weierstrass operators and related integrals and Poisson operators, conjugate operators, and related integrals.

  36. George Lidstone (1870-1952)
    • In 1942 Lidstone published Notes on the Poisson frequency distribution.
    • The author considers the Poisson distribution ..

  37. Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859)
    • He had some of the leading mathematicians as teachers and he was able to profit greatly from the experience of coming in contact with Biot, Fourier, Francoeur, Hachette, Laplace, Lacroix, Legendre, and Poisson.
    • Earlier work by Poisson on the convergence of Fourier series was shown to be non-rigorous by Cauchy.

  38. Iossif Vladimirovich Ostrovskii (1934-)
    • He published papers such as Some theorems on decompositions of probability laws (Russian) (1965), On factoring the composition of a Gauss and a Poisson distribution (Russian) (1965), A multi-dimensional analogue of Ju V Linnik's theorem on decompositions of a composition of Gaussian and Poisson laws (Russian) (1965), and Decomposition of multi-dimensional probabilistic laws (Russian) (1966).

  39. Évariste Galois (1811-1832)
    • Galois was invited by Poisson to submit a third version of his memoir on equation to the Academy and he did so on 17 January.
    • Poisson had reported that:- .

  40. Alexis Petit (1791-1820)
    • This preparatory Ecole had been founded in 1802 by the classicist and philosopher Jean-Francois Thurot (1768-1832) together with Sylvestre Francois Lacroix, Simeon Denis Poisson, Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette and other professors from the Ecole Polytechnique.
    • Of the other teachers we mentioned above, Poisson had been named a deputy professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1802, Lacroix had been appointed to the chair of analysis at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1799 and Hachette had become a full professor there in the same year.

  41. Paulette Libermann (1919-2007)
    • The present work is an advanced textbook which gives a systematic exposition of the theory of symplectic, Poisson and contact manifolds, and their applications in Hamiltonian mechanics.
    • The book contains five chapters: Symplectic vector spaces and symplectic vector bundles; Semibasic and vertical differential forms in mechanics; Symplectic manifolds and Poisson manifolds; Action of a Lie group on a symplectic manifold; and Contact manifolds.

  42. George Stokes (1819-1903)
    • After he had deduced the correct equations of motion Stokes discovered that again he was not the first to obtain the equations since Navier, Poisson and Saint-Venant had already considered the problem.
    • With Green, who in turn had influenced him, Stokes followed the work of the French, especially Lagrange, Laplace, Fourier, Poisson, and Cauchy.

  43. Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752-1833)
    • Adrien-Marie Legendre would perhaps have disliked the fact that this article contains details of his life for Poisson wrote of him in [',' D Poisson, Discours prononce aux funerailles de M Legendre, Moniteur universel (20 Jan 1833), 162.','12]:- .

  44. Pierre Fatou (1878-1929)
    • In 1905 he published four short papers: Sur l'integrale de Poisson et les lignes singulieres des fonctions analytiques Ⓣ; Sur quelques theoremes de Riemann Ⓣ; Sur l'approximation des incommensurables et les series trigonometriques Ⓣ; and La serie de Fourier et la serie de Taylor sur son cercle de convergence Ⓣ.
    • Fatou proved that if a function is Lebesgue integrable, then radial limits for the corresponding Poisson integral exist almost everywhere.

  45. Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857)
    • Cauchy was strongly supported by Biot and Arago but Poisson strongly opposed him.

  46. Émile Mathieu (1835-1890)
    • In his 'Theory of capillarity' he lays aside the direct consideration of the capillary forces employed by Poisson, and follows Gauss in establishing the equations for the various problems by seeking to determine the minimum of the potential of the active forces.

  47. Griffith Evans (1887-1973)
    • These include the theories of harmonic and superharmonic functions, the Poisson-Stieltjes integral, the logarithmic potential, the discovery of the precursor of Sobolev spaces in 1920 ..

  48. August Yulevich Davidov (1823-1885)
    • The thesis continued work on the equilibrium of floating bodies which had been started by Euler, Poisson and Dupin.

  49. Edward Copson (1901-1980)
    • by Poisson's analytical solution of the equation of wave-motions.

  50. Patrick Keast (1942-2016)
    • It is the purpose of this note to demonstrate this fact, and also to discuss the solution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations, when the Laplacian operator is singular, in a sense to be defined.

  51. Horace Lamb (1849-1934)
    • He took delight in the comparison of a well-ordered piece of algebraic analysis with a musical composition, and bemoaned the passing of the scientific memoir, which in the hands of a Lagrange or a Poisson had a completeness and austerity of a great work of art.

  52. André Lichnerowicz (1915-1998)
    • In the late 1970s and the 1980s he worked on infinite dimensional Lie algebras writing important papers such as Les varietes de Poisson et leurs algebres de Lie associees Ⓣ (1977), Les varietes de Jacobi et leurs algebres de Lie associees Ⓣ (1978) and (with F Guedira) Geometrie des algebres de Lie de Kirillov Ⓣ (1984).

  53. Mikhail Vasilevich Ostrogradski (1801-1862)
    • These were delivered by Louis Poinsot, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Joseph Fourier, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Simeon-Denis Poisson, Jacques Binet and Augustin-Louis Cauchy.

  54. Claude-Louis Navier (1785-1836)
    • His ideas for teaching were not shared by all, however, and soon after his appointment to the professorship at the Ecole Polytechnique Navier became involved in a dispute with Poisson over the teaching of Fourier's theory of heat.

  55. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
    • Poisson, Mechanics .

  56. Humphrey Lloyd (1800-1881)
    • Bartholomew Lloyd had become professor of mathematics at Trinity in 1813 and, taking over a department in which the teaching had been very old-fashioned with no calculus taught, he had quickly introduced the continental approach to calculus teaching from Lacroix's textbook Traite elementaire de calcul differentiel et du calcul integral, from Poisson's Traite de mecanique, and from Laplace's Mecanique Celeste.

  57. Hilda Geiringer (1893-1973)
    • The debate over Geiringer's theses for Habilitation opens up a chapter of the history of mathematical statistics, namely, expansions of a discrete distribution with an infinite number of values in a series in successive derivatives of the Poisson distribution with respect to the parameter.

  58. Eugène Catalan (1814-1894)
    • It contains 69 of Catalan's papers starting from Sur les combinaisons avec repetition Ⓣ (1838) and ending with his paper Demonstration d'une formule de Poisson Ⓣ (February 1867).

  59. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894)
    • He was advised by von Jolly to read works of Lagrange, Laplace and Poisson [',' R McCormmach, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).

  60. William Ferrel (1817-1891)
    • However Navier, Stokes, Poisson and Saint-Venant had developed a mathematical theory of fluid friction in the 1840s.

  61. Gene Golub (1932-2007)
    • The main topics covered are the method of least squares, fast Poisson solvers, and iterative methods.

  62. Gianfranco Cimmino (1908-1989)
    • His two most important papers on this topic were Nuovo tipo di condizioni al contorno e nuovo metodo di trattazione per il problema generalizzato Ⓣ (1937-38) and Sul problema generalizzato di Dirichlet per l'equazione di Poisson Ⓣ (1940).

  63. Vladimir Drinfeld (1954-)
    • He discussed the concepts of quantum groups and quantization, and also talked about Poisson groups, Lie bi-algebras and the classical Yang-Baxter equation.

  64. Moritz Abraham Stern (1807-1894)
    • Stern also translated Poisson's Lehrbuch der Mechanik (1835-36) and wrote his own textbook Lehrbuch der algebraischen Analysis Ⓣ (1860).

  65. William Gosset (1876-1937)
    • At this time he worked on the Poisson limit to the binomial and the sampling distribution of the mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient.

  66. Paul Butzer (1928-)
    • The most prominent is the group of translations, but others are integral transforms associated with the names of Abel, Poisson, Gauss and Weierstrass.

  67. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
    • These papers all dealt with the current theories on terrestrial magnetism, including Poisson's ideas, absolute measure for magnetic force and an empirical definition of terrestrial magnetism.

  68. Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854)
    • As he had done for so much of his life, Ohm continued his private studies reading the texts of the leading French mathematicians Lagrange, Legendre, Laplace, Biot and Poisson.

  69. Paul Mansion (1844-1919)
    • Sur une integrale consideree par Poisson en calcul des probabilites Ⓣ (1902), Sur la portee objective du calcul des probabilites Ⓣ (1903), Sur une integrale consideree en calcul des probabilites Ⓣ (1904), and Exceptions apparentes au theoreme de Jacques Bernoulli en calcul des probabilites Ⓣ (1913).

  70. Jean-Marie Duhamel (1797-1872)
    • His techniques in the theory of heat were mathematically similar to Fresnel's work in optics with his theory of the transmission of heat in crystal structures based on earlier work by Fourier and Poisson.

  71. Domokos Szász (1941-)
    • Application is made to find under what kind of branching a Poisson random point distribution remains one.

  72. Guglielmo Libri (1803-1869)
    • The following year, being now in the fortunate position of having the title of Professor, being paid a professorial salary but having no commitments, he visited Paris and was well received by the top mathematicians of the day including Laplace, Poisson, Ampere, Fourier and Arago.

  73. Antoine Parseval (1755-1836)
    • Before that it was known by members of the Academie and it appeared in works by Lacroix and Poisson before Parseval's papers were printed.

  74. Theodor Anghelu (1882-1964)
    • Remarks concerning Poisson's functional equation (Romanian) (1959); .

  75. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880)
    • The course he set up was impressive, including the study of works of Lacroix, Cauchy, Monge, Biot, Hamilton, Laplace, Poisson, Gauss, Le Verrier, Bessel, Adams, Airy, MacCullagh and Franz Neumann.

  76. Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874)
    • He also met Poisson, von Humboldt and Fresnel.

  77. Giorgio Bidone (1781-1839)
    • It contains an experimental demonstration of the wave theory expounded by Poisson to the Institut de France in 1816, and of Eytelwein's formula (named after Johann Albert Eytelwein (1764-1848)) for river discharges which he had presented to the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1815.

  78. Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887)
    • An early form of the theory had been developed by Germain and Poisson but it was Navier who gave the correct differential equation a few years later.

  79. Victor Puiseux (1820-1883)
    • In it he investigated questions which had been examined earlier by Laplace, Lagrange and Poisson.

  80. Francesco Cantelli (1875-1966)
    • The expression "law of large numbers" was introduced somewhat later by Poisson who studied the weak law of large numbers (as did Chebyshev in his thesis).

  81. Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)
    • In 1812, at age 16 the minimum age possible, Carnot entered the Ecole Polytechnique where Poisson, Ampere and Arago were among his teachers.

  82. Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888)
    • Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot and Clapeyron had all developed the subject using this caloric theory as a basis.

  83. Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862)
    • He returned to his studies at the Ecole Polytechnique, befriending a fellow student, Simeon-Denis Poisson, and graduated in 1797.

  84. Lipót Fejér (1880-1959)
    • Poisson's integral provides a valid solution for Dirichlet's problem for the circle.

  85. Agner Erlang (1878-1929)
    • In this paper he showed that if telephone calls were made at random they followed the Poisson distribution, and he gave a partial solution to the delay problem.

  86. Gamal Ismail (1950-)
    • Further papers by Ismail followed: A new higher order effective P-C methods for stiff systems (1998); Stability of nonequidistant variable order multistep methods for stiff systems (2000); A numerical technique for the 3-D Poisson equation (2003), Efficient numerical solution of 3D incompressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations (2004) and A new approach to construct linear multistep formulae for solving stiff ODEs (2005).

  87. Paul Dirac (1902-1984)
    • He realised the analogy with Poisson brackets in Hamiltonian mechanics.

  88. Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827)
    • Among the mathematicians who were members of this active group of scientists were Biot and Poisson.

  89. Bill Morton (1930-)
    • A very desirable feature of the book is that it goes beyond the usual investigation of the heat equation, the wave equation, and Poisson's equation.

  90. C V Mourey (1791-1830)
    • He is not remembered as a student at any of the well known educational establishments in the city and has never been referred to in connection with the great mathematicians who were known to have been in Paris during that period; thinking of the young talents of Abel and Galois, but also of Cauchy, Poisson, Legendre, Hachette, Dirichlet, Fourier and Lacroix.

  91. Max Mason (1877-1961)
    • He published seven papers in the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society between 1904 and 1910: Green's theorem and Green's functions for certain systems of differential equations (1904), The doubly periodic solutions of Poisson's equation in two independent variables (1905), A problem of the calculus of variations in which the integrand is discontinuous (1906), On the boundary value problems of linear ordinary differential equations of second order (1906), The expansion of a function in terms of normal functions (1907); The properties of curves in space which minimize a definite integral (1908) and Fields of extremals in space (1910).

  92. Pafnuty Chebyshev (1821-1894)
    • In particular the paper he published from his thesis examined Poisson's weak law of large numbers.

  93. Spiru Haret (1851-1912)
    • "Spiru Haret's theorem" is to be naturally added to the logical succession of theorems with respect to this problem known as "Laplace-Lagrange theorem" and "Poisson's theorem".

  94. Carl Jacobi (1804-1851)
    • In 1829 Jacobi met Legendre and other French mathematicians such as Fourier and Poisson when he made a visit to Paris in the summer vacation.

  95. Robert Murphy (1806-1843)
    • It appears highly probable that [Murphy] may never have had access to Green's 'Essay' at all, and that this is the explanation of the fact (of which any other explanation is scarcely conceivable), that in his 'Treatise on Electricity' he makes no allusion whatever to Green's discoveries, and gives a theory in no respect pushed beyond what had been done by Poisson ..

  96. Mary Somerville (1780-1872)
    • Mary met Laplace, Poisson, Poinsot, Emile Mathieu and many others.

  97. John Kingman (1939-)
    • In 1993 Kingman published Poisson processes which provides a systematic treatment of the subject.

  98. William Thomson (1824-1907)
    • It was at Liouville's request that Thomson began to try to bring together the ideas of Faraday, Coulomb and Poisson on electrical theory.

  99. Nikolai Evgrafovich Kochin (1901-1944)
    • He gave the solution to the problem of small amplitude waves on the surface of an uncompressed liquid in the paper Towards a Theory of Cauchy-Poisson Waves (Russian) in 1935.

  100. Jean Chazy (1882-1955)
    • (10) The Laplace equation and the Poisson equation.

  101. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Korkin (1837-1908)
    • He had read, and with his wonderful memory could then recall, most works by Abel, Dirichlet, Euler, Fourier, Gauss, Jacobi, Lagrange, Laplace, Legendre, Monge, and Poisson.

  102. Vasilii Sergeevich Vladimirov (1923-2012)
    • The transforms examined include the Fourier transform, the Laplace transform, the Cauchy-Bochner transform, the Hilbert transform and the Poisson transform.

  103. Henri Andoyer (1862-1929)
    • Laplace's relations to D'Alembert, Biot and Poisson are described.

  104. Bevan Braithwaite Baker (1890-1963)
    • Huygens' geometrical construction, with its restriction that only one sheet of the envelope of the spherical wavelets is to be considered, is first justified in Chapter I by Poisson's analytical solution of the equation of wave-motions.

  105. Boris Vladimirovich Gnedenko (1912-1995)
    • Included in this second part are sections on: general limit theorems for sums with independent summands; the concept of infinitely small summands; conditions necessary and sufficient that their sums have a given limiting distribution; convergence to the normal, Poisson, and unit distributions; and limit theorems for cumulative sums.

  106. Léon Foucault (1819-1868)
    • Poisson had, deplorably quickly, decided its was not worth considering; and it was Foucault, without and help or assistance, who was the first to propose it.

  107. Jean-Louis Loday (1946-2012)
    • Recently, there has been much interest in other types of algebras, to name a few: Poisson algebras, Gerstenhaber algebras, Jordan algebras, pre-Lie algebras, Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras, Leibniz algebras, dendriform algebras and the various types of algebras up to homotopy.


History Topics

  1. African women I
    • Published The partial multiple correlation coefficient and its applications in regression analysis (1970/71), (with C G Troskie) Noncentral matrix T distributions (1976), (with J W F Juritz and M A Stephens) On the accuracy of simulated percentage points (1983), (with John L Fresen) A note on Foss's method of obtaining initial estimates for exponential curve fitting by numerical integration (1986), (with Gillian Z Stein and Walter Zucchini) Parameter estimation for the Sichel distribution and its multivariate extension (1987), (with Gillian Z Stein) Bivariate compound Poisson distributions (1987), and (with Gillian Z Stein) Linear models with an inverse Gaussian-Poisson error distribution (1988).
    • Note: Abstract of thesis: "The first goal of this thesis is to establish new results about some random sets extracted from the Poisson and Voronoi tessellations of the plane.
    • For the Poisson tessellation it is shown that the convexity of an amalgam is related to the number of sides of the generating polygon.
    • A simulation study involving 4000 independent realisations of each of the Poisson and Voronoi images is reported.
    • We conclude by showing how this index could be used to discriminate between Poisson and Voronoi images." She has worked in the Canadian Government Administration, Statistique Canada, since 2006 and, in addition, as a Senior Analyst in the Canadian Government Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada since February 2017.
    • Thesis title: Normalisation de structures de Poisson [Normalisation of Poisson structures].
    • She has over 30 publications including Modeles locaux de structures de Poisson singulieres en dimensionn3 (1997), Conformal Dirac structures (2000), Locally conformal Dirac structures and infinitesimal automorphisms (2004), Contact manifolds and generalized complex structures (2005), Generalized contact structures (2011), and Generalized Kahlerian manifolds and transformation of generalized contact structures (2017).

  2. African women 1
    • She published several papers including The partial multiple correlation coefficient and its applications in regression analysis (1970/71), (with C G Troskie) Noncentral matrix T distributions (1976), (with J W F Juritz and M A Stephens) On the accuracy of simulated percentage points (1983), (with John L Fresen) A note on Foss's method of obtaining initial estimates for exponential curve fitting by numerical integration (1986), (with Gillian Z Stein and Walter Zucchini) Parameter estimation for the Sichel distribution and its multivariate extension (1987), (with Gillian Z Stein) Bivariate compound Poisson distributions (1987), and (with Gillian Z Stein) Linear models with an inverse Gaussian-Poisson error distribution (1988).
    • Biographical Data: Here is an Abstract of her thesis: "The first goal of this thesis is to establish new results about some random sets extracted from the Poisson and Voronoy tessellations of the plane.
    • For the Poisson tessellation it is shown that the convexity of an amalgam is related to the number of sides of the generating polygon.
    • A simulation study involving 4000 independent realisations of each of the Poisson and Voronoy images is reported.
    • We conclude by showing how this index could be used to discriminate between Poisson and Voronoy images." .

  3. Abstract groups
    • Galois was invited by Poisson to submit a third version of his memoir on equations to the Academie and he did so on 17 January 1831.
    • This version of the paper was refereed by Poisson who rejected it but wrote a very sympathetic report.
    • Poisson failed to understand the paper and suggested that the arguments were developed further.
    • It is little wonder that Poisson found the paper hard to understand for it contains many explicit calculations in a group, yet the concept was not defined - poor Poisson! .

  4. Classical light
    • Fresnel wrote a paper giving the mathematical basis for his wave theory of light and in 1819 the committee, with Arago as chairman, and including Poisson, Biot and Laplace met to consider his work.
    • However Poisson was fascinated by the mathematical model which Fresnel proposed and succeeded in computing some of the integrals to find other consequences.
    • This was a remarkable prediction, but Arago asked that Poisson's predictions based on Fresnel's mathematical model be tested.
    • 73">One of your commissioners, M Poisson, had deduced from the integrals reported by [Fresnel] the singular result that the centre of the shadow of an opaque circular screen must, when the rays penetrate there at incidences which are only a little more oblique, be just as illuminated as if the screen did not exist.

  5. African men 2
    • Thesis title: Quantification par deformations des structures de Poisson quadratiques en dimensions 3 et 4 [Deformations Quantization of quadratic Poisson structures in dimensions 3 and 4] .
    • Thesis title: Systeme de Maxwell-Vlasov-Poisson sur un espace-temps courbe.

  6. African men 1
    • and the Jacobian conjecture in any characteristic (1995), and A proof of the equivalence of the Dixmier, Jacobian and Poisson conjectures (2007).

  7. General relativity
    • Poisson used the gravitational potential approach to give an equation which, unlike Newton's, could be solved under rather general conditions.
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Societies etc

  1. Luxembourg Mathematical Society
    • After the present Society was founded in 1989 it has continued to organise symposia, for example The Development of Mathematics 1900-1950 (1992), Developments in Mathematics at the Eve of 2000 (1998), Conference on Harmonic Analysis (2002), Conference on Poisson Geometry (2005).
    • Also Volume 14 in 2003 published the proceedings of the Conference on Harmonic Analysis, while Volume 16 in 2005 published the proceedings of the Conference on Poisson Geometry.

  2. Fellows of the RSE
    • Simeon Denis Poisson1820More infoMacTutor biography .

  3. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • Poisson won the 1812 prize on electricity.


Honours

  1. Rue Denis Poisson
    • Rue Denis Poisson .

  2. Poisson
    • Simeon Denis Poisson .

  3. Copley Medal
    • 1832 Simeon Poisson .

  4. LMS Presidential Addresses
    • Poisson processes and random sets; thoughts on a theorem of Renyi.

  5. Galway Group Theory.html
    • D J Simms (Trinity Coll, Dublin) Lie Groups and Poisson Algebras .

  6. Fellow of the Royal Society
    • Simeon D Poisson 1818 .

  7. Lunar features
    • (W) (L) Poisson .

  8. Eiffel Tower
    • Poisson .

  9. Fellows of the RSE
    • Simeon Denis Poisson1820More infoMacTutor biography .

  10. Fellows of the RSE
    • Simeon Denis Poisson1820More infoMacTutor biography .

  11. Eiffel scientists
    • Poisson (Mathematician) .

  12. Lunar features
    • Poisson .

  13. Paris street names
    • Rue Denis Poisson (17th Arrondissement) WnMn .

  14. Young Mathematician prize
    • for works on Poisson-Dirichlet measures.


References

  1. References for Siméon-Denis Poisson
    • References for Simeon-Denis Poisson .
    • http://www.britannica.com/biography/Simeon-Denis-Poisson .
    • D H Arnold, Poisson and Mechanics, in Simeon Denis Poisson et la Science de son Temps (Paris, 1981).
    • F Arago, Simeon Denis Poisson, Oeuvres completes de Francois Arago II (Paris, 1854), 591-698.
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson : the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • Poisson: mathematician or physicist?, Arch.
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • Elasticity: the crystallization of Poisson's views on the nature of matter, Arch.
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson: the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • Poisson's closing synthesis: traite de physique mathematique, Arch.
    • D H Arnold, The mecanique physique of Simeon Denis Poisson : the evolution and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory (1800-1840).
    • Some perspective on Poisson's contributions to the emergence of mathematical physics, Arch.
    • A Dahan-Dalmedico, La propagation des ondes en eau profonde et ses developpements mathematiques (Poisson, Cauchy, 1815-1825), in The history of modern mathematics II (Boston, MA, 1989), 129-168.
    • B Geller and Y Bruk, A portrait of Poisson, Quantum (1991), 21-25.
    • B V Gnedenko, Simeon-Denis Poisson (1781-1840) (Russian), Mat.
    • I J Good, Some statistical applications of Poisson's work, Statist.
    • J R Hofman, Poisson's 1812 Electricity Memoir, in Andre-Marie Ampere (Cambridge, 1995), 113-118.
    • R W Home, Poisson's memoirs on electricity: academic politics and a new style in physics, British J.
    • E Pajares, Poisson (Spanish), Gac.
    • O B Sheynin, S D Poisson's work in probability, Arch.
    • S M Stigler, Poisson on the Poisson distribution, Statist.

  2. References for Pierre-Simon Laplace
    • F Sebastiani, The microscopic-caloric theories of gases of Laplace, Ampere, Poisson and Prevost (Italian), Physis - Riv.
    • F Sebastiani, The caloric theories of Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot and Clapeyron, and the theory of thermal phenomena in gases formulated by Clausius in 1850 (Italian), Physis - Riv.

  3. References for Pierre Rémond de Montmort
    • D Rawlings, The Poisson Variation of Montmort's Matching Problem, Mathematics Magazine 73 (3) (2000), 232-234.

  4. References for Sadi Carnot
    • F Sebastiani, The caloric theories of Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot and Clapeyron, and the theory of thermal phenomena in gases formulated by Clausius in 1850 (Italian), Physis-Riv.

  5. References for Rudolf Clausius
    • F Sebastiani, The caloric theories of Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot and Clapeyron, and the theory of thermal phenomena in gases formulated by Clausius in 1850 (Italian), Physis - Riv.

  6. References for Ladislaus Bortkiewicz
    • I J Good, Some statistical applications of Poisson's work, Statist.

  7. References for Michel Plancherel
    • Strassle) Sur l'integrale de Poisson pour la sphere.

  8. References for André-Marie Ampère
    • F Sebastiani, The microscopic-caloric theories of gases of Laplace, Ampere, Poisson and Prevost (Italian), Physis - Riv.

  9. References for Adrien-Marie Legendre
    • D Poisson, Discours prononce aux funerailles de M Legendre, Moniteur universel (20 Jan 1833), 162.

  10. References for Émile Clapeyron
    • F Sebastiani, The caloric theories of Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot and Clapeyron and the theory of thermal phenomena in gases formulated by Clausius in 1850 (Italian), Physis - Riv.

  11. References for Augustin-Louis Cauchy
    • A Dahan-Dalmedico, La propagation des ondes en eau profonde et ses developpements mathematiques (Poisson, Cauchy, 1815-1825), in The history of modern mathematics II (Boston, MA, 1989), 129-168.

  12. References for Nicholas Oresme
    • G Schuppener, Geschichte der Zeta-Funktion von Oresme bis Poisson, Deutsche Hochschulschriften 533 (Egelsbach, 1994).


Additional material

  1. Walk Around Paris
    • They include Lagrange, Laplace, Cauchy, Poisson, Monge, and many others.
    • Simeon Denis Poisson, whose main work was on integrals and Fourier Series.
    • He also worked on statistics, even giving his name to the Poisson distribution.
    • He replaced Poisson as a professor, teaching mechanics.

  2. Basset hydrodynamics
    • The discovery of the general equations of motion was followed up by the investigations of the great French mathematicians Laplace, Lagrange and Poisson, the first of whom has left us a splendid memorial of his genius in his celebrated Theory of the Tides.
    • The next advance was made by Poisson and Green, the former of whom in 1831 discovered the velocity potential due to the motion of a sphere in an unlimited liquid, and the latter of whom in 1833, without a knowledge of Poisson's work, discovered the velocity potential due to the motion of translation of an ellipsoid in an unlimited liquid.

  3. Herivel's books
    • If Fourier can indeed be classified as a physicist - and I feel he more appropriately belongs with the applied mathematicians like Laplace, Poisson, and Cauchy than with physicists such as Fresnel and Ampere-some discussion of the important developments in early 19th-century French physics would seem appropriate.
    • Now recognized as a masterpiece of mathematical analysis and theoretical physics, it was not highly admired by the leading mathematicians at the Academy of Sciences, Laplace, Lagrange, Poisson, and Biot.
    • The documents include eight letters of Fourier, and ten manuscripts by Fourier, Laplace, Biot, and Poisson that help to clarify the contents of the letters.

  4. Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904
    • The classical style of memoir, after the manner of Lagrange, or Poisson, or Gauss, complete in itself and deliberately composed like a work of art, is continually becoming rarer.
    • When he came to manhood Lagrange, Laplace, Poisson, Fourier, Fresnel, Ampere, had but lately passed away.
    • The analytical armoury fashioned by Lagrange, Poisson, Fourier, and others, though subject, of course, to continual improvement and development, has served the turn of a long line of successors.

  5. O'Brien tracts
    • Instances, it is true, have been brought forward by Poisson in which the use of diverging series appears to lead to error; but if the reasoning employed in Chapter III of these Tracts be not incorrect, this error is due to quite a different cause; as will be immediately perceived on referring to Articles 33, 34, 35, and 37.
    • The Author has deduced the equations of motion of a rigid body about its centre of gravity by a method which he hopes will be found, less objectionable than that in which the composition and resolution of angular velocities are employed, and less complex than that given by Laplace and Poisson ; he has also endeavoured to simplify the application of these equations to the case of the Earth.

  6. Galois Sainte Pelagie preface
    • An extract sent in 1831 to the Academy of Science was submitted for refereeing to M Poisson, who just said at a meeting that he had not understood it.
    • Which to my eyes, fascinated by the author's self-confidence, proves simply that M Poisson did not want or was not able to understand it; but certainly proves in the eyes of the public that my book means nothing.

  7. Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905, Part 2
    • To this period is due the construction of analytical mechanics at the hands of Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange, and Poisson; but the most significant achievement in this range of thought is the mathematical development of the Newtonian theory of gravitation applied to the whole universe.
    • When the wonderful school of French physicists, composed of Monge, Sadi Carnot, Fourier, Poisson, Poinsot, Ampere, and Fresnel (to mention only some names), together with Gauss, Kirchhoff, and von Helmholtz in Germany, and Ivory, Green, Stokes, Maxwell, and others in England, applied their mathematics to various branches of physics, for the most part its development was that of an ancillary subject.

  8. Who was who 1852
    • J L Lagrange (1736-1813) spent the last twenty years of his wandering life in France, men like J Fourier (1768-1830), P S Laplace (1749-1827), A M Legendre (1752-1833) and S D Poisson (1781-1840) brought French mathematics to new heights.
    • In connection with Liouville we often think of Jacques-Charles-Francois Sturm (1805-1855); he was Poisson's successor as professor of mechanics at the Sorbonne in 1850.

  9. Murphy books
    • M Poisson in his Memoirs on Electricity, Magnetism and Molecular Actions, M Ampere in his 'Theorie des Phenomenes Electro-dynamiques,' and Fourier in his 'Theorie de la Chaleur,' have been the respective founders of the physical sciences considered in this treatise in a mathematical point of view.
    • It could answer no useful purpose to point out what is new in the remaining parts of the work; that will easily be recognised by those who are already acquainted with the subject, and those who are unacquainted would not benefit by the information; I shall only add that the sixth and seventh chapters contain the theories of Ampere on Voltaic actions, and Poisson on magnetism, with such modifications as seemed to simplify the processes employed by those writers.

  10. R A Fisher: 'Statistical Methods' Introduction
    • Three of the distributions with which we shall be concerned, Bernoulli's binomial distribution, Laplace's normal distribution, and Poisson's series, were developed by writers on probability.
    • Examples of sufficient statistics are the arithmetic mean of samples from the normal distribution, or from the Poisson series; it is the fact of providing sufficient statistics for these two important types of distribution which gives to the arithmetic mean its theoretical importance.

  11. Statistical Society of Paris
    • On a principle which M Poisson had thought to discover, and which he had called the "law of large numbers".

  12. Catalan retirement
    • Plus tard, Poisson, Cauchy, Dirichlet, Jacobi, Steiner, Poncelet m'ont accueilli avec une grande bienveillance (*).

  13. Catalan retirement
    • Later, Poisson, Cauchy, Dirichlet, Jacobi, Steiner and Poncelet welcomed me with great kindness (**).

  14. Harnack publications
    • A Harnack, Uber Cauchy's zweiten Beweis fur die Convergenz der Fourier'schen Reihen und eine damit verwandte altere Methode von Poisson, Mathematische Annalen 32 (2) (1888), 175-202.

  15. Marcolongo publications
    • Roberto Marcolongo, Sul teorema di Poisson, Napoli Rend.

  16. Lloyd Philosophy
    • To this name must be added that of Poisson, an author not less remarkable for the depth of his views than for the elegance with which he unfolds them.

  17. Cotlar publications
    • Mischa Cotlar, Moment Theory and Continuity of the Hilbert and Poisson Transform in L2 Spaces, Functional Analysis, Holomorphy and Approximation Theory, Rio de Janeiro, 1979, Lecture Notes in Pure and Appl.

  18. Mercer's papers
    • A wearing mechanism is represented by the extended Poisson process.

  19. Mathieu preface
    • When the second edition of Lagrange's Mecanique analytique appeared at the beginning of this century, it was an accomplished work; but Poisson, Hamilton, Jacobi, and other mathematicians have since brought out important works on this subject.

  20. Hart books
    • In the Notes a brief outline is given of the method of applying to mechanical science the principles of Algebra, and of the Calculus; but the Author feels that it is unnecessary to dwell long on this application, as he could not hope to improve on the manner in which it has been already treated in Lloyd's Mechanical Philosophy, Venturoli's Theory of Mechanics, and Poisson Traite de Mecanique.

  21. Somerville's Booklist

  22. Kingman autobiography
    • The latter was occupied by Roger Miles (just finishing his thesis on Poisson flats), Bob Loynes (who had proved beautiful theorems about general queueing systems) and me.

  23. Keynes: 'Probability' Preface
    • A few years before, "un probleme," in the words of Poisson, "propose a un austere janseniste par un homme du monde, a ete l'origine du calcul des probabilites." In the intervening centuries the algebraical exercises, in which the Chevalier de la Mere interested Pascal, have so far predominated in the learned world over the profounder enquiries of the philosopher into those processes of human faculty which, by determining reasonable preference, guide our choice, that Probability is oftener reckoned with Mathematics than with Logic.

  24. Plucker Copley medal
    • This subject was afterwards followed out by Professor Plucker into the more complicated cases in which the conditions of crystalline symmetry are such as to leave the crystal optically biaxal; and after having recognized the insufficiency of a first empirical generalization of the law applicable to crystals of the rhombohedral or pyramidal system, and accordingly to uniaxal crystals, he was led to assimilate a crystal to an assemblage of small ellipsoids, capable of magnetic induction, having for their principal planes the planes of crystalline symmetry where such exist; and to apply Poisson's theory.

  25. Percy MacMahon addresses the British Association in 1901
    • Whereas in 1801 on the Continent there were the leaders Lagrange, Laplace and Legendre, and of rising men, Fourier, Ampere, Poisson and Gauss, we could only claim Thomas Young and Ivory as men who were doing notable work in research.

  26. Herivel's French Theoretical Physics
    • Again, the French may have felt that after the important contributions of French scientists such as Coulomb, Poisson, Biot and, above all, Ampere, the theory of electricity and magnetism which is today principally associated with the names of Faraday and Maxwell should have been created by a Frenchman.

  27. Goursat: 'Cours d'analyse mathématique
    • Integrale de Poisson.

  28. Samuel Wilks' books
    • This material, together with a discussion of the binomial and Poisson distributions and with some extensions to the continuous case, forms the central part of the book, taking up about one half of the space.

  29. Segel books
    • Chapter 16: Potential Theory; Equations of Laplace and Poisson; Green's functions; Diffraction of acoustic waves by a hole.

  30. Franklin's textbooks
    • There is a section on the Laplace transformation, one on Poisson's sum formula, and a brief exposition of the theory of partial differential equations of the first order.

  31. Young Researchers
    • Title: Generalized geometry and Poisson geometry .

  32. Weil reviews
    • In the second part - Chapters III and IV - the author studies the zeta function of division algebras and central simple algebras and then uses the Poisson summation formula to calculate the Tamagawa numbers of "most" classical groups .


Quotations

  1. A quotation by Poisson
    • A quotation by Simeon-Denis Poisson .

  2. A quotation by Libri
    • [Poisson's] only passion has been science: he lived and is dead for it.


Famous Curves

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Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Poisson publishes Traite de mecanique (Treatise on Mechanics).
    • It includes Poisson's work on the applications of mathematics to topics such as electricity, magnetism and mechanics.
    • Poisson introduces "Poisson's ratio" in elasticity which involves stresses and strains on materials.
    • Poisson publishes Recherches sur la probabilite des jugements (Researches on the Probabilities of Opinions).
    • In this work he establishes the rules of probability, gives "Poisson's law of large numbers" and describes the "Poisson distribution" for a discrete random variable which is a limiting case of the binomial distribution.

  2. Chronology for 1830 to 1840
    • Poisson introduces "Poisson's ratio" in elasticity which involves stresses and strains on materials.
    • Poisson publishes Recherches sur la probabilite des jugements (Researches on the Probabilities of Opinions).
    • In this work he establishes the rules of probability, gives "Poisson's law of large numbers" and describes the "Poisson distribution" for a discrete random variable which is a limiting case of the binomial distribution.

  3. Chronology for 1820 to 1830
    • Poisson introduces "Poisson's ratio" in elasticity which involves stresses and strains on materials.

  4. Chronology for 1810 to 1820
    • Poisson publishes Traite de mecanique (Treatise on Mechanics).
    • It includes Poisson's work on the applications of mathematics to topics such as electricity, magnetism and mechanics.


EMS Archive

  1. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • (Glasgow) De la Vallee Poussin's extension of Poisson's integral .
    • (Edinburgh) An asymptotic representation of the exponential function: On Poisson's integral-equation .
    • (Edinburgh) On the Poisson sum of a Fourier series .

  2. 1928-29 Jun meeting
    • II, Series 2] {Title in minutes: "On the Poisson sum of a Fourier series"} .

  3. 1917-18 Dec meeting
    • Whittaker, Edmund Taylor: "An asymptotic representation of the exponential function", [Title] {Title in minutes: "On Poisson's integral-equation"} .

  4. 1906-07 Dec meeting
    • Gibson, George Alexander: "De la Vallee Poussin's extension of Poisson's integral" .

  5. EMS Proceedings papers
    • De la Vallee Poussin's extension of Poisson's integral .

  6. EMS/SCM
    • Miranda, Eva (Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya) Poisson manifolds of "symplectic" type .


BMC Archive

  1. BMC 2011
    • Hitchin, HHolomorphic Poisson manifolds and their deformations .

  2. BMC 2002
    • Wulff, CStability of Poisson equilibria .

  3. BMC 2000
    • Reshetikhin, N Integrability of characteristic systems on Poisson Lie groups .

  4. BMC 2018
    • Pocovnicu, OLong time regularity of the 2D Euler-Poisson system for electrons with vorticity .

  5. BMC 2005
    • Wulff, C Stability of Poisson equilibria .


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. London Learned Societies
    • Herschel (1821), Arago (1825), Peter Barlow (1825), Airy (1831), Faraday (1832), Poisson (1832), G.


Astronomy section

  1. List of astronomers

  2. List of astronomers
    • Poisson, Simeon .


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JOC/BS August 2001