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  1. References for Calculus history
    • References for Calculus history .
    • K Andersen, Precalculus, 1635-1665, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 292-307.
    • C B Boyer, The History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development (New York, 1959).
    • J O Fleckenstein, The line of descent of the infinitesimal calculus in the history of ideas, Arch.
    • N Guicciardini, Three traditions in the calculus : Newton, Leibniz and Lagrange, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 308-317.
    • T Guitard, On an episode in the history of the integral calculus, Historia Mathematica 14 (2) (1987), 215-219.
    • A Rosenthal, The history of calculus, The American Mathematical Monthly 58 (1951), 75-86.
    • A dialogue between Leibniz and Newton (1675-1677), Archive for History of Exact Sciences 2 (1964), 113-137.
    • D T Whiteside, Patterns of mathematical thought in the later seventeenth century, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1 (1960), 179-388.

  2. References for Topology history
    • References for Topology history .
    • J W Dauben, Topology : Invariance of dimension, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 939-949.
    • J Dieudonne, A History of Algebraic and Differential Topology, 1900-1960 (Basel, 1989).
    • I, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 20 (2) (1979), 97-188.
    • II, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 25 (2-3) (1981), 85-267.
    • E Scholtz, Topology : Geometric, algebraic, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 927-938.
    • A Weil, Riemann, Betti and the birth of topology, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 20 (2) (1979), 91-96.

  3. References for Pi history
    • References for Pi history .
    • P Beckmann, A history of π (Boulder, Colo., 1971).
    • P Freguglia, The determination of π in Fibonacci's 'Practica geometriae' in a fifteenth-century manuscript (Italian), Contributions to the history of mathematics (Italian) (Modena, 1990), 75-84.
    • C Jami, Une histoire chinoise du 'nombre π', Archive for History of Exact Sciences 38 (1) (1988), 39-50.
    • C Pereira da Silva, A brief history of the number π (Portuguese), Bol.
    • I Tweddle, John Machin and Robert Simson on inverse-tangent series for π, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 42 (1) (1991), 1-14.

  4. References for Quantum mechanics history
    • References for Quantum mechanics history .
    • M Beller, The conceptual and the anecdotal history of quantum mechanics, Found.
    • L M Brown, Quantum mechanics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 1252-1260.
    • G S Im, Experimental constraints on formal quantum mechanics : the emergence of Born's quantum theory of collision processes in Gottingen, 1924-1927, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 50 (1) (1996), 73-101.
    • R M Nugayev, The history of quantum mechanics as a decisive argument favoring Einstein over Lorentz, Philos.

  5. History overview
    • An overview of the history of mathematics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • How we view history .
    • We view the history of mathematics from our own position of understanding and sophistication.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/History_overview.html .

  6. ETH history
    • Zurich Federal Polytechnic history .
    • This article gives a brief overview of the history of the Federal Polytechnic in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
    • It was decided that a federal polytechnic would first and foremost produce engineers, chemists and foresters, but that supplementary subjects such as mathematics, natural sciences, modern languages, history, and politics would also be taught [',' D Gugerli, P Kupper and D Speich, Die Zukunftsmaschine.
    • Full knowledge of elementary mathematics and geometry, of trigonometry and of elements of analytic geometry and algebraic analysis; elements of descriptive and practical geometry; [knowledge] of elements of physics, chemistry, mechanics and natural history; furthermore skills in drawing freehand and with a ruler.[',' D Gugerli, P Kupper and D Speich, Die Zukunftsmaschine.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/ETH_history.html .

  7. Weather forecasting
    • The History of Weather Forecasting .
    • But how are weather forecasts created? And why has forecast accuracy improved so dramatically over the last couple of decades? In this article, I will examine the history of weather forecasting, and especially the historical development of the use of mathematics in forecasting, before describing the basic principles of the mathematical methods used in current forecasting models.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The British Meteorological Department issued regular gale warnings from 1861 onwards; the first US storm-warning system began to operate ten years later, dwarfing the European services with its size and funds [',' http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/craft.weather.forecasting.history, E D Craft','33].
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, p.
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin’s Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002)','1, pp.
    • D-Day not only changed world history, it also highlighted the importance of weather forecasts [','R Stewart, Weather Forecasting by Computer (2009)','10].
    • For this he ran a shortened forecasting model on his computer, and to his great surprise, inputting data that differed from previously entered values only in the fourth decimal place, significantly changed the weather the computer predicted [',' http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Lorenz_Edward.html, J J O’Connor, E F Robertson','38].
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Weather_forecasts.html .

  8. Science in the 17th century
    • A history in context in application for the degree of M.Litt.
    • in Museums and Gallery Studies to the School of Art History of the University of St Andrews.
    • This period in the history of Europe is known as the Scientific Revolution.
    • Similarly, philosophers had the need to follow the new system in science, to adapt their discourses to the new discoveries [',' J Langone, Bruce Stutz and Andrea Gianopoulos, Theories for everything: an illustrated history of science from the invention of numbers to string theory (National Geographic, Washington, D.C., 2006).','7].
    • After 1650, and before the return of the king Charles II, the new science was practiced for its economic benefits, to find new resources for commerce and technology, and for its social status as, for the society of the time, turning to intellectual amusements had become fashionable [',' L Jardine, Britain and the rise of science, BBC History (17 February 2011).','6].
    • Approaching the end of the century, in the year 1687, Isaac Newton published his opera magna, Philosophiž Naturalis Principia Mathematica, one of the most significant works on the history of science, where he sets the foundation for classical mechanics, describes the Law of the Universal Gravitation and introduces Calculus, a new mathematical system to study motion and change.
    • The answer may be in the universities, institutions that provided a supportive environment for study and research [',' J R McNeill and William Hardy McNeill, The human web: a bird’s-eye view of world history (W W Norton, New York, 2003).','8].
    • [',' W Ruegg, and H De Ridder-Symoens, A history of the university in Europe 1, 1 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992).','13].
    • The bishop Thomas Sprat in his History of the Royal Society of London (1667) mentions that: .
    • ." [',' J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, History topic: Mathematics in St Andrews to 1700, MacTutor History of Mathematics (1996).','10].
    • During its first two centuries, students in the University received instruction in Arts, mainly in the study of Aristotle [',' J J O’Connor and E F Robertson, History topic: Mathematics in St Andrews to 1700, MacTutor History of Mathematics (1996).','10].
    • [',' H C Rawson, Treasures of the University: an examination of the identification, presentation and responses to artefacts of significance at the University of St Andrews, from 1410 to the mid-19th century; with an additional consideration of the development of the portrait collection to the early 21st century (Art History Theses, University of St Andrews, 2010).','12] .
    • The chair was not attached to any college, and James Gregory, who had just become a member of the Royal Society, worked in the Upper Hall of the university library [',' R G Cant, The University of St Andrews: A Short History (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1946).','1].
    • The construction of the observatory continued despite his absence but neither the building nor the instruments intended to be housed there were ever fully brought to use and the structure, erected at the south end of St Mary's College, became derelict in the eighteenth century and was demolished by the nineteenth [',' H C Rawson, Treasures of the University: an examination of the identification, presentation and responses to artefacts of significance at the University of St Andrews, from 1410 to the mid-19th century; with an additional consideration of the development of the portrait collection to the early 21st century (Art History Theses, University of St Andrews, 2010).','12].
    • History of the Royal Society of London ..
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Science_17C.html .

  9. References for U of St Andrews History
    • References for U of St Andrews History .

  10. References for ETH history
    • References for ETH history .

  11. Pi history
    • A history of Pi .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Pi_through_the_ages.html .

  12. Quantum mechanics history
    • A history of Quantum Mechanics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/The_Quantum_age_begins.html .

  13. Topology history
    • A history of Topology .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Topology_in_mathematics.html .

  14. Calculus history
    • A history of the calculus .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/The_rise_of_calculus.html .

  15. African men 1
    • The International and African Mathematical Union Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa produced a Special Issue of their AMUCHMA Newsletter 30 in 2005 which listed people born in Africa or citizens of an African country who had been awarded a doctorate in mathematics or mathematics education up to 2005.
    • 'It is strange because in other areas of school work, you watch movies on history, you read poetry and novels, you learn your language at home, you experience music and drama and art outside the school curriculum - but the learning of mathematics is entirely concentrated within the school curriculum,' he says.
    • John's vast experience, his forthright and articulate persona, and the breadth of his involvement in university affairs make him an unforgettable figure in the institution's history.
    • After a couple of papers on automorphisms, he published a number of article on the history of mathematics including Le manuscrit mathematique de Jerba: une pratique des symboles algebriques maghrebins en pleine maturite (2002), Proof in Arabian algebra (2002), The first Egyptian modern mathematics textbook (20011) and Emergence d'un savoir mathematique euro-islamique: L'Offrande du converti pour ranimer la flamme eteinte (2016).
    • I am particularly active in the history of Arabic mathematics and the history of mathematics teaching in Arabic/Islamic countries.
    • His interests are in Algebraic number theory, Commutative Algebra, History of Mathematics, History of Ideas generally, including the history of social thought and historiography, economic theory such as inflation and unemployment, South African economic history, such as the economics of racial discrimination, Liberal theories of justice and religion and Jurisprudence.
    • He gives the following fields of interest: Applications of mathematics to finance and to physics, history and philosophy of mathematics and science in general.
    • I am certainly the only one in the history of the department to be promoted from Associate to Full professor in one year.
    • I was told that there was only one Black student in the entire history of the department who got a Ph.D.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/African_men_1.html .

  16. Perfect numbers
    • Before we begin to look at the history of the study of perfect numbers, we define the concepts which are involved.
    • Nicomachus divides numbers into three classes: the superabundant numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is greater than the number; deficient numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is less than the number; and perfect numbers which have the property that the sum of their aliquot parts is equal to the number (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1] for a different translation):- .
    • However Nicomachus has more than number theory in mind for he goes on to show that he is thinking in moral terms in a way that might seem extraordinary to mathematicians today (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1] for a different translation):- .
    • Now satisfied with the moral considerations of numbers, Nicomachus goes on to provide biological analogies in which he describes superabundant numbers as being like an animal with (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1]):- .
    • Let us look in more detail at Nicomachus's description of the algorithm to generate perfect numbers which is assertion (4) above (see [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8], or [',' D’Ooge (tr.), Nicomachus, Introduction to arithmetic (New York, 1926).','1]):- .
    • As the reader will have already realised, the history of perfect numbers is littered with errors and Cataldi, despite having made the major advance of finding two new perfect numbers, also made some false claims.
    • For example Descartes, in a letter to Mersenne in 1638, wrote [',' M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.','8]:- .
    • A History Topic on Prime numbers .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Perfect_numbers.html .

  17. References for General relativity
    • J Earman, M Janssen and J D Norton (eds.), The Attraction of gravitation : new studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, 1993).
    • J Eisenstaedt, La relativite generale a l'etiage : 1925-1955, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 35 (2) (1986), 115-185.
    • J Eisenstaedt, The low water mark of general relativity, 1925-1955, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 277-292.
    • J Eisenstaedt and A J Kox (eds.), Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, 1992).
    • J Earman and C Glymour, The gravitational red shift as a test of general relativity : history and analysis, Stud.
    • J Earman and C Glymour, Einstein and Hilbert : two months in the history of general relativity, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 19 (3) (1978/79), 291-308.
    • D Howard, Einstein and Eindeutigkeit : a neglected theme in the philosophical background to general relativity, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 154-243.
    • D Howard and J Stachel (eds.), Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, 1989).
    • J Illy, Einstein teaches Lorentz, Lorentz teaches Einstein : Their collaboration in general relativity, 1913-1920, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 39 (3) (1989), 247-289.
    • C W Kilmister, Relativity, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 1235-1241.
    • A J Kox, General relativity in the Netherlands, 1915-1920 in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 39-56.
    • A Lichnerowicz, Mathematics and general relativity : a recollection, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 103-108.
    • A Mercier, General relativity at the turning point of its renewal, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 109-121.
    • J M Sanchez-Ron, The reception of general relativity among British physicists and mathematicians (1915-1930), in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 57-88.
    • C Vilain, Spherical coordinates in general relativity from 1915 to 1960 : a physical interpretation, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 419-434.

  18. Classical time
    • A history of time: Classical time .
    • A huge effort has been put into making devices to measure time with ever increasing accuracy from the beginnings of recorded history to the present day.
    • We shall look at the fascinating 20th century developments in understanding time in the article A history of time: 20th century time.
    • Of course the very title of these articles: "A history of time" is confusing.
    • The idea of "history" already contains the idea of "time".
    • But let us make it clear that what we intend to investigate in these two articles is a history of how ideas about time have developed and, as always in this archive, we emphasise the mathematical aspects.
    • In the article A history of time: 20th century time we examine this revolution.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Time_1.html .

  19. Cartography
    • The history of cartography .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • The book gives a good insight into the history of surveying in China and its links with cartography.
    • Edward Wright published mathematical tables to be used in calculating Mercator's projection in 1599, see [',' A V Dorofeeva, From the history of the discovery of the Mercator projection (Russian), Mat.
    • It was the most popular atlas of its time, and it is important in the history of cartography partly because Ortelius quotes 87 authorities for the data on which his maps are based.
    • Such a map or survey would be useful both in time of war and peace, and many good observations might be made by it, not only as to natural history and philosophy, but also in order to the perfect improvement of a country.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Cartography.html .

  20. Doubling the cube
    • Theon of Smyrna quotes a work by Eratosthenes (see Heath [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2]):- .
    • The plague certainly was a major event in the history of Athens and about a quarter of the population died from it.
    • Heath also suggests in [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2] that Hippocrates may have come to the idea from number theory for he quotes Euclid's Elements Book VIII:- .
    • Heath writes [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2]:- .
    • We shall use some coordinate geometry in a moment to see that Archytas is correct, but first let us give the construction in the words of Eutocius, unchanged except for the names of the point which I have changed to fit the notation of our diagram and that described above (see for example [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7]):- .
    • However, Heath [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2] suggests that Eudoxus was:- .
    • Plutarch wrote (see for example [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7]):- .
    • Eratosthenes is important in the story both because the history of the problem has been communicated through him and also for his own contribution to the problem.
    • He erected a column at Alexandria dedicated to King Ptolemy with an epigram inscribed on it relating to his own mechanical solution to the problem of doubling the cube [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2]:- .
    • Details of the construction is given in [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','2].
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Doubling_the_cube.html .

  21. EMS History
    • He had already published Treatise on the theory of determinants (1880) and was working on the first volume (five were eventually published) of History of determinants (1890).
    • His scholarly five volumes on the History of Determinants are a mine of information still worth dipping into today.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/EMS_history.html .

  22. U of St Andrews History
    • U_of_St_Andrews_History .

  23. EMS history
    • EMS_history .

  24. History overview
    • History_overview .

  25. ETH history
    • ETH_history .

  26. Greek sources II
    • First let us see what facts Heath knew when he wrote his famous book [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1], A history of Greek mathematics, which he began in 1913.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • In the 5th century AD, Proclus wrote his Commentary on Euclid which is our principal source of knowledge about the early history of Greek geometry.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Hence, Heath can deduce that [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1]:- .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Eutocius's commentary on Archimedes On the Sphere and Cylinder II includes a quotation from Diocles solving the following problem of Archimedes (see for example [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1]):- .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Heath deduces from the quotes in Eutocius that Diocles [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1]:- .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Heath also writes [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1]:- .
    • Before continuing with the description of what has been discovered since Heath wrote his A history of Greek mathematics it is reasonable to ask: Does it matter when Diocles lived? The answer is certainly "yes" in deciding how fine a mathematician Diocles was.
    • The publication of this work in 1976 was an event of major importance in the history of mathematics adding a previously lost piece to the jigsaw.
    • One papyrus states [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).','1]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_sources_2.html .

  27. 20th century time
    • A history of time: 20th century time .
    • Mach published a history of mechanics in 1883.
    • Hawking has presented some ideas concerning imaginary time; see for example [',' S W Hawking, A brief history of time (London, 1988).','7] and [',' S W Hawking and R Penrose, The nature of space and time (Princeton, NJ, 1996).','4].
    • He writes in [',' S W Hawking, A brief history of time (London, 1988).','7] about a model for time/size of universe as a sphere:- .
    • The history in real time, however, will look very different..
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Time_2.html .

  28. Voting
    • The history of voting .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • This is a remarkable work which gives Condorcet an important place in the history of probability.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Voting.html .

  29. function concept
    • As Thiele writes on the first page of [',' H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).','2]:- .
    • From time to time, anachronistic comparisons like the one just given help us with the elucidation of documented facts, but not with the interpretation of their history.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • Jahnke writes [',' H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).','2]:- .
    • History Exact Sci.
    • Condorcet seems to have been the first to take up Euler's general definition of 1755, see [',' A P Youschkevitch, The concept of function in the works of Condorcet (Russian), in Studies in the history of mathematics, No.
    • Lutzen writes in [',' H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).','2]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Functions.html .

  30. U of St Andrews History
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/U_of_St_Andrews_History.html .

  31. Zero
    • A history of Zero .
    • Neither of the above uses has an easily described history.
    • A History topic on Mayan mathematics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Zero.html .

  32. References for Science in the 17th century
    • R G Cant, The University of St Andrews: A Short History (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1946).
    • L Jardine, Britain and the rise of science, BBC History (17 February 2011).
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/jardineih_01.shtml .
    • J Langone, Bruce Stutz and Andrea Gianopoulos, Theories for everything: an illustrated history of science from the invention of numbers to string theory (National Geographic, Washington, D.C., 2006).
    • J R McNeill and William Hardy McNeill, The human web: a bird's-eye view of world history (W W Norton, New York, 2003).
    • J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, History topic: Mathematics in St Andrews to 1700, MacTutor History of Mathematics (1996).
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/U_of_St_Andrews_History.html .
    • H C Rawson, Treasures of the University: an examination of the identification, presentation and responses to artefacts of significance at the University of St Andrews, from 1410 to the mid-19th century; with an additional consideration of the development of the portrait collection to the early 21st century (Art History Theses, University of St Andrews, 2010).
    • W Ruegg, and H De Ridder-Symoens, A history of the university in Europe 1, 1 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992).

  33. Measurement
    • The history of measurement .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Measurement.html .

  34. Set theory
    • A history of set theory .
    • The history of set theory is rather different from the history of most other areas of mathematics.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Beginnings_of_set_theory.html .

  35. Christianity and Mathematics
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Russell notes not only the impact of Pythagoras on science but also on Christian thinking [',' B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1961).','11]:- .
    • However, real knowledge could not be gained through the senses [',' B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1961).','11]:- .
    • Russell [',' B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1961).','11] gives Aristotle's ideas of God:- .
    • Tolosani wrote that Copernicus (see for example [',' E Rosen, Was Copernicus’ Revolutions approved by the Pope, Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975), 531-542.','26]):- .
    • The arguments put forward by Tolosani against Copernicus were that, in addition to contradicting Holy Scripture, his ideas contradicted Aristotle's physics (see for example [',' E Rosen, Was Copernicus’ Revolutions approved by the Pope, Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975), 531-542.','26]):- .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Heliocentric.html .

  36. Greek astronomy
    • Indeed, as Pannekoek points out in [',' A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).','7], a Greek astronomer aimed only to describe the heavens while a Greek physicist sought out physical truth.
    • In this work Hesiod writes that (see [',' B Hetherington, A chronicle of pre-telescope astronomy (Chichester, 1996).','5], also [',' A F Aveni, Empires of time : Calendars, clocks and cultures (New York, 1989).','1] and [',' A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).','7]):- .
    • Neugebauer [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','6] feels that philosophy had a detrimental affect:- .
    • As Berry writes [',' A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).','2]:- .
    • As Berry writes in [',' A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).','2]:- .
    • Delambre, in his famous work on the history of astronomy, writes:- .
    • Suffice to end this article with a quotation from [',' O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).','6]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_astronomy.html .

  37. Copernicus autograph
    • For a history of how the autograph copy reached the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, see THIS LINK.
    • Volume 1 begins with a section entitled The Analysis and History of the Manuscript written by Jerzy Zathey and much of the information in the rest of this article comes from this section.
    • Both styles [',' J Zathey, The Analysis and History of the Manuscript, in Complete Works of Nicholas Copernicus (Macmillan Press, London; Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1972), 1-25.','4]:- .
    • The article [',' J Zathey, The Analysis and History of the Manuscript, in Complete Works of Nicholas Copernicus (Macmillan Press, London; Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1972), 1-25.','4] describes in detail the way Copernicus wrote.
    • A summary of the binding is given in [',' J Zathey, The Analysis and History of the Manuscript, in Complete Works of Nicholas Copernicus (Macmillan Press, London; Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1972), 1-25.','4]:- .
    • In [',' N M Swerdlow, On Establishing the Text of De Revolutionibus, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981), 35-46.','3] Swerdlow denotes the autograph by M and the 1543 printed text N.
    • The History of Copernicus's Autograph .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Copernicus_autograph.html .

  38. Mathematics and Architecture
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Even if deep mathematical ideas went into the construction of the pyramids, I think that Ifrah makes a useful contribution to this debate in [',' G Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers (London, 1998).','4] when he writes:- .
    • But the first gardener in history to lay out a perfect ellipse with three stakes and a length of string certainly held no degree in the theory of cones! Nor did Egyptian architects have anything more than simple devices -- "tricks", "knacks" and methods of an entirely empirical kind, no doubt discovered by trial and error -- for laying out their ground plans.
    • History of architecture, and architectural materials.
    • Later in the 17th Century lived the English architect Wren, in many ways the best known architect in English history.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Architecture.html .

  39. Fractal Geometry
    • A History of Fractal Geometry .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/fractals.html .

  40. African women 1
    • The International and African Mathematical Union Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa produced a Special Issue of their AMUCHMA Newsletter 33 in 2006 which listed women born in Africa or who had spent much of their careers in an African country who had been awarded a doctorate in mathematics or mathematics education up to 2005.
    • by Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA, in 1955, having written the dissertation A study of some phases of the use of the history of mathematics in secondary education.
    • She became a member of the Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa formed in 1986 and was on the History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Advisory Board 1984-1988, 1992-2000.
    • Her publications include The use of history of mathematics in the teaching of mathematics in secondary education (1983).
    • This article gives an overview of the history and basic concepts of quantitative financial analysis." .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/African_women_1.html .

  41. Squaring the circle
    • One of the fascinations of this problem is that it has been of interest throughout the whole of the history of mathematics.
    • Plutarch, in his work On Exile which was written in the first century AD, says [',' I Thomas, Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics : Vol 1 (From Thales to Euclid) (London, 1967).','4]:- .
    • Two characters are speaking, Meton is the astronomer (see D Barrett (trs.), Aristophanes, Birds (London, 1978) or [',' I Thomas, Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics : Vol 1 (From Thales to Euclid) (London, 1967).','4] for a shorter quote):- .
    • Themistius states [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','1]:- .
    • Now Archimedes is famed for his introduction of the spiral curve, but why did he introduced this curve? The authors of [',' J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.','7] suggest three reasons:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Squaring_the_circle.html .

  42. References for Nine chapters
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).
    • E I Berezkina (trs.), Two texts of Liu Hui on geometry (Russian), in Studies in the history of mathematics, No.
    • K Chemla, Relations between procedure and demonstration : Measuring the circle in the 'Nine chapters on mathematical procedures' and their commentary by Liu Hui (3rd century), in History of mathematics and education: ideas and experiences (Essen, 1992) (1996), 69-112.
    • L S Feng, 'Jiu zhang suanshu' and Hui Liu's theory of similar right triangles (Chinese), in Collected research papers on the history of mathematics, Vol.
    • B S Hu, A further study on the positive-negative principle in the Jiu zhang suanshu (Chinese) , in Collected research papers on the history of mathematics Vol.
    • D Liu, A comparison of Archimedes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles, in Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology 179 (Dordrecht, 1996), 279-287.
    • R Mei, Liu Hui's theories of mathematics, in Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology 179 (Dordrecht, 1996), 243-254.
    • J Song, The historical value of the 'Nine chapters on the mathematical art' in society and the economy, in Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology 179 (Dordrecht,1996), 261-266.
    • R B Wang, A preliminary exploration on the logical order of the Shang gong chapter of Jiu zhang suanshu - a parallel discussion on the understanding of the operational rule ab+ac=a(b+c) in 'Jiu zhang' (Chinese), in Collected research papers on the history of mathematics Vol.

  43. Cosmology
    • A brief history of cosmology .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Cosmology.html .

  44. Burnside problem
    • A history of the Burnside problem .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Burnside_problem.html .

  45. Harriot's manuscripts
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • In fact Stephen Peter Rigaud, who succeeded Robertson to both Savilian chairs at Oxford, was much more interested in the history of mathematics than Robertson had been.
    • played a major part in the renaissance of the history of mathematics - of Newtonian studies in particular ..
    • Harriot’s will, History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 1-16.','6] for full details of this interesting episode.
    • Only in the second half of the twentieth century, when the significance of science has become of crucial importance and the study of history and philosophy of science has matured, has Harriot's reputation started to come into its own.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Harriot.html .

  46. Indian mathematics
    • Histories of Indian mathematics used to begin by describing the geometry contained in the Sulbasutras but research into the history of Indian mathematics has shown that the essentials of this geometry were older being contained in the altar constructions described in the Vedic mythology text the Shatapatha Brahmana and the Taittiriya Samhita.
    • While there is so much uncertainty over the date, a topic discussed fully in our article on the Bakhshali manuscript, then we should avoid rewriting the history of the Jaina period in the light of the mathematics contained in this remarkable document.
    • Now we have presented the latter part of the history of Indian mathematics in an unlikely way.
    • Indeed work is now being undertaken and we should soon have a better understanding of this important part of the history of mathematics.
    • South Asia History Project .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Indian_mathematics.html .

  47. Mathematics and Art
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • The work contains a history of art in ancient times, a history of thirteenth century artists, an autobiography, and a compilation of medieval texts on the theory of vision such as that by al-Haytham.
    • In his introduction to this work Danti wrote a brief history of perspective:- .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Art.html .

  48. References for Prime numbers
    • L E Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers (3 volumes) (New York, 1919-23, reprinted 1966).
    • U Dudley, History of a formula for primes, Amer.
    • J Echeverria, Observations, problems and conjectures in number theory-the history of the prime number theorem, in The space of mathematics (Berlin, 1992), 230-252.
    • L J Goldstein, A history of the prime number theorem, Amer.
    • O Ore, Number Theory and Its History (1948, reprinted 1988).
    • W Schwarz, Some remarks on the history of the prime number theorem from 1896 to 1960, in Development of mathematics 1900-1950 (Basel, 1994), 565-616.
    • H S Uhler, A brief history of the investigations on Mersenne numbers and the latest immense primes, Scripta Math.
    • A Weil, Number Theory: An Approach Through History from Hammurapi to Legendre (1984).

  49. Mathematical games
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • The whole history of mathematics is interwoven with mathematical games which have led to the study of many areas of mathematics.
    • They are know known as problems of retrograde analysis and their object is to deduce the past history of a game rather than the future of a game which is the conventional problem.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • David Joyner (A history of puzzles) .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Mathematical_games.html .

  50. References for Babylonian mathematics
    • A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • S Gandz, A few notes on Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, in Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning Offered in Homage to George Sarton on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 31 August 1944 (New York, 1947), 449-462.
    • J Hoyrup, Babylonian mathematics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 21-29.
    • K Muroi, Babylonian mathematics - ancient mathematics written in cuneiform writing (Japanese), in Studies on the history of mathematics (Kyoto, 1998), 160-171.
    • M A Powell Jr, The antecedents of old Babylonian place notation and the early history of Babylonian mathematics, Historia Math.
    • A E Raik, From the early history of algebra.

  51. Statistics index
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Although at present this archive does not contain any specially written article on Statistics, nevertheless there is a wealth of information on the history of Statistics.
    • Fisher R A Fisher's History of Statistics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Statistics.html .

  52. The number e
    • One of the first articles which we included in the "History Topics" section of our web archive was on the history of π.
    • There is a great contrast between the historical developments of these two numbers and in many ways writing a history of e is a much harder task than writing one for π.
    • Now the reader might ask, not unreasonably, why we have not started our article on the history of e at the point where it makes its first appearance.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/e.html .

  53. References for Egyptian mathematics
    • A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • S Gandz, A few notes on Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, in Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning Offered in Homage to George Sarton on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 31 August 1944 (New York, 1947), 449-462.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • C S Roero, Egyptian mathematics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 30-45.
    • W Wendrich, Ancient Egyptian rope and knots, in History and science of knots (River Edge, NJ, 1996) 43-68.

  54. African women I
    • The International and African Mathematical Union Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa produced a Special Issue of their AMUCHMA Newsletter 33 in 2006 which listed women born in Africa or citizens of an African country who had been awarded a doctorate in mathematics or mathematics education up to 2005.
    • Was a member of the Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa formed in 1986.
    • On the History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Advisory Board 1984-1988, 1992-2000.
    • Published The use of history of mathematics in the teaching of mathematics in secondary education (1983).
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Africa_1.html .

  55. Mayan mathematics
    • He visited the ruins of the great cities of the Mayan civilisation and learnt from the people about their customs and history.
    • Certainly what he then did was to write a book Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan Ⓣ (1566) which describes the hieroglyphics, customs, temples, religious practices and history of the Mayans which his own actions had done so much to eradicate.
    • In [',' G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).','4] Ifrah argues that the number system we have just introduced was the system of the Mayan priests and astronomers which they used for astronomical and calendar calculations.
    • Ifrah writes [',' G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).','4]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Mayan_mathematics.html .

  56. References for Non-Euclidean geometry
    • H Freudenthal, Nichteuklidische Geometrie im Altertum?, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 43 (3) (1991), 189-197.
    • J J Gray, Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 877-886.
    • J J Gray, The discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, in Studies in the history of mathematics (Washington, DC, 1987), 37-60.
    • B A Rosenfeld, A history of non-euclidean geometry : evolution of the concept of a geometric space (New York, 1987).
    • B A Rozenfel'd, History of non-Euclidean geometry : Development of the concept of a geometric space (Russian) (Moscow, 1976).
    • R Taton, Lobatchevski et la diffusion des geometries non-euclidiennes, The Spanish scientist before the history of science (Madrid, 1980), 39-46.
    • I Toth, From the pre-history of non-euclidean geometry (Hungarian), Mat.

  57. Indian numerals
    • In particular his account of Indian astronomy and mathematics is a valuable contribution to the study of the history of Indian science.
    • In [',' G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).','1] Ifrah lists a number of the hypotheses which have been put forward.
    • Ifrah proposes a theory of his own in [',' G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).','1], namely that:- .
    • However, the same story in Lalitavistara convinces Kaplan (see [',' R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).','3]) that the Indians' ideas of numbers came from the Greeks, for to him the story is an Indian version of Archimedes' Sand-reckoner.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Indian_numerals.html .

  58. References for Egyptian Papyri
    • A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • S Gandz, A few notes on Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, in Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning Offered in Homage to George Sarton on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 31 August 1944 (New York, 1947), 449-462.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • C S Roero, Egyptian mathematics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 30-45.
    • W Wendrich, Ancient Egyptian rope and knots, in History and science of knots (River Edge, NJ, 1996) 43-68.

  59. Forgery 1
    • Vrain-Lucas was trained as a law clerk and, like Chasles, he was interested in history.
    • When Vrain-Lucas approached Chasles in 1861 offering to sell him letters between famous people from history, Chasles bought them eagerly and asked Vrain-Lucas if he could seek out more.
    • He was a patriotic French man with a passionate interest in the history of science.
    • In fact rather than be an accomplice, and therefore a common criminal, it seems more likely that Chasles was such an honest man, living a sheltered academic life away from the real world, that he accepted Vrain-Lucas simply as someone like himself with a passionate interest in history and scholarship.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Forgery_1.html .

  60. References for Weather forecasting
    • The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Nino (Hoboken NJ, 2002) .
    • http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/craft.weather.forecasting.history, E D Craft .
    • http://www.ehow.com/facts_4856867_history-weather-forecasting.html, B Hudson .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Bjerknes_Vilhelm.html, J J O'Connor, E F Robertson .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Lorenz_Edward.html, J J O'Connor, E F Robertson .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Richardson.html, J J O'Connor, E F Robertson .

  61. References for function concept
    • H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).
    • F A Medvedev, Newton's concept of function (Russian), in History and methodology of the natural sciences, No.
    • M Panza, Concept of function, between quantity and form, in the 18th century, in History of mathematics and education: ideas and experiences, Essen, 1992 (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gottingen, 1996) .
    • Siu, M K Concept of function - its history and teaching, in Learn from the masters!, Kristiansand, 1988 (Math.
    • A P Youschkevitch, The concept of function in the works of Condorcet (Russian), in Studies in the history of mathematics, No.
    • History Exact Sci.

  62. The Scottish Book
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • As most readers will realize, the city of Lwow, and with it the "Scottish Book", was fated to have a very stormy history within a few years of the book's inception A few weeks after the outbreak of World War II, the city was occupied by the Russians.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Scottish_Book.html .

  63. References for Classical light
    • N Kipnis, History of the principle of interference of light (Basel, 1991).
    • S Bergia, C Ferrario and V Monzoni, A blocked path? Light molecules from Ishiwara to de Broglie (Italian), Proceedings of the fifth national congress on the history of physics (Italian), Rome, 1984, Rend.
    • S D'Agostino, Maxwell's dimensional approach to the velocity of light : rise and fall of a paradigma, in Proceedings of the fifth national congress on the history of physics (Italian), Rome, 1984, Rend.
    • E I Pogrebysskaya, The development of the ideas about dispersion of light in the seventeenth century (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences, No.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • ewton and his followers have any conception of wave-particle dualism of light? (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences, No.

  64. Physical world
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • In this article we explore a little of the history of the philosophy of science in order to look at differing views to the type of questions that we have just considered.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/World.html .

  65. References for Chinese overview
    • R Calinger, A contextual history of mathematics (New York, 1999).
    • Y Li, Materials for the Study of the History of Ancient Chinese Mathematics (Chinese) (Shanghai, 1963).
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).
    • B Qian, History of Chinese mathematics (Chinese) (Peking, 1981).
    • K Chemla, Reflections on the world-wide history of the rule of false double position, or : How a loop was closed, Centaurus 39 (2) (1997), 97-120.
    • D Liu, 400 years of the history of mathematics in China - an introduction to the major historians of mathematics since 1592, Historia Sci.

  66. References for Real numbers 2
    • H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).
    • P Djugak, The limit concept and irrational numbers: ideas of Charles Meray and Karl Weierstrass (Russian), inStudies in the history of mathematics, No.
    • M Lopez Pellicer, Constructions of real numbers (Spanish), in History of mathematics in the XIXth century, Part 2 (Spanish), Madrid, 1993, Real Acad.
    • L C Mejlbo, Addendum to: "Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history" (Danish), Nordisk Mat.
    • L C Mejlbo, Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history (Danish), Nordisk Mat.
    • History Exact Sci.

  67. References for Infinity
    • I N Burova, The development of the problem of infinity in the history of science (Russian), Nauka (Moscow, 1987).
    • E Maor, To infinity and beyond : A cultural history of the infinite (Boston, MA, 1987).
    • E Maor, To infinity and beyond : A cultural history of the infinite (Princeton, NJ, 1991).
    • M Guillemot and D Daumas, En route for infinity, History of mathematics : History of problems (Paris,1997), 7-32.
    • A W Moore, A brief history of infinity, Sci.

  68. Trisecting an angle
    • Firstly it has no real history relating to the way that the problem first came to be studied.
    • Heath writes in [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','1]:- .
    • He writes [',' T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).','1]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Trisecting_an_angle.html .

  69. References for Cosmology
    • D Basu, Early history of cosmology, Indian Sci.
    • G F R Ellis, The expanding universe : a history of cosmology from 1917 to 1960, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 367-431.
    • A Koestler, The sleepwalkers : a history of man's changing vision of the universe (Harmondsworth, 1968).
    • F J Ragep, Duhem, the Arabs, and the history of cosmology : Pierre Duhem: historian and philosopher of science I, Synthese 83 (2) (1990), 201-214.
    • H Urbantke, Schrodinger and cosmology, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992) 453-459.

  70. Debating topics
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • The first ideas we present are simply to make people think about numbers, and in particular to encourage the use of the history archive to find birth dates and death dates before making calculations.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Debating.html .

  71. Bakhshali manuscript
    • The paper [',' R C Gupta, Centenary of Bakhshali manuscript’s discovery, Ganita Bharati 3 (3-4) (1981), 103-105.','8] describes this discovery along with the early history of the manuscript.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Bakhshali_manuscript.html .

  72. References for Black holes
    • S Hawking, A Brief History of Time (Bantam Press, London-New York, 1988).
    • A Chodos (ed.), 1783: John Michell anticipates black holes, Physics History 18 (10) (2009).
    • J Eisenstaedt, The Early Interpretation of the Schwarzschild Solution, in D Howard and J Stachel (eds), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies 1 (Birkhauser, Boston, 1989), 213-233.
    • C Montgomery, W Orchiston and I Whittingham, Michell, Laplace and the origin of the black hole concept, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12 (2) (2009), 90-96.
    • S Schaffer, John Mitchell and Black Holes, Journal for the History of Astronomy 10 (1979), 42-43.
    • S Soter and N deGrasse Tyson, Case Study: John Michell And Black Holes, Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, American Museum of Natural History (2000).https://www.amnh.org/explore/resource-collections/cosmic-horizons/case-study-john-michell-and-black-holes .

  73. Prime numbers
    • You can see more about these numbers in the History topics article Perfect numbers.
    • There is then a long gap in the history of prime numbers during what is usually called the Dark Ages.
    • A History Topic on Perfect numbers .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Prime_numbers.html .

  74. Coffee houses
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • But the most pathetic figure associated with its history is that of Abraham De Moivre, that French mathematician who became the friend of Newton and Leibniz.
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Coffee_houses.html .

  75. Arabic mathematics
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • History Exact Sci.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Arabic_mathematics.html .

  76. Ten classics
    • The History of the T'ang records (see [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','1]):- .
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.','4] seems to have the most convincing argument:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Ten_classics.html .

  77. References for Perfect numbers
    • A Weil, Number theory : An approach through history (Boston-Basel-Stuttgart, 1984).
    • M Crubellier and J Sip, Looking for perfect numbers, History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 389-410.
    • M L Nankar, History of perfect numbers, Ganita Bharati 1 (1-2) (1979), 7-8.
    • H S Uhler, A brief history of the investigations on Mersenne numbers and the latest immense primes, Scripta Math.
    • A M Vaidya, Comment on : "History of perfect numbers", Ganita Bharati 1 (3-4) (1979), 22.

  78. Ptolemy Manuscript
    • The history of the text is a problem of scholarly pursuit on par with the information contained within the text itself.
    • It is interesting to note that while such a work would seemingly have been a valuable tool throughout its history for the common traveler, pilgrim, merchant, military commander, and ruler, its use in the Middle Ages was minimal, with only a few copies in existence.
    • This was a major turning point in the history of the Geography, marking the beginning of a new proliferation of manuscripts.[',' Ptolemy, Ptolemy’s geography : an annotated translation of the theoretical chapters / J.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Ptolemy_mss.html .

  79. Pi chronology
    • A history of Pi .
    • A history of Pi .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Pi_chronology.html .

  80. Poincaré - Inspector of mines
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Poincare_mines.html .

  81. Chinese overview
    • It gives a clear statement on the nature of Chinese mathematics in this period (see for example [',' R Calinger, A contextual history of mathematics (New York, 1999).','2]:- .
    • The most famous member of this family was Mei Wending (1633-1721) and his comment on the golden section is typical of the sensible attitude he took towards Western mathematics (see for example [',' J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).','9]):- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Chinese_overview.html .

  82. Bourbaki 2
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Bourbaki_2.html .

  83. Bolzano's manuscripts
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Bolzano_manuscripts.html .

  84. Infinity
    • An article on infinity in a History of Mathematics Archive presents special problems.
    • The questions above are very fundamental and must have troubled thinkers long before recorded history.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Infinity.html .

  85. Weil family
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Weil_family.html .

  86. Mental arithmetic
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Mental_arithmetic.html .

  87. Maxwell's House
    • Between the portraits is a notice giving a brief history:- .
    • From a long view of the history of mankind - seen from, say, ten thousand years from now - there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Maxwell_House.html .

  88. Modern light
    • But we are getting too deeply into modern day physics and away from the history, so let us end our look at the dual wave-particle nature of light here.
    • There has been one other important development in the theory of light in the 20th century which we no not want to examine in too much detail, as it also takes us too deeply into physics, but needs to be mentioned in an article on the history of light.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Light_2.html .

  89. Nine chapters
    • For example in [',' K Chemla, Relations between procedure and demonstration : Measuring the circle in the ’Nine chapters on mathematical procedures’ and their commentary by Liu Hui (3rd century), in History of mathematics and education: ideas and experiences (Essen, 1992) (1996), 69-112.','8] Chemla shows that Chinese mathematicians certainly understood how to give convincing arguments that their methodology for solving particular problems was correct.
    • has dominated the history of Chinese mathematics.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Nine_chapters.html .

  90. Bourbaki 1
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Bourbaki_1.html .

  91. Babylonian Pythagoras
    • Several authors, for example see [',' R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • Several historians (see for example [',' R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Babylonian_Pythagoras.html .

  92. References for Orbits
    • S Aoki, The moon-test in Newton's 'Principia' : accuracy of inverse-square law of universal gravitation, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 44 (2) (1992), 147-190.
    • A B Kozhevnikov, The views of Faraday and Maxwell on gravitation (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XXXI (Moscow, 1985), 129-134.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • C Wilson, The dynamics of the Solar System, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 1044-1053.
    • C Wilson, The three-body problem, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 1054-1062.

  93. Hirst's diary
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Hirst_comments.html .

  94. Alcuin's book
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Alcuin_book.html .

  95. Tait's scrapbook
    • Greek - Latin - Mathematics - English and French - Geography, History and Scripture; and printed Examination Papers, containing questions and exercises on each of these, were successively put into the hands of the Competitors, who returned written answers, without leaving the school-room, and without any assistance of any kind.
    • Tait also gained distinction in Latin (Maxwell didn't), Lewis Campbell came second in Greek despite going on to have a distinguished career as a professor of Greek, Tait and Maxwell both achieved distinctions in English and French and in Geography, History and Scripture.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Tait_scrapbook.html .

  96. Decimal time
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Decimal_time.html .

  97. References for Mayan mathematics
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • M W Makemson, The astronomical tables of the Maya, in Contributions to American Anthropology and History no.
    • L Morales Aldana, Mayan arithmetic : a methodological proposal (Spanish), in Meeting of the International Study Group on Relations Between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics, Blumenau, 1994 (Sao Paulo, 1996), 119-128.
    • J E S Thompson, Maya arithmetic, in Contributions to American Anthropology and History no.

  98. Greeks poetry
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greeks_poetry.html .

  99. Cubic surfaces
    • The surface whose history we are interested in for this short article is a surface of order three which is called a cubic surface.
    • The last person we will mention in this short history of the study of cubic surfaces is Gino Fano.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Cubic_surfaces.html .

  100. Brachistochrone problem
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Brachistochrone.html .

  101. Chrystal and the RSE
    • It is sometimes said that history repeats itself, a saying which in one particular applies to that of our Society.
    • History of the Royal Society of Edinburgh .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Chrystal_RSE.html .

  102. Newton poetry
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Newton_poetry.html .

  103. References for Real numbers 1
    • H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).
    • M Lopez Pellicer, Constructions of real numbers (Spanish), in History of mathematics in the XIXth century, Part 2 (Spanish), Madrid, 1993, Real Acad.
    • L C Mejlbo, Addendum to: "Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history" (Danish), Nordisk Mat.
    • L C Mejlbo, Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history (Danish), Nordisk Mat.
    • M Pihl, The place of Theodoros in Plato's "Theaitetos" and the earliest history of irrational numbers (Danish), Mat.

  104. Word problems
    • Before continuing to describe the history, let us define some concepts.
    • Let us return to the history of the word problem for groups.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Word_problems.html .

  105. Black holes
    • They were also both wrong in their predictions of what stellar black holes were like [',' C Montgomery, W Orchiston and I Whittingham, Michell, Laplace and the origin of the black hole concept, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12 (2) (2009), 90-96.','26]:- .
    • Einstein wrote back in 1916 [',' J Eisenstaedt, The Early Interpretation of the Schwarzschild Solution, in D Howard and J Stachel (eds), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies 1 (Birkhauser, Boston, 1989), 213-233.','20]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Black_Holes.html .

  106. References for Real numbers 3
    • H N Jahnke (ed.), A history of analysis (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 2003).
    • P Djugak, The limit concept and irrational numbers: ideas of Charles Meray and Karl Weierstrass (Russian), inStudies in the history of mathematics, No.
    • M Lopez Pellicer, Constructions of real numbers (Spanish), in History of mathematics in the XIXth century, Part 2 (Spanish), Madrid, 1993, Real Acad.
    • L C Mejlbo, Addendum to: "Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history" (Danish), Nordisk Mat.
    • L C Mejlbo, Some fundamental theorems about real numbers and their history (Danish), Nordisk Mat.

  107. References for Indian mathematics
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • C N Srinivasiengar, The history of ancient Indian mathematics (Calcutta, 1967).
    • A I Volodarskii, Outlines of the history of medieval Indian mathematics (Russian) "Nauka" (Moscow, 1977).
    • R Rashed, Indian mathematics in Arabic, in The intersection of history and mathematics (Basel, 1994), 143-148.
    • A I Volodarskii, Indian mathematics and al-Biruni (Russian), in History and methodology of the natural sciences XX (Moscow, 1978), 49-57.

  108. Galileo's Difesa
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • Alphabetical list of History Topics .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Galileo_Difesa.html .

  109. References for Elliptic functions
    • R Ayoub, The lemniscate and Fagnano's contributions to elliptic integrals, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 29 (2) (1984), 131-149.
    • R Cooke, Elliptic integrals and functions, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 529-539.
    • E I Slavutin, Euler's works on elliptic integrals (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XIV: Mathematics (Moscow, 1973), 181-189.
    • J Stillwell, Mathematics and history (New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1989), 152-167.

  110. References for Abstract linear spaces
    • I Grattan-Guinness and W Ledermann, Matrix theory, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 775-786.
    • T W Hawkins, Weierstrass and the theory of matrices, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 17 (1977), 119-163.
    • E Knobloch, Determinants, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 766-774.
    • E Knobloch, From Gauss to Weierstrass : determinant theory and its historical evaluations, in The intersection of history and mathematics (Basel, 1994), 51-66.

  111. References for Babylonian numerals
    • A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • J Hoyrup, Babylonian mathematics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 21-29.

  112. References for Squaring the circle
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).
    • I Thomas, Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics : Vol 1 (From Thales to Euclid) (London, 1967).
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  113. References for Zero
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, From one to zero : A universal history of numbers (New York, 1987).
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).

  114. Orbits
    • 118">Mr Adams does not have the right to appear in the history of the discovery of the planet Le Verrier either with a detailed citation or even with the faintest allusion.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Orbits.html .

  115. References for Christianity and Mathematics
    • B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1961).
    • I Grattan-Guinness, Historical notes on the relations between mathematics and the Christianities, Meeting of Austrian Society for the History of Mathematics (Spring, 1999).
    • E Rosen, Calvin's attitude towards Copernicus, Journal of the History of Ideas 21 (1960), 431-441.
    • E Rosen, Was Copernicus' Revolutions approved by the Pope, Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975), 531-542.

  116. References for Fund theorem of algebra
    • C Gilain, Sur l'histoire du theoreme fondamental de l'algebre : theorie des equations et calcul integral, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 42 (2) (1991), 91-136.
    • S S Petrova, From the history of the analytic proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XIV : Mathematics, mechanics (Moscow, 1973), 167-172.
    • B L van der Waerden, A History of Algebra (Berlin, 1985).

  117. Jaina mathematics
    • History Sci.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Jaina_mathematics.html .

  118. References for Indian numerals
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).
    • L C Karpinski, The history of arithmetic (New York, 1965).
    • K W Menninger, Number words and number symbols : A cultural history of numbers (Boston, 1969).

  119. References for Matrices and determinants
    • I Grattan-Guinness and W Ledermann, Matrix theory, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 775-786.
    • T W Hawkins, Weierstrass and the theory of matrices, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 17 (1977), 119-163.
    • E Knobloch, Determinants, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 766-774.
    • E Knobloch, From Gauss to Weierstrass : determinant theory and its historical evaluations, in The intersection of history and mathematics (Basel, 1994), 51-66.

  120. Wave versus matrix
    • The thought that the laws of the macrocosmos in the small reflect the terrestrial world obviously exercises a great magic on mankind's mind, indeed its form is rooted in the superstition (which is as old as the history of thought) that the destiny of men could be read from the stars.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Wave_matrix.html .

  121. Longitude1
    • History of the Academie Royale des Sciences .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Longitude1.html .

  122. References for Doubling the cube
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).
    • I Thomas, Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics : Vol 1 (From Thales to Euclid) (London, 1967).
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  123. Forgery 2
    • History of the Berlin Academy .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Forgery_2.html .

  124. Ledermann interview
    • I had been sufficiently well versed in the history of German anti-Semitism, going back to Martin Luther who already advocated something like genocide.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Ledermann_interview.html .

  125. Arabic numerals
    • Now in [',' G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).','1] (where a longer quote is given) Ifrah tries to determine which Indian work is referred to.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Arabic_numerals.html .

  126. Longitude2
    • The early history of the longitude problem is discussed in our article Longitude and the Academie Royale.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Longitude2.html .

  127. Matrices and determinants
    • Cardan, in Ars Magna (1545), gives a rule for solving a system of two linear equations which he calls regula de modo and which [',' E Knobloch, Determinants, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 766-774.','7] calls mother of rules ! This rule gives what essentially is Cramer's rule for solving a 2 × 2 system although Cardan does not make the final step.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Matrices_and_determinants.html .

  128. References for Greek astronomy
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy (New York, 1961).
    • J L E Dreyer, A history of astronomy from Thales to Kepler (New York, 1953).
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).
    • A Pannekoek, A history of astronomy (New York, 1989).

  129. Newton's bucket
    • However, he wrote in 1872 in History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Newton_bucket.html .

  130. References for Pell's equation
    • I G Bashmakova and E I Slavutin, History of Diophantine analysis (Russian) : From Diophantus to Fermat "Nauka" (Moscow, 1984).
    • C Brezinski, History of continued fractions and Pade approximants (Berlin, 1991).
    • C N Srinivasiengar, The history of ancient Indian mathematics (Calcutta, 1967).
    • T N Sinha, Pell's equation: its history and significance, Math.

  131. Kepler's Laws
    • It was not until 1687 that Newton (1642-1727) gave a quantified definition of mass [','A E L Davis: ’The Mathematics of the Area Law: Kepler’s successful proof in Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (1621)’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 57, 5 (2003), especially Section 6.','4].
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Keplers_laws.html .

  132. Babylonian numerals
    • Do not think of history as a dead subject.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Babylonian_numerals.html .

  133. The four colour theorem
    • Before continuing with the history of the Four Colour Conjecture we will complete details of Francis Guthrie.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/The_four_colour_theorem.html .

  134. References for Arabic numerals
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).
    • L C Karpinski, The history of arithmetic (New York, 1965).
    • K W Menninger, Number words and number symbols : A cultural history of numbers (Boston, 1969).

  135. Classical light
    • In [',' N Kipnis, History of the principle of interference of light (Basel, 1991).','3] Nakajima discusses the Newton-Hooke controversy of 1672:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Light_1.html .

  136. Golden ratio
    • The golden ratio has been famed throughout history for its aesthetic properties and it is claimed that the architecture of Ancient Greece was strongly influenced by its use.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Golden_ratio.html .

  137. Indian Sulbasutras
    • In [',' A E Raik and V N Ilin, A reconstruction of the solution of certain problems from the Apastamba Sulbasutra of Apastamba (Russian), in A P Juskevic, S S Demidov, F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin, Studies in the history of mathematics 19 ’’Nauka’’ (Moscow, 1974), 220-222; 302.','9] in addition to examining the problem of squaring the circle as given by Apastamba, the authors examine the problem of dividing a segment into seven equal parts which occurs in the same Sulbasutra.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Indian_sulbasutras.html .

  138. Sundials
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Sundials.html .

  139. References for Trisecting an angle
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I (Oxford, 1931).
    • I Thomas, Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics : Vol 1 (From Thales to Euclid) (London, 1967).
    • J Delattre and R Bkouche, Why ruler and compass?, in History of Mathematics : History of Problems (Paris, 1997), 89-113.

  140. Real numbers 2
    • History Exact Sci.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Real_numbers_2.html .

  141. African men 2
    • Contribution to the research on the foundations and the history of logical and mathematical thought in West Africa].
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/African_men_2.html .

  142. References for Copernicus autograph
    • N M Swerdlow, The Holograph of De Revolutionibus and the Chronology of its Composition, Journal of the History of Astronomy 5 (1974), 186-198.
    • N M Swerdlow, On Establishing the Text of De Revolutionibus, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981), 35-46.
    • J Zathey, The Analysis and History of the Manuscript, in Complete Works of Nicholas Copernicus (Macmillan Press, London; Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1972), 1-25.

  143. References for Group theory
    • B Chandler and W Magnus, The history of combinatorial group theory : A case study in the history of ideas (New York-Berlin, 1982).
    • B M Kiernan, The development of Galois theory from Lagrange to Artin, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 8 (1971), 40-154.

  144. References for Measurement
    • L L Kulvecas, Two dates in the history of the development of the metric system of measures (Russian), in Problems in the history of mathematics and mechanics (Kiev, 1977), 109-115; 133.
    • P Redondi, The French Revolution and the history of science (Russian), Priroda (7) (1989), 82-91.

  145. References for Set theory
    • J W Dauben, Georg Cantor's creation of transfinite set theory : personality and psychology in the history of mathematics, Papers in mathematics (New York, 1979), 27-44.
    • I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Selected essays on the history of set theory and logics (1906-1918) by Philip E B Jourdain (Bologna, 1991).
    • P E Johnson, A History of Set Theory (Boston, 1972).

  146. References for Golden ratio
    • R Herz-Fischler, A mathematical history of division in extreme and mean ratio (Waterloo, Ontario, 1987).
    • R Herz-Fischler, A mathematical history of the golden number ( New York, 1998).
    • J Kappraff, The relationship between mathematics and mysticism of the golden mean through history, in Fivefold symmetry (River Edge, NJ, 1992), 33-65.

  147. References for Bolzano's manuscripts
    • D M Johnson, Prelude to dimension theory : The geometrical investigations of Bernhard Bolzano, Archive for History of Exact Science 17 (1976), 275-296.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • History Exact Sci.

  148. References for Special relativity
    • C W Kilmister, Relativity, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 1235-1241.
    • L S Swenson, The ethereal aether : a history of the Michelson-Morley-Miller aether-drift experiments, 1880-1930 (Austin, 1972).
    • A A Tyapkin, On the history of the special relativity concept, Hadronic J.

  149. References for Trigonometric functions
    • I Grattan-Guinness, An overview of trigonometry and its functions, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 449-503.
    • I Grattan-Guinness, Work for hairdressers : The production of de Prony's logarithmic and trigonometric tables, Annals of the History of Computing 12 (1967), 121-136.
    • G J Toomer, The chord table of Hipparchus and the early history of Greek trigonometry, Centaurus 18 (1973/74), 6-28.

  150. References for Babylonian Pythagoras
    • A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).

  151. Greek numbers
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_numbers.html .

  152. Abstract linear spaces
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Abstract_linear_spaces.html .

  153. Group theory
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Development_group_theory.html .

  154. test2.html
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/test2.html .

  155. Crimean pictures
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/crimea.html .

  156. Knots and physics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Knots_and_physics.html .

  157. Egyptian numerals
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html .

  158. Inca mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Inca_mathematics.html .

  159. Real numbers 1
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Real_numbers_1.html .

  160. Neptune and Pluto
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Neptune_and_Pluto.html .

  161. Ring Theory
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Ring_theory.html .

  162. Egyptian Papyri
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Egyptian_papyri.html .

  163. African women II
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Africa_2.html .

  164. Braids arithmetic
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Braids_arithmetic.html .

  165. Babylonian mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Babylonian_mathematics.html .

  166. General relativity
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/General_relativity.html .

  167. Pell's equation
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Pell.html .

  168. test
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/test.html .

  169. Fermat's last theorem
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Fermat's_last_theorem.html .

  170. Fair book
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/fair_book.html .

  171. Tartaglia versus Cardan
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Tartaglia_v_Cardan.html .

  172. Abstract groups
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Abstract_groups.html .

  173. Gravitation
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Gravitation.html .

  174. Quadratic etc equations
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Quadratic_etc_equations.html .

  175. Chinese numerals
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Chinese_numerals.html .

  176. Fund theorem of algebra
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Fund_theorem_of_algebra.html .

  177. Egyptian mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Egyptian_mathematics.html .

  178. Gregory's observatory
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Gregory_observatory.html .

  179. Chinese problems
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Chinese_problems.html .

  180. Greek sources I
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_sources_1.html .

  181. Planetary motion
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Kinematic_planetary_motion.html .

  182. Special relativity
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Special_relativity.html .

  183. Trigonometric functions
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Trigonometric_functions.html .

  184. Non-Euclidean geometry
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Non-Euclidean_geometry.html .

  185. Euclid's definitions
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Euclid_definitions.html .

  186. African women 2
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/African_women_2.html .

  187. Size of the Universe
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Size_Universe.html .

  188. Elliptic functions
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Elliptic_functions.html .

  189. Chandrasekhar Eddington
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Chandrasekhar_Eddington.html .

  190. Real numbers 3
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Real_numbers_3.html .

  191. Water-clocks
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Water_clocks.html .

  192. Fair book insert
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/insert.html .

  193. References for Egyptian numerals
    • R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N.
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).

  194. References for Bakhshali manuscript
    • C N Srinivasiengar, The history of ancient Indian mathematics (Calcutta, 1967).
    • History Sci.

  195. References for Ten classics
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).
    • History of Science, 1962 (Paris, 1964), 489-492.

  196. References for Bourbaki 1
    • L Baulieu, Dispelling a myth : questions and answers about Bourbaki's early work, 1934-1944, in The intersection of history and mathematics, (Birkhauser, Basel, 1994), 241-252.
    • K Uzel', How to appraise the role of Bourbaki in the history of mathematics (Russian), Istor.-Mat.

  197. References for Jaina mathematics
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.

  198. References for Inca mathematics
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
    • A Christensen, The Peruvian quipu, in History and science of knots (River Edge, NJ, 1996), 71-88.

  199. References for Knots and physics
    • M Epple, Geometric aspects in the development of knot theory, in I M James (ed.), History of topology (Amsterdam, 1999), 301-358.
    • C Nash, Topology and physics - a historical essay, in I M James (ed.), History of topology (Amsterdam, 1999), 359-416.

  200. References for Fermat's last theorem
    • History Exact Sci.
    • P Ribenboim, The history of Fermat's last theorem (Portuguese), Bol.

  201. References for Alcuin's book
    • J Hadley and D Singmaster, Problems to Sharpen the Young, The Use of the History of Mathematics in the Teaching of Mathematics, The Mathematical Gazette 76 (475) (1992), 102-126.
    • D Singmaster, The history of some of Alcuin's Propositiones, in P L Butzer, H Th Jongen and W Oberschelp (eds.), Charlemagne and his Heritage 1200 Years of Civilization and Science in Europe 2 (Brepols, Turnhout, 1998), 11-29.

  202. References for The four colour theorem
    • D A Holton and S Purcell, The four colour theorem-a short history, Austral.
    • J Mayer, Le theoreme des quatre couleurs : notice historique et apercu technique, in Proceedings of the Seminar on the History of Mathematics 3 (Paris, 1982), 43-62.

  203. References for Bourbaki 2
    • L Baulieu, Dispelling a myth : questions and answers about Bourbaki's early work, 1934-1944, in The intersection of history and mathematics, (Birkhauser, Basel, 1994), 241-252.
    • K Uzel', How to appraise the role of Bourbaki in the history of mathematics (Russian), Istor.-Mat.

  204. References for Mathematical games
    • R W Dimand and M A Dimand, The early history of the theory of strategic games from Waldegrave to Borel, in Toward a history of game theory (Durham, NC, 1992), 15-27.

  205. References for Chinese numerals
    • G Ifrah, The universal history of numbers (London, 1998).
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).

  206. References for Mathematics and Art
    • A study of Taylor's role in the history of perspective geometry.

  207. References for Greek numbers
    • G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).

  208. References for Harriot's manuscripts
    • Harriot's will, History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 1-16.

  209. References for Greek sources II
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1921).

  210. References for Classical time
    • B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1946).

  211. References for Mathematics and Architecture
    • G Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers (London, 1998).

  212. References for 20th century time
    • S W Hawking, A brief history of time (London, 1988).

  213. References for Kepler's Laws
    • A E L Davis: 'The Mathematics of the Area Law: Kepler's successful proof in Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (1621)', Archive for History of Exact Sciences 57, 5 (2003), especially Section 6.

  214. References for Quadratic etc equations
    • R Franci and T Rigatelli, Towards a history of algebra from Leonardo of Pisa to Luca Pacioli, Janus 72 (1985), 17-85.

  215. References for Cartography
    • A V Dorofeeva, From the history of the discovery of the Mercator projection (Russian), Mat.

  216. References for Brachistochrone problem
    • K Pedersen and K M Pedersen, The early history of the calculus of variations (Danish), Nordisk Mat.

  217. References for Sundials
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.

  218. References for Indian Sulbasutras
    • A E Raik and V N Ilin, A reconstruction of the solution of certain problems from the Apastamba Sulbasutra of Apastamba (Russian), in A P Juskevic, S S Demidov, F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin, Studies in the history of mathematics 19 "Nauka" (Moscow, 1974), 220-222; 302.

  219. References for Arabic mathematics
    • History Exact Sci.

  220. References for Coffee houses
    • E F Robinson, The early history of coffee houses in England (London, 1893).

  221. References for Water-clocks
    • Journal for the History of Astronomy, 2001.

  222. References for Greek sources I
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1931).


Societies etc

  1. References for Netherlands Academy
    • 1808 - Signed: Louis, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1808-getekend-lodewijk .
    • 1812 - The Trippenhuis Building: The Academy's Permanent Headquarters, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1812hettrippenhuisdepermanentezetelvan .
    • 1851 - Institute Closed, Academy Founded, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1851-instituut-opgeheven-akademie-gesticht .
    • 1902 The Second Golden Age, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1902-de-tweede-gouden-eeuw .
    • 1909 - The Academy Welcomes its First Research Institute, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1909-de-akademie-krijgt-haar-eerste-eigen .
    • 1923 - Advisory Duties: The Biology Council of the Netherlands, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1923-advisering-de-biologische-raad-van-nederland .
    • 1938 - A New Name: The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1938-naamswijziging-koninklijke-akademie-van .
    • 1973 - The Academy Institutes the Office of "President", History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1973deakademiestelthetambtvanpresident .
    • 1990 - The Academy Strengthens its International Partnerships and Networks, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history/1990-de-knaw-haalt-de-banden-met-het-buitenland .
    • History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
    • https://www.knaw.nl/en/about-us/academy-history .

  2. Netherlands Academy of Sciences
    • The Royal Decree signed by Louis I stated that the new Institute was to [',' 1808 - Signed: Louis, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.','10]:- .
    • It was to follow the model of the French Academy in that its members were to be "the most excellent scientists and scholars from throughout the Kingdom." It was divided into four subject areas, namely (i) Mathematics and Physics; (ii) Dutch Literature and History; (iii) Ancient and Eastern Literature; and (iv) History and Fine Arts.
    • The annual general meeting was held in the left half of the Trippenhuis Building which was owned by Cornelis Roos, an art collector, poet, and member of the History and Fine Arts Section of the Academy who had made the purchase in 1797.
    • Members of the Institute felt that they now had a building worthy of their prestigious body [',' 1812 - The Trippenhuis Building: The Academy’s Permanent Headquarters, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.','11]:- .
    • On 19 April 1853 Thorbecke was forced to resign after it was claimed he had sympathies with the Roman Catholic Church and Floris Adriaan van Hall (1791- 1866) became head of the government [',' 1851 - Institute Closed, Academy Founded, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.','12]:- .
    • the new Cabinet extended the Academy's mission to include "the advancement of linguistics, literature, history and philosophy".
    • In 1902 [',' 1902 The Second Golden Age, History of the Academy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.','13]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Netherlands_Academy.html .

  3. Slovenian Academy of Sciences
    • The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Slovenska Akademija znanosti in umetnosti) was founded in 1938 but there is a long history going back many hundreds of years relating to the founding, or attempts to found, earlier academies in Ljubljana.
    • The following description of this academy is taken from [',' P Štih, V Simoniti and P Vodopivec, A Slovene history, Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino (2008).','4]:- .
    • The most notable scientific essays included work by Academy members, including Janez Gregor Dolničar on history, Janez Štefan Florijančič (Floriantschitsch von Grienfeld) on economics, and the doctor, Marko Grbec (Gerbezius) on medicine.
    • He gathered together a number of scholars, particularly those interested in Slovenian history and language, and the Academy began to operate discussing many topics such as language, history, poetry, philosophy, medicine and law.
    • The University of Ljubljana was founded in 1919 but [',' P Štih, V Simoniti and P Vodopivec, A Slovene history, Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino (2008).','4]:- .
    • Nahtigal undertook research in the Old Slavic language, the history of Slavic languages, Old Russian literature, and the Russian language.
    • The post-war period saw the Communist authorities force the Academy to follow their requirements [',' History, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts.','1]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Slovenian_Academy.html .

  4. Romanian Academy
    • The statutes of 1867 established three sections: (i) Philology and Literature (which included the visual arts), (ii) History and Archaeology, and (iii) Natural Sciences.
    • The article [',' A brief history, Romanian Academy.','2] states:- .
    • The development of each domain of activity in the program of the Romanian Academy, summarized in the pages of this book, coincides with the very history of modern and contemporary Romanian culture.
    • This law, which modelled the Academy on the USSR Academy of Sciences, [',' A brief history, Romanian Academy.','2]:- .
    • The way that the Academy operated in the first couple of decades under communist control is described in [',' A brief history, Romanian Academy.','2]:- .
    • This law made the Academy [',' A brief history, Romanian Academy.','2]:- .
    • According to its code of bylaws, the Romanian Academy, Romania's highest cultural forum, has several main objectives: cultivation of the national language and literature, study of the national history, research into major scientific domains, and promotion of democratic and ethical principles of free communication of ideas in Romanian sciences, arts and letters.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Romanian_Academy.html .

  5. Max Planck Society for Advancement of Science
    • The earlier history of the society can be found under the name of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society at THIS LINK.
    • The changes in the statutes, however, were not implemented until 1973 [',' History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.','2]:- .
    • There remained uncomfortable questions about the conduct of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Nazi period [',' History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.','2]:- .
    • In 1997, Max Planck Society President Hubert Markl appointed an independent commission of historians to study the history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the National Socialist era.
    • The commission was chaired by historians Reinhard Rurup and Wolfgang Schieder, who had made a name for themselves as experts on anti-Semitism and the history of National Socialism.
    • The President, Hubert Markl [',' History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.','2]:- .
    • Experience in history shows that the fundamental problems of physics, chemistry, biology and other sciences have led to important new developments in mathematics while mathematics has had a profound impact on these fields of knowledge.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Max_Planck.html .

  6. Croatian Mathematical Society
    • However the Society has a much longer history than that date would suggest since it was on 18 April 1990 that the Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists made the decision to split into two separate societies, namely the Croatian Mathematical Society and the Croatian Physics Society.
    • The Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists had been founded in 1949 but long before that there had been a mathematics section of the Croatian Natural History Society, itself founded in 1885, which was the beginnings of the Mathematical Society.
    • The Croatian Natural History Society was founded in 1885 in Zagreb with a view to developing and popularising the natural sciences.
    • Over time, almost all Croatian scientific societies have had their genesis in the Croatian Natural History Society.
    • Pedagogical and professional works on mathematics were published in the "Teacher's Note" issued by the Croatian Natural History Society, which appeared from 1892 until 1944.
    • The Croatian Natural History Society founded the Mathematical-Physical Section in 1945 and a year later, the Department of Mathematics and Physics in the University of Zagreb was established, which started organising workshops for teachers and popular lectures on mathematics and physics.
    • The Mathematical-Physical Section and the Astronomical-Geophysical Section of the Croatian Natural History Society launched the scientific journal "Mathematical-Physical and Astronomical Lectures" which appeared under that name from 1946 until 1965.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Croatian.html .

  7. Georgian Mathematical Union
    • His main research was on mathematical logic, set theory, the history of mathematics and the philosophy of mathematics.
    • Topics: Mathematical Logic, Applied Logic and Programming; Topology, Algebra and Number Theory; Real and Complex Analysis (including special memorial sessions dedicated to Professor Otar Tsereteli, Professor David Kveselava and Professor Sergo Topuria); Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations and Applications; Probability & Statistics, and Financial Mathematics; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Continuum Mechanics; Mathematical Physics; Mathematical Education and History.
    • Topics: Real and Complex Analysis; Topology, Algebra and Number Theory; Differential Equations and Mathematical Physics; Probability and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Mathematical Logic and Foundations of Mathematics; Applied Logic and Programming; Logic of Natural Languages and Computational Linguistics; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Mathematical Education and History; Continuum Mechanics.
    • The conference was "dedicated to Academician Victor Kupradze (1903-1985) on the occasion of 110th anniversary of his birthday as homage to his memory." Topics: Algebra and Number Theory; Logic of natural languages and computational linguistic; Mathematical Education and History; Mathematical Logic, Applied Logic and Programming; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Mathematical Physics; Mechanics of Continua; Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations and Applications; Probability and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Real and Complex Analysis; Topology and Applications.
    • Topics: Algebra and Number Theory; Logic of natural languages and computational linguistic; Mathematical Education and History; Mathematical Logic, Applied Logic and Programming; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Mathematical Physics; Mechanics of Continua; Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations and Applications; Probability and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Real and Complex Analysis; Topology and Applications.
    • Topics: Algebra, Topology and Number Theory; Applied Logic and Programming; Differential Equations and their applications; Logic of Natural Languages and Computational Linguistics; Mathematical Education and History; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Probability and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Real and Complex Analysis; Theoretical Physics; Variational Methods and Applications.
    • Topics: Algebra, Topology, Geometry and Number Theory; Applied Logic and Programming; Differential Equations and Applications; Logic of natural languages and computational linguistics; Mathematical Physics; Mathematical Education and History; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Mechanics of Continua; Probability Theory and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Real and Complex Analysis; Technologies, Networks, Computing and Applications.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Georgian.html .

  8. Croatian Academy of Sciences
    • With this little puzzle out of the way, we will return to the founding of the Academy in a moment, but first let us look briefly at the relevant history of Croatia.
    • Rački was an ordained Catholic priest and a leading historian, working mainly on Church history, who was a leader in promoting Slavic culture.
    • All the publishing activities of Zagreb's Academy have been primarily and permanently focused on the study of Croatian history, culture, language, and natural heritage.
    • Much of the early work of the Academy involved Croatian history and numerous publications on this topic are detailed in [',' Founding of the Academy, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.','1].
    • Having the eminent historian Franjo Rački as President was certainly a major factor in this emphasis on history; in fact he served in this role for 20 years.
    • There is also research on the philosophical aspects of natural sciences and mathematics, the relation between mathematics and the arts, and the history of mathematics and other exact sciences with an emphasis on the contribution of Croatian scientists to world's science.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Croatian_Academy.html .

  9. References for Royal Society
    • T Birch, History of the Royal Society (London, 1744).
    • E N da Costa, A brief history of the Royal Society (London, 1960).
    • T Sprat, A history of the Royal Society (London, 1667).
    • T Thompson, History of the Royal Society (London, 1812).
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Royal_Society.html .

  10. Norwegian Royal Society
    • In Trondheim Schoning and Suhm met each other for study twice a week, and they decided that Schoning should write the history of Norway and Suhm that of Denmark.
    • Natural history and archaeological gatherings were created and from the start a library was established.
    • Its main task was to promote natural and cultural history, archaeology and history in general.
    • 'Vitenskapsmuseet' is today a part of the university in Trondheim and still has both cultural and natural history collections.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Royal_Norwegian_Society.html .

  11. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
    • The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences was established on 16 January 1941 but there is a long history of the development of science in Lithuania which led up to the founding of the Academy.
    • In our article below we follow [',' History of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences.','1] closely making some changes and giving additional material: .
    • It was founded [',' History of the YIVO, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.','2]:- .
    • to document and study Jewish life in all its aspects: language, history, religion, folkways, and material culture.
    • Meanwhile, the new Academy of Sciences was expected to find solutions for large-scale issues such as the exploration and rational use of Lithuania's natural resources, study of the history and cultural heritage of the Lithuanian people and the research into key issues of the building of socialism in all its aspects, compulsory at the time.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Lithuanian_Academy.html .

  12. Italian Academy of Sciences
    • Main work was in observing but he wrote an interesting history of science in Lombardy.
    • Created a museum of physics and natural history in La Specola beside the Pitti Palace in Florence.
    • He worked at the universities of Reggio and Modena as professor of logic, metaphysics and Greek, then at the University of Pavia as professor of natural history.
    • An entomologist who was professor of logic at Pisa, becoming professor of natural history there in 1801.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Italy.html .

  13. Swedish Academy of Sciences
    • The city of Stockholm took over the Observatory building in the 1930s but it was acquired again by the Academy in 1999 and it is now a History of Science museum with emphasis on astronomy.
    • The Academy has seven Institutes, the three most relevant to this archive being the Institute for Astrophysics, the Mittag-Leffler Institute, and the Centre for the History of Science.
    • The Centre for the History of Science was established in 1988 and manages the historical archive of the Academy as well as promoting research into the history of science.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Swedish_Academy.html .

  14. References for Lithuanian Academy
    • History of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences.
    • http://www.lma.lt/history .
    • History of the YIVO, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.
    • https://www.yivo.org/History-of-YIVO .
    • http://www.mab.lt/en/about/history .

  15. Women in Mathematics Association
    • Carol Wood, president in 1991-93, said [',' L Blum, A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents’ Perspectives, Amer.
    • She wrote [',' L Blum, A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents’ Perspectives, Amer.
    • For example they held "History of Women in Mathematics" sessions with Association members as speakers.
    • The authors of [',' J E Taylor and S M Wiegand, AWM in the 1990s: A Recent History of the Association for Women in Mathematics, Amer.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Women_in_Math.html .

  16. Tokyo Mathematical Association
    • In 1887 Kawakita wrote about how the Tokyo Mathematical Society had changed its character in only a few years [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • Chikara Sasaki writes that the Mathematical Association of Tokyo [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • Some of them began to write their swan song, the history of Japanese mathematics.
    • In fact Toshisada published the first critical history of Japanese mathematics which was published in 1896.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Tokyo_M_A.html .

  17. Lisbon Academy of Sciences
    • The Academy extended its activity not only to the Natural Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, History and Linguistics, but also to the Applied Sciences, Economics, Agricultural and Industrial Developments, Public Health, Teaching, etc.
    • a) to promote and stimulate scientific research and to disseminate its achievements; b) to stimulate the enrichment of thought, literature, language and other forms of culture; c) to encourage the study of Portuguese history and its relationship with the history of other nations, and to investigate and publish the sources of documentation; d) to collaborate in education and teaching activities; e) to assist the Government in an advisory capacity with scientific and linguistic problems of national interest; f) to preserve and improve the Portuguese language in connection with the Brazilian Academy of Letters and with similar institutions of Portuguese-speaking countries g) and to participate in cultural exchanges with other countries.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Lisbon_Academy.html .

  18. Belgium Mathematical Society
    • On 14 March 1921 a preliminary meeting took place which decided to set up a (according to their minute translated in [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1]):- .
    • The statutes state that [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1]:- .
    • As Lemaire notes in [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1], the Society was clearly not that certain that the Bulletin would continue publication since they did not number this first volume.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Belgium.html .

  19. References for RS
    • T Birch, History of the Royal Society (London, 1744).
    • E N da Costa, A brief history of the Royal Society (London, 1960).
    • T Sprat, A history of the Royal Society (London, 1667).
    • T Thompson, History of the Royal Society (London, 1812).

  20. Canadian Statistical Society
    • A committee was formed to consider problems facing the Canadian statistical community [',' D R Bellhouse and C Genest, A history of the Statistical Society of Canada : the formative years, Statist.
    • Despite the fact that Canadian statisticians were splitting into two different groups, Arak M Mathai of McGill University and [',' D R Bellhouse and C Genest, A history of the Statistical Society of Canada : the formative years, Statist.
    • We refer the reader to the interesting article [',' D R Bellhouse and C Genest, A history of the Statistical Society of Canada : the formative years, Statist.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Canadian_Statistical.html .

  21. Kaiser Wilhelm Society
    • Planck's unsuccessful meeting with Hitler was followed by dismissals [',' History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Max Planck Society.','1]:- .
    • Max Planck agreed to become an interim President to allow restructuring to take place [',' History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.','2]:- .
    • The continuing history of the society can be found under the name of the Max Planck Society at THIS LINK.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Kaiser_Wilhelm.html .

  22. Spitalfields Mathematical Society
    • Records of the Society written in 1784 give some information about its history (see for example [',' J W S Cassels, The Spitalfields Mathematical Society, Bull.
    • However the case had a large effect since (according to the Minutes of the Society) the [',' R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.','3]:- .
    • More ambitious lecture programmes were started and, for example, in 1821 a course was put on [',' R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.','3]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Spitalfields.html .

  23. Tokyo Mathematical Society
    • Kanda Takahira wrote the Introduction to the first issue, dated October 1877 (see [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • Chikara Sasaki writes [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • Tomochika Kawakita (1840-1919) wrote in 1887 about the change of emphasis in the Society between the two different styles of mathematics [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Tokyo.html .

  24. Royal Astronomical Society
    • This article looks at the early history of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    • The Minutes taken that day record (see [',' H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.','3]):- .
    • Other aims of the Society which were listed in Herschel's address were [',' H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.','3]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Astronomical.html .

  25. New Zealand Royal Society
    • The person considered as the founding father of the Royal Society of New Zealand is the Scottish geologist, naturalist and surgeon James Hector (1834-1907) who arrived in New Zealand in 1862 to conduct a geological survey of Otago province [',' Our History, Royal Society of New Zealand.','2]:- .
    • In 1903 the reforms for which Thomson argued were formalised by an Act of Parliament [',' Our History, Royal Society of New Zealand.','2]:- .
    • For the first time in its history, the Institute establishes the position of president and the role of editor of the Transactions journal, both Board appointments.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/RS_of_New_Zealand.html .

  26. Sinica Academia
    • The Institute of Chemistry was also founded in 1928 as was the Institute of History and Philology which was initially founded in Canton but had to move several times before ending up in Nanking in 1946.
    • In fact only the members and the library of the Institute of History and Philology and part of the library of the Institute of Mathematics were taken to Taiwan when the Nationalist Government moved there in 1949.
    • Initially Hong Jing Chou acted as director from 1949 to 1957 but at the beginning of this period [',' Brief History, The Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica.','6]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Academia_Sinica.html .

  27. Berlin Academy of Science
    • Crelle has won a permanent place in the history of mathematics for his scientific and organizational ability.
    • He is especially important for the history of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to which he was elected in 1827 with the strong support of Alexander von Humboldt.
    • Other Web siten n History of the Academy .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Berlin.html .

  28. Georgian Academy of Sciences
    • The sixteen founder members of the Academy were: Giorgi Akhvlediani (Linguistics); Ivane Beritashvili (Physiology); Arnold Chikobava (Linguistics); Giorgi Chubinashvili (Arts); Simon Djanashia (History); Aleksandre Djanelidze (Geology); Korneli Kekelidze (Philology); Nikoloz Ketskhoveli (Botany); Tarasi Kvaratskhelia (Subtropical Cultures); Giorgi Khachapuridze (History); Nikoloz Muskhelishvili (Mathematics, Mechanics); Akaki Shanidze (Linguistics); Aleksandre Tvalchrelidze (Mineralogy, Petrography); Dimitri Uznadze (Psychology); Kiriak Zavriev (Constructive Mechanics); and Philipe Zaytsev (Zoology).
    • preserves personal archives of figures of science and culture that are valuable for Georgian History; .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Georgian_Academy.html .

  29. New York Academy of Sciences
    • The New York Academy of Sciences was founded in 1817 but at that time it was named The Lyceum of Natural History in the City of New York.
    • In 1823 the Lyceum published the first volume of the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New-York which was to become an extremely important series consisting of:- .
    • In 1877 the Lyceum was renamed the New York Academy of Science and the Annals became the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences although for the first few volumes the title of the publication appeared as the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, late Lyceum of Natural History.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/New_York_Academy.html .

  30. Montenegran Society of Mathematicians and Physicists
    • The date of 2006 is highly significant in the history of Montenegro which lets us understand why the Society was founded at that time.
    • In the quote below we have made some changes to the wording given in [',' History and Review of the Main Activities of the Society of Mathematicians And Physicists of Montenegro, IMU No.
    • The submission also indicated some activities of the Society after 2006 [',' History and Review of the Main Activities of the Society of Mathematicians And Physicists of Montenegro, IMU No.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Montenegro.html .

  31. References for Kaiser Wilhelm
    • History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Max Planck Society.
    • History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.
    • https://www.mpg.de/history_mpg .

  32. References for Slovenian Academy
    • History, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
    • http://www.sazu.si/en/history .
    • P Štih, V Simoniti and P Vodopivec, A Slovene history, Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino (2008).

  33. Zurich Scientific Research Society
    • The Physical Society soon built up a scientific library, a collection of mathematical and physical instruments, natural history collections, a botanical garden, and an astronomical observatory built in 1759.
    • The wide range of activities of the Society was divided into the following five areas: Natural science, natural history, mathematics, art of medicine and technology.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Zurich.html .

  34. References for AMS
    • R C Archibald, American Mathematical Society semicentennial publications I : A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (Providence, RI, 1988).
    • R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).
    • E Pitcher, American Mathematical Society centennial publications I : A history of the second fifty years, American Mathematical Society, 1939-1988 (Providence, RI, 1988).

  35. Japan Academy
    • The setting up of the Academy came a few years after the end of the Edo Period (1615-1868) [',' The Edo Period in Japanese History, Victoria and Albert Museum.','3]:- .
    • Section I has three Subsections: Literature, History, Philosophy; Law, Political Science; and Economics, Commerce.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Japan_Academy.html .

  36. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • The three Physical Sciences of chemistry, botany and anatomy became four subjects: chemistry and metallurgy; mineralogy and natural history; botany and agriculture; and anatomy.
    • Physical Sciences now consisted of: chemistry; natural history and mineralogy; botany and vegetable physics; anatomy and zoology; medicine and surgery; and rural economy and veterinary medicine.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Paris.html .

  37. References for Japan Academy
    • The Edo Period in Japanese History, Victoria and Albert Museum.
    • http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-edo-period-in-japanese-history/ .
    • History, The Japan Academy.

  38. References for Max Planck
    • History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Max Planck Society.
    • History of the Max Planck Society, Max Planck Society.
    • https://www.mpg.de/history_mpg .

  39. References for Tokyo M A
    • A Komatsu, S Iyanaga, K Okugawa, Y Kawada, T Kimura, S Sasaki, S Hitotsumatsu, K Honda and Y Mimura, A hundred years of Japanese mathematical history I (Tokyo .
    • A Komatsu, S Iyanaga, K Okugawa, Y Kawada, T Kimura, S Sasaki, S Hitotsumatsu, K Honda and Y Mimura, A hundred years of Japanese mathematical history II (Tokyo .
    • C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.

  40. European Mathematical Society
    • This took two years, the details of which are described in [',' A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.','5].
    • Lahtinen writes in [',' A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.','5]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/EUMS.html .

  41. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
    • Within the first year of its existence the Academy had set up three research departments with three research institutes, one of which was physics and mathematics while the other two were history and philology, and social studies.
    • The history of the Institute of Mathematics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is examined in detail in [',' O M Bogolyubov (ed.), The Institute of Mathematics.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Ukrainian_Academy.html .

  42. Iranian Mathematical Society
    • devoted to expository articles regarding various issues of mathematics including history and teaching as well as different branches of applied and pure mathematics.
    • These are (i) for the best paper presented at the Linear Algebra Seminar, (ii) for the best management in Mathematics, (iii) for the best research paper presented by a school teacher at the annual Iranian Mathematics Education Conference, (iv) for the best edited mathematics text, (v) for the best research paper presented at the annual National Mathematics Conference, (vi) for the best research paper presented at the annual Mathematical Analysis Seminar, (vii) for the best mathematics book written in Persian, (viii) for the best paper on the History of Mathematics, (ix) for the best paper presented by an undergraduate student at the annual University Student Seminar, (x) for the best paper presented at the Financial Mathematics Seminar.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Iranian.html .

  43. Mathematical Society of Japan
    • This was the first academic society to be founded in Japan [',' The Mathematical Society of Japan - history','3]:- .
    • Foundation of Mathematics and History of Mathematics.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Japanese.html .

  44. Estonian Academy of Sciences
    • Academy's structure was to consist of Central Library and four scientific divisions, embracing altogether 15 research institutes, 2 research sectors, 5 museums and 3 scientific societies as follows: (1) Division of Physical-Mathematical and Engineering Sciences (Institute of Geology; Institute of Chemistry; Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics; Institute of Building and Architecture; Institute of Industrial Problems, Geological Museum); (2) Division of Biological and Agricultural Sciences (Institute of Biology; Institute of Agriculture; Institute of Cattle Breeding and Veterinary; Institute of Forestry; Institute of Zoology; Naturalists' Society); (3) Division of Medical Sciences (Institute of Experimental Medicine; Institute of Health and Occupational Diseases; Institute of Clinical Medicine); (4) Division of Social Sciences (Institute of History; Institute of Language and Literature; Institute of Economics; Sector of Law, Sector of Pedagogy; Museum of the Estonian People; State Literary Museum; Museum of History; Estonian Learned Society; Academic Mother Tongue Society).
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Estonian_Academy.html .

  45. German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • Perhaps the period surrounding World War II was the most difficult in the Academy's history.
    • The Academy had been a corresponding one throughout its history until 1924 when its then President Johannes Walther introduced monthly meetings.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/German_Academy.html .

  46. New York Mathematical Society
    • Fiske writes [',' R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).','2]:- .
    • Fiske, Jacoby and Stabler then distributed a proposal [',' R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).','2]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/New_York.html .

  47. Australian Academy of Science
    • The foundation stone for the Academy's building was laid on 2 May 1958 when John Eccles delivered a speech explaining the early history of the Academy [',' J Eccles, M Oliphant, and R Menzies, The laying of the foundation stone 2 May 1958, Australian Academy of Science website.','2]:- .
    • The quote above giving the early history of the Academy came from the laying the foundation stone for the Academy's building in Canberra.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Australian_Academy.html .

  48. Luxembourg Mathematical Society
    • A leading expert on the history of mathematics he published books such as L'analyse harmonique.
    • In addition he published many papers on the History of Mathematics, and several on Harmonic Analysis and Functional Analysis.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Luxembourg.html .

  49. References for Moscow
    • A P Yushkevich, History of mathematics in Russia until 1917 (Russian) (Moscow, 1968).
    • P S Aleksandrov, On the history of the Moscow Mathematical Society in the present century (Russian), Uspekhi Mat.
    • F Ja Sevelev, On the history of the Moscow Mathematical Society (Russian), Vestnik Moskov.

  50. Finnish Mathematical Society
    • The time that the Society was founded was a crucial one in the history of Finland.
    • A list of presidents and secretaries of the Finnish Mathematical Society is given in [',' M Seppala, Fragments of the history of the Finnish Mathematical Society (Finnish.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Finnish.html .

  51. References for Romanian Academy
    • A brief history, Romanian Academy.
    • History, Simion Stoilow Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy.
    • http://www.imar.ro/organization/presentation/history.php .

  52. References for Tokyo
    • A Komatsu, S Iyanaga, K Okugawa, Y Kawada, T Kimura, S Sasaki, S Hitotsumatsu, K Honda and Y Mimura, A hundred years of Japanese mathematical history I (Tokyo, 1983).
    • A Komatsu, S Iyanaga, K Okugawa, Y Kawada, T Kimura, S Sasaki, S Hitotsumatsu, K Honda and Y Mimura, A hundred years of Japanese mathematical history II (Tokyo, 1984).
    • C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.

  53. Hungarian Academy
    • The Society had six departments: history, law, linguistics, mathematics, philosophy and natural sciences.
    • The Society published an Hungarian Mathematical Dictionary in 1834 but it failed to achieve the aims we have described [',' B Szenassy, History of Mathematics in Hungary until the 20th Century (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1992).
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Hungarian.html .

  54. References for IAU
    • W S Adams, The History of the International Astronomical Union, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 61 (358) (1949), 5-12.
    • History of the International Science Council, International Science Council.
    • https://council.science/about-us/a-brief-history .

  55. References for Astronomical
    • J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923).
    • J L E Dreyer, The decade 1830-1840, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 50-81.
    • H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.

  56. References for American Statistical
    • J Koren, The American Statistical Association, 1839-1914, in J Koren (ed.), The History of Statistics : Their Development and Progress in Many Countries (1918), 3-14.
    • R L Mason, J D McKenzie and S J Ruberg, A brief history of the American Statistical Association, 1839-1989, Amer.

  57. References for Women in Math
    • L Blum, A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents' Perspectives, Amer.
    • J E Taylor and S M Wiegand, AWM in the 1990s: A Recent History of the Association for Women in Mathematics, Amer.

  58. References for South African
    • W J Kotze, A brief history of QM at its 25th anniversary, Quaestiones Mathematicae 25 (1) 2002, iii-iv.
    • http://www.sams.ac.za/history.html .

  59. References for Russian
    • A N Shiryaev, On the history of the founding of the Russian Academy of Sciences and on the first publications on probability theory in Russian editions (Russian), Teor.
    • A N Shiryaev, On the history of the founding of the Russian Academy of Sciences and on the first publications on probability theory in Russian editions, Theory Probab.

  60. References for LMS
    • J W L Glaisher, Notes on the early history of the Society, J.
    • A Rice, The London Mathematical Society : A brief history, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 37 (September, 2000), 28-29.

  61. References for New York
    • R C Archibald, American Mathematical Society semicentennial publications I : A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (Providence, RI, 1988).
    • R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).

  62. References for Hong Kong
    • C L Yieng, A Brief History of Mathematics in Hong Kong: What It Means for the Future of Mathematics Education, The Huffington Post (26 May 2016).
    • http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/cassandra-lee-yieng/a-brief-history-of-mathem_b_10136312.html .

  63. References for Japanese
    • The Mathematical Society of Japan - history .
    • http://mathsoc.jp/en/pamph/current/history.html .

  64. References for Academia Sinica
    • S Chen, Government and Academy in Republican China: History of Academia Sinica, 1927-1949 (Ph.D.
    • Brief History, The Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica.
    • http://www.math.sinica.edu.tw/www/about/history14_e.jsp .

  65. References for Hellenic
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Hellenic.html .

  66. References for Spanish
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Spanish.html .

  67. References for Columbian
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Columbian.html .

  68. References for Swiss Academy
    • History of the Swiss Academy of Sciences, Swiss Academy of Sciences.
    • https://naturalsciences.ch/organisations/scnat/portrait/history .

  69. References for Hungarian
    • B Szenassy, History of Mathematics in Hungary until the 20th Century (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1992).
    • J Kurschak, The last hundred years in the history of Hungarian mathematics, in The first century of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungarian) (Budapest, 1926), 451-459.

  70. References for Latvian Science
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Latvian_Science.html .

  71. References for Pontifical Academy
    • History, Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
    • http://www.casinapioiv.va/content/accademia/en/about/history.html .

  72. References for Societies List
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/References/Societies_List.html .

  73. References for RS of New Zealand
    • Our History, Royal Society of New Zealand.
    • https://royalsociety.org.nz/who-we-are/our-history/ .

  74. EMS 1988
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  75. EMS 1976
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  76. St Andrews Colloquium 2003
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  77. EMS 1980
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  78. EMS 1951
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  79. EMS 1938
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  80. EMS 1930
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  81. EMS 1955
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  82. EMS 1996
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  83. EMS 1926
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  84. EMS 1968
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  85. EMS 1926
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  86. EMS 1959
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  87. EMS 1934
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  88. EMS 1913
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  89. EMS 1984
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  90. EMS 1992
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  91. EMS 1972
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  92. EMS 1964
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  93. Czech Academy of Sciences
    • Before that there had existed the Private Society in the Czech Lands for the Development of Mathematics, History of the Homeland and Natural Sciences which had been founded in 1770.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Czech_Academy.html .

  94. French Mathematical Society
    • It contains original articles studying the history of mathematics from the 17th century onwards.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/French.html .

  95. Mexican Mathematical Society
    • Topics covered are: Algebra, Analysis, Applications, Combinatorics, Geometry, History of Mathematics, Obituaries, Logic and foundations, Probability, Dynamical Systems and Book Reviews.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Mexican.html .

  96. American Mathematical Society
    • The history of that Society, prior to becoming the American Mathematical Society, is related in the article on the New York Mathematical Society.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/AMS.html .

  97. Spanish Statistics and Operations Research Society
    • The Bulletin of Statistics and Operations Research (Boletin de la Sociedad de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa) is a quarterly journal that includes the sections: Statistics, Operations Research, Official Statistics, History and Teaching, and Opinions about the Profession.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Spanish_Statistics.html .

  98. Indonesian Academy of Sciences
    • The origins of the Academy, however, go back much further and are closely related to the history of Indonesia.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Indonesian_Academy.html .

  99. French Statistical Society
    • However, this date gives a totally wrong impression of the history of the Society since it really dates back to 1860 when the 'Societe de Statistique de Paris' (Statistical Society of Paris) was founded.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/French_Statistical.html .

  100. Barcelona Academy of Sciences
    • The Academy has other properties in addition to those just mentioned [',' History of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona.','1]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Barcelona_Academy.html .

  101. Egyptian Academy of Sciences
    • Although the Institut d'Egypte was founded in 1859 (reviving an older institute founded by Napoleon) and counts among its four sections one for Physical and Mathematical Sciences and another for Medicine, Agronomy and Natural History, its main tendency remained literary and artistic.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Egyption_Academy.html .

  102. Estonian Mathematical Society
    • A section on school mathematics was established as were working groups on the history of mathematics and mathematical terminology.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Estonian.html .

  103. Athens Academy
    • It retains these aims today, but its independence has been challenged a number of times due to major events in Greek history.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Athens_Academy.html .

  104. Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society
    • The history of that Society from the time of its founding until 1921 when the Society began to function again under the name Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society is described in the article: .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Petrograd.html .

  105. Egyptian Academy of Sciences
    • Although the Institut d'Egypte was founded in 1859 (reviving an older institute founded by Napoleon) and counts among its four sections one for Physical and Mathematical Sciences and another for Medicine, Agronomy and Natural History, its main tendency remained literary and artistic.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Egyptian_Academy.html .

  106. Göttingen Mathematical Society
    • William Henry Young, who was at Gottingen from 1899 to 1908, described the working of the young Mathematical Society (see [',' V Peckhaus, Ernst Zermelo in Gottingen, History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (1990), 19-58.','1]):- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Gottingen.html .

  107. Austrian Academy of Sciences
    • Srbik was internationally respected but, because of his "all-German conception of history", he was also appreciated by National Socialists.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Austrian_Academy.html .

  108. Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences
    • The Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences was explicitly declared to be the equal of the other Spanish Academies of History and San Fernando.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Spanish_Academy.html .

  109. African Mathematical Union
    • The Union set up four commissions in 1986: the Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa; the Commission on Women in Mathematics in Africa; the Commission Mathematics Education; and the Commission on Mathematics Olympiad.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/African.html .

  110. Plato Academy
    • In ancient Athens, the Academy was first and foremost a public park dominated by its gymnasium, and the connection between it and Plato's school was only one of the numerous historical reminiscences in an area rich in history.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Plato.html .

  111. Chinese Academy of Sciences
    • After the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded, the Institute of Mathematics was founded as part of the new Academy in 1952 [',' History, The Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science.','4]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Chinese_Academy.html .

  112. Columbian Mathematical Society
    • It is a joint publication of the Colombian Mathematical Society and the University of the Andes, specialising in mathematics, its teaching, its history and its applications.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Columbian.html .

  113. Armenian Academy of Sciences
    • The founder and first president was Hovsep Orbeli, an orientalist who specialised in the medieval history of the Caucasus area.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Armenian_Academy.html .

  114. Israel Academy of Sciences
    • In 1936 he was appointed lecturer in modern Jewish history at the Hebrew University and was promoted to professor in 1948.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Israel_Academy.html .

  115. Latvian Academy of Sciences
    • Among the aims of the Latvian Academy of Sciences are: encouraging research in the basic and applied sciences; active participation in establishing a Latvian science policy and consultation with the Government about scientific issues; undertaking publishing scientific literature; organising congresses, conferences, discussions, and competitions; popularising scientific achievements and the history of Latvian sciences; maintaining international contacts for Latvian scientists; protecting, maintaining, and improving research ethics, discussion principles, and traditions.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Latvian_Academy.html .

  116. St Petersburg Mathematical Society
    • In [',' N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/St_Petersburg.html .

  117. Edinburgh Royal Society
    • In a move to counter this proposal the Professor of History at the University of Edinburgh, John Walker, proposed that the University of Edinburgh, the Faculty of Advocates, the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland should seek a Royal Charter to establish the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/RSE.html .

  118. Austrian Mathematical Society
    • Furthermore, reviews of books and monographs on mathematical topics, essays on the history of mathematics and obituaries for members of the Austrian Mathematical Society are published.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Austrian.html .

  119. American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    • And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the end and design of the institution of the said Academy is to promote and encourage the knowledge of the antiquities and the natural history of America; to determine the uses to which the various natural productions of the country may be applied; to promote and encourage medical discoveries, mathematical disquisitions, philosophical enquiries and experiments, astronomical, meteorological and geographical observations, and improvements in agriculture, arts, manufactures and commerce; and, in fine, to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and virtuous people.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/American.html .

  120. Danish Royal Academy of Sciences
    • The Royal Academy covered the subjects of mathematics, physics and natural history.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Danish_Academy.html .

  121. Pontifical Academy of Sciences
    • Indeed, as is well known to those who study the history of science, it must be recognized on the one hand that the Roman Pontiffs and the Catholic Church have always fostered the research of the learned in the experimental field as well, and on the other hand that such research has opened up the way to the defence of the deposit of supernatural truths entrusted to the Church.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Pontifical_Academy.html .

  122. Australian Statistical Society
    • The first state statistical society was the Statistical Society of New South Wales (see [',' H O Lancaster, Statistical Society of New South Wales : Bicentennial history issue, Austral.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Australian_Statistical.html .

  123. Brazilian Academy of Sciences
    • The following is a slightly modified version of the material from [',' History of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.','2]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Brazilian_Academy.html .

  124. Serbian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists
    • Each consisted of several sections: general mathematical articles, articles about the history of mathematics, problems from computer science, mathematical problems for primary schools, problems from entrance examinations for high schools, problems from mathematical competitions, mathematical jokes, chess problems, etc.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Serbia.html .

  125. Kosovar Mathematical Society
    • The date of 2008 is highly significant in the history of Kosovo which lets us understand why the Society was founded at that time.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Kosovar.html .

  126. Portuguese Mathematical Society
    • The Society tried to improve the situation by setting up committees such as a Pedagogical Committee, a Pure Mathematics Committee, an Applied Mathematics Committee, and a History and Philosophy of Mathematics Committee.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Portuguese.html .

  127. Irish Mathematical Society
    • The second short instructional conference organised by the Society was 'History of Mathematics' held in University College Cork in September 1978.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Irish.html .

  128. Colombian Mathematical Society
    • It is a joint publication of the Colombian Mathematical Society and the University of the Andes, specialising in mathematics, its teaching, its history and its applications.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Colombian.html .

  129. Italian Mathematical Union
    • A section on the history of mathematics was added in 1939 and at the same time it began publishing articles on mathematical education.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Italian.html .

  130. Macedonian Academy of Sciences
    • The area that is now Macedonia along with its aims to be an independent country over a long period of history, mean that we shall refer to "Macedonia" throughout this article.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Macedonian_Academy.html .

  131. Mathematical Association of America
    • Straley writes in [',' T H Straley, A Brief History of the Mathematical Association of America.','1]:- .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/MAA.html .

  132. Association for Statistics and its Uses
    • For the Section of Jacques Droesbeke's article specifically looking at the history of the Association for Statistics and its Uses, see THIS LINK.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Stats_and_Uses.html .

  133. Malaysian Mathematical Society
    • 'Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences' is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of original papers/research papers, and it serves as a forum for practical approaches to improving quality in issues related to mathematical sciences, covering topics in the areas but not limited to theoretical and applied mathematics, statistics, industrial mathematics, biomathematics, mathematics education, ethnomathematics, history of mathematics and its related fields.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Malaysian.html .

  134. Paris Statistical Society
    • For the Section of Jacques Droesbeke's article specifically looking at the history of the Statistical Society of Paris, see THIS LINK.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Paris_Statistical.html .

  135. Norwegian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Norwegian.html .

  136. Japanese Association of Mathematical Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/JAMS.html .

  137. London Royal Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/RS.html .

  138. Turkish Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Turkish_Academy.html .

  139. Turkish Women in Mathematics Association
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Turkish_Women.html .

  140. Bulgarian Mathematicians' Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Bulgarian.html .

  141. Armenian Mathematical Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Armenian.html .

  142. List of societies by date of foundation
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/societies_list.html .

  143. German Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/GAMM.html .

  144. Australian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Australian.html .

  145. Lincei Accademia
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Lincei.html .

  146. Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/IMA.html .

  147. Quaternion Association
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Quaternion.html .

  148. References for Royal Norwegian Society
    • History, The Royal Norwegian Science Society.

  149. European Women in Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/European_Women.html .

  150. Hellenic Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Hellenic.html .

  151. Turin Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Turin.html .

  152. Indian Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Indian_Academy.html .

  153. Bulgarian Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Bulgarian_Statistical.html .

  154. Korean Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Korean_Statistical.html .

  155. Icelandic Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Icelandic.html .

  156. Singapore Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Singapore.html .

  157. Slovak Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Slovak_Academy.html .

  158. Indonesian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Indonesian.html .

  159. Estonian Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Estonian_Statistical.html .

  160. Czech Mathematicians and Physicists Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Czech.html .

  161. Edinburgh Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/EMS.html .

  162. test.html
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/test.html .

  163. Spanish Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Spanish.html .

  164. Polish Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Polish_Academy.html .

  165. References for Montenegro
    • History and Review of the Main Activities of the Society of Mathematicians And Physicists of Montenegro, IMU No.

  166. References for Dutch
    • D J Beckers, "Untiring labor overcomes all!" The history of the Dutch Mathematical Society in comparison to its various counterparts in Europe, Historia Math.

  167. Swiss Academy of Science
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Swiss_Academy.html .

  168. International Mathematical Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/IMU.html .

  169. Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Spanish_Applied.html .

  170. Mathematical Circle of Palermo
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Palermo.html .

  171. Dutch Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Dutch.html .

  172. Serbian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Serbian.html .

  173. References for Spitalfields
    • R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.

  174. Catalan Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Catalan.html .

  175. References for Petrograd
    • N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.

  176. Dublin Trinity College
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/TCD.html .

  177. References for Canadian
    • G F D Duff, The second generation : a history of the Canadian Mathematical Society 1966-1995, in P Fillmore (ed.), Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 1: Mathematics in Canada (Ottawa, ON, 1995), 129-189.

  178. References for Polish
    • K Szalajko, What was written fifty years ago about Lwow mathematicians and not only about Lwow mathematicians (Polish), School of the history of mathematics (Polish), Miedzyzdroje, 1996, Zesz.

  179. References for Canadian Statistical
    • D R Bellhouse and C Genest, A history of the Statistical Society of Canada : the formative years, Statist.

  180. References for MAA
    • T H Straley, A Brief History of the Mathematical Association of America.

  181. References for Bolyai
    • B Szenassy, History of Mathematics in Hungary until the 20th Century (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1992).

  182. Romanian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Romanian.html .

  183. Hamburg Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Hamburg.html .

  184. Finnish Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Finnish_Statistical.html .

  185. References for Lisbon Academy
    • L M R Saraiva, The Lisbon Academy of Sciences and the development of mathematics in Portugal in the 19th century, in M Kokowski (ed.), The Global and the Local: The History of Science and the Cultural Integration of Europe, Cracow, Poland, 6-9 September, 2006 (Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow .

  186. References for Brazilian Academy
    • History of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.

  187. References for Australian Statistical
    • H O Lancaster, Statistical Society of New South Wales : Bicentennial history issue, Austral.

  188. German Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/German_Statistical.html .

  189. Bourbaki
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Bourbaki.html .

  190. Kharkov Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Kharkov.html .

  191. Royal Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Royal_Statistical.html .

  192. Fellows of the RSE
    • There is also a list ordered by date of electionA link to the History of the RSE .

  193. References for EUMS
    • A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.

  194. Warsaw Scientific Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Warsaw.html .

  195. References for Chinese
    • H Fan and D Li, History of the Chinese Mathematical Society (Chinese), China Historical Materials of Science and Technology 3 (1981), 72-78.

  196. Fellows of the RSE
    • There is also a list ordered alphabeticallyA link to the History of the RSE .

  197. References for Argentina
    • L A Santalo, History of the Union Matematica Argentina, 1936-1996 (Spanish), Rev.

  198. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/SIAM.html .

  199. Argentina Mathematical Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Argentina.html .

  200. References for Belgium
    • L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.

  201. New Zealand Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/New_Zealand.html .

  202. Indian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Indian.html .

  203. Serbian Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Serbian_Academy.html .

  204. Mexican Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Mexican_Academy.html .

  205. References for Australian Academy
    • https://www.science.org.au/about-us/shine-dome/history/laying-foundation-stone .

  206. Italian Society of Applied and Industrial Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Italian_Applied.html .

  207. Lithuanian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Lithuanian.html .

  208. References for Southeast Asian
    • P Y Lee, Mathematics education in Southeast Asia, in Alexander Karp and Gert Schubring (eds.), Handbook on the history of mathematics education (Springer New York, 2014), 384-388.

  209. Chinese Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Chinese.html .

  210. Quebec Mathematical Association
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Quebec.html .

  211. Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Catalan_Science.html .

  212. Mathematical Society of Philippines
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Philippines.html .

  213. German Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/German.html .

  214. Swedish Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Swedish.html .

  215. Polish Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Polish.html .

  216. References for Finnish
    • M Seppala, Fragments of the history of the Finnish Mathematical Society (Finnish.

  217. References for Romanian
    • V Berinde, Romania - the native country of IMOs : A brief history of the Romanian Mathematical Society (Baia Mare, 2000).

  218. References for St Petersburg
    • N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.

  219. Allahabad Mathematical Society
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Allahabad.html .

  220. Turkish Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Turkish.html .

  221. Norwegian Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Norwegian_Academy.html .

  222. Nepal Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Nepal.html .

  223. References for Chinese Academy
    • History, The Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science.

  224. References for Barcelona Academy
    • History of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona.

  225. Heidelberg Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Heidelberg_Academy.html .

  226. References for Gottingen
    • V Peckhaus, Ernst Zermelo in Gottingen, History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (1990), 19-58.

  227. Slovak Mathematicians and Physicists Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Slovak.html .

  228. Swiss Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Swiss.html .

  229. References for Quaternion
    • M J Crowe, A history of vector analysis: The evolution of the idea of a vectorial system (Courier Corporation, 1967).

  230. Danish Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Danish.html .

  231. French Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/SMAI.html .

  232. British Association for the Advancement of Science
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/British_Association.html .

  233. London Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/LMS.html .

  234. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Bulgarian_Academy.html .

  235. Russian/St Petersburg Academy
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Russian.html .

  236. János Bolyai Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Bolyai.html .

  237. South African Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/South_African.html .

  238. Norwegian Statistical Association
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Norwegian_Statistics.html .

  239. Brazilian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Brazilian.html .

  240. Latvian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Latvian.html .

  241. Jagiellonian University Mathematics Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Jagiellonian.html .

  242. Korean Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Korean.html .

  243. Slovenian Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Slovenia.html .

  244. International Society for Mathematical Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/International_Soc.html .

  245. Hong Kong Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Hong_Kong.html .

  246. Irish Royal Academy
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Irish_Academy.html .

  247. Canadian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Canadian.html .

  248. Kazan Physico-mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Kazan.html .

  249. Chilean Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Chile.html .

  250. American Statistical Association
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/American_Statistical.html .

  251. Israel Mathematical Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Israel.html .

  252. South-Eastern Europe Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/South-East_Europe.html .

  253. Ramanujan Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Ramanujan.html .

  254. Alphabetical List of Mathematical Societies and Academies
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/alph_list.html .

  255. Finnish Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Finnish_Academy.html .

  256. International Astronomical Union
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/IAU.html .

  257. Latvian Society of Physicists and Mathematicians
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Latvian_Physical.html .

  258. Canadian Royal Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/RS_of_Canada.html .

  259. National Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/NAS.html .

  260. Belarus Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Belarus_Academy.html .

  261. Moscow Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Moscow.html .

  262. Vietnamese Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Vietnamese.html .

  263. Göttingen Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Gottingen_Academy.html .

  264. Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Belgium_Academy.html .

  265. Pakistan Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Pakistan.html .

  266. Trinity Cambridge Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Trinity_Cambridge.html .

  267. Southeast Asian Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Southeast_Asian.html .

  268. Swiss Statistical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Swiss_Statistical.html .

  269. Cyprus Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Cyprus.html .


Honours

  1. History of the LMS
    • A History of the London Mathematical Society .
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMShistory.html .

  2. History of the EMS
    • A History of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society .
    • History of the EMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/EMShistory.html .

  3. History of the AMS
    • The History of the American Mathematical Society .
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMShistory.html .

  4. History of the Royal Society
    • The History of the Royal Society of London .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RShistory.html .

  5. Hirst Prize winner
    • The London Mathematical Society first decided to award a prize for contributions to the history of mathematics as a part of the celebrations to mark the LMS 150th Anniversary.
    • for their creation, development and maintenance of the MacTutor History of Mathematics web site.
    • for his research and books on the history of mathematics, especially differential equations and geometry in and around the nineteenth century.
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Hirst_Prize.html .

  6. Galway Group Theory.html
    • For a brief history of this conference series see the article History of Groups in Galway.
    • Michael Tuite (Galway) A brief history of Moonshine .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Galway_Group_Theory.html .

  7. AMS Conant Prize
    • for his article "A Brief History of the Classification of the Finite Simple Groups".
    • The article leads the broad range of Notices readers through the 2000-year history of the subject, including its appearance in 1900 in Hilbert's 18-th problem, into its mathematical heart.
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSConantPrize.html .

  8. AMS Cole Prize in Algebra
    • History of the AMS .
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSColePrize_algebra.html .

  9. AMS/SIAM Birkhoff Prize
    • for his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the subjects of rational mechanics and nonlinear materials, for his efforts to give precise mathematical formulation to these classical subjects, for his many contributions to applied mathematics in the fields of acoustic theory, kinetic theory, and nonlinear elastic theory, and the thermodynamics of mixtures, and for his major work in the history of mechanics.
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/BirkhoffPrize.html .

  10. Fellow of the Royal Society
    • The list of fellows given below is only those scientists elected Fellows of the Royal Society whose biographies appear in the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive, together with some present day mathematicians.
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/FRS.html .

  11. Wilks Award of the ASS
    • for highly significant contributions to research on, and applications of, statistical methods and problems in agriculture, national defense, science and engineering; for his internationally renowned applications of statistical methodology to basic problems in metrology; and for his singular contributions to the history of methodology in the field of statistics.
    • for distinguished contributions to statistical methodology and to study of the history of statistics, for enthusiastic support of statistics in the social sciences, and for extensive public service, especially on behalf of the Joint Service Advisory Group and as chairman of the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences-NRC.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Wilks_award.html .

  12. Bakerian Lecturer
    • on such part of natural history or experimental philosophy, at such time and in such manner as the President and the Council of the Society for the time being shall be pleased to order and appoint.
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Bakerian.html .

  13. LMS Presidential Addresses
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSAddresses.html .

  14. LMS Naylor Prize
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSNaylorPrize.html .

  15. Sylvester Medal
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SylvesterMedal.html .

  16. LMS Whitehead Prize
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSWhiteheadPrize.html .

  17. The Hannan Medal
    • Citation: Eugene Seneta has done much seminal work in probability and statistics in connection with branching processes, the history of probability and statistics, and in such diverse areas as slowly varying functions, Bonferroni type bounds on probabilities of unions of sets, on modelling of the price of a risky asset, and in the scaling of Higher School Certificate marks.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Hannan_Medal.html .

  18. AMS Steele Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSSteelePrize.html .

  19. Jose Celestino Mutis Prize
    • In 1760 he moved to the New Kingdom of Granada as doctor of the viceroy and in 1762 was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Senora del Rosario and in 1763 he presented his plan for a Natural History of America.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Jose_Celestino_Mutis_Prize.html .

  20. LMS Pólya Prize
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSPolyaPrize.html .

  21. Royal Medal
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RoyalMedal.html .

  22. LMS Senior Whitehead Prize
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSSeniorWhiteheadPrize.html .

  23. AMS Satter Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSSatterPrize.html .

  24. AMS Wiener Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSWienerPrize.html .

  25. AMS Colloquium Lecturer
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSCollLecturers.html .

  26. AMS Gibbs Lecturer
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSGibbsLecturers.html .

  27. LMS Frölich Prize

  28. AMS Fulkerson Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSFulkerson.html .

  29. Royal Society of Edinburgh
    • In a move to counter this proposal the Professor of History at the University of Edinburgh, John Walker, proposed that the University of Edinburgh, the Faculty of Advocates, the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland should seek a Royal Charter to establish the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSE.html .

  30. Joan and Joseph Birman Prize
    • This work has generated a great amount of excitement and activity in the field and was described by a leading expert as "one for the history books".
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Birman_Research_Prize.html .

  31. Presidents of the Royal Society
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSpresidents.html .

  32. De Morgan Medal Winners
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSDeMorganMedal.html .

  33. AMS President
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSPresidents.html .

  34. LMS President
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSPresidents.html .

  35. AMS Bôcher Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSBocherPrize.html .

  36. AMS Veblen Prize
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSVeblenPrize.html .

  37. LMS Honorary Member
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSHonorary.html .

  38. International Congress Speaker
    • Andre Weil, History of Mathematics: Why and How.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/ICM.html .

  39. Berwick Prizewinner
    • History of the LMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LMSBerwick.html .

  40. Lucasian Chairs
    • The history of the Lucasian chair by Bob Bruen .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Lucasian.html .

  41. Groups St Andrews.html
    • For a brief history of this conference series see the article Twenty-Five Years of Groups St Andrews.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Groups_St_Andrews.html .

  42. Paris street names
    • The Mairie de Paris have a website at THIS LINK giving the history of all Parisian street names and if you click on the M next to the street you can see these details.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/ParisNames.html .

  43. European Mathematical Society Prize
    • The question of the existence of Riemannian metrics with special holomony has a long history beginning with the work of Cartan.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/EuMSPrizes.html .

  44. AMS Cole Prize in Number Theory
    • History of the AMS .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AMSColePrize_num_theory.html .

  45. Copley Medal
    • History of the Royal Society .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/CopleyMedal.html .

  46. Brouwer Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/BrouwerMedal.html .

  47. J H Michell Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/J_H_Michell_Medal.html .

  48. RSS Honorary Fellowships
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSSHonorary.html .

  49. Gavin Brown Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Gavin_Brown_Prize.html .

  50. Microsoft Research Prize in Algebra and Number Theory
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Research_Prize_in_Algebra.html .

  51. Haim Nessyahu Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Haim_Nessyahu_Prize.html .

  52. MAA Hedrick Lecturer
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Hedrick_lecturers.html .

  53. SIAM Ralph E Kleinman Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMKleinmanPrize.html .

  54. Ostrowski Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Ostrowski.html .

  55. St Petersburg Abramov Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/StPetersburgAbramov.html .

  56. ANZIAM medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/ANZIAM_medal.html .

  57. AWM-SIAM Kovalevsky Lecture
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/KovalevskyLecture.html .

  58. Alice T Schafer Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Schafer_Mathematics_Prize.html .

  59. Ribenboim Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RibenboimPrize.html .

  60. SeMA Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Best_SeMA_Journal_Article.html .

  61. Bowen Lecturer
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Bowen_Lecturers.html .

  62. Austrian Mathematical Society Forderungspreis
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Forderungspreis.html .

  63. Pythagoras Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Pythagoras.html .

  64. MSJ Geometry Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/MSJGeometryPrize.html .

  65. Shaw Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/ShawPrize.html .

  66. Erwin Schrödinger Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Schrodinger_prize.html .

  67. Dahlquist Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMDahlquist.html .

  68. Gödel Lecturer
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/GodelLecturer.html .

  69. DMV/IMU Gauss Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/GaussPrize.html .

  70. Abel Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AbelPrize.html .

  71. RSS Guy Medal in Silver
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSSGuySilver.html .

  72. Australian Mathematical Society Szekeres Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AuMSSzekeresMedal.html .

  73. Copson lectures.html
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Copson_lectures.html .

  74. Planetary features
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/PlanetaryFeatures.html .

  75. Nemmers Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/NemmersPrize.html .

  76. Waynflete Chair
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Waynflete.html .

  77. Autumn Prize of the Mathematical Society of Japan
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Autumn_Prize.html .

  78. Maxwell Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Maxwell.html .

  79. Fields Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/FieldsMedal.html .

  80. Wolf Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Wolf_Prize.html .

  81. Plumian chair
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Plumian.html .

  82. CMS Krieger-Nelson Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/CMSKriegerNelsonPrize.html .

  83. Lunar features
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LunarFeatures0.html .

  84. Nobel Prizes
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Nobel.html .

  85. Times Obituaries
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Times_obits.html .

  86. Ruth I Michler Memorial Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Michler_Memorial_Prize.html .

  87. Spring Prize of the Mathematical Society of Japan
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Spring_Prize.html .

  88. Eiffel Tower
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Eiffel.html .

  89. SIAM von Kármán Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMVonKarmanPrize.html .

  90. British Mathematical Colloquium
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/BMC.html .

  91. Fellows of the RSE
    • There is also a list ordered by date of electionA link to the History of the RSE .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Honours/FRSE.html .

  92. CMS Coxeter-James Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/CMSCoxeterJamesPrize.html .

  93. Levitzki Prize.html
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Levitzki_Prize.html .

  94. Fellows of the RSE
    • There is also a list ordered alphabeticallyA link to the History of the RSE .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Honours/FRSE .

  95. MAA Chauvenet Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Chauvenet_prize.html .

  96. IMA President
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/IMA_presidents.html .

  97. MSJ Seki-Takakazu Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/MSJSekiTakakazuPrize.html .

  98. Antonio Valle Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Antonio_Valle_Award.html .

  99. IMU Leelavati Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/IMULeelavatiPrize.html .

  100. IMA prizewinner
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/IMA_prizewinners.html .

  101. Premio Nacional de Matematicas
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Premio_Nacional.html .

  102. Collatz Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Collatz.html .

  103. Sadosky Prize in Analysis
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Sadosky_Prize.html .

  104. George Szekeres Medal.html
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/George_Szekeres_Medal.html .

  105. SIAM Prize for Distinguished Service
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMService.html .

  106. Young Mathematician prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/StPetersburgYoung.html .

  107. Eiffel scientists
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Eiffel_m.html .

  108. NAS Award in Applied Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/NASApplied.html .

  109. Bruce Medallists
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/BruceMedal.html .

  110. MSJ Iyanaga, Spring and Autumn Prize
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/MSJIyanagaPrize.html .

  111. Aubrey's Brief Lives
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Aubrey.html .

  112. Levitzky Prize in Algebra
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Levitzky_Prize.html .

  113. Times Obituaries
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Times__obits.html .

  114. MSJ Algebra Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/MSJAlgebraPrize.html .

  115. Su Buchin Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Buchin.html .

  116. Swedish Mathematical Society Wallenberg Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Wallenberg_Prize.html .

  117. SIAM George Pólya Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMPolyaPrize.html .

  118. Emmy Noether Lecture
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Noether_Lecture.html .

  119. Lectures to the Mathematical Society of Vienna
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Lectures_Vienna_Math_Soc.html .

  120. Presidents of the Swiss Mathematical Society
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Swiss_presidents.html .

  121. Australian Mathematical Society Medal
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Australian_Math_Soc_Medal.html .

  122. Rolf Schock Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Schock.html .

  123. CMS Jeffery-Williams Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/JefferyWilliamsPrize.html .

  124. RSS Guy Medal in Bronze
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSSGuyBronze.html .

  125. Henry George Forder Lectures
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Forder_Lecturers.html .

  126. St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/StPetersburgHonorary.html .

  127. RSS Guy Medal in Gold
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/RSSGuyGold.html .

  128. Chern Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Chern_Medal.html .

  129. Lunar features
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/LunarFeatures.html .

  130. IMU Nevanlinna Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/IMUNevanlinnaPrize.html .

  131. NAS Award in Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/NASAward.html .

  132. Australian Mathematical Society Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AuMSMedal.html .

  133. Balaguer Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Balaguer.html .

  134. Fermat Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/FermatPrize.html .

  135. SIAM W T and Idalia Reid Prize in Mathematics
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMReidsPrize.html .

  136. MSJ Analysis Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/MSJAnalysisPrize.html .

  137. DVR Cantor Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/DMVCantorMedal.html .

  138. Clay Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Clay.html .

  139. SIAM John von Neumann Lecture
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SIAMVonNeumannLecture.html .

  140. Chern Visiting Professor
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Chern_Lectures.html .

  141. Australian Mathematical Society Mahler Lecturership
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/AuMSMahlerLectureship.html .

  142. DVR Honorary Members
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/DMVHonorary.html .

  143. Karp Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Karp.html .

  144. Savilian Chairs
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Savilian.html .

  145. The Moran Medal
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Moran_Medal.html .

  146. Sverdrup Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Sverdrup_Prize.html .

  147. Herbrand Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/HerbrandAward.html .

  148. New Zealand Mathematics Society Research Award
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/New_Zealand_Research_Award.html .

  149. Lowndean chair
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Lowndean.html .

  150. Lagrange Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Lagrange.html .

  151. Gibbs Lectures.html
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Gibbs_Lectures.html .

  152. Pioneer Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Pioneer.html .

  153. Schafer Mathematics Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/SchaferPrize.html .

  154. Anna and Lajos Erdos Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Anna_and_Lajos_Erdos_Prize.html .


References

  1. References for Albert Einstein
    • J Earman, M Janssen and J D Norton (eds.), The attraction of gravitation : new studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, 1993).
    • G Holton, Einstein, history, and other passions (Woodbury, NY, 1995).
    • D Howard and J Stachel (eds.), Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989).
    • J B Barbour, Einstein and Mach's principle, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 125-153, 460.
    • G Berg, On the origin of the concept of an Einstein space, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 336-343; 460.
    • M Biezunski, Inside the coconut : the Einstein-Cartan discussion on distant parallelism, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 315-324.
    • P H Byrne, The significance of Einstein's use of the history of science, Dialectica 34 (4) (1980), 263-276.
    • C Cattani and M De Maria, Max Abraham and the reception of relativity in Italy : his 1912 and 1914 controversies with Einstein, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 160-174.
    • C Cattani and M De Maria, The 1915 epistolary controversy between Einstein and Tullio Levi-Civita, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 175-200.
    • L Debnath, Albert Einstein-scientific epistemology, in Selected studies : physics-astrophysics, mathematics, history of science (Amsterdam-New York, 1982), 315-327.
    • J Earman and C Glymour, Einstein and Hilbert : two months in the history of general relativity, Arch.
    • J Eisenstaedt, Toward a history of Einstein's theory of gravitation, in Fifth Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation (Teaneck, NJ, 1987), 552-565.
    • M Francaviglia, History of a work of Albert Einstein (Italian), Atti Accad.
    • D Howard, Einstein and Eindeutigkeit : a neglected theme in the philosophical background to general relativity, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 154-243; 462.
    • J Illy, The correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie, 1917-1918, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 244-259; 462.
    • P Kerszberg, The Einstein-de Sitter controversy of 1916-1917 and the rise of relativistic cosmology, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 325-366.
    • L Kostro, An outline of the history of Einstein's relativistic ether concept, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 260-280; 463.
    • L Kostro, Einstein's relativistic ether, its history, physical meaning and updated applications, Organon No.
    • A J Kox, Einstein, specific heats, and residual rays : the history of a retracted paper, in No truth except in the details (Dordrecht, 1995), 245-257.
    • C Liu, Einstein and relativistic thermodynamics in 1952 : a historical and critical study of a strange episode in the history of modern physics, British J.
    • A I Miller, Albert Einstein's 1907 Jahrbuch paper : the first step from SRT to GRT, in Studies in the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1992), 319-335; 464.
    • Reflections on spacetime : foundations, philosophy, history, Erkenntnis 42 (2) (1995), 223-245.
    • J Norton, How Einstein found his field equations, 1912-1915, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 101-159.
    • J Norton, What was Einstein's principle of equivalence?, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 5-47.
    • R M Nugayev, The history of quantum mechanics as a decisive argument favoring Einstein over Lorentz, Philos.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • J Stachel, Einstein's search for general covariance, 1912-1915, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 63-100.
    • E Stipanich, Boskovic and Einstein (Russian), in Investigations in the history of mechanics 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1983), 219-245.
    • V P Vizgin, Eotvos and Einstein (Russian), in History of science 'Metsniereba' (Tbilisi, 1984), 86-89.
    • V P Vizgin, On the history of the discovery of equations of gravitation (Einstein and Hilbert) (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • V P Vizgin, Einstein, Hilbert, and Weyl : the genesis of the geometrical unified field theory program, in Einstein and the history of general relativity (Boston, MA, 1989), 300-314.
    • C N Yang, Einstein and the physics of the second half of the twentieth century, in Selected studies : physics-astrophysics, mathematics, history of science (Amsterdam-New York, 1982), 139-146.

  2. References for William Herschel
    • A Berry, A Short History of Astronomy.
    • M Hoskin, The Herschel Partnership: as viewed by Caroline (Science History Publications, Cambridge, 2003).
    • M Hoskin, The Herschels of Hanover (Science History Publications, Cambridge, 2007).
    • J A Bennett, 'On the Power of Penetrating into Space': The Telescopes of William Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 7 (2) (1976), 75-108.
    • A Hanham and M Hoskin, The Herschel Knighthoods: Facts and Fiction, Journal of the History of Astronomy 44 (120) (2013), 149-164.
    • M Hoskin, Was William Herschel a deserter?, Journal of the History of Astronomy 35 (3) (2004), 356-358.
    • M Hoskin, Herschel's determination of the solar apex, Journal of the History of Astronomy 11 (1980), 153-163.
    • M Hoskin, Unfinished Business: William Herschel's Sweeps for Nebulae, History of Science 43 (2005), 305-320.
    • M Hoskin, George Ill's Purchase of Herschel Reflectors, Journal of the History of Astronomy 39 (2008), 121-124.
    • M Hoskin, Nebulae, Star Clusters and the Milky Way: From Galileo to Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 39 (2008), 363-396.
    • M Hoskin, Mary Herschel's Fortune: Origins and Impact, Journal of the History of Astronomy 41 (2010), 213-223.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel and the Southern Skies, Journal of the History of Astronomy 41 (2010), 503.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel and Herschelian Reflectors, History of Science 49 (2011), 115-120.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel and the Nebulae, Journal of the History of Astronomy 42 (2011), 177-192; 321-338.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel's Residence in Bath, 1799-1801, Journal of the History of Astronomy 43 (2012), 351-358.
    • M Hoskin, William Herschel's Agenda for His Son John, Journal of the History of Astronomy 43 (2012), 439-454.
    • M Hoskin and D W Dewhirst, William Herschel and the Prehistory of Stellar Spectroscopy, Journal of the History of Astronomy 37 (2006), 393-403.
    • E J Hysom, Tests of the Shape of Mirrors by Herschel, Journal of the History of Astronomy 27 (1996), 349-352.
    • S Schaffer, Herschel in Bedlam: natural history and stellar astronomy, British J.
    • S Schaffer, The Great Laboratories of the Universe: William Herschel on Matter Theory and Planetary Life, Journal of the History of Astronomy 11 (1980), 81-111.
    • S Schaffer, Uranus and the Establishment of Herschel's Astronomy, Journal of the History of Astronomy 12 (1981, 11-26.
    • J T Spaight, 'For the Good of Astronomy': The Manufacture, Sale, and Distant Use of William Herschel's Telescopes, Journal of the History of Astronomy 35 (2004), 45-69.

  3. References for Ivor Grattan-Guinness
    • J M Dubbey, Review: The Development of the Foundations of Mathematical Analysis from Euler to Riemann, by I Grattan-Guinness, The British Journal for the History of Science 6 (1) (1972), 88- 89.
    • J W Dawson, Obituary for Ivor Grattan-Guinness (1941-2014), History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (1) (2015), 1.
    • C Fraser, Report on the Awarding of the Kenneth O May Prize to Ivor Grattan-Guinness, International Congress of History of Science and Technology (31 July 2009).
    • Ivor Grattan-Guinness, International Academy of the History of Science (12 December 2014).
    • I Grattan-Guinness, The development of a historian: Cannot put it down: spiralling into the history of mathematics, British Society for the History of Mathematics Newsletter 14 (2) (1999), 29-35.
    • I Grattan-Guinness, History of Science Journals: "to be useful, and to the living", Annals of Science 34 (1977), 193-202.
    • D M Johnson, Review: Dear Russell - Dear Jourdain, by I Grattan-Guinness, The British Journal for the History of Science 12 (2) (1979), 232-233.
    • C V Jones, Review: From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History, by I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), American Scientist 70 (4) (1982), 436.
    • R Jones, Review: From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History, by I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Philosophy of Science 51 (3) (1984), 519-522.
    • M Kline, Review: From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History, by I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Isis 72 (4) (1981), 661-662.
    • J G Petrunic, Review: Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940, by Ivor Grattan-Guinness, The British Journal for the History of Science 40 (4) (2007), 608- 610.
    • T Pinch, Review: Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles, and Practices, by I Grattan-Guinness, Isis 74 (3) (1983), 439.
    • A Rice, Ivor Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941-12 December 2014), BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics 30 (2) (2015), 94-101.
    • J L Richards, Review: History in Mathematics Education, by Ivor Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Isis 81 (3) (1990), 546-547.
    • J L Richards, Review: Selected Essays on the History of Set Theory and Logics (1906-1918), by Philip E B Jourdain and Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Isis 85 (2) (1994), 354-355.
    • R E Rider, Review: From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630-1910: An Introductory History, by I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), The American Mathematical Monthly 92 (3) (1985), 225-227.

  4. References for Al-Biruni
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • A E-A Hatipov and A Pulatov, Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni (Russian), Questions on the history of mathematics and astronomy I, Trudy Samarkand.
    • M S Khan, An examination of al-Biruni's knowledge of Indian astronomy, in History of oriental astronomy (Cambridge, 1987), 139-145.
    • History Sci.
    • G P Matvievskaja, The mathematical and astronomical legacy of al-Biruni, and the history of its study (Russian), Izv.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • B A Rozenfel'd, S A Krasnova and M M Rozanskaja, The mathematical work of Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni (Russian), From the History of Science and Technology in the East 3 (Moscow, 1963), 71-92.
    • History Sci.
    • History Sci.
    • T Usmonov, The role of history in the flowering of al-Biruni's physics (Uzbek), in Collection dedicated to the 1000th anniversary of the birth of al-Biruni (Tashkent, 1973), 179-197.
    • A I Volodarskii, Indian mathematics and al-Biruni (Russian), in History and methodology of the natural sciences XX (Moscow, 1978), 49-57.

  5. References for Pierre-Simon Laplace
    • H H Frisinger, Mathematicians in the history of meteorology: the pressure-height problem from Pascal to Laplace, Historia Math.
    • F J Giron, History of probability theory: from Pascal to Laplace , in History of mathematics in the XIXth century (Spanish) 2 (Madrid, 1994), 113-133.
    • B Ju Levin, On the history of the term 'Kant-Laplace hypothesis' (Russian), Voprosy Istor.
    • B Yu Levin, Laplace's cosmogonic hypothesis (history of its creation and publication) (Russian), Voprosy Istor.
    • V V Pavlovskaja, The problem of the stability of the equilibrium of a revolving fluid in the works of d'Alembert and Laplace (Russian), in Problems in the history of mathematics and mechanics (Kiev, 1977), 58-67.
    • S S Petrova, On the history of Laplace's method of cascades (Russian), in Studies in the history of mathematics 19 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1974), 125-131, 301.
    • S S Petrova, Early history of the Laplace transform (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • O B Sheynin, On the history of the de Moivre-Laplace limit theorems (Russian), in History and methodology of natural sciences No.
    • S M Stigler, The History of Statistics.
    • S M Stigler, Studies in the history of probability and statistics XXXIV: Napoleonic statistics : the work of Laplace, Biometrika 62 (2) (1975), 503-517.
    • S M Stigler, Studies in the history of probability and statistics XXXII : Laplace, Fisher, and the discovery of the concept of sufficiency, Biometrika 60 (1973), 439-445.

  6. References for Carl Boyer
    • Anon, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer and Uta C Merzbach, Biometrics 49 (2) (1993), 674.
    • H Eves, Review: A History of Analytic Geometry, by Carl B Boyer, Amer.
    • H Eves, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, American Scientist 56 (4) (1968), 468A-469A.
    • J V Grabiner, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, Science, New Series 163 (3863) (1969), 171.
    • J E Hofmann, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, Isis 60 (4) (1969), 553.
    • P S Jones, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, Amer.
    • M Kline, Review: The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development, by Carl B Boyer, Mathematical Reviews, MR0124178 (23 #A1495).
    • K May, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, Mathematical Reviews, MR0234791 (38 #3105).
    • A Prag, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, The British Journal for the History of Science 5 (1) (1970), 89.
    • M K Prichard, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer and Uta C Merzbach, The Mathematics Teacher 85 (5) (1992), 394-395.
    • H L Prouse, Review: A History of Mathematics, by Carl B Boyer, The Mathematics Teacher 62 (7) (1969), 597.
    • A Rosenthal, Review: A History of Analytic Geometry, by Carl B Boyer, Science, New Series 125 (3252) (1957), 823-824.
    • R Taton, Review: A History of Analytic Geometry, by Carl B Boyer, Isis 50 (4) (1959), 489-492.

  7. References for Isaac Newton
    • M Bartolozzi and R Franci, A fragment of the history of algebra : Newton's rule on the number of imaginary roots in an algebraic equation (Italian), Rend.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • M Galuzzi, Some considerations about motion in a resisting medium in Newton's 'Principia', in Conference on the History of Mathematics (Rende, 1991), 169-189.
    • A T Grigor'yan, Isaac Newton's work of genius (Russian), Studies in the history of physics and mechanics 1987 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1987), 177-191; 245-246.
    • R C Hovis, What can the history of mathematics learn from philosophy? A case study in Newton's presentation of the calculus, Philos.
    • C W Kilmister, The history of Newton's laws, Bull.
    • T M Kuk, On the question of Newton's physical concept of force (Russian), Sketches on the history of mathematical physics 'Naukova Dumka' (Kiev, 1985), 80-83; 185.
    • L L Kul'vetsas, The content of the concept of force in Newton's mechanics (Russian), in Studies in the history of physics and mechanics, 1990 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1990), 131-149.
    • M Nauenberg, Newton's early computational method, Archive for the History of the Exact Science 46 (3) (1994), 221-252.
    • M Panza, Eliminating time : Newton, Lagrange and the inverse problem of resisting motion (Italian), in Conference on the History of Mathematics (Rende, 1991), 487-537.
    • History Exact Sci.
    • D T Whiteside, The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia, Journal for the History of Astronomy 1 (1970), 118-119.
    • G J Whitrow, Newton's role in the history of mathematics, Notes and Records Roy.

  8. References for David Hilbert
    • M Ackerman and R Hermann (trs.), Hilbert's invariant theory papers (Lie Groups: History, Frontiers and Applications, VIII.
    • Archimedes: New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, 10 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2004).
    • History Exact Sci.
    • L Corry, David Hilbert and his empiricist philosophy of geometry (Spanish), History and philosophy of mathematics (Spanish), Bol.
    • A V Dorofeeva, Hilbert's development of the theory of infinite quadratic forms (Russian), in History and methodology of the natural sciences XX (Russian), Moskov.
    • J Earman and C Glymour, Einstein and Hilbert: two months in the history of general relativity, Arch.
    • J D North, Review: Gesammelte Abhandlungen, by David Hilbert; Hilbert Gedenkband, by K Reidemeister, The British Journal for the History of Science 6 (2) (1972), 208-209.
    • V Peckhaus, Hilbert's axiomatic programme and philosophy, in The history of modern mathematics III (Academic Press, Boston, MA, 1994), 90-112.
    • A Pietsch, D Hilbert and E Schmidt or A landmark in the history of mathematics (Czech), Pokroky Mat.
    • D E Rowe, The philosophical views of Klein and Hilbert, in The intersection of history and mathematics (Sci.
    • M Toepell, On the origins of David Hilbert's 'Grundlagen der Geometrie', Archive for History of Exact Science 35 (4) (1986), 329-344.
    • V P Vizgin, Einstein, Hilbert, and Weyl: the genesis of the geometrical unified field theory program, in Einstein and the history of general relativity, North Andover, MA, 1986 (Einstein Stud., 1, Birkhauser Boston, Boston, MA, 1989), 300-314.

  9. References for Howard Aiken
    • An Interview with Richard Bloch conducted by William Aspray on 22 February 1984 at Newton, MA, Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing University of Minnesota.
    • An Interview with Robert Hawkins conducted by William Aspray on 20 February 1984 at Barnstable, MA, Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing University of Minnesota.
    • An Interview with Robert V D Campbell conducted by William Aspray on 22 February 1984 at Barnstable, MA, Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing University of Minnesota.
    • Biography of Howard Aiken, History of Computers.
    • http://history-computer.com/People/AikenBio.html .
    • I B Cohen, Babbage and Aiken: with notes on Henry Babbage's gift to Harvard, and to other institutions, of a portion of his father's difference engine, Annals of the history of computing 10 (1988), 171-193.
    • I B Cohen, Howard H Aiken and the computer, A history of scientific computing (New York, 1990), 41-52.
    • Howard Aiken, Engineering and Technology History Wiki.
    • http://www.i-programmer.info/history/8-people/342-aiken-and-the-mark-i.html .
    • H Jones, Howard Hathaway Aiken, The History of Computing Project.
    • http://history.computer.org/pioneers/aiken.html .

  10. References for Louis Karpinski
    • Louis C Karpinski, The Michigan Alumnus 84-91, Faculty History Project (University of Michigan, 1 November 1910).
    • http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/louis-c-karpinski/bio .
    • Louis C Karpinski, The Michigan Alumnus 47, Faculty History Project (University of Michigan, 20 October 1945).
    • http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/louis-c-karpinski/classroom-profile .
    • L C Karpinski, Manuscript Maps relating to American History in French, Spanish, and Portuguese Archives, American Historical Review XXXIII (2) (1928), 328-330.
    • E H Kraus, P S Jones and T H Hildebrandt, Memorial, Louis C Karpinski, L S A Minutes, Faculty History Project (University of Michigan).
    • http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/louis-c-karpinski/memorial .
    • Louis C Karpinski retires after 43 Years' Teaching, The Michigan Alumnus 503, Faculty History Project (University of Michigan, 20 September 1947).
    • http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/louis-c-karpinski/louis-c-karpinski-retires%E2%80%A8-after-43-years039-teaching .
    • Louis C Karpinski, Regents' Proceedings 87, Faculty History Project (University of Michigan, 1 September 1948).
    • http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/louis-c-karpinski/memoir .

  11. References for Galileo Galilei
    • M Clavelin, Galilee et la mecanisation du systeme du monde, in Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science I (Dordrecht- Boston, Mass., 1981), 229-251.
    • A C Crombie, Philosophical presuppositions and shifting interpretations of Galileo, in Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science I (Dordrecht- Boston, Mass., 1981), 271-286.
    • R Devadason, The life history and contributions of a mathematician whom I admire : Galileo Galilei, Menemui Mat.
    • S Drake, Galileo's first telescopic observations, Journal for the history of astronomy 7 (1976), 153-168.
    • S Drake, Galileo, Kepler, and the phases of Venus, Journal for the history of astronomy 15 (1984), 198-208.
    • S Drake, Galileo and satellite prediction, Journal for the history of astronomy 10 (1979), 75-95.
    • D Gruender, Galileo and the methods of science, in Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science I (Dordrecht- Boston, Mass., 1981), 259-270.
    • O Pedersen, Galileo and the Council of Trent : the Galileo affair revisited, Journal for the history of astronomy 14 (4) (1983), 1-29.
    • E A Whitaker, Galileo's lunar observations and the dating of the composition of 'Sidereus Nuncius', Journal for the history of astronomy 9 (1978), 155-169.
    • W L Wisan, Galileo and the emergence of a new scientific style, in Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science I (Dordrecht- Boston, Mass., 1981), 311-339.
    • History Exact Sci.

  12. References for René Descartes
    • O J Abdounur, Music according to Descartes, in Studies in history of mathematics dedicated to A P Youschkevitch (De Diversis Artibus, 56, Brepols, Turnhout, 2002), 173-185.
    • O J Abdounur, The music-mathematics relation according to Descartes (Portuguese), in II Portuguese-Brazilian Conference on the History of Mathematics & II National Seminar on the History of Mathematics (Portuguese), Sao Paulo, 1997 (UNESP, Rio Claro, 1997), 313-322.
    • A C Crombie, Expectation, modelling and assent in the history of optics.
    • A study of the 'De solidorum elementis', in Sources in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences 4 (New York-Berlin, 1982).
    • S A Janovskaja, On the role of mathematical rigor in the history of the creative development of mathematics and especially on the 'Geometry' of Descartes (Russian), in Studies in systems of logic (dedicated to the memory of S A Janovskaja) 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1970), 13-50.
    • R J Levene, Sources of confusion in Descartes's illustrations, with reference to the history of contact lenses, in History of science 6 (Cambridge, 1967), 90-96.
    • B Russell, Descartes, in History of Western Philosophy (George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1961), 542-551.
    • A Saxon Dean, An investigation of pedagogical techniques in Descartes' La geometrie, British Society for History of Mathematics Bull.

  13. References for Herbert Dingle
    • H Dingle, The Scientific Adventure, Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science (Philosophical Library, New York, 1953).
    • L Brillouin, Review: The Scientific Adventure, Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, American Journal of Physics 21 (1953), 651.
    • I B Cohen, Review: The Scientific Adventure: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, The American Historical Review 59 (2) (1954), 347-348.
    • W H Furgason, Review: The Scientific Adventure, Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, The Scientific Monthly 78 (5) (1954), 329.
    • B Glass, Review: The Scientific Adventure Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, The Quarterly Review of Biology 30 (4) (1955), 372-373.
    • H R Kahl, Review: The Scientific Adventure; Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, The Journal of Philosophy 50 (16) (1953), 505-507.
    • T S Kuhn, Review: The Scientific Adventure: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, Speculum 28 (4) (1953), 879-880.
    • E H Madden, Review: The Scientific Adventure, Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, by Herbert Dingle, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (1) (1954), 121-122.
    • L Pyenson, Review: Science at the Crossroads, by Herbert Dingle, The British Journal for the History of Science 9 (3) (1976), 336-337.
    • W A Smeaton, Obituary: Herbert Dingle, 2 August 1890-4 September 1978, British Journal for the History of Science 12 (2) (1979), 242-243.

  14. References for Takebe Katahiro
    • D E Smith and Y Mikami, A History of Japanese Mathematics (Open Court Publishing, Chicago, 1914).
    • M Fujiwara, On the Sanreki Zakko presumably written by Takebe Katahiro, Studies of history of Japanese mathematics (Japanese) 1 (1945), 84-92.
    • M Morimoto, Differentiation and Integration in Takebe Katahiro's Mathematics, Sixth International Symposium on the History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education Using Chinese Characters (University of Tokyo, 2005), 131-143.
    • M Morimoto, Takebe Katahiro's algorithm to find the circular arc length, International Conference on History of Mathematics in Memory of Seki Takakazu (1642?-1708) (University of Tokyo, 2008).
    • T Ogawa, On a Calculation of an Extremum by Takebe Katahiro (Japanese), Studies on the history of mathematics (Japanese) (Kyoto, 1998), 129-147.
    • T Ogawa, The beginnings of enri - the calculation of pi by Katahiro Takebe (Japanese), Study of the history of mathematics (Japanese) (Kyoto, 1997), 77-97.
    • Ogawa Tsukane, Theories of circles originated by Seki and Takebe Katahiro, International Conference on History of Mathematics in Memory of Seki Takakazu (1642?-1708) (University of Tokyo, 2008).
    • Z Xu and C Zhou, Standing on the Shoulders of a Giant - Influence of Seki Takakazu on Takebe Katahiro's mathematical achievements, International Conference on History of Mathematics in Memory of Seki Takakazu (1642?-1708) (University of Tokyo, 2008).
    • H Yokotsuka, The Enri Kohai-jutsu Preserved in Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba (Japanese), Journal of history of science, Japan, Series II 43 (232) (2004), 204-210.

  15. References for Gottfried Leibniz
    • History Exact Sci.
    • G Arrighi, On a memoir of Leibniz from 1684 (Italian), in Contributions to the history of mathematics (Modena, 1992), 35-39.
    • V M Kir'yanova, The ideas of the symbolic calculus of Leibniz and Euler (Russian), in Questions on the history of mathematical natural science (Kiev, 1979), 91-96.
    • E Knobloch, Leibniz and Euler : problems and solutions concerning infinitesimal geometry and calculus, in Conference on the History of Mathematics (Rende, 1991), 293-313.
    • F C Kreiling, Leibniz' views on the history of science, in 1971 Actes XIIe Congres Internat.
    • Z A Kuzicheva, Leibniz' logical program and its role in the history of logic and cybernetics (Russian), Voprosy Kibernet (Moscow) 78 (1982), 3-36.
    • M Otte, Two principles of Leibniz's philosophy in relation to the history of mathematics, Theoria (San Sebastian) (2) 8 (19) (1993), 113-125.
    • B Russell, History of Western Philosophy (London, 1961), 563-576.
    • History Exact Sci.

  16. References for Hipparchus
    • J L E Dreyer, A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (1953).
    • G Grasshoff, The history of Ptolemy's star catalogue (New York, 1990).
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1931).
    • O Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy (New York, 1975).
    • G Sarton, A History of Science, Vol.
    • O Neugebauer, The early history of the astrolabe, Isis 40 (1949), 240-256.
    • G J Toomer, The chord table of Hipparchus and the early history of Greek trigonometry, Centaurus 18 (1973/74), 6-28.
    • History Exact Sci.

  17. References for Johannes Kepler
    • J L E Dreyer, A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (New York, 1953).
    • E Badolati, On the history of Kepler's equation, Vistas Astronom.
    • A C Crombie, Expectation, modelling and assent in the history of optics.
    • S Drake, Galileo, Kepler, and the phases of Venus, Journal for the history of astronomy 15 (1984), 198-208.
    • J Evans, The division of the Martian eccentricity from Hipparchos to Kepler : a history of the approximations to Kepler motion, Amer.
    • J V Field, A Lutheran Astrologer : Johannes Kepler, Archive for History of Exact Science 31 (1984), 189-.
    • J V Field, Rediscovering the Archimedean polyhedra: Piero della Francesca, Luca Pacioli, Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Durer, Daniele Barbaro, and Johannes Kepler, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 50 (1997), 241 - 289.
    • B Stephenson, Kepler's physical astronomy, Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences 13 (New York-Berlin, 1987).

  18. References for Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock
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  26. References for Józeph Petzval
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  27. References for Liu Hui
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  28. References for Archimedes
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  30. References for Nicolaus Copernicus
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  33. References for Pierre Rémond de Montmort
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  34. References for Abraham de Moivre
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  35. References for Leonhard Euler
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  36. References for George Dantzig
    • M L Balinski, Mathematical programming : journal, society, recollections, in J K Lenstra, A H G Rinnooy, K Schrijver and A Schrijver (eds.), History of mathematical programming (Amsterdam, 1991), 5-18.
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  37. References for Jean-Nicolas Nicollet
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  38. References for John Playfair
    • J Challinor, The History of British Geology, a Bibliographical Study (Newton Abbot, 1979).
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  39. References for Sun Zi
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  40. References for Qin Jiushao
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).
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  41. References for Anastácio da Cunha
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  42. References for Ptolemy
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  43. References for Augustin-Louis Cauchy
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  44. References for Gabriel Koenigs
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  45. References for Levi ben Gerson
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  47. References for Zhu Shijie
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  51. References for Federigo Enriques
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  53. References for John Backus
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  54. References for John Wallis
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  851. References for Robert Woodhouse
    • E Koppelman, The calculus of operations and the rise of abstract algebra, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 8 (1971-2), 155-242.

  852. References for Zeno of Sidon
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1931).

  853. References for Baha' al-Din al-Amili
    • S H Nasr, Shaykh Baha' al-Din al-Amili, in P Jackson and L Lockhart (eds.), The Cambridge History of Iran 6 (Cambrdge University Press, Cambridge, 1986), 666-675.

  854. References for Jacques de Billy
    • D Vachov and V Andreev, Anniversaries in history of mathematics for 1979 (Bulgarian), Fiz.-Mat.

  855. References for George Forsythe
    • J Varah, The influence of George Forsythe and his students, in A history of scientific computing, Princeton, NJ, 1987 (ACM, New York, 1990), 31-40.

  856. References for Edvard Phragmén
    • L Garding, Some points of analysis and their history (American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1997).

  857. References for Gherard
    • H L L Busard, Einiges uber die Handschrift Leiden 399, 1 und die arabisch-lateinische ubersetzung von Gerhard von Cremona, in History of mathematics (San Diego, CA, 1996), 173-205.

  858. References for Igor Rostislavovich Shafarevich
    • A G Meyer, Review: Socialism as a Phenomenon in World History (Russsian), by I R Shafarevich, Russian Review 37 (3) (1978), 343-344.

  859. References for Hanna Neumann
    • R Chandler and W Magnus, The history of combinatorial group theory (Springer, New York, 1982).

  860. References for Bhaskara I
    • History Sci.

  861. References for Adolf Lindenbaum
    • J Woleński, Mathematical Logic in Poland 1900-1939: People, Institutions Circles, Institutions, Ideas, in J Woleński, Essays in the History of Logic and Logical Philosophy (Jagiellonian University Press, Krakow, 1999), 59-84.

  862. References for John Leslie
    • R G Olson, Scottish philosophy and mathematics : 1750-1830, Journal of the History of Ideas 32 (1971), 29-44.

  863. References for Aleksei Krylov
    • http://www.navy.ru/history/b-krylov.htm .

  864. References for Sergei Novikov
    • S C Ferry, A Ranickiand J Rosenberg, A history and survey of the Novikov conjecture, in Novikov conjectures, index theorems and rigidity 1 (Cambridge, 1995), 7-66.

  865. References for Henry Briggs
    • E M Bruins, On the history of logarithms : Burgi, Napier, Briggs, de Decker, Vlacq, Huygens, Janus 67 (4) (1980), 241-260.

  866. References for Charles Noble
    • E S Harrison, History of Santa Cruz County, California (Pacific Press Publishing Company, San Francisco, California, 1892).

  867. References for Howard Van Amringe
    • R C Archibald, John Howard Van Amringe, in A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society 1888-1938 (New York, 1980), 110-112.

  868. References for Bent Christiansen
    • G Schubring, Bent Christiansen : Aalborg, 7 May 1921 - Copenhagen, 3 September 1996, History of the ICMI.

  869. References for Charles Hughes Terrot
    • J Grant, Old and New Edinburgh: Its History, its People, and its Places, IV (London, 1881).

  870. References for Alexander Wilson
    • A M Clerke, A popular history of astronomy during the nineteenth century 2nd edn (1887).

  871. References for Giuseppe Bagnera
    • G Casadio and G Zappa, The history of p-groups from their origins until 1919 (Italian), Boll.

  872. References for Joan Clarke
    • J A N Lee, Joan Elisabeth Lowther Clarke Murray, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 23 (1) (January-March, 2001), 67-72.

  873. References for Luoxia Hong
    • B Gu, The History of the Han Dynasty (Chinese) 21 (Beijing, 1962).

  874. References for Witold Hurewicz
    • K Borsuk, Witold Hurewicz - life and work, in Handbook of the history of general topology 1 (Dordrecht, 1997), 79-84.

  875. References for Shen Kua
    • J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).

  876. References for Francesco Brioschi
    • Zappa, History of the solution of fifth- and sixth-degree equations, with an emphasis on the contributions of Francesco Brioschi (Italian), Rend.

  877. References for John William Strutt
    • I K Rakhimova, John William (Strutt) Rayleigh - initiator of the contemporary mathematical theory of vibrations (Russian), in Sketches on the history of mathematical physics 'Naukova Dumka' (Kiev, 1985), 141-147.

  878. References for Évariste Galois
    • B M Kiernan, The Development of Galois Theory from Lagrange to Artin, Archive for History of Exact Science 8 (1971), 40-154.

  879. References for Horst Tietz
    • H Tietz, German history experienced: my studies, my teachers, Math.

  880. References for James Ivory
    • I Todhunter, A History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and the Figure of the Earth 2 vols.

  881. References for Saunders Mac Lane
    • S Mac Lane, Mathematics at the University of Chicago: A brief history, in P Duren (ed.), A century of mathematics in America, Part I (American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI , 1988), 127-154.

  882. References for Philip Jourdain
    • I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Philip E B Jourdain : Selected essays on the history of set theory and logics (1906-1918) (Bologna, 1991).

  883. References for Rafael Bombelli
    • Bombelli's 'Algebra' (Russian), in History and methodology of the natural sciences XX (Moscow, 1978), 138-146.

  884. References for Adolf Kiefer
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Publications/Eminger.pdf .

  885. References for Arthur Hirsch
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Publications/Eminger.pdf .

  886. References for Christian Beyel
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Publications/Eminger.pdf .

  887. References for Jafar Muhammad Banu Musa
    • D El-Dabbah, The geometrical treatise of the ninth-century Baghdad mathematicians Banu Musa (Russian), in History Methodology Natur.

  888. References for Simplicius
    • T L Heath, A history of Greek mathematics I, II (Oxford, 1931).

  889. References for Woolsey Johnson
    • Biographical History, William Woolsey Johnson, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library.

  890. References for Carl Schoy
    • J W Dauben and C J Scriba (eds.), Writing the history of mathematics.

  891. References for Peter Turner
    • I R Adamson, The foundation and early history of Gresham College, London, 1596-1704, University of Cambridge PhD thesis (University of Cambridge, 1976).

  892. References for Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrent'ev
    • A P Yushkevich, On the history of scientific relations between mathematicians in the USSR and in France (the election of S N Bernstein, I M Vinogradov and M A Lavrent'ev to the Paris Academy of Sciences) (Russian), Istor.-Mat.

  893. References for Christine Ladd-Franklin
    • L Furumoto, Christine Ladd-Franklin's color theory : Strategy for claiming scientific authority?, in H E Adler and R W Rieber, (eds.), Aspects of the history of psychology in America : 1892-1992 (New York, 1994), 91-100.

  894. References for Werner Heisenberg
    • T Powers, Heisenberg's war : the secret history of the German bomb (London, 1993).

  895. References for Kristen Nygaard
    • K Nygaard and O-J Dahl, The development of the SIMULA languages, History of Programming Languages, Association for Computing Machinery (Academic Press, 1981), 439-480.

  896. References for George Atwood
    • H E Bird, Chess History and Reminiscences (London, 1882).

  897. References for Mahendra Suri
    • Y Ohashi, Early history of the astrolabe in India, Indian J.

  898. References for Girard Desargues
    • P Freguglia, On the geometry of Gerard Desargues (Italian), in Contributions to the history of mathematics (Modena, 1992), 29-33.

  899. References for Erastus De Forest
    • S M Stigler, The history of statistics : The measurement of uncertainty before 1900 (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1986).

  900. References for Jan Tinbergen
    • R Leeson, 'The Ghosts I Called I Can't Get Rid of Now': The Keynes-Tinbergen-Friedman-Phillips Critique of Keynesian Macroeconometrics, History of Political Economy 30 (1) (1998), 51-94.

  901. References for Frederico Commandino
    • E Gamba, Documents of Muzio Oddi for the history of the proportional compass (Italian), Physis Riv.

  902. References for Carlo Bonferroni
    • E Seneta, On the history of the strong law of large numbers and Boole's inequality, Historia Math.

  903. References for Giovanni Magini
    • A Codazzi, The Contribution of Roberto Almagia to the History of Cartography, Imago Mundi 18 (1964), 78-80.

  904. References for Ettore Bortolotti
    • L Novy and J Folta, The 4th International Congress of the History of Sciences, Prague-1937, in Acta Historiae Rerum Naturalium necnon Technicarum, 1972 (Prague, 1973), 11-388.

  905. References for Frank Baldwin
    • L L Locke, The History of Modern Calculating Machines, An American Contribution, Amer.

  906. References for Nicole-Reine Etable de Labričre
    • M Alic, Hypatia's Heritage : A history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century (The Women's Press, London, 1986).

  907. References for Joseph Larmor
    • A Warwick, On the role of the FitzGerald- Lorentz contraction hypothesis in the development of Joseph Larmor's electronic theory of matter, Archive for History of Exact Science 43 (1) (1991), 29-91.

  908. References for Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli
    • V A Nikiforovskii, The great mathematicians Bernoulli (Russian), History of Science and Technology Nauka' (Moscow, 1984).

  909. References for Jacques Le Tenneur
    • S Drake, Uniform Acceleration, Space, and Time (Galileo Gleanings XIX), The British Journal for the History of Science 5 (1) (1970), 21-43.

  910. References for Wilhelm Wirtinger
    • G Schubring, Wilhelm Wirtinger, History of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

  911. References for Willem de Sitter
    • P Kerszberg, Einstein, De Sitter and Cosmology, in Don Howard & John Stachel (eds.), Einstein and the History of General Relativity, Proceedings of the 1986 Osgood Hill Conference, North Andover, MA, Einstein Studies (Birkhauser, Boston, 1989), 325-366.


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Quotations

  1. Quotations by Cajori
    • The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States .
    • History of Mathematics (p 161) .
    • The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States .
    • The history of mathematics is important also as a valuable contribution to the history of civilisation.
    • History of Mathematics (p 4) .

  2. A quotation by Bhaskara
    • History Topics .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Quotations/Bhaskara.html .

  3. Quotations by Carlyle
    • What is all knowledge too but recorded experience, and a product of history; of which, therefore, reasoning and belief, no less than action and passion, are essential materials? .
    • Critical and Miscellaneous Essays: 'On History' .
    • History of Frederick the Great .

  4. Quotations by Hawking
    • Someone told me that each equation I included in the book [A Brief History of Time ] would halve its sales.
    • A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, (New York 1988) 174.
    • A Brief History of Time .

  5. Quotations by Gardner
    • Biographical history, as taught in our public schools, is still largely a history of boneheads: ridiculous kings and queens, paranoid political leaders, compulsive voyagers, ignorant generals -- the flotsam and jetsam of historical currents.
    • The men who radically altered history, the great scientists and mathematicians, are seldom mentioned, if at all.

  6. Quotations by Lakatos
    • The history of mathematics, lacking the guidance of philosophy, [is] blind, while the philosophy of mathematics, turning its back on the most intriguing phenomena in the history of mathematics, is empty.

  7. Quotations by Abel
    • Quoted in E Maor, To Infinity and Beyond: a Cultural History of the Infinite .
    • Quoted in E Maor, To Infinity and Beyond: a Cultural History of the Infinite .

  8. Quotations by Poincare
    • One would have to have completely forgotten the history of science so as to not remember that the desire to know nature has had the most constant and the happiest influence on the development of mathematics.
    • Quoted in M J Greenberg, Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries: Development and history (San Fransisco, 1980).

  9. Quotations by Leibniz
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .
    • Quoted in F Cajori, A History of Mathematical Notations (1928) .

  10. Quotations by Bacon
    • Quoted in J Fauvel and J Gray, A History of Mathematics: A Reader, 1987.
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  11. Quotations by Hubble
    • The history of astronomy is a history of receding horizons.

  12. Quotations by Anaximander
    • he was the first to discover a gnomon, and he set one up on the Sundials (?) in Sparta, according to Favorinus in his Universal History, to mark solstices and equinoxes; and he also constructed hour indicators.

  13. Quotations by Lagrange
    • Quoted in H Eves, An introduction to the history of mathematics (Philadelphia 1983).

  14. Quotations by Russell
    • History of Western Philosophy, (London, 1979) 512.

  15. Quotations by D'Alembert
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Quotations/D'Alembert.html .

  16. Quotations by Brahmagupta
    • Quoted in F Cajori, A History of Mathematics .

  17. Quotations by Arbuthnot
    • The History of John Bull .

  18. Quotations by Manin
    • In the course of history, the modern language of science slowly emerged from these two archaic activities, and it still owes a lot to them, especially in the more descriptive and less mathematicised domains.

  19. Quotations by Alberti
    • In Francesco De Sanctis, History of Italian literature (1959) .

  20. Quotations by Grassmann
    • Quoted in M Crowe, A history of vector analysis (Notre Dame, 1967).

  21. Quotations by Lambert
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  22. Quotations by Whitehead
    • I will not go so far as to say that to construct a history of thought without profound study of the mathematical ideas of successive epochs is like omitting Hamlet from the play which is named after him.

  23. Quotations by Boole
    • I presume that few who have paid any attention to the history of the Mathematical Analysis, will doubt that it has been developed in a certain order, or that that order has been, to a great extent, necessary -- being determined, either by steps of logical deduction, or by the successive introduction of new ideas and conceptions, when the time for their evolution had arrived.

  24. A quotation by Bowditch
    • Quoted in F Cajori, The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States .

  25. Quotations by Banneker
    • Quoted in G W Williams, History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880 (1882) .

  26. A quotation by Eudoxus
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  27. Quotations by Thompson D'Arcy
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Quotations/Thompson_D'Arcy.html .

  28. Quotations by Heath
    • A History of Greek Mathematics (1921).

  29. Quotations by Bohr Niels
    • It is, indeed, perhaps the greatest prospect of humanistic studies to contribute through an increasing knowledge of the history of cultural development to that gradual removal of prejudices which is the common aim of all science.

  30. Quotations by Anaxagoras
    • Quoted in E Maor, To Infinity and Beyond: a Cultural History of the Infinite .

  31. Quotations by Ball
    • History of Mathematics (1901) .

  32. Quotations by Bernoulli Daniel
    • Quoted in C Truesdell, Essays in the History of Mathematics .

  33. A quotation by Ptolemy
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  34. A quotation by Neugebauer
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  35. A quotation by Baker
    • Quoted in F Cajori, A History of Mathematics (New York, 1919).

  36. Quotations by Kepler
    • J V Field, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 31 (1984) 229 - 72.

  37. Quotations by Boethius
    • Quoted in J Fauvel and J Gray, The History of Mathematics: a Reader (London 1987) .

  38. A quotation by Tate
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Quotations/Tate.html .

  39. Quotations by Barrow
    • Quoted in C B Boyer, A History of Mathematics (New York 1968) .

  40. Quotations by Dantzig
    • The attempt to apply rational arithmetic to a problem in geometry resulted in the first crisis in the history of mathematics.

  41. A quotation by Mazur Barry
    • In the history of the concept of number has been adjective (three cows, three monads) and noun (three, pure and simple), and now .


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  3. Chronology for 500BC to 1AD
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  4. Chronology for 1500 to 1600
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  7. Chronology for 1AD to 500
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  8. Chronology for 1850 to 1860
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  9. Chronology for 1830 to 1840
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  10. Chronology for 1820 to 1830
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  11. Chronology for 1840 to 1850
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  12. Chronology for 1990 to 2000
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  13. Chronology for 1980 to 1990
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  20. Chronology for 1890 to 1900
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  21. Chronology for 1910 to 1920
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  36. Chronology for 1950 to 1960
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1950_1960.html .

  37. Chronology for 1675 to 1700
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1675_1700.html .

  38. Chronology for 1920 to 1930
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1920_1930.html .

  39. WhoWasThere.html
    • action="http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk:/history/cgi-bin/mathyear.cgi"> .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Timelines/WhoWasThere.html .

  40. test.html
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Chronology/test.html .


EMS Archive

  1. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • (Edinburgh Academy) On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations, (Part 1 of 2) .
    • (Edinburgh Academy) On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations, (Part 2 of 2) .
    • (The Academy, Edinburgh) History of the nine-point circle .
    • (The Academy, Edinburgh) Early history of the symmedian point .
    • (Glasgow) On the history of the Fourier series .
    • (The Academy, Edinburgh) History of a theorem in elementary geometry: the isosceles triangle .
    • (Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA) Discussion and history of certain geometrical problems of Heraclitus and Apollonius .
    • (Sydney, Australia) On some map projections, including the story of Mercator's projection -- a chapter in the history of mathematics .
    • (Aberdeen) A history of dynamical methods .
    • (St Andrews) Note on the history of the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus .
    • Edinburgh(joint with the British Society for the History of Mathematics) .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_lecturers.html .

  2. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Click the link to go to the biography in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
    • He is best known for his 5 volume History of Determinants.
    • He published several important textbooks and was an enthusiast for the History of Mathematics.
    • He served as a Schools Inspector and published works on the History of Mathematics.
    • He worked on non-Euclidean geometry and the History of Mathematics.
    • His main interests were in the History of Mathematics.
    • His best known work is in analysis, in particular numerical analysis, but he also worked on celestial mechanics and the history of applied mathematics and physics.
    • He was interested in Invariant Theory and in the History of Mathematics.
    • He produced important work on the history of Hindu mathematics.
    • He was also interested in the History of Mathematics.
    • He was a appointed Professor of Biology at Dundee and later Professor of Natural History at St Andrews.

  3. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Click the link to go to the biography in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
    • His main interests were in the History of Mathematics.
    • He produced important work on the history of Hindu mathematics.
    • He published several important textbooks and was an enthusiast for the History of Mathematics.
    • He is best known for his 5 volume History of Determinants.
    • He was also interested in the History of Mathematics.
    • He worked on non-Euclidean geometry and the History of Mathematics.
    • He was a appointed Professor of Biology at Dundee and later Professor of Natural History at St Andrews.
    • He was interested in Invariant Theory and in the History of Mathematics.
    • He served as a Schools Inspector and published works on the History of Mathematics.
    • His best known work is in analysis, in particular numerical analysis, but he also worked on celestial mechanics and the history of applied mathematics and physics.

  4. The EMS: the first 100 years (1883-1983) Part 2
    • As part of the Centenary celebrations of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, the Committee of the Society invited Professor Robert Rankin to write a history of the Society.
    • Some notable personalities in the history of the Society .
    • He was the author of books on calculus which were notable for their rigour at a time when this was the exception rather than the rule, but his main interest was the history of mathematics.
    • In later life he became an authority on the history of mathematics and, after his retirement in 1950, he edited the correspondence of Isaac Newton on behalf of the Royal Society.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_centenary_2.html .

  5. Napier Tercentenary
    • An exhibition of calculating machines, apparatus, and books, and of objects associated with Napier and the history of mathematics, will be held in connection with the celebration.
    • The mathematical discussions in connection with the Napier celebration opened on Saturday, in the History Classroom of the University.
    • These various papers, which all dealt with the history of Napier's discovery, were discussed by the Chairman and by Dr Glaisher, Professor Gibson, and Dr Conrad Muller, of Hannover.
    • Professor Andoyer, of Paris, gave the history and method of construction of his recently published trigonometrical and logarithmic tables (1911.) These tables contain the logarithms of the trigonometrical functions to 17 significant figures for every hundredth of the quadrant, and to 14 figures for every 10 seconds.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Napier_Tercentenary.html .

  6. EMS 125
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society History .
    • Professor Edmund Robertson, on behalf of the St Andrews History Team (Ms Marit Hartveit, Dr John O'Connor and himself), explained that they had produced a History of the Society.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_125.html .

  7. EMS 1926 Colloquium
    • The History of Mathematics in Scotland, by G A Gibson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E.
    • History of the concept "invariant." Growth of Algebraic method: interplay of Algebra and Geometry in construction of symbolic methods.
    • Gibson gave two lectures on the 6th and 9th on the History of Mathematics in Scotland.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1926.html .

  8. The EMS: the first hundred years
    • As part of the Centenary celebrations of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, the Committee of the Society invited Professor Robert Rankin to write a history of the Society.
    • From 1878 until his death he concerned himself with determinants and their history, a subject on which his books and papers, of which he published 307, are still the leading authority.
    • In essence his scheme was that the Proceedings should be retained for research papers, but that the Society should publish in place of the Mathematical Notes a new periodical, to be called the Journal of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, which would contain articles on History, Methods of Teaching, Notes, Discussions on Elementary Mathematics, etc.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_centenary_1.html .

  9. EMS Proceedings papers
    • History of the Nine-point Circle .
    • Early History of the Symmedian Point .
    • History of a theorem in Elementary Geometry .

  10. EMS honours James Leslie
    • The name Leslie, said Dr Horsburgh in the course of his lecture, was famous in the troublous times of Scottish history, but the Leslie whose name was enshrined in the M'Ewan Hall made his conquests in the fields of science.
    • Knowing the history of the subject as well as he did, he knew exactly where to begin his experimenting.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Leslie.html .

  11. EMS 1972 Colloquium
    • He knows poetry and history and languages and, of course, mathematics: he has insight and wisdom and wit; he talks softly and precisely; he likes a glass or two of sherry before his dinner, and he smokes all the time.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1972.html .

  12. Scotland in 1883 and the EMS
    • The subjects are, for the most part, those taught in the University; but History, and the French, German, and Italian Languages and Literatures, have been added.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Scotland_1883_EMS.html .

  13. EMS 1980
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  14. EMS 1938 Colloquium
    • Turnbull, F.R.S., Regius Professor of Mathematics in the University of St Andrews, will lecture during the Colloquium on Recent Discoveries in the History of XVII Century Mathematics, making special reference to the life and work of Gregory.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1938.html .

  15. EMS 1934 Colloquium
    • At the opening meeting Professor D'Arcy Thompson, on welcoming the members on behalf of the University, spoke also of the history of the town and University.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1934.html .

  16. LMS Newsletter article
    • For those interested in the history of the Society two interesting articles are: .
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_article.html .

  17. EMS 1926
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  18. EMS 1955
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  19. EMS 1972
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  20. EMS 1964
    • EMS history .
    • History Topics Index .

  21. EMS Secretaries
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSSecretaries.html .

  22. EMS Mobius
    • Other papers of the programme were: Deformable quadrics and their circular sections, by Professor H W Turnbull, F.R.S., illustrated with a series of folding cardboard models; A note on the history of the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus, in which Professor Turnbull showed that an important theorem, commonly ascribed to Barrow in 1669, was actually contained in Gregory's Pars Universalis (1668), and should therefore be credited to the latter mathematician; On the intersection of certain quadrics, by L M Brown; and On the projective geometry of paths, by Dr J Haantjes.

  23. EMS 125 Dinner
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_125_Dinner.html .

  24. EMS Members
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/members_1929.html .

  25. EMS
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_about.html .

  26. EMS Freundlich
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Freundlich.html .

  27. EMS honours Maxwell and Tait
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Maxwell_Tait.html .

  28. Colloquium photo 1934
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1934.html .

  29. EMS Treasurers
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSTreasurers.html .

  30. Colloquium photo 1996
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1996.html .

  31. EMS Founder Members
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSFounder.html .

  32. EMS 1976 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1976.html .

  33. EMS 1968 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1968.html .

  34. Colloquia photographs
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_index.html .

  35. EMS session 5
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_session_5.html .

  36. EMS Presidents
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSPresidents.html .

  37. EMS school mathematics
    • (4) Students should read something of the history of mathematics in the vocation before entering the University.

  38. Colloquium photo 1972
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1972.html .

  39. EMS Centenary Dinner
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Centenary_Dinner.html .

  40. EMS 1914 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1914.html .

  41. EMS 1996 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1996.html .

  42. EMS 1951 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1951.html .

  43. Colloquium photo 2003
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_2003.html .

  44. Colloquium photo 1951
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1951.html .

  45. Colloquium photo 1984
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1984.html .

  46. EMS Mackie
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Mackie.html .

  47. EMS Whittaker Prize
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Whittaker.html .

  48. EMSWhittakerPrize.html
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSWhittakerPrize.html .

  49. EMS Ruse
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Ruse.html .

  50. Colloquium photo 1964
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1964.html .

  51. EMS 1984 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1984.html .

  52. EMS Levi-Civita
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Levi-Civita.html .

  53. Edinburgh Mathematical Notes
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Edinburgh_maths_notes.html .

  54. Chrystal: EMS Address
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Chrystal_EMS_Address.html .

  55. 1892-93 May meeting
    • Gibson, George Alexander: "On the history of the Fourier series" .

  56. 1892-93 Dec meeting
    • Mackay, John Sturgeon: "History of the nine-point circle" .

  57. 1901-02 Dec meeting
    • Mackay, John Sturgeon: "History of a theorem in elementary geometry" {keywords: triangle, isosceles} .

  58. 1909-10 Jun meeting
    • Archibald, R C: "Discussion and history of certain geometrical problems of Heraclitus and Apollonius" .

  59. 1891-92 April meeting
    • Pressland, Arthur John: "On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations", {Part 2 of 2 (Part 1: December 1891)} .

  60. 1892-93 Mar meeting
    • Mackay, John Sturgeon: "Early history of the symmedian point" .

  61. 1920-21 Jun meeting
    • Carslaw, Horatio Scott: "Some map projections", [Title] {Title in minutes: "On some map projections, including the story of Mercator's projection Đ a chapter in the history of mathematics" .

  62. 1891-92 Apr meeting
    • Pressland, Arthur John: "On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations", {Part 2 of 2 (Part 1: December 1891)} .

  63. 1891-92 Dec meeting
    • Pressland, Arthur John: "On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations", {Part 1 of 2, (Part 2: April 1892)} .

  64. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Discussion and history of certain geometrical problems of Heraclitus and Apollonius .

  65. EMS Proceedings papers
    • On the history of the Fourier series .

  66. Chrystal EMS tribute
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Chrystal_EMS_tribute.html .

  67. EMS Honorary Members
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMSHonorary.html .

  68. Colloquium photo 1930
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1930.html .

  69. EMS 2003 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_2003.html .

  70. EMS Roll of Honour for World War I
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EdMS_war_roll.html .

  71. Colloquium photo 1959
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1959.html .

  72. EMS 1988 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1988.html .

  73. 50 years of the EMS
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_at_50.html .

  74. EMS 1964 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1964.html .

  75. EMS 1980 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1980.html .

  76. EMS 1959 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1959.html .

  77. Colloquium photo 1988
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1988.html .

  78. Colloquium photo 1913
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1913.html .

  79. EMS/SCM
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS-SCM_2017.html .

  80. EMS Centenary meeting
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Centenary_meeting.html .

  81. Colloquium photo 1992
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1992.html .

  82. Colloquium photo 1980
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1980.html .

  83. Colloquium photo 1968
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1968.html .

  84. EMS Centenary
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Centenary.html .

  85. Colloquia photographs
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_photo_index.html .

  86. EMS Ince
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/ems_Ince.html .

  87. EMS 1913 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1913.html .

  88. EMS/SCM
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS-SCM.html .

  89. EMS 1992 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1992.html .

  90. EMS 1955 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1955.html .

  91. Colloquium photo 1926
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1926.html .

  92. EMS 1930 Colloquium
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1930.html .

  93. Colloquium photo 1955
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1955.html .

  94. Colloquium photo 1976
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1976.html .

  95. Colloquium photo 1938
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1938.html .


BMC Archive

  1. Minutes for 2005
    • [The main task is to draw up a list of potential UK-based speakers- Newcastle have provided suggestions of some names, and seek more suggestions; my own suggestion is that they seek one morning speaker in history/philosophy/political areas - or an area of applications such as financial mathematics.
    • There was also a suggestion that a single lecture on the History, Philosophy or Sociology of Mathematics might prove popular, after the success of the History of Mathematics talks at Liverpool.
    • Andrews History of Mathematics website.

  2. Minutes for 2005
    • It was decided to put the archives on the website of History of Mathematics of Saint Andrews University and to write in a News Letter of LMS about this subject.
    • British Society for the History of Mathematics proposed to organize a splinter group at BMC2006, but the possible organizer Elena Robson did not submit a proposal to the meeting.
    • So, it was decided not to have a splinter group of History of Mathematics on BMC2006.

  3. Minutes for 1998
    • Combinatorics/History/Others .
    • Prof N Biggs (LSE, Comb.), Dr N S Manton (Cambridge, Math/Physics), Dr I B Leader (Kings, Comb.), Dr G Brightwell (LSE, Comb.), Dr J J Gray (Open, History), Dr J Chapman (Oxford, Phys.), Dr R J Wilson (Open, History), Dr R Hill (Salford, Comb.).

  4. Scientific Committee 2008
    • BMC Historical Records: Edmund Robertson reported to the committee that lists of all Plenary and Morning Speakers as well as a list of Special Sessions since the 1st BMC were now available via the St Andrews History of Mathematics web site.
    • History of Mathematics Lecture by Edmund Robertson.
    • Tony Mann for History of Mathematics.

  5. BMC Report
    • A History of Mathematics lecture was given by Rod Gow (UCD) on the Monday afternoon followed by a special lecture given by Tom Laffey (UCD).
    • There were Splinter Group sessions on Differential Equations and Numerical Analysis, Geometry and Topology, History of Mathematics, Operator Theory and Real Analysis, Ring Theory, Algebraic Combinatorics, Group and Representation Theory.

  6. BMC 2018
    • History of Mathematics workshop (Organiser I Falconer)n .
    • Bailey, RLatin squares: Some history, with an emphasis on their use in designed experiments.

  7. Minutes for 2012
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/BMC/ .
    • However, there will be a History of Mathematics splinter group to provide a more accessible option to the afternoon workshops.

  8. Minutes for 2002
    • Suggested themes: number theory, analysis, groups, algebra / groups, topology, logic/etc, history/etc.
    • Suggested names (if not recent BMC speakers) included Heath-Brown, Susan Howson, Tennenbaum, Everest, Tom Korner, Robin Chapman, C Read, David Preiss, S Powell, Martin Bridson, Nick Inglis, V Bavula, Ben Steinberg, Bridgeland, Rickard, Chuang, Dunwoody, R Seidel, Richard Thomas, Simon Singh, Moritz Epple, Rod Gow (for history).

  9. Scientific Committee 2007
    • Details of main speakers at BMC since 1968 now available on St Andrews history of maths website, and LMS records to be consulted by Edmund for period 1949-1967.
    • The Chair graciously accepted an invitation to give a History of Maths lecture, about the EMS.

  10. BMC 2015
    • Workshop: History of mathematicsn .
    • Heard, JThe Early History of The London Mathematical Society .

  11. Minutes for 2011
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/BMC/.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/BMC/Advice2008.html.

  12. Minutes for 2007
    • [To follow the usual pattern York will pick out about 4 areas of mathematics that they wish to concentrate on - with one or two singletons in, for example, history of mathematics, and to circulate in advance a few names in these areas.] .
    • A History of Maths lecture to be given as a general morning lecture, possibly related to the 125-th anniversary of the EMS.

  13. BMC 2002
    • Green, J AThe history of representation theory .

  14. Memorandum 2004
    • The LMS will retain the records of the BMC and meetings of the committees of the BMC, to provide an archive of the history of the BMC.

  15. Report2015.html
    • The afternoon workshops (with organisers) included: Analysis of Non-linear PDEs (Neshan Wickramsekera), Category Theory (Julia Goedecke), Combinatorics (Andrew Thomason), History of Mathematics (June Barrow-Green), Probability (Christina Goldschmidt and James Martin), Quantum Information (Toby Cubitt and Berry Groisman) and Mathematics Education.

  16. Report2011.html
    • Other sessions including afternoon splinter groups on the history of maths and on maths education (led by the MSOR network) and (before the main part of the BMC began) a session of contributed talks by "early career" delegates and meetings of the LMS funded  scheme 3 groups BLOC (algebra) and TTT (topology).

  17. Minutes for 2012
    • Possibilities include the History of Mathematics, Mathematical (higher) Education and the areas of LMS Scheme 3 groups not already represented.

  18. SCminutes2017b.html
    • History.

  19. Minutes for 2000
    • History: D Fowler, R Wilson.

  20. SCminutes2013b.html
    • There could also be a lecture on the history of the LMS.

  21. BMC 1988
    • Gray, J J Recent progress in the history of mathematics .

  22. BMC 1974
    • Bass, H A brief history of algebraic K-theory .

  23. Gminutes2017.html
    • The areas for workshops are to be Algebra, Analysis, Dynamics, Combinatorics, and History of Mathematics.

  24. Minutes for 1999
    • History of Mathematics .

  25. Minutes for 2006
    • It is usual for Swansea to pick out about 4 areas of mathematics that they wish to concentrate on - with one or two singletons in, for example, history of mathematics, and to circulate in advance a few names in these areas, to give us a start.] .

  26. BMC 2013
    • Workshop: History of Mathematicsn .

  27. Minutes for 2009
    • Andrews History of Mathematics site.

  28. BMC advice
    • A lecture on history or relevant current events (mathematical finance?) .

  29. Report2014.html
    • This funding was essential in view of increasing the international profile of the BMC, since it allowed the organisers to invite a stellar list of speakers, unparalleled in the recent history of the conference, as detailed below.

  30. Minutes for 2007
    • The Chair of the BMC Scientific Committee, Professor Edmund Robertson, announced that information on previous BMCs which had been collated by Professor Garth Dales would soon be available on the St Andrews History of Mathematics website.

  31. Mathematics 2005
    • History of Mathematics .

  32. Minutes for 1999
    • It is intended that in Leeds there be Splinter Groups in Mathematical Education, Number Theory, Mathematical Logic, Algebraic Topology, History of Mathematics, Functional Analysis, Algebra, and Integrable Systems, and possibly other areas.

  33. Minutes for 2008
    • The following have accepted invitations to be morning speakers: Rod Gow (History) and Tom Laffey both UCD, Jurgen Berndt (UCC), Lars Olsen (St Andrews), Reidun Twarock (York), Dominic Welsh (Oxford).

  34. BMC Report
    • A history of mathematics lecture (Edmund Robertson); .

  35. Memorandum 2003
    • The LMS will retain the records of the BMC and meetings of the committees of the BMC, to provide an archive of the history of the BMC.

  36. BMC 1962
    • Atiyah, M FRiemann-Roch: the history and development of the theorem .

  37. Minutes for 1990
    • Lists of potential morning and evening speakers were compiled, and it was resolved to seek the advice of Dr J Gray of the OU concerning potential speakers on History of Mathematics.

  38. SCminutes2016b.html
    • Mike Todd reported that Laura De Marco (Northwestern), Irit Dinur (Weizmann), Martin Hairer (Warwick), Nalini Joshi (Sydney), Paul Seymour (Princeton) and Marcelo Viana (IMPA) had accepted invitations to give plenary lectures and that the provisional list of workshop areas is : Algebra, Analysis and Probability, Dynamics, Combinatorics and Number Theory, Geometry and Topology, History.

  39. Report2013.html
    • A guest Workshop on the History of Mathematics, organised by June Barrow-Green, was held on Wednesday 27 March.

  40. Minutes for 2012
    • An amendment to the comment on the possibility of a Workshop on the History of Mathematics was agreed.

  41. SCminutes2013a.html
    • It was pointed out that information about all previous BMCs, including speakers, is available on the St Andrews MacTutor website: http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/BMC/index.html .

  42. Minutes for 2011
    • A minute book has surfaced providing insight into the history and past practice of the BMC.

  43. SCminutes2017a.html
    • The areas for workshops are Algebra, Analysis, Dynamics, Combinatorics, and History of Maths.

  44. Grant Walker speech
    • Past: history on the Springer bags, reminds us of the wider community that supports mathematics and is supported by it.


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. References
    • Compiled by the Institute of the History of the Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    • International Mathematical Congresses - An Illustrated History 1893-1986.
    • Outline of the History of Mathematics.
    • An Illustrated History of Computers.
    • A History of Trinity College Dublin 1892-1945.
    • A Short Account of the History of Mathematics.
    • A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • A History of Mathematics.
    • History on London Walls.
    • Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter 10 (Oct 1985) 9-10.
    • The Royal Mint - An Illustrated History.
    • Works in the National Gallery that illustrate the history of science and technology.
    • British Society for the History of Science, Stanford in the Vale, Faringdon, Oxon., 1997.
    • Open University Course AM289 - History of Mathematics.
    • [Freely taught physics and history of science for 16 years at Robert College, later the University of the Bosphorus, so this is one of the very few general guidebooks to mention scientists and mathematicians.
    • Writers who have changed chess history.
    • John Napier and the history of logarithms.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985.
    • A History of Medicine.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • The Cambridge Philosophical Society - A History 1819-1969.
    • A Mathematical History of Division in Extreme and Mean Ratio.
    • An Illustrated History.
    • Hinde, Thomas, An illustrated History of the University of Greenwich (London: James & James, 1996 [ TM] .
    • Praha v Historii Fyziky / Prague in the History of Physics.
    • The Camden History Society, London, 1979.
    • IHHS = Institute for the History of Hungarian Sciences (Magyar Tudomanytorteneti Intezet).
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.
    • A Concise History.
    • Feedback Mechanisms in the Historical Collections of the National Museum of History and Technology.
    • Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, No.
    • Trinity College Dublin 1592-1952 An academic history.
    • Phillips, ed.; Studies in the History of Mathematics; Math.
    • King's College A Short History.
    • A Short History of Chess.
    • The History of Statistics in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
    • (This has a complex printing history as various partial editions appeared.
    • Notes on Local History.
    • Sidney Sussex College A Brief History.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • History of Mathematics.
    • The Ninth Part of The History of Philosophy, (1655-1662), collected ed., 1687, pp.
    • International Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter 33 (Nov 1994) 9-11.
    • IN: History of Mathematics; Proc.
    • Annals of the History of Computing 5 (1983) 45-59.
    • Its History, Principle and Operation.
    • Curiosities of History; With New Lights.
    • Trinity College - A History and Guide.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • Compiled by the Camden History Society's Street History Group.
    • Camden History Society, 1991.
    • Camden History Society and High Hill Press, (1972, corrected, 1973 & 1976), 2nd ed., 1984.
    • History of the Three Royal Exchanges, the Gresham Lectures, and Gresham Almshouses.
    • Islington: A History and Guide.

  2. London individuals D-G
    • The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, has a facsimile of his Holy Table.
    • The Barnes & Mortlake History Society has published a number of booklets which describe this area and give old pictures, but none of the pictures seems to be Dee's house - see the items mentioned below and [Glimpses of Old Barnes and Mortlake; Going to the Parish Mortlake and the Parish Church of St Mary The Virgin, Barnes and Mortlake History Society, 1993',5)">Freeman] and also [Britain in Old Photographs Sutton Publishing Ltd; (1995)',6)">Loobey].
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • [Vanished Houses of Barnes, Mortlake and East Sheen, Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1964), new ed., 1978, p.11',8)">Barnes History Society] says that Dee's land stretched on both sides of the passageway.
    • In about 1619, Dee's entire estate was purchased for the Mortlake Tapestry Works [Vanished Houses of Barnes, Mortlake and East Sheen, Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1964), new ed., 1978, p.11',10)">Barnes & Mortlake History Society].It's not clear whether they used Dee's house or built new buildings - [History of Mortlake (1886), p.30',11)">Anderson] records that the house was standing in 1817 - this seems unlikely to me.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Maisie Brown, of the Barnes & Mortlake History Society sent a picture of the stone, which was a plaque commemorating Mortlake Tapestry House, restored 1877, and she says the stone was removed to the Council Depot in 1951 and vanished.
    • On a visit in 1997, I found an open space with a memorial stone by the river saying it marked the site of the Tapestry Works - Maisie Brown says the Barnes & Mortlake History Society recently promoted this as a replacement for the vanished stone.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991., p.60; confirmed by Maisie Brown',16)">Hailstone].
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Elizabeth visited him in Mortlake several times (at least twice, according to [Glimpses of Old Barnes and Mortlake; Going to the Parish Mortlake and the Parish Church of St Mary The Virgin, Barnes and Mortlake History Society, 1993, p.34',19)">Freeman]), once to see his famous scrying stone [Alleyways of Mortlake and East Sheen.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, (1983), 2nd ptg, 1991.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.
    • [History of Mortlake (1886), pp.
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.
    • [Richmond: Notes on Local History, No.
    • In 1715, he published the first history of the telescope as an appendix to the second edition of David Gregory's Catoptrice et Dioptrice Sphaericae Elementa of 1695.
    • [A History of Trinity College Dublin 1892-1945.
    • [Islington: A History and Guide.
    • She was instrumental in founding Avery Hill and Furzedown teachers' colleges and temporarily served as Principal of Avery Hill (Avery Hill College merged with Thames Polytechnic (now the University of Greenwich) in 1985 [An illustrated History of the University of Greenwich (London: James & James, 1996) ',46)">Hinde]).
    • [Ben Franklin Stilled the Waves: An Informal History of Pouring Oil on Water with Reflections on the Ups and Downs of Scientific Life in General, Duke Univ.
    • [Curiosities of History; With New Lights.
    • [An illustrated History of the University of Greenwich (London: James & James, 1996) ',46)">Hinde] He lived in West Kensington, near St Paul's School which his sons were attending, then in Hampstead.

  3. Oxford individuals
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.69',7)">Gunther & Simcock] is a picture of an eighteenth-century painting in the Museum of the History of Science showing the tower.
    • Printed for the author, Oxford, 1937, p.304',17)">Gunther]; [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Printed for the author, Oxford, 1937, pp.40-42',29)">Gunther]; [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • An astrolabe known as the Oriel astrolabe, c1340, now in the Museum of the History of Science, may have come from him.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Margaret Gowing (1921-1998), the historian of the UK atomic bomb project, became the first Professor of the History of Science at Oxford in 1973.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.65, but no details are given',72)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, picture on p.60',73)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • Most of this deals with natural philosophy, but he also wrote on zoology, geology, Oxford gardens, the history of botany, south Italian amulets, architecture, etc.
    • Reader in the History of Science in 1934.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, pp.
    • He was also Professor of Experimental Philosophy and Radcliffe Librarian! Some of his instruments are in the Museum of the History of Science.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.11',88)">Gunther & Simcock] .
    • In 1694, he published a two volume set, De Ludis Orientalibus, one of the first western expositions of oriental games and their history.
    • [Keble College History, The College, 1997',90)">Keble College] .
    • His collection of instruments was given to St John's, but is now in the Museum of the History of Science.
    • Press, Oxford, 1925, p.18',95)">Gunther], he says it is in the Museum of the History of Science (though this may have been just a temporary loan).
    • The spectrometer that he used to establish the concept of atomic number is in the Museum of the History of Science.
    • It is currently in the Museum of the History of Science.
    • Printed for the author, Oxford, 1937, p.156',113)">Gunther]; [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • In 1914-1920, he got the Bodleian to provide a 'Science Room' for himself and other workers in the history of science.
    • University Lecturer in the History of Biological Sciences in 1920, the first academic post in the history of science at Oxford, and probably in the UK.
    • However, he was unable to form a department and soon left Oxford for London where he established the first department of the history and philosophy of science at University College London.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.68.',122)">Gunther & Simcock] .
    • The Old Ashmolean, now the Museum of the History of Science, has been attributed to Wren, but this is certainly spurious.

  4. Oxford Institutions and Colleges
    • The Ashmolean Museum (Beaumont Street; tel: 01865-278000 (or -278015)) was originally located in the present Museum of the History of Science, see below for the early history.
    • Press, Oxford, 1925, pp.26-30',21)">Gunther] describes the instruments as being in the Museum of the History of Science - they are still there - and says the Orrery collection is "the largest, if not the only considerable collection now in existence of scientific apparatus formed by any one person who lived so long ago." In fact it was Gunther himself who uncovered the collection in a dark and dusty cupboard at Christ Church about 1918.
    • This bit of singularly unnatural history was used as an image of Christ feeding his Church! See: Kratzer, H.
    • [Keble College: The History, The College, 1997',25)">Keble College] .
    • Museum of the History of Science .
    • This has many items of mathematical interest and is also of considerable interest for the history of science and of museums.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, pp.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • (Lewis Evans was the brother of Sir Arthur Evans, the excavator of Knossos and Keeper of the Ashmolean at the turn of the century.) This expanded into the present Museum of the History of Science, which was established in 1935 with Robert T.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985,',40)">Gunther & Simcock] .
    • Press, Oxford, 1925, pp.26-30',21)">Gunther] describes the Orrery collection as being in the Museum of the History of Science, as a loan from Christ Church and it is still in the Museum.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.50',63)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.69',64)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, pp.71 & 90',67)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • It may well be the oldest extant natural history specimen [Robert T.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, p.73',83)">Gunther & Simcock].
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984, pp.14, 15, 42, 44 - the location is shown on the map facing p.15',85)">Simcock].
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984, p.15, with a map facing p.15 showing the location of the residence',87)">Simcock].

  5. London individuals H-M
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986, pp.16, 46, 69-70 & 86, including photos of the tomb and of its inscription; Culbertson & Randall, p.230',15)">Wade] Portrait in the Royal Observatory.
    • 36 (1952) 5-19',19)">Cooper]; [Camden History Review 20 (1996) 14-16; Whittaker (3)',20)">Sealey]; [Bull.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • Little is known of him except that he died on 29 Aug 1769 in what is now Welbeck Street and is said to be buried in Old St Marylebone church, marked by the present Garden of Rest in Marylebone High Street [The Oxford Guide to Card Games, OUP, 1990, reissued as A History of Card Games, Penguin, 1991, pp.58-59; Greenwood, p.318',33)">Parlett].
    • [Trinity College Dublin 1592-1952 An academic history.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • The Camden History Society, London, 1979.
    • The Camden History Society, London, 1979, p.23;',57)">Howells, Richardson, Stapleton & Tindall]; [Who Lived Where in Europe: A Biographical Guide to Homes and Museums.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • [History of Chess, OUP, 1913, p.846',78)">Murray] and Francois-Andre Philidor.
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  6. London individuals S-Z
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • [History of Mathematics.
    • p.281',28)">Dakers]; [Curiosities of History; With New Lights.
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • The design of the Great Hall of Lambeth Palace is sometimes attributed to him [Lambeth Palace A Short History, Church Information Office, London, 1974, p.5',60)">Huelin].
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  7. Other institutions in Cambridge
    • Whipple Museum of the History of Science .

  8. London individuals A-C
    • Camden History Society, London, 1986.
    • Thomas Bradwardine (c1290-1349) died at Lambeth, [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) was born in Richmond, now part of SW London [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • IN: History of Mathematics; Proc.

  9. London individuals N-R
    • He became Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1661 [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • History of Electricity, 1767.
    • Lectured at Hackney College on history and chemistry.
    • [Notes on Local History, no.

  10. Glasgow
    • He was interested in the history of mathematics and in 1928 his friends raised funds to endow a lecture on the history of mathematics, delivered about every four years.
    • Gibson and the Gibson lectureship in the history of mathematics, BSHM Newsletter 29 (Summer 1995) 7-8.',2)">Rankin] .
    • For recent history, see [Mathematics, in A Faculty for Science A Unified Diversity A Century of Science in the University of Glasgow; ed.

  11. East Horsley, nr Ockham, Surrey
    • Lovelace pioneered the use of wood formed after being steamed - he reported this to the Institution of Civil Engineers and Isambard Kingdom Brunel expressed approval of Lovelace's Great Hall built in 1847 using bent beams (photo on p.10 of [The History of Horsley Towers, PB Publishing, Woking, 1998',7)">Beach]).
    • [The History of Horsley Towers, PB Publishing, Woking, 1998]',2)">Beach] says there is a memorial tablet to Ada in the Chapel, but I didn't notice it.
    • [An Album of Curious Houses, Chatto & Windus, 1988, pp.140-143',4)">Lambton]; [The History of Horsley Towers, PB Publishing, Woking, 1998',5)">Beach]; [A Little Guide to St Martin\'s Church East Horsley Surrey, East Horsley Parochial Council, 1986.',6)">Bowley] .

  12. Teddington, Middlesex
    • p.28',2)">Craig], but [History of the Three Royal Exchanges, the Gresham Lectures, and Gresham Almshouses.
    • Effingham Wilson, London, 1896, p.17, 22-28',3)">White & Foster] gives a detailed history showing that Halifax and Barton lived at Upper Lodge, which was replaced by 1840 and was on the site used by the Admiralty Research laboratory in 1945-1994.
    • [History of the Three Royal Exchanges, the Gresham Lectures, and Gresham Almshouses.

  13. Cambridge Colleges
    • At some stage, there was a graft and the next cutting was taken from a different part of the tree, so the Trinity tree is a different type of apple than the original!! As you enter, you can buy a copy of Trevelyan's History and guide to the College at the Porter's Lodge on the right.
    • St John's is the second most mathematical college after Trinity, but does not have a convenient history available.
    • a short history of the College has recently appeared which mentions the following: Oughtred; Arthur Berry; H.

  14. Oxford professorships
    • Early professors used the purpose-built 'mathematical tower' in the Schools Quadrangle as an observatory - some of the original instruments are in the Museum of the History of Science [The Ashmolean Museum and Oxford Science 1683-1983.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1984.

  15. London Museums
    • As you enter the Library you pass Bill Woodrow's Sitting on History (1995) (not particularly mathematical but fun nevertheless), and in the Piazza Antony Gormley's Planets (2002) has recently been installed: its "eight, one-tonne granite boulders carved with the outlines of a variety of human bodies in the act of clinging onto them" may allude to astronomy.
    • The wall continues with the history of punched cards and then moves into computers: an original Hollerith punch; Kelvin's Harmonic Analyser (1878): parts of Hartree's Differential Analyser and its Meccano model (1935); counters from the Harvard Mark I (c1943); a segment of ENIAC (c1945); a replica of the first transistor (23 Dec 1947) (no longer on display); some parts from CADET, one of the first experimental transistorised computers, built at Harwell in 1952-1957, showing that the early transistors were too delicate to be soldered into place and had to be clipped into circuitry; Mercury delay lines from EDSAC, LEO 1 (1948) and the Pilot ACE.

  16. Norwich, Norfolk
    • Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) was born in Norwich [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.
    • Robert Woodhouse (1773-1827) was born in Norwich [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  17. Sidmouth, Devon
    • Lewis Evans, the founding benefactor of the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, lived at Sidmouth and his collection of scientific instruments was there before he donated it to Oxford in 1922 [Robert T.
    • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 1985, pp.20-22',3)">Gunther & Simcock].

  18. Cambridge Individuals
    • A history of St John's says Dee was assistant Greek reader at St John's but "is better known to posterity by his reform of the Julian Calendar" - an assertion which seems odd since England refused to adopt the Gregorian Calendar in 1582 and only adopted it in 1752.
    • (Although there have been notable mathematicians at St John's, Peterhouse, etc., only Trinity and King's seem to have a reasonable college history available, so I am undoubtedly missing out many people and details of interest.) .

  19. London Learned Societies
    • It has a most distinguished history in the physical sciences.
    • Its History, Principle and Operation.

  20. Rye, East Sussex
    • Isaac Todhunter (1820-1884) was born in Rye [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  21. St Andrews, Fife
    • [A History of Medicine.

  22. Cambridge
    • Town and gown riots occurred in Cambridge as well and in 1381 all the university records were publicly burned, resulting in considerable obscurity about the early history of the university.

  23. Oxford
    • [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  24. Manchester
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.

  25. Slough, Berkshire
    • John Frederick William Herschel (1792-1871) was born here [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  26. Markree Castle, Co. Sligo
    • Edward Cooper was a noted amateur astronomer and had an observatory at his house, Markree Castle, c1850 [Trinity College Dublin 1592-1952 An academic history.

  27. Milverton, Somerset
    • Thomas Young (1773-1829) was born here [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  28. Ottery St Mary, Devon
    • [The Church of St Mary of Ottery in the County of Devon: A Short History and Guide, British Publishing Co Ltd, Gloucester, (1956), 4th ed, 1968, pp.18-21',2)">John] says "Its age must be largely a matter of conjecture but there are some grounds for attributing it to John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter 1327-69".

  29. York
    • St Peter's School, in the York street of Clifton, claims a continuous history from this foundation by Alcuin, though the school buildings are not that old! [A Guided Tour of York Minster, The Dean and Chapter of York, (1983), 3rd ed, revised by Charles McCarter, John Toy et al., 1999, p.52',2)">Allen] says the school is often said to have been founded by Alcuin's earliest mentor, Ecgbert, the first Archbishop of York (and the last person to have known Bede), but that the school really goes back to the time of Bishop Wilfrid, c670.

  30. Cambridge professorships
    • Holders have been: Isaac Barrow (1663-1669); Isaac Newton (1669-1702); William Whiston (1702-1710), best known for his translation of Flavius Josephus' historical writings and for being expelled for heresy, but who also popularised Newton's work; Nicolas Saunderson (1711-1739), famous for overcoming the apparent handicap of blindness; John Colson (1739-1760) who invented negative digits; Edward Waring (1760-1798) of Waring's problem; Isaac Milner (1798-1820) who gave no lectures; Robert Woodhouse (1820-1822) who wrote the first English calculus using Leibniz's notation and a book on the history of the calculus of variations; Thomas Turton (1822-1826); G.

  31. Skreen, Co. Sligo
    • George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) was born here [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  32. Moretonhampstead, Devon
    • The local history society has a leaflet on Bidder, but there were no copies on hand when I visited.

  33. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear
    • He, assisted by his wife Ruth, established the first substantial bio-bibliographical database for the history of British mathematics and amassed a substantial collection of early British mathematical books which have now been transferred to the University library.

  34. Leadenham
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.

  35. Liverpool
    • Young (1863-1942) held various part-time teaching positions at Liverpool University from 1906 to 1916 (including one with the grandiose title Professor of the philosophy and history of mathematics in 1913).

  36. Wimborne St Giles, Dorset
    • Consulting a book on the history of food reveals that the cabbage is thought to be a native of northern Europe and was well known to the Greeks and the Romans, so I find Evelyn's and Nichols' assertions surprising - perhaps they are referring to some other, cabbage-like, plant, or perhaps it was an improved variety which people could eat.

  37. Other Institutions in central London
    • [The Royal Mint - An Illustrated History.

  38. Churches
    • He is buried in the adjacent St Mary, Lambeth (now the Museum of Garden History), with a plaque in the chancel.

  39. Shrewsbury, Shropshire
    • Edward Waring (1736-1798) was born near Shrewsbury [A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge.

  40. Portsmouth, Hampshire
    • Its History, Principle and Operation.

  41. Upton-upon-Severn, Hereford and Worcester
    • Barnes and Mortlake History Society, Occasional Papers No.8, 1995.

  42. Chevening, Kent
    • The third Earl, Charles Stanhope (1753-1816), was also a noted inventor, devising numerical and logical calculating machines, a microscope lens, a printing press and the process of stereotyping -- examples are in the Science Museum, London, and the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford.

  43. London Scientific Institutions
    • IN: History of Mathematics; Proc.


Astronomy section

  1. A Brief History of Time and Calendars
    • A Brief History of Time and Calendars .
    • This reflects the lack of information that historians of science have as they delve further back into history.
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/bhistory.html .

  2. Astronomical items in History Topics
    • Astronomical items in History Topics .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/topics.html .

  3. The Dynamics of the Solar System
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin A Very Short Introduction: The History of Astronomy (New York, 2003) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/dynamics.html .

  4. The Structure of the Solar System
    • Using this hypothesis, he was able to predict the transit of Mercury across the face of the Sun, for the first time in human history.
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Cambridge, 1999) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/StructureOfSolarSystem.html .

  5. The Reaches of the Milky Way
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Ch 8.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/galaxy.html .

  6. The Infinite Universe
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • M Hoskin, The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy (Ch 8.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/universe.html .

  7. Extras Index
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Indexes/Extras_index.html .

  8. List of astronomers

  9. Astronomical Societies
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/societies.html .

  10. Astronomy in different cultures
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/culture.html .

  11. List of astronomers
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/astronomers.html .

  12. Astronomy timeline from the 16th Century
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Astronomy/timeline.html .


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