Search Results for medicine


  1. Paolo Ruffini (1765-1822)
    • He entered the University of Modena in 1783 where he studied mathematics, medicine, philosophy and literature.
    • On 9 June 1788 Ruffini graduated with a degree in philosophy, medicine and surgery.
    • He had trained in medicine and, also in 1791, he was granted a licence to practice medicine by the Collegiate Medical Court of Modena.
    • The fact that he could not teach mathematics meant that he had more time to practise medicine and therefore help his patients to whom he was extremely devoted.
    • He continued to practice medicine and tend to patients from the poorest to the richest in society.
    • As well as the rectorship, Ruffini held a chair of applied mathematics, a chair of practical medicine and a chair of clinical medicine in the University of Modena.
    • Although he made a partial recovery, he never fully regained his health and in 1819 he gave up his chair of clinical medicine.

  2. Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748)
    • The subject that Johann Bernoulli was to study at university was medicine, a topic that many members of the Bernoulli family ended up studying despite their liking for mathematics and mathematical physics.
    • At Basel University Johann took courses in medicine but he studied mathematics with his brother Jacob.
    • Although he was working on his doctoral dissertation in medicine he was producing numerous papers on mathematical topics which he was publishing and also important results which were contained in his correspondence.
    • We mentioned above that Johann's doctoral dissertation was on a topic in medicine, but it was really on an application of mathematics to medicine, being on muscular movement, and it was submitted in 1694.
    • Johann did not wish to follow a career in medicine however, but there were little prospects of a chair at Basel in mathematics since Jacob filled this post.
    • It is interesting to note that Johann was appointed to the chair of mathematics but his letter of appointment mentions his medical skills and offered him the chance to practice medicine while in Groningen.

  3. Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576)
    • After an argument, Fazio allowed Cardan to go university and he entered Pavia University, where his father had studied, to read medicine despite his father's wish that he should study law.
    • Cardan was awarded his doctorate in medicine in 1525 and applied to join the College of Physicians in Milan, where his mother still lived.
    • Unable to practise medicine, Cardan reverted, in 1533, to gambling to pay his way, but things went so badly that he was forced to pawn his wife's jewellery and even some of his furniture.
    • This was the beginning of Cardan's prolific literary career writing on a diversity of topics medicine, philosophy, astronomy and theology in addition to mathematics.
    • During the years 1543-1552, Cardan lectured on medicine at the universities of Milan and Pavia, as war frequently forced the closure of the university in Pavia.
    • On his return, Cardan was appointed professor of medicine at Pavia University and, with many wealthy patients, he was a rich and successful man.
    • Realising he had to move, Cardan applied for a professorship of medicine at Bologna and was appointed to the post.

  4. Joachim Jungius (1587-1657)
    • In 1614 Jungius resigned his position at Giessen with the idea that he would devote himself to educational reform, but he soon decided that he wanted to increase his knowledge of medicine.
    • He enrolled at the University of Rostock to study medicine in August 1616.
    • Thereafter Jungius practiced medicine at Lubeck from 1619 to 1623, he held the chair of mathematics at the University of Rostock from 1624 to 1625, practiced medicine at Brunswick and Wolfenbuttel in 1625 and then from 1626 to 1628 he again held the chair of mathematics at the University of Rostock.
    • For one year in 1625 he held the chair of medicine at the University of Helmstedt in addition to practicing medicine.
    • shifted: from his early training in the late scholasticism of Francisco Suarez and his like, to astronomy, logic and mathematics, educational reform, medicine, and chemical philosophy (in his case corpuscularism), to an ambitious program to organise, systematise, and taxonomise - as well as further to contribute to (based on a mathematical paradigm) - the sum total of human knowledge.

  5. Marcel-Paul Schützenberger (1920-1996)
    • Marco Schutzenberger was interested in both mathematics and medicine from a young age.
    • He studied at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris during World War II but he was also undertaking research in mathematics and published Sur la theorie des structures de Dedekind Ⓣ in 1943 which studied properties of complemented Dedekind structures.
    • After this Schutzenberger resumed his studies at the Faculty of Medicine.
    • He received the degree of Doctor in Medicine in 1948.
    • After becoming Doctor in Medicine, he was employed at the National Institute of Hygiene for five years between 1948 and 1953.
    • He remained on the staff at Poitiers until 1963 but spent the year 1961-62 as a Lecturer in the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard University.

  6. Avicenna (980-1037)
    • When ibn Sina reached the age of thirteen he began to study medicine and he had mastered that subject by the age of sixteen when he began to treat patients.
    • It was his skill in medicine that was to prove of great value to ibn Sina for it was through his reputation in that area that the Samanid ruler Nuh ibn Mansur came to hear of him.
    • Ibn Sina's two most important works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine.
    • The second is the most famous single book in the history of medicine.
    • At Isfahan he completed his major works begun at Hamadan and also wrote many other works on philosophy, medicine and the Arabic language.
    • Of the surviving works, 150 are on philosophy while 40 are devoted to medicine, the two fields in which he contributed most.

  7. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)
    • Johann declared that there was no money in mathematics and so he sent Daniel back to Basel University to study medicine.
    • This Daniel did spending time studying medicine at Heidelberg in 1718 and Strasbourg in 1719.
    • He returned to Basel in 1720 to complete his doctorate in medicine.
    • By this stage Johann Bernoulli was prepared to teach his son more mathematics while he studied medicine and Daniel studied his father's theories of kinetic energy.
    • So like his father Daniel had applied mathematical physics to medicine in order to obtain his medical doctorate.
    • Having failed to obtain an academic post, Daniel went to Venice to study practical medicine.

  8. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
    • He had not completed his degree in canon law at Bologna so he requested his uncle that he be allowed to return to Italy both to take a law degree and to study medicine.
    • principally because Nicolaus promised to study medicine, and as a helpful physician would some day advise our most reverend bishop and also the members of the Chapter.
    • As this quotation indicates, the Cathedral Chapter liked his proposal to study medicine and provided the necessary funds.
    • Padua was famous for its medical school and while he was there Copernicus studied both medicine and astronomy.
    • At that time astronomy was essentially astrology and, as such, considered relevant to medicine since physicians made use of astrology.
    • After receiving his doctorate, Copernicus stayed in Ferrara for a few months before returning to Padua to continue his studies of medicine.

  9. Denis Papin (1647-1712)
    • In 1661, he began his studies of medicine at the University of Angers which had colleges of Law, Theology, Arts and Medicine,and attracted students from the whole of France.
    • At this stage in his career, Papin intended to follow medicine so, after some months back in Blois, he went to Paris in 1670 to begin life as a medical doctor.
    • However, he was much more interested in mathematics and mechanics than he was in medicine and soon he was bored with medicine.
    • Although now established as a leading physicist, Papin did not entirely give up his interest in medicine for in 1681 he wrote A Treatise on Painless Operations [',' An Interesting Manuscript, The British Medical Journal 2 (824) (1876), 502.','7]:- .

  10. Robert Recorde (1510-1558)
    • It trained men in theology, law and medicine.
    • Certainly we know that he studied medicine at Oxford and was a highly educated man.
    • There is a record at Cambridge which states that Recorde received a license in medicine in Oxford twelve years earlier and this almost certainly means that Recorde received the degree of B.M.
    • He may have taught at Cambridge following the award of his degree but all we know for certain is that some time during two years following 1545 he moved to London where he practiced medicine.
    • Recorde was in London, practicing medicine at the time of Edward's succession.

  11. Hans Wussing (1927-2011)
    • Through her Wussing learnt that Gerhard Harig was about to take over as head of the Karl Sudhoff Institute at Leipzig University and that he aimed to make it an Institute, which had previously only covered the history of medicine, into the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science.
    • Wussing was, as mention in the quote above, an editor of NTM - Schriftenreihe fur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin (The Journal for the history of science, technology, and medicine) from 1967 and strongly supported this journal by publishing in it and encouraging his students to publish in this journal published in Leipzig.
    • Why study the history of mathematics when mathematics is such a dreaded subject for many students and most people only shudder when recalling classes and tests in mathematics? The mathematical historian Wussing gives a detailed answer to this question in the first chapter of this introduction: The occupation with the history of mathematics is an intellectual adventure, in which one can experience the suspense of how mathematics has evolved, how much hardship and error it took people from the first beginnings in the dim and distant past to erect - over the millennia - the magnificent mental structure whose contents and methods have become the foundation and indispensable apparatus for the development of all technology, the sciences, medicine, business and industry, and which, in the form of the computer, have practically embraced every aspect of modern life.
    • It contained one professor, two docent, eight assistants and several doctoral students involved in the history of mathematics in 1989 but this area has now completely vanished from the Institute which today is only involved in the history of medicine.

  12. Thomas Fincke (1561-1656)
    • However, Melanchthon firmly believed that those intending to study theology, law or medicine at university, should first become familiar with the precise way of thinking that was characteristic of mathematics.
    • However, his aim was still to follow a career in medicine and his preliminary study of mathematics had largely been undertaken to follow the teaching of Melanchthon.
    • He now began his study of medicine in Basel, continuing it Padua in November 1583.
    • Being a well-travelled versatile scientist with great expertise in mathematics, astrology, astronomy and medicine, he was very well-respected and came to the attention of the leading men such as Duke Philipp von Holstein-Gottorf who appointed him as the personal physician to his court in 1590.
    • On the 28 July 1602, Peder Sørensen, the professor of medicine at Copenhagen died and in April of the following year Fincke was appointed to fill this chair.

  13. Johann Segner (1704-1777)
    • Segner attended school at Pozsony's Lyceum where he showed special talents for medicine and mathematics.
    • In 1725 he went to Germany and entered the University of Jena, studying medicine there.
    • While he was an undergraduate he published essays on a wide variety of topics including mathematics, philosophy, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and medicine.
    • He did not find being a doctor of medicine to his liking and, after spending eighteen months in the job at Debrecen, he returned to the academic world returning to the University of Jena to take a Master's Degree.
    • He left Gottingen in 1755 and, with Euler's assistance, became professor at Halle where he lectured on mathematics, physics and medicine.

  14. Samuel Haughton (1821-1897)
    • If this was not a broad enough range of topics for any single person to undertake, Haughton registered as an undergraduate in medicine in 1859.
    • As we noted above, he had shown an interest in medicine before becoming an undergraduate and had published a couple of papers on the topic.
    • Finding that the School of Physic in Ireland was inefficient and in need of reform, he conceived the scheme of entering it as a student and, having attended the classes and hospital, he graduated in medicine in 1862.
    • As soon as he had graduated, Haughton set about reforming the medical school at Trinity College which was suffering both from poor governance from the College Board, who were ignorant of medicine, and from poor teaching by staff lacking motivation.

  15. Petre Sergescu (1893-1954)
    • His father, Constantin Sergescu, was born in Curtea de Arges in 1861 and studied at the Veterinary School of Medicine, graduating in 1889.
    • History of Medicine 10 (4) (1955), 421-425.','11]:- .
    • History of Medicine 10 (4) (1955), 421-425.','11]:- .
    • History of Medicine 10 (4) (1955), 421-425.','11]:- .

  16. Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
    • Such financial support was only available for particular topics and Hermann's father persuaded him that he should study medicine which was supported by the government.
    • In 1837 Helmholtz was awarded a government grant to enable him to study medicine at the Royal Friedrich-Wilhelm Institute of Medicine and Surgery in Berlin.
    • Although he was officially studying at the Institute of Medicine and Surgery, being in Berlin he had the opportunity of attending courses at the University.

  17. Adriaan van Roomen (1561-1615)
    • He studied medicine, first at Cologne and then at Leuven.
    • Van Roomen was professor of mathematics and medicine at Leuven from 1586 to 1592 and, for six months during 1592, he was rector of the University.
    • After these years in Leuven, van Roomen went to Wurzburg where again he was appointed professor of medicine giving his first lecture on 17 May 1593.
    • Although he was employed as a professor of medicine, it was mathematics that was van Roomen's real love.

  18. Christian Kramp (1760-1826)
    • His interests were broad while he studied at the Gymnasium in Strasbourg and he entered the University in that city, again taking a broad range of courses, but specialising in medicine.
    • After graduating, he practised medicine in the Strasbourg region around where he lived, travelling to patients in a fairly wide area.
    • However his interests certainly ranged outside medicine for, in addition to a number of medical publications and his books on aerostatics, he published in 1793 a work on crystallography Krystallographie des Mineralreiches Ⓣ written in collaboration with Karl Bekkerhinn.
    • Before he had published in German, for example his work on fevers Fieberlehre, nach mechanischen Grundsatzen Ⓣ (Heidelberg, 1794), and his critique of practical medicine Kritik der praktischen Arzneikunde, mit Rucksicht auf die Geschichte derselben und ihre neuern Lehrgebaude Ⓣ (Leipzig, 1795).

  19. Erasmus Bartholin (1625-1698)
    • From 1656 he was professor of geometry at the University of Copenhagen but transferred to become an extraordinary professor of medicine in the following year.
    • In 1671 he was appointed to an ordinary chair of medicine at Copenhagen, a post to held until his death.
    • He served the University of Copenhagen as dean of the faculty of medicine, librarian, and rector, and was appointed royal physician and privy councillor.
    • Despite being professor of medicine for a long period, he wrote relatively little on that topic.

  20. Jacob Gool (1596-1667)
    • Golius was also taught by Aelius Everhardus Vorstius (1565-1624) who had become an extraordinary professor of Natural Philosophy at Leiden in 1598, and a full professor of Natural History and Medicine in the following year.
    • Golius initially focused on the study of medicine, mathematics and astronomy.
    • He was particularly interested in visiting Mesopotamia with its strong reputation for ancient studies in mathematics, astronomy and medicine.
    • Justus Heurnius studied medicine and theology in Leiden and became a protestant missionary.

  21. Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574)
    • His health recovered sufficiently to allow him to teach mathematics at Constance for three months in late 1547 then he studied medicine in Zurich before he returned to Leipzig in February 1548.
    • In 1551-52 he studied medicine at the University of Prague but his interest in medicine only ever seemed to be used to treat patients and never to undertake scholarly research so he never seems to have produced innovations in medicine in the way he did in mathematics.

  22. Frederico Commandino (1506-1575)
    • Bernardino Baldi, who was a student of Commandino in the latter part of his life and wrote a short biography of him in 1587, claimed that he studied philosophy and medicine at Padua from 1534 to 1544 but one should not suppose that this means that he was a student for ten years.
    • It is worth noting that Copernicus followed a very similar path some 40 years earlier, for he also studied medicine at Padua and took a degree from the University of Ferrara; in Copernicus's case however his Ferrara degree was in law and not medicine.
    • It appears that Commandino intended to practice medicine and indeed he returned to Urbino with this aim.

  23. Enrico Bompiani (1889-1975)
    • Enrico Bompiani's parents were Arturo Bompiani, a leading expert in medicine, and Domenica Gaifani.
    • Enrico had three brothers: Gaetano Bompiani was born in 1887 and became a medical professor at Sassari, Bari, Siena, Parma, Pisa, Padua and Rome; Arturo Bompiani was born in 1890 and also studied medicine, publishing important works on anatomy and obstetric physiology; Paolo Bompiani was born in 1891.
    • Despite this family tradition of studying medicine, Bompiani decided that he wanted to go down a different path and study mathematics.

  24. François Budan (1761-1840)
    • Budan took up the study of medicine in Paris and, in 1803, received the title of doctor of medicine for a thesis entitled Essai sur cette question d'economie medicale : Convient-il qu'un malade soit instruit de sa situation? Ⓣ At around this time he was submitting mathematical works to the Academy of Sciences which we will discuss in more detail below.
    • He also contributed to law, medicine and poetry, writing a Latin ode on the birth of the son of the Duke of Burgundy.

  25. Al-Samawal (about 1130-about 1180)
    • Certainly al-Samawal was brought up in a family where learning was highly valued and the first topic which interested him was medicine.
    • At about the same time as he began to study medicine, al-Samawal also began to study mathematics.
    • We mentioned that al-Samawal was trained in medicine in his youth.

  26. Félix Savart (1791-1841)
    • In fact his early training did take him in that direction but in 1808, at the age of seventeen, he decided to train for a career in medicine.
    • Medicine (October, 1959), 411-423.','5]:- .
    • Medicine (October, 1959), 411-423.','5].

  27. Thomas Young (1773-1829)
    • In the autumn of 1792 he moved to London to begin his studies of medicine.
    • He discovered, however, that a change in regulations by the College of Physicians required a period of two years study at the same university before qualifying to practice medicine.
    • Although enrolled in the medical course, Young did not study medicine at Cambridge, feeling that he already knew sufficient of that subject.

  28. Hendrik van Heuraet (1634-1660)
    • However he left Haarlem around this time and went to Leiden where he entered the University on 25 May 1653 intending to study medicine.
    • However he studied mathematics as well as medicine, studying privately under van Schooten with fellow students Huygens and Hudde.
    • Van Heuraet returned to Leiden in the following year and again enrolled to study medicine.

  29. Sinan ibn Thabit ibn Qurra (about 880-943)
    • Although Sinan was extremely eminent in medicine his contributions to mathematics were somewhat less major but he still deserves a place in this archive as a contributor to mathematics in this remarkable family of scholars.
    • Sinan was trained in medicine, a topic which his father had studied in Baghdad.
    • Despite his high profile medical career, Sinan seems not to have written any works on medicine.

  30. Jacques Le Tenneur (1610-1660)
    • He points out the invariance in Galileo's theory that (see for example [',' C R Palmerino, Infinite Degrees of Speed: Marin Mersenne and the Debate over Galileo’s Law of Free Fall, Early Science and Medicine 4 (4) (1999), 269-328.','7]):- .
    • Palmerino writes [',' C R Palmerino, Infinite Degrees of Speed: Marin Mersenne and the Debate over Galileo’s Law of Free Fall, Early Science and Medicine 4 (4) (1999), 269-328.','7]:- .
    • Le Tenneur's argument against this is put at follows (see for example [',' C R Palmerino, Infinite Degrees of Speed: Marin Mersenne and the Debate over Galileo’s Law of Free Fall, Early Science and Medicine 4 (4) (1999), 269-328.','7]):- .

  31. Edward Waring (1736-1798)
    • For a short time he practised medicine in various London hospitals, then Addenbroke hospital in Cambridge and finally at a hospital in St Ives, Huntingtonshire.
    • However, he gave up practising medicine by 1770 [',' W P Courtney, Edward Waring, Dictionary of National Biography LIX (London, 1899), 383-385.
    • One might ask how Waring could practise medicine and hold the Lucasian Chair at the same time.

  32. Patrick Moran (1917-1988)
    • His father had an extensive library with many books on the history of medicine and on science in general.
    • After this Moran's father tried to persuade him to study medicine but Moran was keen to stick with mathematics.
    • medicine." Despite receiving the same advice from two independent experts, Moran was still determined to continue his study of mathematics.

  33. John Wallis (1616-1703)
    • He took the standard bachelor of arts degree and, since nobody at Cambridge at this time could direct his mathematical studies, he took a range of topics such as ethics, metaphysics, geography, astronomy, medicine and anatomy.
    • Although never intending to follow a career in medicine, he defended his teacher Francis Glisson's revolutionary theory of the circulation of the blood in a public debate, being the first person to do so.
    • There, to avoid being diverted to other discourses and for some other reasons, we barred all discussion of Divinity, of State Affairs, and of news (other than what concerned our business of philosophy) confining ourselves to philosophical inquiries, and related topics; as medicine, anatomy, geometry, astronomy, navigation, statics, mechanics, and natural experiments.

  34. Willebrord Snell (1580-1626)
    • He had taught Greek, Latin, Hebrew and the liberal arts in a high school earlier in his career and he had studied medicine and Aristotle's works.
    • He visited Adriaan van Roomen in Wurzburg where he was professor of medicine and "Mathematician to the Chapter".
    • In the evening of 30 October, [the doctors] went to visit Snell to see the effects of a new medicine.

  35. Gemma Frisius (1508-1555)
    • He went on to become the leading theoretical mathematician in the Low Countries and also to become professor of medicine and mathematics at the University of Louvain.
    • After completing the terrestrial globe, Gemma's interests turned towards medicine.
    • Some of these comet observations are described in works by his son, Cornelius Gemma Frisius, who was born in 1533 and went on to become professor of medicine and astronomy at Louvain.

  36. Grace Chisholm (1868-1944)
    • She was stopped by her family from studying medicine, the topic of her choice, then decided to enter Girton College, Cambridge in 1889 to study mathematics.
    • We mentioned above that Grace had wanted to study medicine when she was young but her parents had been against this.
    • However Grace did study medicine, both in Gottingen and in Geneva but she never took any formal examinations to qualify in the subject.

  37. Otto Blumenthal (1876-1944)
    • In 1894 he entered the University of Gottingen intending to follow in his father's footsteps and to study medicine.
    • However, after one semester studying medicine he switched to study mathematics and science.

  38. Jacob ben Tibbon (1236-1305)
    • He also translated Arabic-language works by Jews and Arabs dealing with philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.
    • Jacob was educated in Lunel and then studied medicine in the medical faculty of the University of Montpellier.

  39. Gomes Teixeira (1851-1933)
    • Quantal, after studying mathematics and philosophy, had gone on to study medicine and was a professor in the medical school at Coimbra.
    • Initially, the university had two faculties, Science and Medicine.

  40. Philip Maini (1959-)
    • Let us note at this point that Maini's brother Arvind studied at the Rainey Endowed School from 1964 to 1971, then trained in medicine and became a GP in Belfast.
    • Philip Maini's mathematical and computational modelling of spatiotemporal processes in biology and medicine has led to significant scientific advances in both.

  41. Michael Scot (1175-1235)
    • His education allegedly begins at the cathedral school of Durham and includes Oxford and the University of Paris where he studied Mathematics, Astrology (which included Astronomy), Alchemy and Medicine.
    • Nevertheless Frederick II authorized the first autopsies over the protests of the Roman Catholic church, as better knowledge of the human anatomy was vital for the improvement of medicine.

  42. Horst Tietz (1921-2012)
    • The Nazi government decreed that soldiers could take leave to continue their studies if they took courses in chemistry or medicine since these were considered war-related courses.
    • He had no interest at all in medicine so, even though chemistry was not a subject he liked, he decided to enter university to study chemistry.

  43. Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553)
    • studied mathematics and medicine in Wittenberg under the care of Melanchthon, and then in Jena, and became doctor of medicine and municipal doctor in Amberg and Saalfeld.

  44. Haskell Curry (1900-1982)
    • Haskell did not show particular interest in mathematics when at high school and when he graduated in 1916 he fully intended to study medicine.
    • He entered Harvard College, the undergraduate school of Harvard University, and took a mathematics course in his first year of study as part of his studies towards a degree in medicine.

  45. William Brouncker (1620-1684)
    • About the first we know for certain of Brouncker is that he entered Oxford University when he was sixteen years old and there he studied mathematics, languages and medicine.
    • He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Oxford University on 23 February 1647 (in fact February at this time was 1646 since the new year began in April but we will give 1647 which is consistent with our present calendar).

  46. Jacopo Riccati (1676-1754)
    • These include: Giovanni Rizzetti (1675-1751), famed as a critic of Newton's theory of light; Gabriele Manfredi, professor of mathematics and chancellor of the University of Bologna, and the brother of eminent mathematician and astronomer Eustachio Manfredi; Giovanni Poleni, who was a professor at the University of Padua; Antonio Vallisneri (1661-1730), who held the chairs of Practical Medicine and Theoretical Medicine at the University of Padua and was an editor of the Giornale de' Letterati d'Italia; Ramiro Rampinelli, a mathematician who was a professor at Rome and at Bologna; and Bernardino Zendrini (1679-1747), a scientist working for the Republic of Venice.

  47. Cyril Offord (1906-2000)
    • Cyril was the eldest of his parents' three children, having two younger brothers Horace and Frank who both made careers in medicine.
    • The University of Newcastle had been founded in 1937 as King's College, created from two Colleges of the University of Durham, namely Armstrong College and the College of Medicine, which were in Newcastle.

  48. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274)
    • There al-Tusi studied philosophy, medicine and mathematics.
    • He also wrote on medicine, but his medical works are among his least important.

  49. Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344)
    • Levi was also closely related to Nahmanides (1194-1270) who was a Spanish scholar, a rabbi and Jewish religious leader who is known for his work on philosophy, poetry, and medicine.
    • He wrote a commentary on the Bible and the Talmud; and in all branches of science, especially in logic, physics, metaphysics, mathematics, and medicine, he has no equal on earth.

  50. Francis Galton (1822-1911)
    • Following this he went to London where he studied medicine at King's College for one year.
    • On his return to England Galton entered Trinity College, Cambridge, to study medicine in the autumn of 1840.

  51. István Hatvani (1718-1786)
    • In Basel Hatvani studied theology and medicine and was awarded a doctorate in both these subjects.
    • They lectured on mathematics, physics and medicine and under their guidance Hatvani soon gained a reputation as an outstanding scientist.

  52. Philip van Lansberge (1561-1632)
    • Jacob (born about 1590) made a career in medicine, becoming a medical doctor in Goes.
    • In Middelburg, Lansberge used his skill in medicine as well as publishing books on astronomy and continuing to make astronomical observations.

  53. Gordon Pask (1928-1996)
    • He then studied geology at Bangor Technical College, and Mining Engineering at Liverpool Polytechnic, before entering Downing College, Cambridge, to study medicine.
    • In fact he graduated with a degree in natural science rather than medicine in 1952.

  54. Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981)
    • [His] work, and that of Fisher, each with a different model for randomised experiments, led to the whole new field of experimentation so much used in agriculture, biology, medicine, and physical sciences.
    • Neyman's contributions to research in statistics over the latter part of his career were mostly in the areas of applications to meteorology and medicine.

  55. Nicholas Kryffs (1401-1464)
    • At Padua he became friends with fellow student Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, who was studying mathematics and medicine.
    • Theology, mathematics, philosophy, science, art, medicine - no avenue of inquiry escaped the attention of the humanist Nicholas of Cusa ..

  56. Frances Chick Wood (1883-1919)
    • 83, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vii, p.
    • Frances wrote a number of papers, some of which are mentioned in Greenwood's article above but we give details of these and others here: The Course of Real Wages in London, 1900-12, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 77 (1) (1913), 1-68; The Construction of Index Numbers to Show Changes in the Price of the Principal Articles of Food for the Working Classes, The Economic Journal 23 (92) (1913), 619-626; (with M Greenwood) The Relation between the Cancer and Diabetes Death-Rates, The Journal of Hygiene 14 (1) (1914), 83-118; (with J W Brown and M Greenwood) A Study of Index Correlations, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 77 (3) (1914), 317-346; (with M Greenwood) On Changes in the Recorded Mortality from Cancer and their Possible Interpretation, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 7 (1914), 119-170; The Increase in the Cost of Food for Different Classes of Society since the Outbreak of War, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 79 (4) (1916), 501-508.

  57. Hunayn ibn Ishaq (808-873)
    • He was not a mathematician but trained in medicine and made his original contributions to the subject.
    • To continue his education Hunayn went to Baghdad to study medicine under the leading teacher of the time.

  58. George Allman (1824-1904)
    • He studied medicine at Trinity College, Dublin and after practising medicine in Clonmel, County Tipperary, he was appointed professor of botany in Trinity College, Dublin in 1809.

  59. Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz (1915-1985)
    • Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz's father, Mikhail Ilyich Lifshitz, was a doctor and a professor at the Institute of Medicine specialising in gastric diseases.
    • He had a son Mikhail who was born in 1946 and became graduated from the Institute of Medicine.

  60. Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708)
    • He entered the University of Leiden in the autumn of 1668 and there he studied mathematics, philosophy, physics and medicine.
    • He learnt of the latest advances in medicine such as Harvey's theory concerning the circulation of blood.

  61. Bruno de Finetti (1906-1985)
    • There, however, he discovered his true passion for mathematics and in particular, as he wrote to his mother in a letter reported by Carla Rossi [',' C Rossi, Bruno de Finetti : the mathematician, the statistician, the economist, the forerunner, Statistics in Medicine 20 (2001), 3651-3666.','9], a former student of his, he realized that:- .
    • With regards to the teaching of mathematics, Carla Rossi [',' C Rossi, Bruno de Finetti : the mathematician, the statistician, the economist, the forerunner, Statistics in Medicine 20 (2001), 3651-3666.','9] reports that Bruno de Finetti used to say:- .

  62. Pedro Nunes (1502-1578)
    • Given the skills he acquired he must have studied philosophy, medicine, mathematics and geography.
    • During this period, however, Nunes was working towards a doctorate in medicine and after successfully taking examinations on 16 February 1532 be was awarded his medical doctorate on 3 March.

  63. Vivienne Malone-Mayes (1932-1995)
    • They soon decided to marry, but Mayes persuaded his future wife to change from medicine since he felt that two doctors in one family would not make for a good family life! Malone decided to switch from medicine to mathematics.

  64. James Ezeilo (1930-2013)
    • a strong man of Medicine, distinguished in Physiology, [who] had written many scientific papers and had published two world renown Physiology books through Oxford University Press, for University level medical students.
    • He held this position for four months until the appointment of Herbert C Kodilinye, a Professor of Medicine, as Vice-Chancellor.

  65. Albert of Saxony (1316-1390)
    • However, Albert did secure a papal bull to establish the faculties of Arts, Law and Medicine.
    • The authors of [',' T F Glick, S J Livesey and F Wallis, Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia (Routledge, 2005).','5] write:- .

  66. Richard Bellman (1920-1984)
    • We have stopped at 1965 in giving a list of Bellman's books since it ws at this time that he left RAND and accepted an appointment as Professor of Mathematics, Electrical Engineering, and Medicine at the University of Southern California.
    • However he also wrote Analytic number theory (1980), Mathematical methods in medicine (1983), and The Laplace transform (1984).

  67. Daniel Pedoe (1910-1998)
    • Dan studied at Cambridge and Oxford becoming a cardiologist and leading expert on sports medicine.
    • Hugh also trained in medicine and cardiology and worked for 34 years for the World Health Organisation.

  68. Marjorie Senechal (1939-)
    • Her father had wanted her to follow in his footsteps and have a career in medicine so she enrolled in chemistry.

  69. Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin (1919-1984)
    • The Levenson family had moved to Baku during the Russian revolution and Henrietta Emmanuilovna continued to practice medicine after the birth of her son Vladimir Abramovich.

  70. Wilbur Knorr (1945-1997)
    • He was an expert on ancient and medieval medicine and philosophy.

  71. Johann Karl Burckhardt (1773-1825)
    • Soon, however, he changed this aim and for a short while began taking medicine courses.

  72. George Pólya (1887-1985)
    • George had an older brother Jeno, who was 21 years old and studying medicine when his father died, two older sisters Ilona (10 years older than George) and Flora (8 years older than George) who went to work for the insurance company Assicurazioni Generali to help support the family, and a younger brother Laslo (4 years younger than George).

  73. Carl Runge (1856-1927)
    • Emile du Bois-Reymond was interested in physiology, medicine and philosophy and gave a famous speech at the Berlin Academy of Science in 1880 in which he listed seven riddles which, he declared, science could not explain.

  74. Pierre Fermat (1601-1665)
    • There is some dispute [',' K Barner, How old did Fermat become?, International Journal for History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 8 (4) (2001) 209-228.','14] about the date of Pierre's birth as given above, since it is possible that he had an elder brother (who had also been given the name Pierre) but who died young.

  75. Sydney Goldstein (1903-1989)
    • There exist enormous social applications, not only in medicine, but also in other areas.

  76. István Feny (1917-1987)
    • Therefore it is not surprising to find, in addition to his scientific works in Mathematical Analysis, also works on the History of Mathematics, on the Philosophy of Science, and countless others on the applications of mathematics to Medicine, Engineering and Computer Science.

  77. Gündüz Ikeda (1926-2003)
    • He was even often found to be helping many a faculty applicant to associate professorship or professorship in Medicine or Agriculture in their various correlation problems.

  78. Liu Hong (129-210)
    • Its text included works on practical matters such as mathematics and medicine, as well as treatises on philosophy and religion and the arts.

  79. Giovanni Benedetti (1530-1590)
    • a Spaniard, philosopher, and physicus, probably in the sense of "student of nature" but possibly meaning "doctor of medicine".

  80. Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)
    • Stephen Hawking's parents lived in London where his father was undertaking research into medicine.

  81. Rabbi Ben Ezra (1092-1167)
    • grammar, exegesis, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, and astrology.

  82. Wassily Hoeffding (1914-1991)
    • My mother, nee Wedensky, had studied medicine.

  83. Mary Everest Boole (1832-1916)
    • Being a strong believer in homeopathy, he went with his family to Poissy, near Paris, in France in 1837 to be treated by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of the homoeopathic system of medicine, leaving his curate in charge of the church at Wickwar.

  84. Jonas Kubilius (1921-2011)
    • Kubilius was married and when asked the secret of their happiness he replied, "I had a good wife, a wonderful woman." They had a son Kestutis who became a mathematician and a daughter Birute who became a professor of medicine.

  85. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626)
    • Hester Higton writes [',' H Higton, Instruments and Illustration: The Use of Images in Edmund Gunter’s ’De Sectore et Radio’, Early Science and Medicine 18 (1-2) (2013), 180-200.','14]:- .

  86. Axel Harnack (1851-1888)
    • The children were: Anna Harnack (1849-1868); Karl Gustav Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930) (known as Adolf) who became a Lutheran theologian and a church historian; Karl Gustav Axel Harnack (1851-1888) (known as Axel), the subject of this biography; Friedrich Moritz Erich Harnack (1852-1915) (known as Erich) who studied medicine and became a pharmacologist, and Rudolf Gottfried Otto Harnack (1857-1914) (known as Otto) who became a professor of history, literature and aesthetics (he committed suicide on 22 March 1914).

  87. Eudoxus (408 BC-355 BC)
    • Eudoxus also visited Sicily, where he studied medicine with Philiston, before making his first visit to Athens in the company of the physician Theomedon.

  88. Asger Aaboe (1922-2007)
    • Aaboe was promoted to Associate Professor at Tufts in 1959, then two years later accepted an invitation to join the newly created Department of the History of Science and Medicine at Yale.

  89. Giuseppe Pompilj (1913-1968)
    • In particular, he very much supported statistical research related to medicine and science in general.

  90. Georges Buffon (1707-1788)
    • In 1728 Buffon went to Angers to study mathematics, but he also studied other topics such as medicine and botany.

  91. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • A consequence of this was that Tycho developed an interest in medicine and alchemy.

  92. Baha' al-Din al-Amili (1547-1621)
    • It was in Isfahan that he completed his education having excellent teachers of mathematics and medicine.

  93. Gherard (1114-1187)
    • Some were on science in general, others were on medicine.

  94. Sergei Fomin (1917-1975)
    • Sergei Vasilovich Fomin's father was a professor of medicine at the University of Moscow.

  95. Henri Poincaré (1854-1912)
    • Henri was born in Nancy where his father was Professor of Medicine at the University.

  96. Thomas Cherry (1898-1966)
    • His service with the Flying Corps was short (from 25 July 1918 to 24 December 1918), and he then began to study medicine at the University of Melbourne.

  97. Salvatore Pincherle (1853-1936)
    • Maurizio studied medicine and was appointed Professor in the Pediatric Clinic at the University of Bologna in 1929.

  98. Henry Briggs (1561-1630)
    • Thomas Linacre, born almost exactly 100 years before Briggs, had been so upset by the fact that medicine was practiced by barbers and clergymen without proper qualifications that he founded the Royal College of Physicians of London.

  99. Paul du Bois-Reymond (1831-1889)
    • Emile had been elected to the Prussian Academy of Science two years earlier and Paul, striving to follow, began to study medicine.

  100. Demetrios Magiros (1912-1982)
    • These range from fields such as astrodynamics, meteorology, and control systems to biology, chemistry, medicine, and economics.

  101. D'Arcy Thompson (1860-1948)
    • After starting a medicine course at Edinburgh University in 1877 he studied this for three years before he changed to study zoology at Trinity College, Cambridge.

  102. Shen Kua (1031-1095)
    • It is a remarkable scientific document which contains his work on mathematics, music, astronomy, calendars, cartography, geology, optics and medicine.

  103. Ambrose Rogers (1920-2005)
    • Leonard Rogers retired from the Indian Medical Service in 1921 and the family lived in London where Leonard took on many duties such as lecturing on tropical medicine, serving on the India Office medical board, and being the medical adviser to the secretary of state.

  104. Nikolai Nikolaevich Krasovskii (1924-2012)
    • Nikolai was a highly cultured man, whose interests ranged from literature, arts, and theatre to events in medicine and sports.

  105. Chike Obi (1921-2008)
    • Joseph Obi studied medicine and became a university professor.

  106. Duncan Gregory (1813-1844)
    • Duncan Gregory's great great grandfather was James Gregory and he was the youngest son of another James Gregory (1753-1821) who was professor of medicine at Edinburgh University.

  107. Giovanni Magini (1555-1617)
    • He published De astrologica ratione in 1607, a work in which he discusses the uses of astrology in medicine.

  108. Giambattista della Porta (1535-1615)
    • Mathematics and medicine were the topics most emphasised in his education and it is thought likely that he attended lectures given by the leading expert on these topics at the time, Girolamo Cardano.

  109. Jean Frenet (1816-1900)
    • However the University was suppressed during the French Revolution and by the time Frenet went there to study it had been broken up into separate faculties of law, theology, science, letters, and medicine.

  110. Robert Simson (1687-1768)
    • The University of St Andrews awarded Simson an honorary Doctorate of Medicine in 1746.

  111. Ágoston Scholtz (1844-1916)
    • At that time the university had four faculties: arts, law, theology and medicine.

  112. Adolf Hurwitz (1859-1919)
    • In Konigsberg Hurwitz met Ida Samuel, the daughter a professor in the faculty of medicine, and they married.

  113. Jacques Binet (1786-1856)
    • He spent several years in Italy, returned to Paris where he was involved in the design of the School of Medicine, and then went to Rennes where he was involved in many projects including the cathedral.

  114. Sir James Lighthill (1924-1998)
    • He would invariably take the chair at inaugural lectures and, in thanking the speaker, provide an erudite coda - for any discipline - be it Egyptology, literature (illuminated by his ability to read in most modern European languages), medicine, or our own field of engineering.

  115. Doris Hellman (1910-1973)
    • In this book he is described as "Adjunct Attending Gynecologist and Obstetrician, Lebanon Hospital New York; Attending Gynecologist, German Hospital Dispensary, New York; Fellow, New York Academy of Medicine." He was also an avid collector of historical books, manuscripts, and typescripts.

  116. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Marchenko (1922-)
    • Let us note that Irina went on to become an expert in art history, Dmitri became an engineer, and Sergei studied medicine but was killed in 1944 during World War II.

  117. Gabriele Manfredi (1681-1761)
    • Gabriele began to study medicine but the anatomy classes he attended frightened him so he decided to change topics and, for a while, studied history, languages, poetry and geography.

  118. Nicolaas de Bruijn (1918-2012)
    • He lists on his website: Member Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences since 1957; Invited Speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Nice 1970; Ridder Nederlandse Leeuw (Knight in the Order of the Lion) 1981; Snellius Medal 1985 (This medal of the "Genootschap ter Bevordering van natuur-, genees-, en heelkunde" is awarded only once in 9 years for the whole field of mathematics, natural sciences and medicine.

  119. Raj Chandra Bose (1901-1987)
    • he remembered that there were still some medicines, including a bottle of quinine, in his father's medicine chest.

  120. Israil Gelfand (1913-2009)
    • From 1958 onwards Gelfand became interested in problems in biology and medicine.

  121. Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896)
    • However, he suffered severe migraines and decided to give up medicine.

  122. Ahmed ibn Yusuf (835-912)
    • As well as a text on medicine, Yusuf is known to have written a work on astronomy and produced a collection of astronomical tables.

  123. Attia Ashour (1924-2017)
    • Many members of his family, however, were against this and would have liked to see him study medicine or agriculture.

  124. Joséphine Guidy-Wandja (1945-)
    • My parents wanted me to opt for medicine.

  125. Isaac Barrow (1630-1677)
    • Barrow had taken an oath to study divinity when he was admitted as a fellow, and, after briefly studying medicine, he began studying divinity again.

  126. Chrystal Macmillan (1872-1937)
    • In session 1893-94 she took Chemistry and Practical Chemistry with Drinkwater in the School of Medicine, Intermediate Honours Mathematics with Chrystal and Intermediate Honours Natural Philosophy with Knott.

  127. Eustachio Manfredi (1674-1739)
    • They had to find a larger place to meet and they met from that time on at the home of Jacopo Sandri, a professor of anatomy and medicine at Bologna University.

  128. René de Sluze (1622-1685)
    • his research ranged from mathematics to astronomy, chronometry, chemistry, medicine, embryology, the development of the thermometer and the barometer, and the transfusion of blood.

  129. Johann Radon (1887-1956)
    • Next came papers on convex functions and sets and on the determination of functions from the values of their integrals on certain manifolds [Uber die Bestimmung von Funktionen durch ihre Integralwerte langs gewisser Mannigfaltigkeiten Ⓣ (1917)] which contains the Radon transform that plays an important role today, especially in medicine and geophysics.

  130. Rózsa Péter (1905-1977)
    • Her older brother was already studying medicine and Rozsa's father thought that if Rozsa studied chemistry she could usefully collaborate with her brother.

  131. Johannes Boersma (1937-2004)
    • Boersma was married to Lolkje, and they had a daughter Ykelien who studied medicine.

  132. Victor Olunloyo (1935-)
    • Among his dormitory roommates at that time were Sulaiman Botsende Lagundoye, who became a radiologist and medical professor, Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1986, Oladipo Olujumi Akinkugbe, who became a professor of medicine, and Olalekan Are, who became "Nigeria's foremost agronomist, civil/public servant, philanthropist." Not only did Victor Olunloyo excel at mathematics at Government College, but he was also an excellent cricketer, an outstanding opening bowler, who played in the school team.

  133. Kathleen Ollerenshaw (1912-2014)
    • Her first choice would have been Cambridge because of its mathematical reputation, but Robert had just started studying medicine at Oxford.

  134. Carl Friedrich Hindenburg (1741-1808)
    • he took courses in medicine, philosophy, Latin, Greek, physics, mathematics, and aesthetics.

  135. Alexander Oppenheim (1903-1997)
    • New field of study were introduced, the most notable being medicine with the establishment of a medical faculty, complete with its teaching hospital.

  136. Al-Biruni (973-1048)
    • Al-Biruni was amazingly well read, having knowledge of Sanskrit literature on topics such as astrology, astronomy, chronology, geography, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, religion, and weights and measures.

  137. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978)
    • Unfortunately he believed all his life that he was always right not only in mathematics but also in medicine, so he was a very difficult patient for doctors.

  138. Richard von Mises (1883-1953)
    • Positivism does not claim that all questions can be answered rationally, just as medicine is not based on the premise that all diseases are curable, or physics does not start out with the postulate that all phenomena are explicable.

  139. John Aitchison (1926-2016)
    • Compositional data consisting of vectors of positive components subject to a unit-sum constraint arise in many disciplines, for example in geology as major-oxide compositions of rocks, in economics as budget share patterns of household expenditure, in medicine as compositions of renal calculi, in psychology as activity patterns of subjects.

  140. Julius König (1849-1913)
    • However, after leaving the secondary school in Gyor when he was sixteen years old, he went to study medicine in Vienna.

  141. William Hamilton (1788-1856)
    • He continued to study logic and moral philosophy at Glasgow before entering the University of Edinburgh in 1806 to study medicine.

  142. Charles Graves (1812-1899)
    • John Cheyne was a Doctor of Medicine who was Physician General to the Forces in Ireland.

  143. Jean d'Alembert (1717-1783)
    • The following year d'Alembert studied medicine but this was a topic that he found even worse than theology.

  144. George Udny Yule (1871-1951)
    • Hardly any subjects within the range of preventative medicine are of more immediate importance than the methods of prophylaxis which ought to be adopted with respect to typhoid fever and cholera.

  145. Vincenzo Flauti (1782-1863)
    • In fact Flauti had started to study medicine but largely due to Fergola's influence, he turned to mathematics.

  146. Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010)
    • He also held appointments as Professor of Engineering at Yale, of Professor of Mathematics at the Ecole Polytechnique, of Professor of Economics at Harvard, and of Professor of Physiology at the Einstein College of Medicine.

  147. Ian Sneddon (1919-2000)
    • In 1960 Sneddon published a joint text with J G Defares, An introduction to the mathematics of medicine and biology.

  148. James Hutton (1726-1797)
    • It may have been that Hutton never intended to practice medicine as a career, or he may have decided to avoid Edinburgh for a while since that was where his illegitimate son was living.

  149. Pietro Cataldi (1548-1626)
    • He remained there until 1584 and then returned to Bologna where he was awarded a doctorate in philosophy and in medicine.

  150. Hans Zassenhaus (1912-1991)
    • By 1933 all four Zassenhaus children were at Hamburg University, Hans was working on his doctoral dissertation, Guenther and Willfried were studying medicine and Hiltgunt began studying Scandinavian languages.

  151. Leonard Jimmie Savage (1917-1971)
    • In addition, he has published significant papers in economics, biology, and medicine.

  152. Charles Niven (1845-1923)
    • He went on to study medicine and became medical officer of health for Manchester.

  153. Johann Friedrich Pfaff (1765-1825)
    • The second youngest, Christoph Heinrich Pfaff was born in 1773 and, with interests in chemistry, medicine and pharmacy, he worked with Volta on electricity in animals.

  154. Harold Hotelling (1895-1973)
    • Should statistics be taught in the department of agriculture, anthropology, astronomy, biology, business, economics, education, engineering, medicine, physics, political science, psychology, or sociology, or in all these departments? Should its teaching be entrusted to the department of mathematics, or to a separate department of statistics, and in either of these cases should other departments be prohibited from offering duplicating courses in statistics, as they are often inclined to do? ..

  155. Jacques Bertillon (1851-1922)
    • Riley, in [',' R C Riley, The Morbidity of Medical Practitioners, Social History of Medicine 9 (3) (1996), 467-471.','10], gives an example where Bertillon has failed to take into account certain relevant facts:- .

  156. Philippa Fawcett (1868-1948)
    • Millicent Garrett also had a famous older sister Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, who was a pioneer of women in medicine (the first woman to graduate from the University of St Andrews) and struggled to be allowed to practice as a doctor.

  157. John Pople (1925-2004)
    • At this time World War II was taking place but young men who wanted to study mathematics, science or medicine were allowed to take a two year university degree before undertaking war work.

  158. Gloria Hewitt (1935-)
    • This was not because she particularly wanted to be a nurse, it was more because she knew that medicine was not an option open to African Americans.

  159. Nicolas Chuquet (1445-1488)
    • Nicolas Chuquet describes himself as a Parisian and says that he is a bachelor of medicine.

  160. Ivor Etherington (1908-1994)
    • Ffoulkes Edwards was studying medicine at University College Hospital, London and after he took up his lectureship in Edinburgh, Etherington began a long correspondence with him on blood group inheritance.

  161. Domenico Montesano (1863-1930)
    • One of the two sons who took up medicine was Domenico's younger brother Giuseppe Ferruccio Montesano, born in Potenza on 4 October 1868.

  162. Jerzy o (1920-1998)
    • In 1937 Łoś entered the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwow where he began studying medicine, then philosophy and chemistry.

  163. Jacob Bernoulli (1655-1705)
    • Johann was told by his father to study medicine but while he was studying that topic he asked his brother Jacob to teach him mathematics.

  164. Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC)
    • Proxenus taught Aristotle Greek, rhetoric, and poetry which complemented the biological teachings that Nicomachus had given Aristotle as part of training his son in medicine.

  165. Kurt Hirsch (1906-1986)
    • He published Handbook of historical and geographical pathology (2 Volumes, 1859, 1864) and was appointed professor of the history of medicine at Berlin in 1863.

  166. Vincenzo Riccati (1707-1775)
    • Five years later he became professor of practical medicine at Bologna.

  167. Laura Bassi (1711-1778)
    • Laura's father employed a private tutor, Gaetano Tacconi who was a professor at the College of Medicine, to educate her and she received excellent teaching in a large range of subjects from Tacconi over a period of seven years.

  168. Raphael Weldon (1860-1906)
    • There he studied a wide range of subjects which he took in preparation for studying medicine.

  169. Pierre Rémond de Montmort (1678-1719)
    • The histories of painting, of music, of medicine have been written.

  170. Johannes Campanus (1220-1296)
    • In [',' H L L Busard and K A Tredwell, Campanus de Novara, in Thomas F Glick, Steven John Livesey and Faith Wallis (eds.), Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia (Routledge, 2005), 111-114.','9] Katherine Tredwell gives this summary of Campanus's astronomical contribution:- .

  171. Patrick Hardie (1873-1943)
    • Later, in 1913, he taught at Kedivial Training College, Cairo, and from 1922 in the Physics Department of the School of Medicine, Cairo.

  172. Nicola Fergola (1753-1824)
    • The University of Naples taught some courses on geometry and arithmetic but the topics that were at the forefront were medicine and law.

  173. James Gray (1876-1934)
    • The second son of Professor Gray, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University, Dr Gray has for some years been performing the duties of a Professor of Applied Physics, conducting the classes in physics in the University for engineering students and for students of medicine.

  174. J E Littlewood (1885-1977)
    • Edward and Sylvia Littlewood went on to have three sons, their second being Martin Wentworth Littlewood, who went on to study medicine, and a third son who tragically died when he was eight years old by falling into a lake from a bridge.

  175. Gary Roach (1933-2012)
    • The book offers a comprehensive introductory text in acoustic wave propagation and scattering by time-dependent perturbations which occur in a broad range of applications, including radar, sonar, engineering diagnostics, geophysical prospecting, ultrasonic medicine, etc.

  176. Franz Aepinus (1724-1802)
    • Aepinus studied medicine and mathematics at the universities of Jena and Rostock.

  177. Leo Königsberger (1837-1921)
    • Jakob had intended to study medicine but on the death of his own father, Leo's paternal grandfather, he had to take over a major manufacturing business to support his mother and siblings.

  178. Paddy Kennedy (1929-1966)
    • This had not been his original intention which was to study medicine, but he had been persuaded that he should read for a science degree.

  179. William Niven (1842-1917)
    • He went on to study medicine and became medical officer of health for Manchester.

  180. Roger Bacon (1214-1292)
    • [Peregrinus] gains knowledge of matters of nature, medicine, and alchemy through experiment, and all that is in the heaven and in the earth beneath.

  181. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    • However Galileo, still reluctant to study medicine, invited Ricci (also in Florence where the Tuscan court spent the summer and autumn) to his home to meet his father.

  182. Noel Slater (1912-1973)
    • The unsuspecting reader would be forgiven for believing that Albert Slater was either a doctor of medicine or had a Ph.D.

  183. Hans Bethe (1906-2005)
    • Hans' parents were Albrecht, a physician, and Ella whose father was a professor of medicine at the university in Strasbourg.

  184. Christian Goldbach (1690-1764)
    • He seems to have studied some mathematics, but he mainly studied law and medicine.

  185. Maria Cunitz (about 1607-1664)
    • Much more remarkably, she also learnt mathematics, medicine, and history which were certainly considered subjects unsuitable for a woman at this time.

  186. Empedocles (about 492 BC-about 432 BC)
    • Aristotle is said to have considered him the inventor of rhetoric while Galen regarded him as the founder of the science of medicine in Italy.

  187. William Morgan (1750-1833)
    • was born in Wales and originally studied medicine at Guy's Hospital in London.

  188. Nikolai Luzin (1883-1950)
    • After returning to Russia, Luzin studied medicine and theology as well as mathematics.

  189. Mikhail Yakovlevich Suslin (1894-1919)
    • Medicine was to be the final part of this plan, and to this subject Suslin intended to devote his whole future life.

  190. James Thomson (1786-1849)
    • After graduating in 1812 he continued to attend classes in Medicine and Divinity still with the intention of entering the Church.

  191. Raoul Bott (1923-2005)
    • He explained how his "conversion" to mathematics took place via an attempt to move into medicine (see for example [',' L W Tu, The life and works of Raoul Bott, in S-T Yau (ed.), The founders of index theory: reminiscences of Atiyah, Bott, Hirzebruch, and Singer (International Press, Somerville, MA, 2003).','22]):- .

  192. Vitruvius (about 85 BC-about 20 BC)
    • Let him be educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens.

  193. John McWhan (1885-1943)
    • He had an older brother Andrew (born about 1881) who went on to study medicine.

  194. Robert May (1936-)
    • Did he really want to spend his life doing that? His mother wanted him to study medicine since a few close members of her family were doctors.

  195. Ernst Straus (1922-1983)
    • There Rahel practised medicine and became very active in social work.

  196. Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)
    • His original intention was to study medicine but he changed to study a broad scientific course involving mathematics and physics.

  197. David Tweedie (1865-1934)
    • He then continued to study there in the Faculty of Medicine for a B.Sc.

  198. Wilhelm Weber (1804-1891)
    • The family lived in the house of Christian August Langguth, the professor of medicine and natural history in Wittenberg, on the Schlossstrasse.

  199. James Cockle (1819-1895)
    • James Cockle's father, also named James Cockle, was a doctor who both treated patients and manufactured his own medicine to sell.

  200. Lev Landau (1908-1968)
    • Lev Landau's mother, Lyubov Veniaminovna Harkavi (1876-1941), had trained in medicine and she had undertaken work in physiology.

  201. John Arbuthnot (1667-1735)
    • At Oxford Arbuthnot studied medicine privately during 1694-96, then took a medical degree at the University of St Andrews defending his theses on the day that he enrolled on 11 September 1696.

  202. Jean-Baptiste Morin (1583-1656)
    • Jean-Baptiste Morin studied philosophy at Aix in 1609, then two years later he went to Avignon where he studied medicine, receiving a medical degree in 1613.

  203. Richard Fuchs (1873-1944)
    • Hessenberg, Schulze and Bartels were students of mathematics, theoretical physics and medicine, respectively, who all obtained their doctorates in 1897.

  204. Emilie Martin (1869-1936)
    • Collier Ford Martin became a physician and professor of medicine in Philadelphia.

  205. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)
    • However, the Senate of Messina was delighted to have such an outstanding scholar as Borelli at their university and in late 1641 they sent him on a long trip with the aim of recruiting top class academics for the University of Messina, particularly in law and medicine.

  206. Zhang Heng (78-139)
    • Its text included works on practical matters such as mathematics and medicine, as well as treatises on philosophy and religion and the arts.

  207. Simon Mayr (1573-1624)
    • He then went to Padua where he studied medicine.

  208. Thabit (836-901)
    • In Baghdad Thabit received mathematical training and also training in medicine, which was common for scholars of that time.

History Topics

  1. Ledermann interview
    • It was Walter's brother who was studying medicine in Edinburgh who heard about the St Andrews scholarships.
    • He was not allowed to practice medicine anymore, except for Jewish patients, but soon there weren't any, and then one day he had an accident and he was knocked down in the street by a car.

  2. African women 1
    • She also worked on cancer survival at the Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK).

  3. Fractal Geometry
    • Furthermore, fractal geometry and chaos theory have important connections to physics, medicine, and the study of population dynamics.

Societies etc

  1. Zurich Scientific Research Society
    • After visiting Paris in 1727 he went to Basel in the following year where he studied mathematics with Johann Bernoulli and medicine with other scholars.
    • After the award of his doctorate he gave an inaugural lecture "On the usefulness of mathematics in the art of medicine." Returning to Zurich he worked on mathematics, medicine and botany.
    • The wide range of activities of the Society was divided into the following five areas: Natural science, natural history, mathematics, art of medicine and technology.
    • On the one hand, the Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zurich wants to promote contact and exchange between the increasingly numerous disciplines of modern science, medicine and technology, and on the other hand, to facilitate the public's access to sound knowledge in all areas.

  2. Italian Academy of Sciences
    • A physicist who made important contributions to medicine.
    • An anatomist and physiologist, he was professor of practical medicine at the University of Bologna and then professor of theoretical medicine at the University of Padua.
    • A physician and botanist, he successively held the chairs of practical and theoretical medicine at the University of Naples.

  3. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
    • Among the academic staff of the newly-founded university there were a number of researchers renowned for their achievements in the fields of mathematics, medicine, natural and social sciences, and the humanities.
    • Vilnius Academy of Medicine and Surgery was closed in 1842, and the Theological Academy was moved to St Petersburg.
    • Basanavičius (1851-1927) had studied medicine in Moscow and worked as a doctor in Bulgaria from 1880 to 1905.

  4. Slovenian Academy of Sciences
    • One of the main aims of the 13 lawyers, 6 theologians and 4 doctors who joined the society at its official convening in 1701 was, as written in the academy's charter, to publish "the Ljubljana academy's learned discussions on theology, jurisprudence, medicine, civics ..
    • The most notable scientific essays included work by Academy members, including Janez Gregor Dolničar on history, Janez Štefan Florijančič (Floriantschitsch von Grienfeld) on economics, and the doctor, Marko Grbec (Gerbezius) on medicine.
    • He gathered together a number of scholars, particularly those interested in Slovenian history and language, and the Academy began to operate discussing many topics such as language, history, poetry, philosophy, medicine and law.

  5. Egyptian Academy of Sciences
    • Although the Institut d'Egypte was founded in 1859 (reviving an older institute founded by Napoleon) and counts among its four sections one for Physical and Mathematical Sciences and another for Medicine, Agronomy and Natural History, its main tendency remained literary and artistic.
    • Other Faculties, such as Medicine and Engineering, have contributed to the growth of pure science in addition to their work in the fields of applied science.

  6. Mexican Academy of Sciences
    • Natural Sciences (Agro-sciences, Biology and Medicine); and 3.
    • The programme provides grants for young researchers in the areas of Astronomy, Biology, Computing, Physics, Engineering, Education, Mathematics, Medicine and Chemistry so that they may undertake a summer research project in laboratories in the USA.

  7. Italian Society of Applied and Industrial Mathematics
    • The eight plenary lectures covered a wide range of topics, varying from familiar areas of applied analysis, numerical modelling, scientific computing, and computational geophysics to new interdisciplinary subjects such as computational biology and medicine.
    • As of 2013, the SIMAI Springer Series opens to SEMA in order to publish a joint series aiming to publish advanced textbooks, research-level monographs and collected works that focus on applications of mathematics to social and industrial problems, including biology, medicine, engineering, environment and finance.

  8. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • Physical Sciences now consisted of: chemistry; natural history and mineralogy; botany and vegetable physics; anatomy and zoology; medicine and surgery; and rural economy and veterinary medicine.

  9. Egyptian Academy of Sciences
    • Although the Institut d'Egypte was founded in 1859 (reviving an older institute founded by Napoleon) and counts among its four sections one for Physical and Mathematical Sciences and another for Medicine, Agronomy and Natural History, its main tendency remained literary and artistic.
    • Other Faculties, such as Medicine and Engineering, have contributed to the growth of pure science in addition to their work in the fields of applied science.

  10. Estonian Academy of Sciences
    • Academy's structure was to consist of Central Library and four scientific divisions, embracing altogether 15 research institutes, 2 research sectors, 5 museums and 3 scientific societies as follows: (1) Division of Physical-Mathematical and Engineering Sciences (Institute of Geology; Institute of Chemistry; Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics; Institute of Building and Architecture; Institute of Industrial Problems, Geological Museum); (2) Division of Biological and Agricultural Sciences (Institute of Biology; Institute of Agriculture; Institute of Cattle Breeding and Veterinary; Institute of Forestry; Institute of Zoology; Naturalists' Society); (3) Division of Medical Sciences (Institute of Experimental Medicine; Institute of Health and Occupational Diseases; Institute of Clinical Medicine); (4) Division of Social Sciences (Institute of History; Institute of Language and Literature; Institute of Economics; Sector of Law, Sector of Pedagogy; Museum of the Estonian People; State Literary Museum; Museum of History; Estonian Learned Society; Academic Mother Tongue Society).

  11. Nepal Mathematical Society
    • The journal also emphasises the original mathematical papers devoted to the mathematical sciences with mathematical treatment of questions arising in real-life problems, like computer science/informatics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering, management and all applied sciences.

  12. Norwegian Royal Society
    • The Natural Science Class is considerably larger and is divided into 8 groups: Group I Mathematics; Group II Physics; Group III Chemistry; Group IV General Biology; Group V Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology; Group VI Medicine; Group VII Geoscience; and Group VIII Technology.

  13. Netherlands Academy of Sciences
    • Since that time, the Academy has had two Divisions: Literature (humanities and social sciences) and Natural Science (science, medicine and technology).

  14. German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • is a mainly natural science and medicine scholars' society that is based in its home countries of Germany, Austria and Switzerland and is represented at supranational level by members outside this area.

  15. Göttingen Academy of Sciences
    • Von Haller was Professor of medicine, anatomy, botany and surgery at the University of Gottingen which had been founded in 1734.

  16. Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications
    • a Journal of the IMA; IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics; IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis; Mathematical Medicine and Biology.

  17. Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics
    • As of 2013, the SIMAI Springer Series opens to SEMA in order to publish a joint series aiming to publish advanced textbooks, research-level monographs and collected works that focus on applications of mathematics to social and industrial problems, including biology, medicine, engineering, environment and finance.

  18. Israel Academy of Sciences
    • Among the active committees are those reviewing Israel's nuclear physics program, various life science topics, molecular medicine efforts, and one responsible for the publication of a series of volumes describing Israeli flora and fauna.

  19. Japan Academy
    • Section II has four Subsections: Pure Sciences; Engineering; Agriculture; and Medicine, Pharmaceutics, Dentistry.

  20. Romanian Academy
    • They organized research centres in diverse domains; they wrote and published works of reference in Romanian or European scientific literature; they founded and endowed museums and libraries; they provided the solutions to national problems in economy, technology, medicine or education; finally, through courses and theoretical as well as practical guidance, they trained young scholars which would rise to both national and international fame, illustrating excellence both as scientists and as university professors.

  21. Norwegian Academy of Sciences
    • This congress gave Christiania the confidence to move forward and the Professor of Medicine, Frantz Christian Faye (1806-1890), came up with both the initiative and the finance to found the 'Videnskabsselskabet i Christiania' which was inaugurated on 3 May 1857.

  22. Finnish Academy of Sciences
    • The science section contains the disciplines: Mathematics and Computer Science; Physics and Astronomy; Geosciences; Chemistry; Biology; Agriculture and Forestry; and Medicine.

  23. New Zealand Royal Society
    • He is frequently called upon to advise in an official capacity on questions in the fields of science and technology, medicine and even commercial activity.

  24. Macedonian Academy of Sciences
    • The period between the 1914-18 and 1939-45 wars saw major developments on Macedonian literature, Macedonian music, and the sciences, particularly technical sciences, medicine, agriculture and economics.

  25. Turkish Academy of Sciences
    • Four funding committees were set up initially to support basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and agriculture.


  1. Wilks Award of the ASS
    • for major contributions to the development of theory and application of multivariate analysis, specially to educational statistics; for novel statistical applications in social sciences, psychology, medicine, and engineering; for active participation in government commissions and committees for advancement of statistics at the national level; for growth and creation of quality statistical journals; for important contributions to the development of meta-analysis; for development of statistical training through active participation in review committees of department of statistics in universities and generous advise to young statisticians; and for innovative efforts as a teacher, editor, author, and consultant in the spirit and ideals of Samuel S Wilks.
    • for pioneering the development of statistical software and founding the Statistical Computing Sections of ASA and ISI; for writing a textbook having a profound influence on the teaching of statistics; for founding and leading distinguished biostatistics and biomathematics departments and collaborative research in biology and medicine; and for methodological research in statistics, and leadership in international scientific efforts.

  2. Jose Celestino Mutis Prize
    • In July 1757 he received a doctorate in medicine in Madrid.

  3. Shaw Prize
    • The Shaw Prize consists of three annual prizes: Astronomy, Life Science and Medicine, and Mathematical Sciences, each bearing a monetary award of US $1,200,000.

  4. Wolf Prize
    • In science, the fields are agriculture, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, and physics; in the arts, the prize rotates annually among music, painting, sculpture and architecture.

  5. Pioneer Prize
    • for his fundamental methods and algorithms which have had a large impact in applications such as in imaging and shape recovery in medicine, geophysics and tomography and drop dynamics in inkjets.


  1. References for Hans Wussing
    • M Folkerts, Hans Wussing 80 Jahre, Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology, and Medicine 15 (4) (2007), 295-297.
    • K-H Schlote and H Wussing, Hans Wussing - Auskunfte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte in der ehehemaligen DDR, Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology, and Medicine 7 (2) (1999), 65-82.

  2. References for Bartel van der Waerden
    • Y Dold-Samplonius, Bartel Leendert van der Waerden befragt von Yvonne Dold-Samplonius, NTM (International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine), New Series 2 (1994), 129-147.

  3. References for Petre Sergescu
    • History of Medicine 10 (4) (1955), 421-425.

  4. References for John Dee
    • U Szulakowska, Paracelsian medicine in John Dee's alchemical diaries, Cauda Pavonis 18 (1999).

  5. References for Jacques Bertillon
    • R C Riley, The Morbidity of Medical Practitioners, Social History of Medicine 9 (3) (1996), 467-471.

  6. References for Albert of Saxony
    • T F Glick, S J Livesey and F Wallis, Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia (Routledge, 2005).

  7. References for Honoré Fabri
    • C R Palmerino, Infinite Degrees of Speed: Marin Mersenne and the Debate over Galileo's Law of Free Fall, Early Science and Medicine 4 (4) (1999), 269-328.

  8. References for Sewall Green Wright
    • J F Crow, Sewall Wright, the Scientist and the Man, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2 (1982), 279-94.

  9. References for Mei Juecheng
    • C Jami and Han Qi, The Reconstruction of Imperial Mathematics in China During the Kangxi Reign (1662-1722), Early Science and Medicine 8 (2) (2003), 88-110.

  10. References for Pierre Fermat
    • K Barner, How old did Fermat become?, International Journal for History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 8 (4) (2001) 209-228.

  11. References for Philip van Lansberge
    • The reception of the new astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1575-1750 by Rienk Vermij, Early Science and Medicine 9 (2) (2004), 172-174.

  12. References for Edmund Gunter
    • H Higton, Instruments and Illustration: The Use of Images in Edmund Gunter's 'De Sectore et Radio', Early Science and Medicine 18 (1-2) (2013), 180-200.

  13. References for Gottfried Leibniz
    • Medicine 17 (1962), 72-82.

  14. References for Jacques Le Tenneur
    • C R Palmerino, Infinite Degrees of Speed: Marin Mersenne and the Debate over Galileo's Law of Free Fall, Early Science and Medicine 4 (4) (1999), 269-328.

  15. References for Félix Savart
    • Medicine (October, 1959), 411-423.

  16. References for Johannes Campanus
    • H L L Busard and K A Tredwell, Campanus de Novara, in Thomas F Glick, Steven John Livesey and Faith Wallis (eds.), Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia (Routledge, 2005), 111-114.

  17. References for Mei Wending
    • C Jami and Q Han, The Reconstruction of Imperial Mathematics in China during the Kangxi Reign (1662-1722), Early Science and Medicine 8 (2) (2003), 88-110.

  18. References for Giovanni Alfonso Borelli
    • D B Meli, Authorship and Teamwork around the Cimento Academy: Mathematics, Anatomy, Experimental Philosophy, Early Science and Medicine 6 (2) (2001), 65-95.

  19. References for Bruno de Finetti
    • C Rossi, Bruno de Finetti : the mathematician, the statistician, the economist, the forerunner, Statistics in Medicine 20 (2001), 3651-3666.

Additional material

  1. Hendricks autobiography
    • I admired the doctor's learning and especially his ready flow of language and the ease and grace of his deportment, and, in the spring of 1840, I proposed to read medicine under his instruction for a period of two years, and support myself in the mean time by teaching school occasionally, and was accepted by him as a student of medicine.
    • I had then more faith in medicine than I have now, and the study of medicine soon became as interesting to me as the study of mathematics had been.
    • After reading medicine industriously some two or three months in the spring of 1840, I was offered a summer school for a term of three months, and as I needed the proceeds, and believed that it would not interfere with my reading, I concluded to accept the offer; but I was required, in this school, to teach Grammar, and I had never studied it.
    • I went to Weston, Ohio, intending to practice medicine a couple of years and accumulate funds sufficient to enable me to attend medical lectures and graduate, after which I intended to spend my life in the practice of medicine.
    • And although I never abandoned the INTENTION, while I was engaged in the practice of medicine, of attending lectures and graduating as an M.D., the increasing demands upon my time and attention, arising from the care of a family of children with which I have been blessed, precluded me from doing so; and hence, though I practiced medicine as a profession, about 20 years, with, I trust, a fair degree of success, I never graduated as an M.D.
    • And here I will say, with respect to the medical profession, that although I regard a good and intelligent physician as one of the most honourable, and most valuable members of society, yet in consequence of the ignorance and cupidity of many practitioners, and of the insane faith of the majority of mankind in the efficacy of medicine to CURE disease, I believe with Dr Holmes, that the human family would he the gainer if all medicine were thrown into the sea.
    • During the latter period of my practice, and after I abandoned the practice of medicine, though I never made politics a study, and never aspired to a political office, I was intrusted with several local offices, including that of School Examiner, County Surveyor, County Treasurer, County Auditor, Deputy U.S.

  2. Science at St Andrews
    • James Gregory was the greatest in a family who for 200 years had occupied university Chairs upon twenty-two occasions, representing mathematics, medicine, chemistry, history and philosophy at St Andrews, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Oxford.
    • The family of Gregory has been equally renowned for mathematics and medicine.
    • After a broad survey of existing knowledge he described medicine as the most uncertain of the natural philosophies, but he called on men to extend the analytical method to all those problems to which its genius can be extended: and he looked for a universal analysis that, for example, could be applied to problems dealing with the mind.

  3. Aitchison books
    • Statistical Concepts and Applications in Clinical Medicine (2004), by John Aitchison, Jim W Kay and Ian J Laude.
    • Statistical Concepts and Applications in Clinical Medicine presents a unique, problem-oriented approach to using statistical methods in clinical medical practice through each stage of the clinical process, including observation, diagnosis, and treatment.
    • In truth, it is actually a fascinating book on an area of clinical medicine where biostatisticians rarely tread: the medical care of the individual.

  4. Education in St Andrews in 1849
    • The eight professorships are devoted to the inculcating of Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Logic and Rhetoric, Medicine, Moral Philosophy, Natural Philosophy, and Civil History.
    • The class of Medicine or Descriptive Anatomy is attended by very few, and those only who intend to follow out the study of medicine.

  5. Mathematics at Aberdeen 1
    • The Foundation Charter published in 1505 provided for four faculties, Arts, Theology, Law and Medicine.
    • Arbuthnot was a man of great ability, 'In all sciences expert: a good poet, mathematician, philosopher, theologue, lawyer and in medicine skilful', but he was unable to make any headway against the traditionalism of the majority of the masters at King's College.
    • He worked at universities in Frankfurt, Breslau and Helmstadt where he held chairs in Mathematics and Medicine.

  6. Rudio's talk
    • After having completed his school education he matriculated at the University of Cracow, where he studied humanities, mathematics and medicine, thus gaining a solid and eclectic education.
    • At the age of 23 he went to Italy, in order to prepare for the post as Canon in Frauenburg, which his uncle, the future Bishop of Ermland intended for him, by studying theology and medicine in Bologna.

  7. Dingle books
    • There are four chapters on physics, two each on chemistry and astronomy, single ones on geology, meteorology, evolution, genetics, histology and physiology, biochemistry, and medicine, two chapters, one of them short, on the coming of man and his subsequent development, and two on psychology.
    • The topics covered in 'A century of science' include energy, field physics, particle physics, structure of the atom, structure of molecules, chemical elements, geology, the earth's atmosphere, the constitution and evolution of stars, the structure of the universe, organic evolution, the coming of man, the progress of homo sapiens, genetics and embryology, physiology and histology, biochemistry, medicine, general psychology, medical psychology, and a concluding section on the significance of science.

  8. Santalo honorary doctorate
    • Stereology is a first, very simplified, approximation of the general problem of computerized tomography, whose roots also belong to integral geometry in the harder sense of Helgason and Gelfand, which was initiated by the mathematician Radon in 1917, led to practical use by the physicist A M Cormack (1963) and industrialized by the engineer G N Hounsfield (1972), receiving for these two last ones the Nobel prize for Medicine in 1979.
    • It is a clear example of the unity of science because for the joint effort of a mathematician, a physicist and an engineer, still separated in time and space, each working in his field, achieved a transcendental result in medicine.

  9. More Smith History books
    • Interest in the history of scientific thought in American colonies is notable, particularly in medicine, chemistry, astronomy and mathematics.
    • while at the same time he felt that he was one of the most profound and fertile geniuses that Italy has ever produced, and that in mathematics and in medicine he had made rare and valuable discoveries." .

  10. Wussing Reviews
    • Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, geology, mathematics, and technology are treated within the context of a somewhat mushy Marxist view.
    • Why study the history of mathematics when mathematics is such a dreaded subject for many students and most people only shudder when recalling classes and tests in mathematics? The mathematical historian Wussing gives a detailed answer to this question in the first chapter of this introduction: The occupation with the history of mathematics is an intellectual adventure, in which one can experience the suspense of how mathematics has evolved, how much hardship and error it took people from the first beginnings in the dim and distant past to erect - over the millennia - the magnificent mental structure whose contents and methods have become the foundation and indispensable apparatus for the development of all technology, the sciences, medicine, business and industry, and which, in the form of the computer, have practically embraced every aspect of modern life.

  11. Vailati Reviews
    • As scientist, to use the noble phrase, one can belong "to the masters of those who know," but as teacher, he must be the masters of those who know not." Dr Vailati points out that at the University of Berlin there are courses in the history of chemistry and of medicine; at Breslau, in the history of medicine, of mathematics and of botany; at Konigsberg, in the history of astronomy; at Graz, in the history of ancient Greek scientific literature; at Wittenberg a special course in the history of chemistry, gen, Bonn, Vienna and Turin, courses in the history At Vienna, too, Dr Mach gave a course on the history of the mechanical theory of heat.

  12. Proclus on pure and applied mathematics
    • Similarly, there is even more reason why neither history nor medicine may be considered a part of mathematics, even though historians often use mathematical theorems, as when they give the location of climata [zones of latitude] or calculate the size and the diameter or circumference of cities.
    • For the importance of astronomy in medicine is made clear by Hippocrates and, in fact, by all who have discoursed on seasons and places.

  13. De Montmort: 'Essai d'Analyse
    • We have a history of painting, of music, of medicine, etc.

  14. The Tercentenary of the birth of James Gregory
    • His daughter Janet married John Gregory of Aberdeen, who had studied at St Mary's College in this University; and thereafter for two hundred years their descendants occupied Scottish Chairs of Mathematics, Medicine, Chemistry, History or Philosophy in an almost unbroken sequence.

  15. Journal of the Statistical Society of London
    • It is unnecessary to show how every subject relating to mankind itself, forms a part of Statistics; such as, population; physiology; religion; instruction; literature; wealth in all its forms, raw material, production, agriculture, manufactures; commerce; finance; government; and, to sum up all, whatever relates to the physical, economical, moral, or intellectual condition of mankind, Mechanics discover the means of abridging human labour; Chemistry enters largely into the economy of Arts; Medicine practises on the bodies of men - all these sciences operate upon human interests, and their powers and effects are susceptible of statistical exposition.

  16. Rudio's Euler talk
    • He knew more about medicine and the sciences than most people; we have heard that he was appointed a physiologist at the St Petersburg Academy at the mere age of twenty.

  17. Eulogy to Euler by Fuss
    • He was familiar with medicine, botany and chemistry; he knew much more than was expected of a scientist whose science was other than the ones he knew so well.

  18. D'Arcy Thompson by David Burt
    • There he studied medicine for two years and learned anatomical dissections and museum work in the laboratory of John Goodsir and William Turner, and was introduced to the wider aspects of zoology by Wyville Thomson who had but recently returned from the famous voyages of the Challenger.

  19. Pedley books
    • Although some entertain the occasional doubt about the attitude of the British public towards the "technological revolution" of the last 20 years they should concede that clinical cardiology has endeavoured to stay close to its glow, if not exactly to its "white heat." Consequently, that most "clinical" branch of medicine has altered out of all recognition.

  20. Studies presented to Richard von Mises' Introduction
    • "Positivism does not claim that all questions can be answered rationally, just as medicine is not based on the premise that all diseases are curable, or physics does not start out with the postulate that all phenomena are explicable.

  21. Mosharrafa extra
    • When the Faculty of Science opened in 1925, the local scientific periodical press (aside from medicine and other applied sciences) consisted of little more than the Bulletins of the Royal Geographical Society and the Institut d'Egypte - neither was dedicated mainly to natural science - and the occasional publications of the Entomological Society and the Helwan Observatory.

  22. De Coste on Mersenne
    • Pierre Meusnier, Doctor of Medicine, addressed an Epistle to Father Mersenne at the beginning of his lectures on Philosophy, in which he describes him as very devout and very scholarly and concludes with the Father's reply to him.

  23. Ashour memoriam
    • He is survived by his wife Karima and his daughter Zeinab, currently Professor at the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

  24. Walk Around Paris
    • It originated in 1530 when Francis I was advised to start the creation of a school that would teach topics to royal scholars, that were not taught at the Sorbonne, originally greek, hebrew and mathematics, and then later, French law, latin and medicine.

  25. Professor Chrystal
    • When Rutherford delivered his first lecture in the Chair of Institutes of Medicine, boisterous students drowned his voice, and he flung out of the room.

  26. Bartlett reviews
    • Drawing on an enormous amount of reading and study, he writes about statistics, probability and stochastic processes, and their role in physics, biology, genetics and medicine.

  27. Stäckel's contribution to Mathematics Teaching
    • helped not only teachers, but also non-specialists who needed mathematics for the study of other sciences and medicine.

  28. Bolyai house and grave
    • We are assuming wine was a common medicine he used in his treatments.

  29. NAS founders
    • He moved from Philadelphia to Delaware County, Pennsylvania, where he practiced medicine and joined the board of directors at Swarthmore College.

  30. Ball papers
    • Throughout his life, Pythagoras was profoundly moved by music, and in his School he taught that it was one of the chief means for exciting and calming emotions - it purged the soul, said his followers, as medicine purges the body.

  31. Mathematics at Aberdeen 3
    • An attempt had been made in 1726 to establish a 'Compleat Course of Experimental Philosophy', given by the professors of Medicine, Philosophy and Mathematics.

  32. Kingman autobiography
    • And so it remained until much later my daughter qualified in medicine.

  33. 21st Century mathematics
    • Among the 1,200 or more presentations at the congress there will be many examples of mathematicians dealing with new problems, ranging from tumour growth in medicine to superalloys in metallurgy, as well as many more where the use of mathematics is well established - engineering, biotechnology and various aspects of environment modelling, such as air pollution dispersion.

  34. May prize
    • He is making good use of this elite standing to promote solutions to a wide range of issues, including ecological preservation, other urgent environmental problems such as global warming, and various problems related to medicine and biology.

  35. Mathematicians and Music 2.2
    • Among those of the sixteenth century achieving a reputation in mathematics and medicine none was better known than he, whose greatest mathematical work, Ars Magna (1545), contains the first solution of the general cubic equation in print.

  36. The Association for Statistics and its Uses
    • One of its main achievements is the establishment every four years, starting in 1989, of an international congress 'Statistical Methods in Biopharmacy', organised in Paris, the papers of which are published in a special issue of the journal Statistics in Medicine.

  37. W H Young addresses ICM 1928 Part 2
    • And yet, these also deserve their place of honour, if only for services like that rendered by Sir Ronald Ross in utilising the simple idea that it is on the percentage of mosquitoes to the individual, not on their mere presence, or even their number, that depends the epidemic of malaria, thereby creating anew the science of tropical medicine.

  38. Mathematics at Aberdeen 4
    • The first Professor of Mathematics under the new system was Dr William Jack, the Vice Principal who had graduated from King's in 1785, become a divinity student, then changed to medicine and practised in his native Shetland, before accepting a regent's post at King's in 1794.

  39. Kuku interview
    • Also, the structure of AAS has nine specialties and some of these specialties, for example, Health and Medicine, are now big platforms supported by Bill and Melinda Gates foundation, Welcome Trust and United Kingdom DFID (Department of International Development).

  40. Statistical Society of Paris
    • In addition to the Presidents of the Republic already mentioned, the society will include a winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine (Charles Richet, winner in 1913) and the Nobel Peace Prize (Leon Bourgeois, awarded in 1920).

    • There is a second son who today studies Medicine but who in his youth won from this Academy a prize concerning the average mean movement of the Planets.

  42. Centenary of John Leslie
    • While gardening on his small estate of Coates, near Largo, he caught a chill and, neglecting medicine as a thing he had not proved, paid no attention to it, and became dangerously ill.

  43. Founding of the Scottish Universities
    • The Papal Bulls institute a Studium Generale or University, for instruction in Theology, Canon and Civil Law, Medicine, and the Liberal Arts, with power to confer Degrees on such as the Bishop might, after due examination and advising with the Doctors and Masters of the University, deem to be worthy of them.


  1. Quotations by Avicenna
    • Next I sought to know medicine, and so read the books written on it.
    • Medicine is not one of the difficult sciences, and therefore, I excelled in it in a very short time, to the point that distinguished physicians began to read the science of medicine under me.

Famous Curves

No matches from this section


  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Ibn Sina (usually called Avicenna) writes on philosophy, medicine, psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
    • Shen Kua writes Meng ch'i pi t'an (Dream Pool Essays), which is a work on mathematics, astronomy, cartography, optics and medicine.

  2. Chronology for 900 to 1100
    • Ibn Sina (usually called Avicenna) writes on philosophy, medicine, psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
    • Shen Kua writes Meng ch'i pi t'an (Dream Pool Essays), which is a work on mathematics, astronomy, cartography, optics and medicine.

EMS Archive

  1. EMS honours James Leslie
    • But while gardening on his small estate, Coates, near Largs, he caught a chill, which he neglected, as medicine was not a proved branch of physical science.

  2. EMS Members
    • HARDIE, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.S.E., Physics Department, School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt .

BMC Archive

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Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Oxford individuals
    • He did his first degree in psychology and physiology, then a DPhil in medicine.
    • Doctor of Medicine in 1646/7.
    • Locke found Oxford philosophy and logic stultifying and took up medicine, not returning to philosophy until 1671.

  2. London individuals N-R
    • Sir William Petty (1623-1687), born in Romsey (see Section 6-A), variously studied medicine and chemistry at Caen, Paris and Oxford.
    • Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932), best known for showing that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes (Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1902), was also a poet and a mathematician who studied functional iteration.
    • He is also commemorated in the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  3. Cambridge Individuals
    • Joseph Needham (1900-1995) was a student of medicine at Caius, then a Fellow from 1924.
    • Robert Recorde (c1510-1558) migrated to Cambridge from Oxford, c.1535, and taught mathematics and medicine until c.1545 when he received the MD and returned to Oxford.

  4. Edinburgh
    • A James Gregory (1753-1821), professor of medicine, and other members of his family are buried in Canongate Churchyard; this James was the great-grandson of the first James Gregorie, with his father John Gregory (1724-1773) (presumably the son of the second James) also having been professor of medicine and his son being Duncan Farquharson Gregory (1813-1844), the Cambridge mathematician, who was born and died in Edinburgh.

  5. St Andrews, Fife
    • Arbuthnot graduated in medicine in 1696.
    • [A History of Medicine.

  6. References
    • The Development of Science, Technology and Medicine in Manchester and Its University.
    • A History of Medicine.

  7. London individuals S-Z
    • After time as a programmer and researcher in London and as a wife and mother, she did an MSc in Medical Statistics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  8. London individuals D-G
    • He studied medicine at King's College London.

  9. London Museums
    • In the Medicine & Science case is a letter of 13 Dec 1670 from Newton to Hooke about falling bodies.

  10. Manchester
    • The Development of Science, Technology and Medicine in Manchester and Its University.

  11. London individuals H-M
    • Godfrey Hounsfield (1919- ) was working at the EMI Central Research Laboratories in Hayes, London, when he developed computer-assisted tomography (CAT) - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1979.

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JOC/BS August 2001